Temperature Table Chemical Mixing Procedure

Table of Contents I. About This Handbook..............................................................................................1 II. Student G...
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Table of Contents I. About This Handbook..............................................................................................1 II. Student Guidelines for Studio Usage........................................................................2 III. Facilities ..............................................................................................................3 1. Black+White Gang Darkroom..............................................................................3 2. Studio (Rm. 2006) ...............................................................................................3 IV. Film Photo Equipment .........................................................................................4 1. Undergraduate Equipment....................................................................................4 a. Mounting .........................................................................................................4 b. Darkroom.........................................................................................................4 c. Miscellaneous ..................................................................................................4 2. Graduate Equipment ............................................................................................5 a. Studio Use Only...............................................................................................5 V. Digital Photography.................................................................................................6 VI. Sources ................................................................................................................8 1. Photographic Materials and Cameras ...................................................................8 2. MatteBoard, Portfolios, etc. .................................................................................8 3. Camera Repair .....................................................................................................8 4. Textbooks ............................................................................................................8 5. Mail Order Suppliers............................................................................................9 VII. Safety ................................................................................................................10 1. General Safety ...................................................................................................10 2. Eyewash ............................................................................................................10 3. MSDS: (Material Safety Data Sheets) ................................................................10 4. Overexposure.....................................................................................................10 a. PHENIDONE (1-PHENYL-3-PYRAZOLIDONE) ........................................10 b. PARA-PHENYLENEDIAMINE (p-phenylene diamine)................................10 c. Other Color Developers .................................................................................11 5. Precautions for Developers ................................................................................11 6. Other Organic Chemicals ...................................................................................12 a. TARTARIC ACID (racemic acid)..................................................................12 b. PARA-TOLUENE SULFONIC ACID (p-toluene sulfonic acid) ....................12 7. Precautions for Acids: Acetic Acid, Stop Bath ...................................................12 VIII. Terminology ......................................................................................................13 IX. Darkroom Etiquette............................................................................................16 X. Contrast Filtration in Gang Darkroom....................................................................17 XI. Making a Contact Sheet .....................................................................................18 1. Setting up the enlarger: ......................................................................................18 2. Evaluating a Contact Sheet ................................................................................18 XI. Exposure Log.....................................................................................................19 XII. Filters for Cameras.............................................................................................20 XIII. Colors of Light...................................................................................................21 1. Black and White Evaluation...............................................................................21 XIV. Dry-Mounting Photographs ..................................................................................22 XV. Defects in Negatives ..........................................................................................23

XVI. XVII. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Defects in Prints.................................................................................................25 Film Processing .............................................................................................27 Film Processing Time/Temperature Table..........................................................29 Chemical Mixing Procedure...............................................................................30 Print Mixing Procedure ......................................................................................30 Gang Darkroom Print Processing Procedures .....................................................31 Individual Darkroom Print Processing Procedures..............................................32

School of Art & Design

Photography Studio Handbook

University of Michigan

I. About This Handbook 

This handbook is intended for use in conjunction with University of Michigan CourseTools pages developed for particular courses which use the Photography Studio. Please refer to the appropriate CourseTools pages within the CourseTools site (http://coursetools.ummu.umich.edu) for specific information for a given course.



This handbook is not intended to be a "catch-all" and will not be applicable to any-and-all circumstances. Please discuss specific circumstances with those involved.



Electronic versions of this handbook are located online at http://artdesign.umich.edu.



This handbook is written and maintained by Joe St. George, Photography Studio Coordinator at the School of Art & Design, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Please send any suggestions or comments regarding this handbook or its contents to [email protected]

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School of Art & Design

Photography Studio Handbook

University of Michigan

II. Student Guidelines for Studio Usage 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

11.

