COMMODITIES AT A GLANCE

COMMODITIES AT A GLANCE March 2011 INTRODUCTION This “Commodities at a Glance” has been prepared by the Special Unit on Commodities (SUC) of UNCTAD....
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COMMODITIES AT A GLANCE March 2011

INTRODUCTION This “Commodities at a Glance” has been prepared by the Special Unit on Commodities (SUC) of UNCTAD. This quarterly publication aims to collect, present and disseminate accurate and relevant statistical information linked to international primary commodity markets in a clear and concise format. The first edition of “Commodities at a Glance” aims to give an overview of the following issues: (a) Historical and recent trends in primary commodity prices and price indices both in nominal and real terms; (b) The distribution of primary commodity production among the main producing countries for a set of selected primary commodities; and (c) An overview of primary commodity import and export dependence in developing countries. For further information about this publication, please contact the Special Unit on Commodities (SUC), UNCTAD, Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, telephone +41 22 917 5676 e-mail: [email protected]

STATISTICAL DATA SOURCES ƒ

Statistical data sources for this publication are: (a) UNCTAD, UNCTADstat (for all primary commodity prices, except iron ore, as well as all data involving primary commodity trade statistics and GDP for their computation); (b) IMF, International Financial Statistics (for iron ore prices); (c) UNSD (for the deflator used in all current/constant computations); and (d) For all computations regarding production as well as stock-to-use ratio, the source is indicated below each specific graph.

ƒ

Data on constant prices are available until September 2010 (included) as the United Nations deflator used in these computations is not available after this date.

NOTES ƒ

In this publication, each graph displays both prices or price indices in constant and current terms.

ƒ

Prices and price indices are presented with an orange line when expressed in constant terms and using a green line when in current terms.

ƒ

In this document, the term “primary commodities” refers to the following SITC group: 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 667 + 68 + 971.

ƒ

The “Net Food Importing Countries” group refers to the group as defined by the World Trade Organization (WTO).

COPYRIGHT Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but full acknowledgement is requested (UNCTAD, Special Unit on Commodities, Commodities at a Glance). A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be sent to the UNCTAD secretariat at: Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland or by e-mail to: [email protected]

FREE SUBSCRIPTION The current publication is intended to be published on a quarterly basis. If you are interested in receiving its updated versions by e-mail on a regular basis, please send an e-mail to: [email protected] and we would be pleased to send it to you as soon as issued.

UNCTAD/SUC/2011/2

1

HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF PRIMARY COMMODITY PRICES AND PRICE INDICES

3 50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Indice de l'ensemble en dollars courants Indice de l'ensemble en DTS Indice de l'ensemble en dollars constants

Price index – All groups in current and constant US$ terms and SDR terms 01/1960 – 01/2011 (Base 100 = 2000)

01/1960 01/1961 01/1962 01/1963 01/1964 01/1965 01/1966 01/1967 01/1968 01/1969 01/1970 01/1971 01/1972 01/1973 01/1974 01/1975 01/1976 01/1977 01/1978 01/1979 01/1980 01/1981 01/1982 01/1983 01/1984 01/1985 01/1986 01/1987 01/1988 01/1989 01/1990 01/1991 01/1992 01/1993 01/1994 01/1995 01/1996 01/1997 01/1998 01/1999 01/2000 01/2001 01/2002 01/2003 01/2004 01/2005 01/2006 01/2007 01/2008 01/2009 01/2010 01/2011

01-2010

01-2005

01-2000

01-1995

01-1990

01-1985

-

Sugar prices in US¢ per pound (01/1960 - 01/2011)

130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 -

4

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

01-2000

01-1995

01-1990

01-1985

01-1980

01-2010

45

01-2010

50 01-2005

Bananas prices in US¢ per pound (01/1960 - 01/2011)

01-2005

01-2000

200

01-1995

50

01-1990

400

01-1985

100

01-1980

150

01-1975

200

01-1975

250

01-1970

1'600

01-1970

300

01-1965

Maize prices in US$ per ton 01/1986 - 01/2011

01-1965

01-2008

01-2004

01-2000

01-1996

01-1992

01-1988

01-1984

01-1980

01-1976

01-1972

01-1968

01-1964

01-1960

US$ current terms

01-1960

01/2010

01/2005

01/2000

01/1995

01/1990

01/1985

01/1980

01/1975 US$ constant terms

01-1960

07-2010

07-2008

07-2006

07-2004

07-2002

07-2000

07-1998

07-1996

07-1994

01/1970

01/1965

01/1960

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

01-1980

01-1975

07-1992

07-1990

07-1988

07-1986

350

01-1970

01-1965

01-1960

Food Price Index (Base 2000 = 100) 01/1960 - 01/2011 Wheat prices in US$ per ton (01/1960 - 01/2011)

