Why Study the French Revolution and Napoleon?
Introduction Chapter 7 The French Revolution and Napoleon
The Enlightenment ideals expressed in the slogan of the French Revolution, “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,” continue to shape aspirations of people today. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen still inspires people to work for human rights.
Why Study the French Revolution and Napoleon? The Reign of Terror in 1793 and 1794 has become a warning to democratic societies of the dangers of resorting to violence to enforce values. The storming of the Bastille is a symbol of popular resistance to oppression.
Why Study the French Revolution and Napoleon? The French Revolution spread the ideas of democracy and nationalism around the globe. Guerrilla warfare, which has become common around the world, received its name from the resistance efforts by the Spanish against French invaders.
Why Study the French Revolution and Napoleon? The set of laws known as the Napoleonic Code shaped the legal systems of most of Europe and Latin America. Napoleon’s decision to sell the Louisiana Territory resulted in a major expansion of the United States.
13. What legacy did ______ ____ leave France?
Positive: Now a _________ power Ranked above all other European nations in art and literature Considered ___________ leader in Europe
Negative: Construction of the Palace of ____________ plunged France into debt Resentment over tax burden (peasants)
Section 1 – The French Revolution Begins Main Idea _________and _____ inequalities in the Old Regime helped cause the French Revolution Why It Matters Now Throughout history, economic and social inequalities have at times led peoples to revolt against their governments.
1. Which country in Europe was considered to be the most advanced country of Europe? Positive attributes? Negative?
France – center of the ______________ Positive = large population, prosperous foreign trade; ______ widely praised and imitated around the world Negative = great unrest caused by bad _________, high _________, high ______
2. What was the system of feudalism left over from the ________ Ages in France? Old ____________
People divided into three social orders or estates
Social classes in France under the Old Regime
4. What were the three estates? Describe each.
_______ Estate – _______ – 2% of population; much of their wealth was in land;
owned 20% of land, paid almost no taxes
4. What were the three estates? Describe each.
______ Estate – _____ of the Roman Catholic ____________;
owned 10% of land, provided education and relief services; paid approximately 2% of income to government
4. What were the three estates? Describe each. _____ Estate – 98% of population; 3 groups 1) ____________ – merchants and artisans – well-educated, believed in liberty and equality, paid high taxes, lacked privileges; 2) ________ – cooks, servants, etc.; paid low wages, often out of work; 3) ________ – largest group; paid about ½ of income in dues to nobles, tithes to church, taxes to king
5. What were the three factors that contributed to the revolutionary mood in France? _________________ ideas – new views about power and government; began using words equality, liberty, democracy; inspired by success of Amer. Rev. ____________ woes – economy failing, heavy tax burden, cost of living increased, government deep in debt A __________ Leader – Louis XVI indecisive; paid little attention to advisors
7. What changes did the ______ Estate want to make in government? Wanted all three estates to ________ together Give each _______ / _______ a vote; increase representation of the third estate
6. What was the Estates-___________? Who dominated this group? An assembly of representatives from all three _________, or social classes, in France Called to meet beginning May 5, 1789, 175 years after the last meeting Vote by order, one vote per order
Clergy (___ Estate) and Nobles (__ Estate) – Dominate the _______
8. What was the _________ Assembly? What was the formation of this group seen as? A French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact _____ and _______ in the name of the French people. First deliberate act of _______________
9. What was the Tennis Court Oath?
9. What was the ________ ______ Oath? Pledge made by members of France’s National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue ________ until they had drawn up a new ____________
10. How did Louis XVI try to make _________ with the Third Estate?
Yielded to the National Assembly; ordered nobles and _____ to ___ the assembly
11. What occurred on July 14, 1789? Why is this event significant?
Great symbolic act of ___________ to French people; became a national __________
Called ‘Tennis Court Oath’ because the delegates had been ______ _____ of their meeting room, so they broke into an indoor tennis court and continued meeting there.