Regular class schedule and timings for each studio are posted outside the studio. Student studio monitors may be chosen/assigned by studio coordinators for after hours monitoring on an “as needed” basis for each academic term. After hours access to studios by individual students will be granted on a caseby-case basis. This will only occur after a student enrolled in a course held within a specific Studio, or an Art & Design student who attended a previously-held Studio course, signs and returns the Signature Page for Studio Student Users found at the end of this handbook. This signature page must also include the instructor's signature. Access will not be granted to students who have not attended a course at the School of Art & Design, nor to non-majors who are not currently enrolled in an A&D course. Access permission for individual students to the specific studios will be at the discretion of the individual studio coordinators in charge. Access will be granted only for specific academic terms or, in the case of courses with durations different from an academic term, the length of the course. (Example: TMP Photo courses lasting 7 weeks vs. a full 14-week course.) Students who are granted access to specific studios cannot bring in other unauthorized students/acquaintances into those studios at any time. Authorized students need to go through an orientation regarding access, safety, security and individual studio maintenance and supplies usage policies/practices. Students involved with any project must clean up after themselves at the end of each day. Studio coordinators can revoke access to any individual student found to be not in compliance with access, security and maintenance requirements of specific studio policies/practices and will notify the Director of Finance & Facilities and the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. Emergency/non-emergency contact numbers are posted in the studio: Police/Ambulance/Fire (emergency help) - 911 Department of Public Safety (non-emergency help) – 763-1131 Occupational Safety and Environmental Health - 647-1143 Facilities Supervisor – 763-3132 Custodial Supervisor – 763-3132 (4 PM till 10 PM)

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University of Michigan

III. Facilities 1.

Black+White Gang Darkroom Accommodates 19 beginning students • Durst 670 color enlargers to handle 35mm negatives • EL Nikkor 50mm lenses • Time O Lite m 72 master timers • Sanders 8” x 10” speed easels • 11” X 11” sheets of glass • Arkay RC print dryer • Grain focusers

2.

Studio (Rm. 2006) Student needs to sign up to reserve the space • Large open space with movable walls • 20 Foot high ceilings • Tungsten and strobe equipment available • Copy stand and a copy camera available on reserve basis only

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University of Michigan

IV. Film Photo Equipment 1.

Undergraduate Equipment

The following equipment is available for ALL students who are enrolled in a photography class to check out. No checkouts will be allowed without a valid UofM student ID card.

a.

Mounting • • • • • • •

b.

Darkroom • • • • • • •

c.

T-squares Rulers Print positioning toll Dry mounting presses Paper cutter Professional mat cutting equipment Tacking irons

Grain focusers Glass (for contact prints) 8” X 10” speed easels 8” X 10” 2-bladed easels 11” X 14” 2-bladed easels 14” X 17” 2-bladed easels 16” X 20” 2-bladed easels

Miscellaneous • • • • • •

Tripods Lights Light stands Umbrellas Hand coloring materials Spotting dyes

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Photography Studio Handbook

University of Michigan

Graduate Equipment

The following equipment is available for ALL students who are enrolled in a photography class to check out. No checkouts will be allowed without a valid UofM student ID card.

a.

Studio Use Only • • • • • • •

Speedatron studio strobe unit Flash meter Spot light meter Copy stand Olympus OM 1 35mm camera (with macro lens) Tungsten lights Tripod

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University of Michigan

V. Digital Photography There are several facilities within the School of Art & Design which students can use for digital photography. For ALL students: Studio Imaging Lab A/ITCS Lab (Rm.2114) • G4 Dual 450 MHz Processor: 1.5 GB RAM, 20 GB Hard Drive space • LaserJet 5000N B+W Laser Printer • 3 flatbed scanners • 17 computers total in the lab For UPPER LEVEL photography students: Photo Lab (Rm.1002) • 1 G4 450 MHz Processor: 384 MB RAM, 20 GB Hard Drive Space • 1 flatbed scanner • Nikon LS-2000 Film Scanner Photo Studio Area (Rm. 2002) • 2 G4 450 MHz Processor, 256 MB RAM, 9 BG Hard Drive space • 1 flatbed scanner • 1 Epson 820 inkjet printer • 1 Epson CX5200 all in one printer For GRADUATE STUDENTS only: Robbins Gallery Graduate Computer Lab • 2 Dual 450 MHz Processor, 576 MB RAM, 30 GB Hard Drive Space • LaserJet 6MP B+W Laser Printer • 1 flatbed scanner All computers have either built in or external 100 MB Zip drives and CD drives. The G4s in the Imaging Lab are networked, connecting to the Fiery Printer at the Copy Center. There is also a large format Plotter Printer available in the Copy Center that prints from a zip and is not networked to the Image Studio. Also available are computing sites all over campus including but not limited to: the Media Union and the New Media Center in the School of Education. Facilities vary and are subject to change. These facilities are not a part of the School of Art & Design, but are open to all students enrolled in the University of Michigan.