600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

Rice prices in US$ per ton 01/1960 - 01/2011

1'400

1'200

1'000

800

600

Coffee composite price 1976 in US¢ per pound (01/1960 - 01/2011)

Tropical Beverages Price Index Base 2000 = 100 01/1960 - 01/2011

Cocoa beans prices in US¢ per pound (01/1960 - 01/2011)

01-2010

01-2005

01-2011

01-2009

01-2007

01-2008

Vegetable oilseeds and oils Price Index, Base 2000 = 100 01/1960 - 01/2011

01-2005

01-2003

-

01-2001

50 01-1999

50

01-1997

100

01-1993

100

01-2004

150

01-2000

150

01-1996

200

01-1992

200

01-1988

250

01-1984

250

01-1980

300

01-1976

300

01-1972

350

01-1968

350

01-1964

400

01-1995

Tea prices in US¢ per kilo (01/1993 - 01/2011)

400

01-1960

01-2000

01/2010

01/2005

01/2000

01/1995

01/1990

01/1985

01/1980

01/1975

01/1970

01/1965

01/1960

-

01-1995

100

01-1990

200

01-1985

300

01-1980

400

01-1975

500

01-1970

600

01-1965

700

650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 01-1960

800

Soybeans prices in US$ per ton (01/1960 - 01/2011) 1'400

550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

1'200 1'000 800 600 400

01-2010

01-2005

01-2000

01-1995

01-1990

01-1985

01-1980

01-1975

01-1970

5

01-1965

01-1960

01/2010

01/2005

01/2000

01/1995

01/1990

01/1985

01/1980

01/1975

01/1970

01/1965

01/1960

200

Soybean oil prices in US$ per ton (01/1960 - 01/2011)

Palm oil prices in US$ per ton (01/1960 - 01/2011) 2'000

2'400

1'800

2'100

1'600

1'800

1'400

1'500

1'200

1'200

1'000

900

800 600

600

Rubber prices in US$ per ton (01/1986 - 01/2011)

01-2005

01-2010 01-2010

01-2000

01-1995

01-1990

01-1980

01-1975

01-1985

01-2004

01-2001

01-1998

01-1995

01-1992

01/2010

01/2005

01/2000

01/1995

01/1990

01/1985

01/1980

01/1975

-

01-1989

50

01-1986

100

01-1983

150

01-1980

200

01-1977

250

01-1974

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 -

300

01/1970

01-1970

Cotton prices in US¢ per pound (01/1974 - 01/2011)

350

01/1965

01-2007

Agricultural Raw Materials Price Index Base 2000 = 100 01/1960 - 01/2011

01/1960

01-1960

01-2010

01-2005

01-2000

01-1995

01-1990

01-1985

01-1980

01-1975

01-1970

-

01-1965

01-1960

200 01-1965

400

300

Non-coniferous wood price, in US$ per ton (01/1991 - 01/2011) 180

6'000 5'500 5'000 4'500 4'000 3'500 3'000 2'500 2'000 1'500 1'000 500 -

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 01-2011

01-2009

01-2007

01-2005

01-2003

01-2001

01-1999

01-1997

01-1995

01-1993

6

01-1991

01-2010

01-2008

01-2006

01-2004

01-2002

01-2000

01-1998

01-1996

01-1994

01-1992

01-1990

01-1988

01-1986

-

Iron Ore Prices (Brazil) in US¢/DMTU (01/1960 - 12/2010)

Minerals, Ores and Metals Price Index Base 2000 = 100 01/1960 - 01/2011

Copper prices in US$ per Ton (01/1960 - 01/2011)

Aluminium prices in US$ per ton (01/1960 - 01/2011)