11. What occurred on July 14, _______? Why is this event significant? _______ about foreign _____ moving toward _________ to massacre French citizens Citizens wanted to obtain gunpowder from ________, a prison; they overpowered the guards and took ________ of the prison
12. What was the Great ______? Wave of senseless _______ that spread throughout France in reaction to the rumor that ________ had hired mercenaries to terrorize the peasants and destroy __________
12. What was the Great Fear?
Peasants ______ themselves, broke into nobles homes, destroyed _____ papers that bound them to pay feudal dues, and symbols of the __________ (family crests, weathervanes, church pews)
Introduction Chapter 7 - The French Revolution & Napoleon Section 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
1. What occurred on August 4, 1789? Why was this meeting significant? National _________ meeting – all orders gave up privileges, making everyone _________ The sacrifice of privilege made by the deputies marked the ____ of the ___ _______ in France
3. How did the relationship change between the church and state in France? __________ lost land and political independence
Church officials and priests to be elected and paid as state officials
_______ alarmed – devout Catholics Divided peasants and bourgeoisie – peasants often opposed further revolutionary _____________
Main Idea The revolutionary government of France made reforms but also used ________ and ____________ to retain power. Why It Matters Now Some governments that _____ the support of a majority of their people still use ______ to control their citizens.
2. What was the Declaration of _______ of _____? Which group did this declaration not apply to? Statement of revolutionary ideals
Influenced by ____________ of Independence
Guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of __________, and freedom of __________ Olympe de Gouges published declaration of the rights of women – ideas rejected
4. What type of ____________ did the new constitution create? _______ ___________ __________ Stripped the king of much of his authority Created a new _____________ body – Legislative Assembly – which had the power to create _____, to approve or reject declarations of _________ King still held the executive power to enforce laws
5. Describe the three groups within the Legislative Assembly _________ – sat on ______ side of hall, opposed idea of a monarchy, wanted sweeping changes in the way government was run _____________ – sat in the ________ of the hall, wanted some changes in government, but not as many as the radicals ____________ – sat on ____ side of hall, upheld idea of limited monarchy, few changes in government
7. Who were the _____-__________? Group of Parisian wageearners and small _________ who wanted to bring even greater changes to France
Greater voice in government, lower food prices, end food shortages
Extreme ______ (radicals)
6. Who were the ___________? ________ and others who _____ France during peasant uprisings Extreme ______ (conservatives) Wanted to _____ the revolution and restore the Old Regime
8. Why did France go to war with Austria and Prussia? _______ and _________ feared revolution in their own country, wanted Louis XVI put back on the __________ __________ Assembly declared war April, 1792 Prussian commander threatened to destroy Paris if royal family harmed
9. What was the result of this war?
Louis, _____ ___________ and children imprisoned Legislative Assembly set aside constitution of 1791, dissolved the assembly, called for election of new legislature - National Convention
10. What was the ___________ Club? ___________ political group
Had many enemies within France – peasants, priests who would not accept government control, and rival leaders stirring up rebellions in provinces
National convention, guided by the Jacobins, tried Louis for ___________
12. What was the fate of Louis XVI? Role reduced from _______ to common citizen Tried for treason and found _______ ____________ by the guillotine on January 21, 1793
14. What was the first problem faced by the new republic? The continuing _____ with Austria and __________ France suffered many defeats 1793 – ___________ French citizens drafted; by 1794, army had grown to 800,000
11. What changes were made in government when the National Convention met on Sept. 21, 1792?
_________ abolished France declared a ____________ Adult male citizens granted right to ___ and hold office
13. What is a ____________? A _____________ for ____________ people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution
15. Who was Maximilien ______________? What changes did he make in France? ________ leader who slowly gained power; set out to build a “republic of virtue” Tried to ______ _____all traces of monarchy and nobility Changed ____________ to be more scientific – 12 months of 30 days, renamed each month, no Sundays because religion = old-fashioned and dangerous
16. What was the __________ of ________ _____________? Led by Robespierre – governed nearly as a _____________ Chief task was to ________ the Revolution from its enemies “Enemies” tried and executed
18. Who was the most famous victim of the reign of terror?
17. What was the period of Robespierre’s rule known as? Reign of __________ Sept 1893 During the next 10 months, 30,000 – 50,000 _________ by guillotine
19. What type of government did the constitution of 1795 establish? ________________ Placed power in hands of _______ ______ class Called for two house legislature and executive body of 5 men = the Directory
5 Directors = moderates; corrupt, but gave troubled country a period of order; also, found right general to command armies = Napoleon
Section 3 – Napoleon Forges an Empire
Chapter 7 French Revolution and Napoleon
Main Idea __________ Bonaparte, a military ______, seized power in France and made himself _______________ Why It Matters Now In times of political turmoil, military dictators often seize control of nations.