Technical Support Page 6

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If you have problems with the digital equipments and/or computers, send the IT Staff an e-mail at [email protected], stating the problem(s), the machine ID(s), and the room.

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VI. Sources 1.

Photographic Materials and Cameras Big George’s Home Appliance Mart 2019 West Stadium Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48103 Ph. 734.669.9500 Meijer’s 3145 Arbor-Saline Road, Ann Arbor, MI; Ph.769.7800 3825 Carpenter Road, Ypsilanti, MI; Ph. 677.7142 Huron Camera 8060 Main Street, Dexter, MI Ph. 426.4654

2.

MatteBoard, Portfolios, etc. Michigan Book and Supply 317 S. State, Ann Arbor, MI Ph. 665.4990 Pierpont Commons Bookstore (on North Campus) 2101 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI Ph. 668.6022

3.

Camera Repair Huron Camera and Service 8060 Main Street, Dexter, MI; Ph. 426.4654 Big George’s Home Appliance Mart 2019 West Stadium Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48103 Ph. 734.669.9500

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4.

Photography Studio Handbook

Textbooks Shaman Drum Bookstore 313 S. State Street, Ann Arbor, MI Ph.662.7407

5.

Mail Order Suppliers Abbey Camera, Inc. 1417-25 Melon Street Philadelphia, PA 19130 800.252.2239 www.abbeycamera.com B&H Photo 420 Ninth Avenue New York, NY 10001 800.947.9970 www.bhphotovideo.com Calumet Photographic 890 Supreme Drive Bensenville, IL 60106 800.323.2849 www.calumetphoto.com Free Style Sales Co. 3124 Sunset Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90027 800.616.3686 www.freestylecamera.com Light Impressions P.O. Box 940 Rochester, NY 14603 800.828.6216 www.lightimpressionsdirect.com

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VII. Safety 1.

General Safety It is recommended that students wear gloves and eye protection when handling chemicals, use tongs for printing. Use an apron to protect clothing. Wash hands often. Do not eat or drink in darkrooms. Take frequent breaks. Mix powders under ventilated hood located adjacent to class room/studio.

2.

Eyewash Located in the chemical mixing room. Provides constant, intense flow of water to the eyes in case of chemical splash. It is recommended that students wear eye protection when handling chemicals.

3.

MSDS: (Material Safety Data Sheets) Material safety data sheets are located in lab office. They are attached to wall next to desk. Provide the basic information regarding contents of chemicals, safe handling procedures and accident information.

4.

Overexposure a.

PHENIDONE (1-PHENYL-3-PYRAZOLIDONE) Phenidone is slightly toxic by skin contact and moderately toxic by inhalation or ingestion. It is a skin and eye irritant; prolonged contact with the powder can cause skin allergies. Its hazards by inhalation and ingestion are similar to those of other black and white developers; Dimezone (1-phenyl-4-dimethyl-3-pyrazolidinone) is a compound similar to phenidone and has similar hazards.

b.

PARA-PHENYLENEDIAMINE (p-phenylene diamine) This compound, used both for black and white and color development, is highly toxic by all routes of exposure. By skin contact it causes severe skin allergies. Para-phenylenediamine may also be absorbed through the skin. Inhalation of the powder can cause severe asthma, and irritation of upper respiratory passages. Ingestion may cause vertigo, nervous system damage, gastritis, liver and spleen damage, double vision and weakness. It causes tumors in animals. It has a Threshold Limit Value (TWA) of 0.1 mg per cubic meter and is regulated by OSHA at this level in the workspace. The hazards of ortho-phenylenediamine, diethyl-paraphenylenediamine and dimethyl-paraphenylenediamine are similar to

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those of para-phenylenediamine. Both of these developers should be avoided.

c.

Other Color Developers Color developers 4-(N-ethyl-N-2-methanesulfonylaminoethy)-2methylphenylenediamine sesquisulfate monohydrate (Kodak CD-3) and 4(N-ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methlyphenylenediamine sulfate (Kodak CD-4) are among the new, widely used color developers that are designed to have reduced toxicity. Their hazards are largely unknown. Color developers are known to cause severe skin irritation and allergies, especially by skin contact with the powders. Solutions can also be irritating. N,N-diethylhydroxlamine is another color developer whose hazards are largely known except that it is an experimental reproductive hazard.