01-2005

01-2010

01-2010

01-2002

7

01-1998

01-2010

01-2005

01-2000

01-1995

01-1990

01-1985

01-1980

01-1975

01-1970

-

01-1994

500

01-1990

1'000

01-1986

1'500

01-1982

2'000

01-1978

2'500

01-1974

3'000

01-1970

55'000 50'000 45'000 40'000 35'000 30'000 25'000 20'000 15'000 10'000 5'000 -

3'500

01-1965

01-2006

Nickel prices in US$ per Ton (01/1970 - 01/2011)

Lead prices in US$ per ton (01/1960 - 01/2011)

01-1960

01-2000

01-2008

01-2004

01-2000

01-1996

01-1992

01-1988

01-1984

01-1980

01-1976

01-1972

01-1968

01-1964

01-1960

-

01-1995

500

01-1990

1'000

01-1985

1'500

01-1980

2'000

01-1975

2'500

01-1970

3'000

01-1965

3'500

01-1960

11'000 10'000 9'000 8'000 7'000 6'000 5'000 4'000 3'000 2'000 1'000 -

4'000

4'000

01-2010

01/2010

01/2005

01/2000

01/1995

01/1990

01/1985

01/1980

01/1975

01/1970

01/1965

01/1960

-

01-2005

50

01-2000

100

01-1995

150

01-1990

200

01-1985

250

01-1980

300

01-1975

350

01-1970

400

01-1965

450

01-1960

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 -

Zinc prices in US$ per ton (01/1960 - 01/2011)

Tin prices in US$ per ton (01/1960 - 01/2011) 30'000

5'000 4'500

25'000

4'000 3'500

20'000

3'000 2'500

15'000

2'000

10'000

1'500 1'000

5'000

500 -

01-2010

01-2005

01-2000

01-1995

01-1990

01-1985

01-1980

01-1975

01-1970

01-1965

01-1960

01-2010

01-2005

01-2000

01-1995

01-1990

01-1985

01-1980

01-1975

01-1970

01-1965

01-1960

0

Silver prices in US¢ per troy ounce (01/1970 - 01/2011)

Gold prices in US$ per troy ounce (01/1970 - 01/2011)

5'500

1'500 1'400 1'300 1'200 1'100 1'000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

5'000 4'500 4'000 3'500 3'000 2'500 2'000 1'500 1'000 500

Crude petroleum prices in US$ per barrel (01/1960 - 01/2011)

01-2010

01-2006

01-2002

01-1998

01-1994

01-1990

01-1986

01-1982

01-1978

01-1974

01-1970

01-2010

01-2006

01-2002

01-1998

01-1994

01-1990

01-1986

01-1982

01-1978

01-1974

01-1970

-

Euro per US dollar exchange rate (01/1999 - 01/2011)

160

1.60

140

1.40

120

1.20

100

1.00

80

0.80

60

0.60

40

0.40

20

0.20

-

01-2011

01-2010

01-2009

01-2008

01-2007

01-2006

01-2005

01-2004

01-2003

01-2002

01-2001

01-2000

8

01-1999

01-2010

01-2005

01-2000

01-1995

01-1990

01-1985

01-1980

01-1975

01-1970

01-1965

01-1960

-

9

Overview of the historical evolution of primary commodity prices, in US$per ton (except when mentioned)

PRIMARY COMMODITY PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL PRIMARY COMMODITIES Banana production (2007-2009) in million tons

210

35

180

30

150

25

120

20

90

15 10

60

5

30 Others

EU 27

China

India

Source: International Grains Council

Maize production (2008/09-2010/11) in million tons

Rice production (2008/09-2010/11) in million tons 160

350

140

World production: 807.6 million tons

120

250

World production: 445.6 million tons

100

200

80

150

60 40

100

20

50

Others

China

India

Others

United States

China

EU 27

Brazil

Mexico

Source: International Grains Council

Indonesia

Vietnam

-

-

Source: International Grains Council

Cocoa production (2008/09-2010/11) in million tons

Coffee production (2008/09-2010/11) in million 60kg bags 50

1.4 World production: 3,7 million tons

45 40

1.0

World production: 128,8 million 60kg bags

35 30

0.8

25

0.6

20

0.4

15 10

0.2

5

Source: International Cocoa Organization

11

Source: International Coffee Organization

Others

Brazil

Vietnam

Ethiopia

Others

Côte d'Ivoire

Ghana

Indonesia

Nigeria

Cameroon

-

Indonesia

1.2

United States

Others

India

Philippines

China

Brazil

Ecuador

Source: FAO

Russian Fed.