1. How did Napoleon seize control of France?
2. What is a ___________?
Began as ________ in French military – very successful Became one of three ________ after the legislature voted to dissolve the Directory ________ dictatorial powers as first consul of French Republic Coup d’etat – “blow of state”
Vote of the ________
3. How did Napoleon try to improve the economy?
4. How did Napoleon attempt to reduce government corruption and improve the delivery of services?
Set up efficient _________ collection system Established a national ____ Actions promoted sound financial management and better control of the economy
Dismissed _________ officials Set up lycées – government run public __________ – in order to provide his government with trained officials
Held in 1800 to approve a new _____________ People __________, voted in favor of new constitution giving Napoleon all real power as first consul
Candidates appointed based on merit rather than ___________ connections
5. What new relationship between the church and state was established by Napoleon?
6. What was the Napoleonic _________?
Concordat signed between Napoleon and ______ Pius VII Rejected _________ control in national affairs French __________ appointed bishops; bishops would appoint parish priests
Comprehensive set of ___________ Gave country _________ set of laws and eliminated many injustices, __________ liberty, and promoted order and authority over individual rights Freedom of press and speech – ________ Restored slavery in French colonies
8. What occurred in the French colony of Saint Domingue 1791-1804? _______ seized control of the colony under the leadership of Toussaint L’Ouverture
Inspired by revolution in _____________
9. What region did the United States buy from France? For how much?
Louisiana _________ – “Louisiana Purchase” $___ million
Napoleon sent __________ to regain control - ___________
7. How did Napoleon become emperor of France? Decided to make himself __________ in 1804 French voters _____________ him
10. What countries formed the Third Coalition?
_________, Russia, _____, and _______ – against Napoleon and the French
11. Why was the Battle of Trafalgar important?
The only major _________ Napoleon ____ against the third coalition _________ the French fleet Admiral ___________
13. In 1820, what were the only major European countries free from Napoleon?
___________ Ottoman Empire ___________ ___________
12. What were the 2 results of the destruction of the French fleet? Assured supremacy of the _______ _______ for the next 100 years Forced Napoleon to give up plans of ____________ Britain
Section 4 – Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Main Idea Napoleon’s conquests aroused nationalistic feelings across Europe and contributed to his downfall. Why It Matters Now In the 1990s, nationalistic feelings contributed to the breakup of nations such as Yugoslavia.
1. What were the 3 major mistakes made by Napoleon that led to his downfall?
2. Who defeated Napoleon? What were the terms of Napoleon’s surrender?
Ordered a __________ to prevent all trade and communication between ______ ________ and other European nations
Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden Had to give up throne, given small pension and ________ to Elba
“continental system” – weakened the economy of France and other land under Napoleon’s control
1808 – sent army through __________ to invade Portugal; lost approximately 300,000 men
Invasion of ____________
Troops = no loyalty to Napoleon
3. What happened on March 1, 1815?
Napoleon ________ from _________ Landed in France – within days, became __________ of France (again)
1. What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna?
Establish new ____________ order – collective security and ____________ for the whole continent
Section 5 – The Congress of Vienna Main Idea After exiling Napoleon, European leaders at the Congress of Vienna tried to restore order and reestablish peace. Why It Matters Now International bodies such as the United Nations play an active role in trying to maintain world peace and stability today.
The Hundred Days campaign When European enemies heard of ____________ return, they _________ war. On June 18, _____ Napoleon attacked Britain at _____________ in Belgium. Napoleon’s young inexperienced troops were routed by __________ and _________ troops. Two days later Napoleon’s troops surrendered. Napoleon was sent into permanent exile into St. Helena where he remained until his death in 1821.
Napoleon’s legacy Napoleon was a _______ administrator and a military ___________ ____________ died in war. __________ spread throughout Europe and in the new world. France had reestablished order following the revolution.
2. Who was Klemens von Metternich? What were the 3 goals he set for the Congress of Vienna? Foreign minister of ___________ Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries Restore the _____________ of power Restore Europe’s royal families to the thrones they held before Napoleon’s conquests
3. How were the weaker countries around France made stronger? Kingdom of the ____________ formed from Dutch Republic and Austrian Netherlands (united) 39 _______ states loosely joined as German Confederation ______________ recognized as independent Genoa added to Kingdom of Sardinia (Italy)
4. What was the legacy of the Congress of Vienna?
Influenced ________ for next 100 years Power of Britain and Prussia ________ Nationalism began to grow in Italy, Germany, Greece – eventually leading to ______________ Spanish colonies took advantage of events in Europe to declare independence