Concert of Europe French Revolution and Napoleon

Concert of Europe • French Revolution and Napoleon – Ancient Regime ousted • 3 estates – 1st: Clergy – 2nd: Nobility – 3rd: 98% of population (middle...
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Concert of Europe •

French Revolution and Napoleon – Ancient Regime ousted • 3 estates – 1st: Clergy – 2nd: Nobility – 3rd: 98% of population (middle class, urban poor, rural poor)

– Monarchy ousted • Louis Bourbon XVI guillotined in early 1793 • This is when European leaders get alarmed

– Various governmental models tried with some famous people • Estates General, National Assembly, National Constituent Assembly, Legislative Assembly, Directory, Committee of Public Safety, Consulate

– Napoleon in as Emperor (1804) • Radical reorganization of France and Europe under his leadership – Economic order, Social order, Religious order, Legal order – Annexed areas to France, Controlled by Napoleon but independent, Allies

– European reaction (war) • Coalitions (3) formed to stop Napoleon (led by Britain) • Grand Alliance formed (Br, Ru, Pr, Au, Sw) by 1810 to fight French – Various battles and invasions (Russia, Spain, Egypt, Waterloo) – Napoleon eventually defeated (1814) » Great military leader, administrator, reformer but left Europe devastated



Reaction to radical changes: Concert of Europe

Concert of Europe • Congress of Vienna 9/1814 - 3/1815 – Wanted to undo changes made by French Revolution and Napoleon – Stability the main aim

• Francis I spared no expense for Congress • Metternich (Austria’s Foreign Minister) very influential – Disliked and distrusted democratic ideals • Laws stable, not changeable…

• Wanted three things from Congress: • Strengthen countries around France – Netherlands formed, Swiss neutral, German Confederation formed

• Restore balance of power within Europe – France remained a Great Power

• Restore royal families within Europe – Established the concept of Legitimacy

Concert of Europe • Metternich acted to restrict German nationalism – Used constant censorship and oppression to slow movement toward German unity • Especially university students

• Conservatives controlled Europe after Congress – Kings/Princes restored in country after country

• Absolute rulers in Eastern Europe – Russia, Austria, Prussia • ‘Holy Alliance’ formed

Imperial Russia •Alexander I 1801-1825 –At first willing to work with revolutionaries throughout Europe, but 1820s revolutions steered him toward reactionary viewpoint –In power during Napoleon’s invasion of Russia •Kept him from domestic reforms –Constitutional reforms 1801 and 1809, ineffective –Law of February 1803, ineffective »Freed serfs with landlord’s approval…

–Had considered ending serfdom and probably would have, but died in 1825 –Autocratic ruler, but could have changed Russia for better •Reactionary advisors steered him toward aboslutism

–After death, confusion over succession developed –Constantine (older) or Nicolas???

Imperial Russia • Decembrist Revolt – –

December 14, 1825 Several liberal-minded groups of military officers led 3000 troops into Senate Square to overthrow the absolutist monarchy during succession controversy (supported Constantine) – Lack of planning, caused leaders to spend 4 hours debating the next step in the revolt – Meanwhile, government troops raided the square and ended the revolt – Inspired future revolutionaries (became legendary) •

Immediate impact was government repression

Imperialist Russia • Nicholas I (1825-1855) Not all bad… –

Military background • •



Reputation for brutality with his troops Loved discipline and obedience, but hated change

Sentenced Decembrist leaders to public hanging (death penalty had been outlawed by Elizabeth) • •

Sent 100 Decembrist followers into exile (Siberia) After Decembrist executions, Nick prided himself on the fact that Russia had no death penalty –



He continued to sentence soldiers to run a gauntlet of 1000 men – 4 times

Feared the masses and the Russian nobility (relied on German administrators) •

Fear heightened by European revolutions and Polish uprising (1831) • Led to more dictatorial policies

Imperialist Russia – Nick’s secret police • Led by Count Benckendorff (1826-1844) – Described as “outside the law and above the law” • Operated through uniformed gendarmerie and network of secret agents • Aimed to prevent future revolts • Caused Russians to live in fear of informers and arbitrary police actions • Restricted travel, censored newspapers and university lectures – Codified Russian laws – Stabilized currency

Imperialist Russia • Nicholas I con’t – Absorbed more and more governmental functions into executive bureaucracy • Made government top-heavy – Left serfs to the mercy of landowners – Pushed education backwards by discouraging (preventing) education of lower classes • Standards of education for upper classes were neglected – Expanded Russian territory somewhat – 1848: Formed mutual neutrality with Britain during revolutions • Acted as guardian of balance of power in eastern Europe • 1848 Revolutions acted as a catalyst for conservatism throughout Europe – Nicholas I quite happy to oblige…