-

-

300

World production: 670.6 million tons

Bangladesh

40

240

World production: 92.8 million tons

Colombia

45

Wheat production (2008/09-2010/11) in million tons

AGRICULTURAL PRIMARY COMMODITIES (cont.) Soybeans production (2008/09-2010/11) in million tons

Tea production (2007-2009) in million tons

100

1.6 1.4

World production: 3,9 Million tons

90 80

1.2

World production: 242,7 Million tons

70

1.0

60

0.8

50

0.6

40 30

0.4

20

0.2

10

9 8

Source: FAO

Source: USDA

Soybean oil production (2008/09-2010/11) in million tons

Palm oil production (2008/09-2010/11) in million tons

Others

United States

Brazil

Argentina

China

Others

China

India

Kenya

Sri Lanka

Turkey 10

India

-

-

30 World production: 38,8 Million tons

27 24

7

21

6 5

18 15

4

12

3

9

2

6

World production: 45,9 Million tons

3

1

Source: USDA

Others

Indonesia

Malaysia

Thailand

Source: USDA

Cotton production (2008/09-2010/11) in million tons

Rubber production (2007-2009) in million tons 4.0

8 World production: 23,3 Million tons

3.5

6

3.0

5

2.5

4

2.0

3

1.5

2

1.0

1

0.5

World production: 10,4 Million tons

Source: International Cotton Advisory Committee

Source: FAO

12

Others

Thailand

Indonesia

Malaysia

Others

China

India

United States

Pakistan

Brazil

Vietnam

-

-

India

7

Nigeria

Others

China

United States

Argentina

Brazil

EU 27

Colombia

-

-

PRODUCTION OF PRIMARY AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES (cont.)

PRODUCTION OF MINERALS, ORES AND METALS Iron ore production (2007-2009) in million tons

Sugar production (2008/09-2010/11) in million tons 80 70

450

World production: 168.9 Million tons

400 350

60

World production: 1'663 Million tons

300

50

250

40

200

30

150

20

100

10

50

Source: International Sugar Organization

6

Others

Australia

Brazil

China

Source: UNCTAD, Trust Fund on Iron Ore Information

Nickel mine production (2008-2010) in million tons

Copper mine production (2008-2010) in million tons 7

India

Others

Brazil

India

EU 27

China

Thailand

Russian Fed.

-

-

0.5

World production: 15,8 Million tons

0.4

World production: 1,4 Million tons

5 0.3

4

0.2

3 2

0.1

1

Source: International Copper Study Group

1.8 1.6

Others

Russian Fed.

Indonesia

Canada

Australia

Source: World Bureau of Metal Statistics

Zinc mine production (2008-2010) in million tons

Lead mine production (2008-2010) in million tons 2.0

New Caledonia

Others

Chile

Peru

United States

China

Australia

Philippines

-

-

6

World production: 3,9 Million tons

5

1.4

World production: 11,8 Million tons

4

1.2 3

1.0 0.8

2

0.6 0.4

1

0.2

Source: International Lead and Zinc Study Group

13

Others

China

Peru

Canada

India

Others

China

United States

Peru

Mexico

Bolivia

Mexico

-

-

Source: International Lead and Zinc Study Group

PRODUCTION OF MINERALS, ORES AND METALS (cont.) Gold mine production (2008-2010) in tons

3'500 3'000

1'000

2'500

800

2'000

600

1'500

400

1'000

200

500

Source: World Bureau of Metal Statistics

Others

Russian Fed.

South Africa

Others

China

United States

Australia

South Africa

Russia

-

Source: Johnson Matthey

Diamonds mine production (2007-2009) in million carats

Platinum supply (2008-2010) in thousand ounces

50

5'000 4'000

World production: 7'183 thousand ounces

North America

1'200

4'000

World production: 2'405 tons

Zimbabwe

1'400

Palladium supply (2008-2010) in thousand ounces

World production: 5'992 thousands ounce

40

World production: 151,9 Million carats

30

3'000

20

2'000

10

1'000

Others

Russia Fed.

Botswana

D.R.C

Australia

South Africa

Others

South Africa

Russian Fed.