5.

Precautions for Developers 1. Buy premixed developer solutions whenever possible, in order to avoid inhalation of toxic powders or skin contact with concentrated solutions. 2. Always use the least toxic developer available for any given process. If possible, avoid highly toxic developers including catechin, pyrogallol, and para-phenylenediamine. 3. Avoid direct skin contact with developers. Never put bare hands into the developer bath. Use tongs to agitate solutions and to pick up prints. Wear gloves and goggles when preparing and handling developer solutions. Gloves should be washed with an acidic hand cleaner such as pHisoderm© and then with water before removing them. 4. Mix developers powders in a fume hood or glove box, or wear a toxic dust mask 5. For skin splashes, immediately flush affected area with water; for eye splashes, flush for at least 15 minutes and get medical attention. Darkrooms should have a deluge-type shower and an eyewash fountain for such emergencies. 6. Follow proper precautions for housekeeping. Label all developer solutions carefully. Make sure that children cannot get into developers and other toxic chemicals. 7. All darkrooms require adequate ventilation. Local exhaust ventilation, preferably a slot exhaust hood, is recommended for handling highly toxic developers. 8. Clean up spills of developer liquids or powders immediately to prevent unnecessary exposure or contamination of darkroom air. Wear gloves, respirator and protective clothing for cleaning up large spills. Prepare for accidents with a supply of spill control materials. Page 11

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Other Organic Chemicals In addition to developers, a variety of organic chemicals, including amines, phenols and aldehydes, are used in photographic processes. Many amines ate used in color processing, while phenol and phenolic compounds are used as preservatives and fungicides in conservation. Formaldehyde, in the liquid (e.g. formalin) or the powder (paraformaldehyde) form, is another organic chemical that is widely used as a preservative and hardener. Miscellaneous organic chemicals include benzotriazole and 6-nitrobenzimidazole nitrate, two azimide compounds used as antifoggants in black and white developers.

a.

TARTARIC ACID (racemic acid) Concentrated tartaric acid is moderately toxic by skin contact, inhalation and ingestion.

b.

PARA-TOLUENE SULFONIC ACID (p-toluene sulfonic acid) This acid, used in Cibachrome (color) processing, is highly toxic by every route of exposure. It is highly corrosive to skin, eyes and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. If ingested, it can cause severe corrosive damage. Inhalation of the vapors can cause sever respiratory irritation.

7.

Precautions for Acids: Acetic Acid, Stop Bath •

• • • •



Always wear protective elbow-length gloves and safety goggles when handling concentrated acids. When mixing or diluting concentrated acids, always add the acid slowly to the solution, never the reverse; otherwise the solution may boil and spatter, causing possible acid burns. Acid splashes on skin or eyes require immediate flushing with water. For eye splashes, flush for at least 15 minutes and get medical attention. If a strong acid is ingested, do not induce vomiting. Call your Poison Control Center immediately and tell them the exact name of the acid and the estimated amount ingested. Have container label and Material Safety Data Sheet at hand. Darkrooms require good ventilation to control the level of acid vapors and gases produced by processing baths. Cover the acid bath (and other baths) between printing sessions to prevent evaporation and contamination. Discard used solutions that have been contaminated with chemicals. Store concentrated acids and other corrosives on low shelves so as to reduce the risk of face or eye injury in case of accidental breakage. Plan darkroom storage with individual cabinets for separate storage of incompatible acids and other chemicals.