Imperialist Russia • Crimean War 1854-56 –

(1852) Turks gave Roman Catholics some privileges in Holy Lands •

Interpreted by Nick as infringement on rights of Greek Orthodox Church • Nick demanded Turks repeal the privileges and acknowledge Russia’s right to protect Greek Orthodox rights throughout Turkish territory –

• •

Thought that British would support him because of prior good relations

Turks refused Nick’s demands (June 1853) Russian troops entered Turkish territory to coerce Turkish agreement

Imperialist Russia – Crimean War – (October 1853) Turks declared war on Russia • •



Sent fleet to Black Sea coast Russians quickly sank 11 Turkish vessels (4000 Turks

died) – Incited war sentiment in Britain (public saw Turks as underdogs)

Nick immediately attempted to assemble the Concert of Europe to accept his terms of settlement – –



Concert rejected the terms France and Britain declared war on Russia (Mar 1854) » Britain may have been guided by public opinion » Louis Napoleon always wanted an alliance with Britain

Imperialist Russia – Crimean War – (Sept 1854) Fr and Br landed 50,000 troops at Sebastopol • Failed to defeat Russians after months of siege warfare by June 1855

(Oct-Nov 1855) Russian counteroffensive failed – Degenerated into war of attrition –



(Dec 1855) sent ultimatum to Russia » Would have hardened Nick, but he had died (Mar) » Alexander II accepted terms (tired of war)



Peace of Paris was basically a stalemate • No side winning territory of concessions • And, most importantly, no warm water port for Russia!!

Imperial Russia • Alexander II (1855-1881) – Stayed out of European affairs immediately after Crimean War • Began to investigate expansion into Asia

– Instituted liberal reforms • (1861) Issued Emancipation Edicts that finally freed the serfs – Economic realities continued to restrict their freedom

• (1864) Established representative local assemblies called zemstvos – – – –

Controlled by local nobility Concerned with local issues Restricted by low government funding Popular as a step toward liberalism

Imperial Russia • (1864) Instituted judicial reform – – – – –

Legal equality Trial by jury Uniform procedure Life terms for judges System was still limited by several old institutions » Military, ecclesiastical, and township courts » Tsar’s power to pardon or penalize at will » Ministers of justice opposed to reform

– (April 4, 1866) D. Z. Karakozov tried to assassinate Alexander II (narrowly escaped assassination) • Alexander II reacted by turning away from his earlier reform attempts • Other attempts: 1873- 5 shots, 1880- dining car bombed

Imperial Russia – (1870’s) Russian policy reverted to repression under Alex II – Revolutionaries dissatisfied with reform and censorship • • • •

Revolutionary societies formed to overthrow government Nihilism (belief in ‘nothing’ except science) Nihilists and anarchists linked Narodniki (people’s movement) spread revolutionary ideas among peasants. Many deported to Siberia, the one’s who stayed became more fanatical

– (1881) Alexander II assassinated by bomb

Imperial Russia • Alexander III 1881-1894 • Brutally rejected reforms – Limited power of zemstvos

• Anyone who wasn’t Russian, Orthodox, or supportive of Tsarist authority was oppressed • Jews especially mistreated • To sum up pre-Nicholas II Russia: – – – –

Some reforms attempted (slow progress) Abolition of feudal system Money economy Seeds of revolutionism sown

Imperial Russia • Nicholas II 1894-1917 • Although reactionary and autocratic, allowed reforms to come • Huge changes on horizon: • Cultural: • Russian intellectuals gaining more and more exposure to European ideas – Darwin, Marx, Pasteur

• More and more Russian intellectuals becoming known in West – Tolstoy, Dostoevski, Diagliev, Tchaikovsky

Imperial Russia • Economic • Urbanization significant – 45% ^ from 1860-70

• Industrial development (revolution) – Fueled urbanization

• Foreign investment increased – Trans Siberian RR 1891-1904 – Mostly foreign financed

• Even with development, Russia behind West – Trade unions outlawed – Rural peasants had it bad (so did urban poor)

• Increased debt to West a problem • Industrial concentration made labor organisation possible

Imperial Russia • By 1900, various agents for change were present in Russia: • Constitutional Democrats – Wanted change through constitutional monarchy like Britain