North America

Zimbabwe

Canada

-

* DRC: Democratic Republic of C ongo

Source: Johnson Matthey

Source: Kimberley Process

PRODUCTION OF ENERGY Natural Gas production (2007-2009) in million tons oil equivalent

Crude oil production (2007-2009) in million barrels 50

1'400

World production: 2'709 Million tons oil equivalent

1'200

35 30

1'000

25

800

20

600

15

400

10

200

5

14

Source: BP

Others

United States

Russian Fed.

Others

Saudi Arabia

Russian Fed.

United States

Iran

China Source: BP

Norway

-

-

Canada

40

1'600

World production: 81,13 Million barrels

Iran

45

PRIMARY COMMODITY EXPORT DEPENDENCE

Primary commodity dependence in developing countries (Change between 2002/03 and 2008/09) Number of developing countries that derive at least 50 per cent of their export values from commodities 2002/03

2008/09

Number of countries

in %

Number of countries

in %

All commodities

96

67%

96

67%

Non-fuel commodities

62

43%

58

41%

Fuel

22

15%

26

18%

Ores and Metals

12

8%

14

10%

Agricultural Raw Materials

5

3%

1

1%

29

20%

25

17%

All food

Note: Data computed over a total of 143 developing countries Number of developing countries that derive between 20 and 49.9 per cent of their export values from commodities 2002/03

2008/09

Number of countries

in %

Number of countries

in %

All commodities

27

19%

33

23%

Non-fuel commodities

39

27%

43

30%

Fuel

15

10%

15

10%

Ores and Metals

20

14%

19

13%

Agricultural Raw Materials

6

4%

6

4%

46

32%

40

28%

All food

Note: Data computed over a total of 143 developing countries Number of developing countries that derive less than 20 per cent of their export values from commodities 2002/03

2008/09

Number of countries

in %

Number of countries

in %

All commodities

20

14%

14

10%

Non-fuel commodities

42

29%

42

29%

Fuel

106

74%

102

71%

Ores and Metals

111

78%

110

77%

Agricultural Raw Materials

132

92%

136

95%

68

48%

78

55%

All food

Note: Data computed over a total of 143 developing countries

16

Comparison of Primary commodity Primary commodity dependence throughout the dependence in developing countries world (breakdown by continent, 2008-2009 average) (2008-2009 average) 100%

90%

90%

80%

80%

70%

70%

60%

60%

50%

50%

40%

40%

30%

30%

20%

20%

10%

10%

0%

0% Primary commodity exports as % of merchandise exports

3 main primary commodity exports as % of merchandise exports

Primary commodity exports as % of merchandise exports

3 main primary commodity exports as % of commodity exports

Developed economies

Developing economies

Transition economies

LDC s

Africa

3 main primary 3 main primary commodities as commodities as % of % of commodity merchandise exports exports

America

Asia

Oceania

Main Primary commodity exported by continent and by primary commodity groups (2008-2009 average ) AFRICA

Agricultural raw materials All food 2% 9%

Ores and metals 14%

ASIA

Agricultural raw materials 3%

Ores and metals 13%

All food 15% Fuels 76%

AMERICA

Fuels 68%

OCEANIA

Agricultural Raw Material 4%

Agricultural raw materials 18%

Ores and metals 24%

Fuels 26% Fuels 37%

All food 15%

All food 35%

17

Ores and metals 14%

PRIMARY COMMODITY IMPORT DEPENDENCE

Fuel import bill of non-fuel exporting LDC and Sub-Saharan countries* compared to their total merchandise exports and their GDP over the 2000s The ratio has improved between the two periods

The ratio has deteriorated between the two periods

The ratio remained unchanged (change between the two periods ranges between -0.5 percentage point and +0.5 percentage point)

Afghanistana Bangladesha Botswanab Burkina Fasoa,b Burundia,b Cambodiaa Central African Republica,b Comorosa,b Djiboutia,b Eritreaa,b Ethiopiaa,b Gambiaa,b Ghanab Guinea-Bissaua,b Haitia Kenyab Kiribatia Lao People's Dem. Rep.a Lesothoa,b Madagascara,b Malawia,b Maldivesa Malia,b Mauritiusb Namibiab Nepala Nigera,b Rwandaa,b Samoaa Seychellesb Sierra Leonea Solomon Islandsa Somaliaa Swazilandb Timor-Lestea Togoa,b Tuvalua Ugandaa,b United Republic of Tanzaniaa,b Vanuatua Zambiaa,b Zimbabweb