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VIII. Terminology Aperture: The lens opening formed by the iris diaphragm inside the lens. Specifically of the lens, and expressed as a fraction of the focal length. The size is variable. The f/ number. ASA: A system of film speed rating now standard in the United States. Similar to ISO. Available light: The light condition that the photographer finds existing at the subject position. Backdrop: The area surrounding the subject to be photographed, usually a neutral wall, seamless paper, or fabric to provide a pleasing clean background for the subject. Base: The transparent sheet material, usually acetate or polyester, upon which film emulsion is coated. For prints the base is resin coated paper (RC) or fiber based paper. Between-the-lens shutter: A shutter designed to operate in a space between the elements of the lens. Bounce light: Indirect light produced by pointing the light source at a foam core, wall or other surface to reflect the light back toward the subject. The result is a softer, less harsh light. Bracketing: To make a number of exposures (some greater and some less than that which is considered to be “normal”) in addition to the “normal” one, with the intent of getting one near-perfect exposure. Cable release: A long flexible cloth or metal braid-covered plunger that screws into a special threaded socket on the camera body to allow the photographer to avoid camera shake by depressing the shutter without touching the camera. Camera: Literally “ room” in Latin. The instrument with which photographs are taken consisting, at least, of a light tight box, a lens that admits focused light, and some device or provision for holding the film in position. Camera obscura: Latin for dark room and predecessor to the camera. A small aperture allowed images of outside subjects formed by light rays to appear on the opposite wall. Click stops: Indents in the diaphragm or shutter scale of a lens that produce a tactile indication and an audible click to mark the significant scale settings. Cocking the shutter: Winding or tensioning the shutter mainspring prior to making the exposure. Copy Stand: An integral unit of copy board, camera stand and fixed lights for the sole purpose of copying two-dimensional works of art. Curtain shutter: A shutter variety in which a slit or opening in a strip of metal or cloth is made to travel past the film surface to affect the exposure. Daylight film: Color film that has been balanced to produce natural color when exposed in daylight or to daylight balanced light such as electronic flash. Depth of field: The region of acceptably sharp focus around the subject position, extending toward the camera and away from it, from the plane of sharpest focus. The boundaries of the depth of field are referred to as the near limit and the far limit. Depth of field scale: A calibrated scale, ring, or chart, often a part of the camera lens mount, on which the depth of field for any distance and aperture setting is indicated. Diaphragm: The assembly of thin metal leaves, usually incorporated into the lens barrel or shutter assembly, which can be adjusted to control the size of the lens aperture. Page 13

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Diffusion material: A translucent material placed in front of the light to soften the light. Emulsion: The light sensitive coating on photographic film or printing paper. Exposure: The act of subjecting a photosensitive material to the action of light. The accumulated effect of the action of light on a sensitized material. Film speed: A number indicating the relative light sensitivity of a given film, as determined by some official body such as ASA film speed. Filter: A piece of colored glass or plastic placed in front of the camera lens, in the enlarger or at the light source, to alter the quality of the light reaching the film/paper. Examples: contrast filters for printing, UV filter for camera lens, color for studio lights. Flash: A short burst of light emitted by an electronic flash unit either on camera or in the lighting system, that illuminates the scene being photographed. f/number: The numerical expression of the aperture diameter of a lens as a fraction of the focal length. Focus: The lens position that produces a sharp image. The point at which rays of light meet after passing through the lens. Frame: To adjust the position and angle of the camera with respect to the subject for the purpose of containing or composing the image within the boundaries of the viewfinder. The useful area and shape of the film image: the picture. Gray card: A card that reflects 18% gray which gives a known percentage of light falling on it. Used to take accurate exposure meter readings. Image: The photographic representation of the subject photographed. The visible result of exposing and developing a photographic emulsion. Latent image: An invisible image on a photographic material caused by the action of light upon the emulsion. Main light: The primary light source casting the dominant shadows. Maximum aperture: The largest useful opening of the lens. Wide open. Negative: Any photographic image in which the subject tones have been reversed. Perception: The assimilation of information and the interpretation of information by the utilization of the senses. Polarizing filter: A filter placed in front of the camera lens (and sometimes the lights) to reduce reflections from nonmetallic surfaces like glass, water or shiny paint. Positive: An image in which the tones or colors are similar to those of the subject. Process: The sequence of chemical steps required to produce the desired image or result. Sensitivity: In photography, the susceptibility of an emulsion to alteration by light energy. Sharpness: The subjective impression of clarity of definition and crispness of outline in the rendering of the detail and texture of the photographic image. Shutter: A mechanical device which controls the interval of time that a photographic medium is exposed to light. Shutter speed: The duration of the interval of exposure. The marked settings on the shutter dial. Spot meter: A reflectance meter that reads a narrow degree of light from the subject. Usually in 1, 5 or 10 degree increments. Strobe: A camera or lighting accessory that produces a brief but powerful burst of light. Subject: The object or view to be photographed. Tripod: A three-legged support for the camera. Page 14

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Viewfinder: The aperture or optical device, usually an integral part of the camera, through which or on which the subject can be seen, appraised, and composed. Xerox: An electrostatic means of copying images onto paper or transparent foils.