• Social Revolutionaries (Populists) – Wanted change through revolution – Differed from Marxist views by saying that Russia’s revolution would come from peasants since urban proletariat was so small in Russia than in Europe – Wanted to skip horrors of capitalism and go directly to the most pressing problem for Russia: land reform – Distribute land fairly among the peasants and work toward a rural socialism

Imperial Russia • Social Democrats (Marxists) – Followed ideas from Marx – Saw peasants as weak – Urban working class would overthrow owners of means of production – Started in 1870s (small at start) – Favoured by Tsar’s police because less anarchistic

Imperial Russia • Lenin (1870-1924) – Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov

• Short, almost rotund, bald at early age • Pleasant, happy childhood, upper-middle class family • Father an influential school inspector – 1886, father died – Begins to question religion (broke away)

• 1887 Lenin’s brother Alexander arrested and executed for plotting against Alex III – Family was ruined. Lenin quits law degree and becomes a revolutionary

• Married Krupskaya in 1890s • Arrested for revolutionary activity and sent to Siberia 1897-1900 – Works out plans for revolution and Marxist theory – Fortunate he wasn’t killed during exile.

Imperial Russia • 1900-1917… – Lived in Europe – Visited Russia secretly

• Spent many hours studying in libraries – Lived on money from wife’s family and wealthy revolutionaries in Russia

• Developed strong distrust of peasants as agents of social change – Actually more Marxist than Marx about urban proletariat was agent for change – When pressed, Marx said urban prol. Wasn’t the only means of change in Russia

• 1903, in London, Social Democrats (founded in 1898) met for second time. • Lenin’s views on revolution won out in debate and vote (by one). This caused the Social Democrats to split.

Imperial Russia • Bolsheviks (hards)

• Mensheviks (softs)

• More rapid pace toward revolution • Even though urban areas not as developed… how? • Strong group of fiercely dedicated Marxists showing the UP the way • Establish the ‘dictatorship of the Proletariat’ until people were prepared to rule.

• Move more slowly toward revolution • More industrialisation needed for Marxism to take effect • Need support of many to work • Tended to Russianize Marxist policy/beliefs • Lenin tended to be purely Marxist

Imperial Russia • Arguments between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks merely intellectual for most people • Little to worry Russian autocratic government • Most were in exile or imprisoned • By 1904-05, political climate changed due to two big events:

Imperial Russia • The Russo-Japanese War • Nicholas II declares war on Japan – Seeking diversion from political criticism – Imperialist disputes over China and Korea

• Japan scores impressive victory over Russia • For Russia, two things: – Focuses Russia’s attention back to West, not East – Tsarist regime corrupt and inept = problems • People beginning to lose faith in Tsar’s ability to lead them

Imperial Russia • Revolution of 1905 • Sunday Jan. 22, 1905 • 200,000 people (workers, children, women) marched on Tsar’s winter palace in St. Petersburg • Not armed, singing ‘God Save the Tsar’ • Protestors wanted: – Better working conditions – More personal freedom – Elected national legislature

• Nicholas II wasn’t there, but palace guards panicked and shot/killed 1000 protestors in cold blood

Imperial Russia • ‘Bloody Sunday’ a huge watershed for people • A moral bond was broken – Tsar no longer benevolent, no trust, not acting in their interest

• Tsar stood for all the hated aspects of Russian Life: – – – –

Landlords Industrial owners Government officials Tax collectors

• Throughout 1905, waves of strikes/riots erupted • Revolutionaries came out of the woodwork – Const. Democrats, Social Revs, Social Dems

Imperial Russia • By October of 1905, Tsar under tremendous pressure to enact reforms • Issued October Manifesto (divisive) • Const. Dems came back in fold after Tsar promised: – More freedoms, constitutional style government, Duma elected by all

• With CDs inactive, Tsar’s police concentrated on other revolutionaries (SRs, SDs) – Went underground, imprisoned, exiled, executed

Imperial Russia • • • • •

Result of revolution: the Duma May 1906: First Duma (unsuccessful) Members elected (CDs in majority) Nicholas II reluctant to share power Disbanded after three months – Attacked by Tsar – Attacked by conservative extremists • Black Hundreds (used terror to frighten peasants)

– Revolutionaries asked workers to ignore Duma

Imperial Russia • Second Duma, 1907 • Revolutionary parties consented to run for seats in Duma – Won 83 seats

• Duma ended in a few months with arrest of 50 revolutionary Duma members

Imperial Russia • Third Duma, 1907-1912 • More successful under spirit of reform (Stolypin influential) • Allowed peasants more freedoms and to sell property • Move toward private property made Russia more westernized • Fourth Duma, 1912-1916 – Enacted little change – Continued westernization process – Pravda started during this time