Fuel imports-To-All merchandise exports ratio 2000-2002 2007-2009 102.6% 110.8% 9.6% 14.6% 5.3% 11.3% 74.6% 44.6% 46.4% 34.4% 19.6% 20.4% 4.7% 20.5% 19.5% 54.8% 8.4% 104.8% 16.5% 115.9% 59.0% 89.9% 184.4% 179.4% 28.2% 26.1% 7.0% 29.1% 12.7% 21.0% 44.3% 53.8% 22.3% 119.7% 20.4% 24.3% 22.0% 0.6% 21.3% 35.3% 21.1% 21.0% 58.5% 227.1% 26.5% 33.1% 13.7% 35.3% 9.0% 8.6% 34.1% 91.2% 21.0% 34.8% 48.6% 28.9% 32.0% 74.4% 21.2% 52.0% 166.6% 88.2% 40.0% 40.5% 2.3% 1.1% 12.4% 11.3% n.a. 536.0% 22.1% 42.9% 8.4% 1064.6% 38.0% 47.3% 30.8% 68.3% 56.2% 75.1% 9.0% 13.0% 22.1% 20.4%

Fuel imports-To-GDP ratio

n.a.

2000-2002 3.1% 1.1% 2.5% 4.6% 2.6% 7.9% 0.4% 1.4% 0.5% 0.7% 3.2% 2.4% 9.6% 2.0% 1.1% 5.1% 6.2% 3.8% 9.9% 4.1% 3.4% 7.5% 6.1% 4.7% 3.4% 3.7% 2.9% 2.0% 6.5% 5.7% 4.4% 5.8% 0.3% 8.4% n.a. 5.9% 4.0% 2.6% 2.2% 4.8% 2.4% 6.7%

2007-2009 4.2% 2.8% 4.5% 2.9% 4.9% 8.0% 1.4% 1.2% 7.4% 1.0% 5.5% 5.9% 6.3% 8.7% 1.6% 8.2% 17.7% 4.9% 0.4% 5.8% 5.0% 18.4% 7.0% 8.9% 4.4% 6.2% 3.7% 1.5% 9.9% 19.1% 9.2% 11.0% 0.2% 3.2% 9.8% 11.8% 6.2% 5.1% 9.1% 7.2% 4.7% 9.7%

Note: (a) Least Developed Country (LDC), (b) Sub-Saharan African Country - All computations are based on trade statistics in value - when change in 2000/02-2007/09 ratio ranged between -0.5 percentage point and +0.5 percentage point, the change has been considered as not significant.

19

n.a.

Food import bill of Net-Food Importing Countries (NFIC) compared to their total merchandise exports and their GDP over the 2000s

All food imports-to-All merchandise exports ratio Afghanistana Angolaa,b Bangladesha Barbados Benina,b Bhutana Botswanab Burkina Fasoa,b Burundia,b Cambodiaa Cameroonb Cape Verdeb Central African Republica,b Chada,b Comorosa,b Congob Côte d'Ivoireb Cuba Dem. Rep. of the Congoa,b Djiboutia,b Dominican Republic Equatorial Guineaa,b Eritreaa,b Ethiopiaa,b Gabonb Gambiaa,b Ghanab Guineaa,b Guinea-Bissaua,b Haitia Honduras Jamaica Kenyab Kiribatia Lao People's Dem. Rep.a Lesothoa,b Liberiaa,b Madagascara,b Malawia,b Maldivesa Malia,b Mauritaniaa,b Mauritiusb Morocco Mozambiquea,b Myanmara Namibiab Nepala

2000-2002 605.8% 10.9% 24.5% 73.5% 34.2% 28.2% 13.5% 63.4% 60.1% 16.1% 16.6% 801.3% 24.0% 48.4% 81.3% 9.1% 12.7% 58.7% 27.0% 177.4% 18.5% 4.5% 463.9% 40.9% 6.6% 683.8% 26.7% 27.8% 25.0% 129.8% 16.6% 42.9% 29.3% 97.2% 25.7% 46.7% 2.3% 15.4% 23.3% 110.7% 21.0% 29.9% 19.6% 21.6% 40.3% 10.9% 15.2% 34.0%

