The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1

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The French Revolution and Napoleon

Section 1

The French Revolution and Napoleon

Section 1

The French Revolution and Napoleon

Section 1

The Revolution Begins Main Idea Problems in French society led to a revolution, the formation of a new government, and the end of the monarchy.

Content Statement 8/Learning Goal:

Describe how Enlightenment ideas influenced the American Revolution, French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence.

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Vocabulary Ch 6-1 The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Old Order King Louis XVI Marie-Antoinette First Estate Second Estate Third Estate bourgeoisie Sans coulette Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen radical

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Vocabulary Ch 6-1 The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Old Order: the political and social system in place in France before the Revolution. King Louis XVI: (1754-1793) King of France from 1774-1792, his unpopular policies, including harsh taxes, helped trigger the French Revolution. Deposed by the National Convention, he was executed by guillotine. ABSOLUTE MONARCH Marie-Antoinette: (1755-1793) Queen of France, wife of King Louis XVI; she was queen during the French Revolution and was disliked by many French Citizens. She was found guilty of treason and guillotined. ABSOLUTE MONARCH First Estate: in Pre-Revolution France, the clergy Second Estate: in Pre-Revolution France, the nobles. Third Estate: in Pre-Revolution France, the bourgeoisie, artisans, workers, and peasants. Bourgeoisie: the urban middle class; merchants, professionals, and manufacturers.

Vocabulary Ch 6-1 The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 • Sans coulette: “without breeches”; a radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners during the French Revolution who wanted a larger voice in government and an end to food shortages. • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: a document that laid out the basic principles of the French Revolution-liberty, equality, and fraternity. • Radical: a person with extreme views.

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*Know these causes

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1)Causesand of Napoleon the Revolution The French Revolution Section 1

1. Long-standing resentments against the monarchy

2. Inequalities in society and government – Existing social and political structure

– Called the Old Order, or ancient régime – King at the top and estates under him – King Louis XVI, shy and indecisive – Unpopular, self-indulgent queen, MarieAntoinette – Rest of French society divided into three classes, called estates

2) Inequalities in Society: Old Order Estates under Estates-General The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 First Estate

•Roman Catholic clergy

Second Estate

•Nobility

•Less than 2% of •1% of the population pop. •Exempt from taxes •Paid few taxes •Owned 10 percent •Controlled much of the land wealth – Collected rents and fees •Held key positions – Bishops and other – Government clergy grew – Military wealthy •Lived on country estates

Third Estate

•Largest group— 97% of the population •Bourgeoisie—citydwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals

•Sans culottes— artisans and workers •Peasants—poor with little hope, paid rents and fees

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Further Causes The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 4)A Financial Crisis 3)Enlightenment Ideas • Inspiring new ideas from Enlightenment philosophers • Great Britain’s government limiting the king’s power

• American colonists rebelled successfully against British king • New ideas changed government and society in other countries

• Severe economic problems • Years of war costly: Seven Years War (French +Indian), American Revolution. War with Austria and Prussia. King tries to tax Second Estate but they refuse to pay.

• France in debt, spending lavishly, borrowing money, and facing bankruptcy. King spends half of treasury yearly to pay down debt. • Hailstorm and drought ruined harvest; harsh winter limited flour production • People hungry and angry; clergy and nobility no help

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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Palace of Versailles

Palace of VersaillesSection 1

The French Revolution and Napoleon

Palace of VersaillesSection 1

The French Revolution and Napoleon

5)First of the of1the The FrenchEvents Revolution andRevolution/Meeting Napoleon Section Estates-General Estates General meets for first time in 175 years • People brought notebooks of grievances to king.(1789) • Desire for reforms: 3RD Estate pushes for voting on reforms. • Unfair voting as each estate gets only 1 vote (esp to 3rd estate) • 3rd Estate had most representatives at meeting but King proceeds as usual. Usually 1st and 2nd Estate out vote 3rd. • 3rd Estate protests the voting and forms the *National Assembly June 17,1789 • King locks 3rd estate out of the meeting. • Tennis Court Oath- meeting to force King Louis to change votes and writes a Constitution. King relents and allows voting reforms. (Locke’s Social Contract: Government vs consent ) • National Assembly now legislative body. *Constitutional Monarchy

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The French Revolution Napoleon 6)Storming of the and Bastille/The

Section 1 Spread of Fear

p.199 picture • King brought in troops to protect his kingdom • People of Paris armed themselves • Searching for weapons (video: gunpowder), a mob stormed the Bastille • Bastille, an ancient prison, was seen as a sign of oppression • Mob kills official in charge of Bastille. Decapitates him and puts head on pike and parades it around town. Violence condoned. • Tears down the Bastille brick by brick using bare hands.

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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7) The Spread of FearSection 1

The French Revolution and Napoleon

• People thought King was going to punish the Third Estate with foreign soldiers The Great Fear • Rumors of massacres • Peasants destroyed records and burned nobles’ houses • Panic was based on both fiction and fact. • In region of Champagne, villagers go to search for gang of thugs rumored to be in village. Turns out to be herd of cattle.

Creating a New Nation under National Assembly The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 8)Legislating New Rights • Feudal dues eliminated • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen laid out “liberty, equality, fraternity” • Inspired by the English Bill of Rights, American Declaration of Independence, and the writings of Enlightenment philosophers • Men are born equal and remain equal under the law

• The rights did not extend to women

Creating a New Nation under National Assembly The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 9)Restrictions on Power • Louis tried to protect his throne by calling troops to Versailles. • Angered the common people

• Prices still high; mob broke into the palace demanding bread • Royal family seized; National Assembly took bolder steps • Royal family moves back to Paris to appease crowd. • Passed laws against the church, clergy, and public employees • Seized and sold church land to settle government’s debts. • Some outraged by actions

The French Revolution and Napoleon

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10)Formation of Napoleon a New Government The French Revolution and Section 1 In 1791, the Legislative Assembly is formed by National Assembly. Citizens gained broad voting rights, but rights were not universal. Constitution finalized. Constitution restricted power of king and ended distinctions of birth. King and queen feared they would be harmed.

Foreign Powers • Austria and Prussia warned against harming monarchs • Austria defeats France in war

• Financial strain of war, food shortages, and high prices • King blamed; action demanded

11)End of Monarchy • August 10, 1792 royal family imprisoned by mob • Legislative Assembly felt powerless. Votes itself out of existence. • National Convention becomes new legislature

• Radical faction took charge with National Convention: new government • Monarchy abolished; France declared a republic

French revolutionary troops won the Battle of Valmy. New French republic held ground against Europe’s Old Order.

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