Marxism • Karl Marx influenced by three factors: • French Revolution – Common people actually revolted and made an impact – Nature of the change was vast and impersonal

• British Industrial Revolution – Deeply saddened by worked exploitation

• Surplus Value – Work the true source of all value – Without worker, natural resources had no value in market – Workers deserved at least some of the value that good accumulated as a sellable product – SV = prod $ - wage - f/v costs

Marxism • Worker (proletariat) should share in Surplus Value… • But… owner (bourgeoisie) monopolise means of production and prevent this from happening – Will always have other workers to take the place of trouble makers

• How to change this? – Revolution and have the workers control the means of production!!! • Violent overthrow the only way

– Marx learned from the French Revolution that violent overthrow could work

Marxism • German Philosophy – Gave Marx the rationalisation for revolution – GWF Hegel most influential

• Dialectical Materialism the kernel of Marx’s theories – Materialism • Everything mental, spiritual, or ideal was an outgrowth of physical forces

– Dialectic • All things in movement, evolution and change How? By a clash of antagonistic elements • Thesis vs Antithesis = Synthesis

Marxism • Dialectic continued… • All history, all reality is a process of development through time • An unfolding of events, necessary, logical, deterministic • Every event happens in due sequence for a good reason (not chance) • Examples: • Feudalism => Monarchism – Thesis: Feudalism Antithesis: Burghers Synthesis: Monarchy, Nobility

• Monarchism => Republicanism – Thesis: Monarchy, Nobility Antithesis: Democracy Synthesis: Const. Monarchy, Republicanism

Imperial Russia • WWI: the final blow to the Romanov Dynasty • Nicholas II’s decision to go to war proved fatal for dynasty • Westernisation process hadn’t reached the military – Too weak to stand up to German war machine – 4 million in 1914 alone! 2 million in 1915

• Nicholas II decided to move personal HQ to the front to issue commands more effectively – Left administrative control to his wife – Rasputin and his ilk…

Imperial Russia • Nicholas II 1914-1917 • Totally against reform • Fourth Duma less and less effective – Loud protests on how government was being run

• Tsar responded by dissolving Duma and issuing stronger orders of oppression • Members of Duma and others came to fateful change in policy • The only way to secure any change in government would have to be by force – Lasting revolution now possible – Revolutionaries, moderates both needed to be saved from reactionary policies

Imperial Russia • March 1917, Nicholas II abdicates • 14 March, 1917 Provisional Government formed – Duma influenced formation

• Duma influenced side – Conservatives/moderates wanting to produce a constitution to work with (Prince Lvov, leader)

• Petrograd Soviet influenced side – Revolutionaries to grab reins of power – Social Democrats • Bolsheviks, Mensheviks

– Social Revolutionaries • Alexander Kerensky – Leader of Provisional Government – Petrograd Soviet strongest and he came from them

Imperial Russia • • • • • •

Provisional Government from Feb-Oct 1917 1st PG 14 March-16 May Lived in constant fear of revolution, anarchy Worked on reforms and freedoms Lenin back in country 2 April Issued April Theses – – – –

Socialist revolution All power to the Soviets Nationalisation of banks and landed estates An end to Russia’s involvement in war

• 2nd PG 16 May-15 July • Attempt by Lenin to seize power in July… unsuccessful • Exile again to Finland, Trotsky arrested (former Menshevik)

Imperial Russia • Kerensky’s HUGE mistake… staying in War – Afraid Germany would capture Petrograd and restore Nicholas II again – Felt bound to treaties to Allies • Allies desperately urged Kerensky to maintain war effort

– Desertions on front • Soldiers wanted to get back to homes in case land reform enacted

– Spring 1917 offensive cost 500,000 more lives

Imperial Russia • Conservative revolt erupted led by General Kornilov – – – –

Failed mainly due to Bolshevik resistance And Kerensky’s lack of support Petrograd Soviet forms anti-conservative Red Guards (40,000) This gives Bolsheviks power later

• Popular support beginning to swing to Bolsheviks – Gaining power and influence – Only ones seen as powerful enough to resist Tsar’s return or Generals from running government

• Peace, Bread and Land was Lenin’s slogan • Sept 1st, Kerensky declares Russia a republic and appoints a five member directorate (weak) • Sept: The PS (Trotsky elected leader) strengthens power and begins to actively resist PG • Oct: talk of PS coup against PG out in public