2007-2009 136.6% 4.7% 25.5% 79.9% 55.5% 15.0% 9.9% 73.9% 26.7% 14.8% 26.1% 698.5% 63.1% 7.8% 392.5% 8.7% 15.4% 54.9% 23.3% 170.7% 27.7% 2.6% 1504.0% 56.0% 6.7% 325.3% 29.2% 22.9% 61.6% 181.0% 23.1% 47.0% 25.4% 227.1% 13.8% 12.3% 5.3% 26.6% 23.1% 190.7% 23.5% 30.9% 35.2% 25.7% 24.9% 6.8% 13.9% 48.6%

20

All food imports-to-GDP ratio 2000-2002 18.4% 8.4% 2.9% 7.2% 5.4% 6.2% 6.3% 3.9% 3.4% 6.5% 3.0% 14.2% 1.8% 5.3% 6.0% 5.8% 4.7% 2.9% 4.8% 10.4% 4.2% 4.5% 19.0% 2.2% 3.4% 8.8% 9.1% 4.8% 7.3% 11.3% 7.7% 5.6% 3.4% 26.9% 4.8% 21.0% 0.9% 3.0% 3.8% 14.3% 4.8% 9.2% 6.7% 4.2% 6.0% 3.1% 5.7% 3.7%

2007-2009 5.2% 7.9% 4.9% 8.2% 9.5% 6.5% 3.9% 4.7% 3.8% 5.8% 4.7% 12.5% 4.4% 3.8% 8.9% 8.0% 6.5% 3.3% 7.1% 12.1% 4.2% 2.1% 13.2% 3.4% 3.5% 10.7% 7.0% 5.9% 18.4% 13.9% 9.1% 6.9% 3.9% 33.6% 2.8% 8.1% 1.3% 4.3% 5.5% 15.4% 5.0% 14.3% 8.9% 5.0% 6.4% 1.9% 7.2% 3.3%

Food import bill of Net-Food Importing Countries (NFIC) compared to their total merchandise exports and their GDP over the 2000s (cont.)

All food imports-to-All merchandise exports ratio Nigera,b Nigeriab Pakistan Peru Rwandaa,b Saint Helenab Saint Lucia Samoaa Sao Tome and Principea,b Senegala,b Seychellesb Sierra Leonea,b Solomon Islandsa Somaliaa,b Sri Lanka Sudana,b Swazilandb Togoa,b Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Ugandaa,b United Republic of Tanzaniaa,b Vanuatua Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Yemena Zambiaa,b Zimbabweb

2000-2002 61.4% 8.9% 14.4% 13.3% 71.3% 60.7% 154.2% 64.0% 314.0% 62.4% 42.4% 142.0% 34.3% 80.2% 16.9% 20.8% 20.2% 27.7% 7.1% 12.8% 30.9% 31.4% 86.5% 6.5% 24.3% 11.1% 7.7%

2007-2009 57.7% 7.2% 20.6% 7.4% 68.9% 29.6% 87.1% 96.9% 356.3% 70.7% 53.0% 51.0% 38.1% 131.6% 19.9% 17.4% 20.7% 29.4% 5.1% 12.3% 34.3% 23.1% 90.7% 10.4% 36.2% 5.3% 27.2%

All food imports-to-GDP ratio 2000-2002 8.4% 3.3% 1.8% 1.7% 2.9% n.a. 11.0% 12.9% 13.4% 9.1% 11.5% 3.8% 5.0% 10.2% 5.0% 2.4% 13.6% 7.4% 3.6% 4.1% 2.1% 2.3% 7.5% 1.6% 7.9% 3.0% 2.3%

2007-2009 6.2% 2.5% 2.1% 1.7% 3.5% n.a. 12.6% 12.9% 18.8% 10.9% 19.5% 5.3% 10.4% 20.9% 4.0% 2.4% 5.9% 8.0% 3.2% 5.3% 3.7% 3.1% 8.7% 2.3% 8.6% 1.9% 12.9%

Note: - Food is defined by SITC codes: 0 + 1 + 22 + 4 - Data for Timor Leste, Tuvalu are not available. - NFIC list is based on the one defined by WTO - All computations are based on trade statistics in value - when change in 2000/02-2007/09 ratio ranged between -0.5 percentage point and +0.5 percentage point, the change has been considered as not significant. (a) Least Developed Country (LDC) (b) Sub-Saharan African Country

21

45%

Deterioration

40%

76% have seen their situation deteriorated between 2000-2002 and 2007-2009

35% 30% 25%

Improvement

20% 15%

5%

20.1% to 50%

0.5% to 20%

Depreciation exceeding 50%

- 20.1% to - 50%

0%

No significant change in the ratio

10%

Improvement exceeding 50%

21% have seen their situation improved between 2000-2002 and 2007-2009

- 0.5% to - 20%

Percentage of countries within the group (of 33 LDCs)

Change in the situation of Non-Fuel Exporting LDCs regarding their fuel imports-to-all merchandise export ratio (Change in percentage point between 2000/2002 and 2007/2009 average)*

* All computations are based on trade statistics in value

35%

Deterioration

30%

76% have seen their situation deteriorated between 2000-2002 and 2007-2009

25% 20% 15%

* All computations are based on trade statistics in value

22

2.1% to 5%

0.5% to 2%

Depreciation exceeding 5%

- 2.1% to - 5%

0%

No significant change in

5%

6% have seen their situation improved between 20002002 and 2007-2009

Improvement exceeding 5%

Improvement

10%

- 0.5% to - 2%

Percentage of countries within the group (of 33 LDC countries)

Change in the situation of Non-Fuel Exporting LDCs regarding their fuel imports-to-GDP ratio (Change in percentage point between 2000/2002 and 2007/2009 average)*

Deterioration 40%

53% have seen their situation deteriorated between 2000-2002 and 2007-2009

35% 30%

Improvement 41% have seen their situation improved between 2000-2002 and 2007-2009

25% 20% 15% 10%

No significant change in the ratio

21% to 50%

0.5% to 20%

Depreciation exceeding 50%

- 20.1% to 50%

0%

Improvement exceeding 50%

5%

- 0.5% to 20%

Percentage of countries within the group (of 74 NFICs)

Change in the situation of Net-Food Importing Countries regarding their food imports-to–all merchandise exports ratio (Change in percentage point between 2000/2002 and 2007/2009 average)*

* All computations are based on trade statistics in value

45%

Deterioration

40%

57% have seen their situation deteriorated between 2000-2002 and 2007-2009

35% 30% 25% 20%

5%

* All computations are based on trade statistics in value

23

2.1% to 5%

0.5% to 2%

Depreciation exceeding 5%

- 2.1% to 5%

0%

No significant change in the ratio

10%

22% have seen their situation improved between 20002002 and 20072009

Improvement exceeding 5%

Improvement

15%

- 0.5% to 2%

Percentage of countries within the group (of 74 NFICs)

Change in the situation of Net-Food Importing Countries regarding their food imports-to–GDP ratio (Change in percentage point between 2000/2002 and 2007/2009 average)*

PRIMARY COMMODITY STOCKS

World Stock-to-use ratio for selected primary commodities

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20%

Year 1

Year 2

Zinc

Lead

Nickel

Copper

Soybean oil

Soybeans

Coffee(b)

Coffee(a)

Cocoa

Rice

Maize

Wheat

0%

Cotton

10% Palm oil

Percentage of consumption covered by stocks

100%

Year 3

Source: Data sources are the same as for graphs related to production Note: Colors on this graph are attributed to « years » which are different from one primary commodity to another, as the reference period (calendar year / crop year) is different from one to another and given that the last available data are also different. For further information, please see below: Year 1

Means Means Means Means

2008/09 2007 for 2007 for 2007/08

for wheat, maize, rice, soybeans, soybean oil, palm oil and cocoa. copper, nickel, lead and zinc coffee in importing countries (a) for coffee in exporting countries (b)

Year 2

Means Means Means Means

2009/10 2008 for 2008 for 2008/09

for wheat, maize, rice, soybeans, soybean oil, palm oil and cocoa. copper, nickel, lead and zinc coffee in importing countries (a) for coffee in exporting countries (b)

Year 3

Means Means Means Means

2010/11 2009 for 2009 for 2009/10

for wheat, maize, rice, soybeans, soybean oil, palm oil and cocoa. copper, nickel, lead and zinc coffee in importing countries (a) for coffee in exporting countries (b)

(a) Stocks and consumption in importing countries (situation at the end of each year) (b) Stocks and consumption in exporting countries (situation for each crop season)

25