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IX. Darkroom Etiquette Due to the fact that many students use the facilities, there is a need to keep certain courtesies in mind while working to ensure the best conditions for all to enjoy. The following are some simple, but easily overlooked common courtesies to remember. • • • • • • • • • •

Always knock before entering any darkroom if the door is closed. Enter only if invited. Do not move the tongs from tray to tray. There should be one pair for the developer, one for the stop, and one for the fixer. They are not interchangeable. Stains will result from chemical contamination. Do not turn on your enlarger without the negative carrier or lens in place. The excess light could fog your paper or another person’s paper. Please do not set wet prints or trays down on the tables or enlargers. This will contaminate the next person’s prints or negatives. An unsuspecting person could put their hands on the wet area and transfer chemicals to their eyes or mouth. Clean up all areas after you are finished. Return all items to the lab monitor or darkroom. Report any broken equipment to the lab monitor. Remove your film and prints as soon as possible so that others can also use the facilities. Prints left in chemicals, wash or dryer will be discarded at the end of the day! DO NOT book the studio or copy stand during a class without the explicit permission of the instructor. Keep audio equipment at a reasonable level or use headphones. Do not use during a lecture or demonstration. Please return equipment promptly so that others may use. Many items such as tripods, light meters, lights, and cameras are in short supply.

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X. Contrast Filtration in Gang Darkroom The enlargers in the gang darkroom are color enlargers. Dialing in magenta for more contrast or dialing in yellow for less contrast can change the contrast in a B+W print. Below are a general guide for contrast grade, the amount of filtration dialed in, and the time added/subtracted to compensate for the filter factor. Your B+W paper without filters is about equal to grade #2. The contrast grades below #2 use the yellow filter to lower contrast. The more yellow filter added, the less contrast your print will have. Grades above #2 are achieved by adding magenta. The more magenta added, the higher the contrast grade.

Contrast # #-1 #-1/2 #0 #1/2 #1 #1 1/2 #2 #2 1/2 #3 #3 1/2 #4 #4 1/2 #5

Filtration

Time (% change in initial exposure)

+70 yellow +60 yellow +50 yellow +40 yellow +30 yellow +20 yellow +30 magenta +45 magenta +60 magenta +75 magenta +90 magenta +120 magenta +170 magenta

-40% time -30% time -25% time -20% time -15% time -10% time +20% time +35% time +50% time +65% time +80% time +100% time +150% time

MAGENTA FILTER PACK Another way to figure out the filter is for every 20 magenta you add to the filter pack add 20% more time to your exposure. E.g. Your image is printed at f11 @ 10 seconds. You add 40 magenta then add 4 seconds to your exposure = f11 @ 14 seconds. Less than 30 magenta will not make a visible contrast change

YELLOW FILTER FACTOR Yellow does not affect your exposure as much and because it lowers contrast your print will need less exposure to lighten it.

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XI. Making a Contact Sheet 1.

Setting up the enlarger: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Place negative carrier into the enlarger. Raise the head of the enlarger to a high position. Turn timer to focus function. Set the f/stop on the enlarger lens to f/5.6 or f/8. Turn off the enlarger lamp. Place photo paper, emulsion side UP, onto the baseboard. Place negative sleeve with negatives, emulsion side down, on top of the photo paper. Place piece of clean glass over negatives. Align the photo paper, negatives and glass. 8. Make a test strip to determine exposure time: cover all but one strip of the negatives with a fully opaque sheet of cardboard or a notebook. Expose for 5 seconds. Move the opaque object to expose a second strip as well as the first. Expose for 5 seconds. Continue in this manor until all of the negative sheet has been exposed. The last strip exposed will have been for 5 seconds and the first strip for 35 seconds (assuming a full negative sleeve 5 negatives across and 7 rows down). 9. Process the paper. After fixing one minute, evaluate for correct exposure times. Return to fixer bath and complete processing. 10. Make a final contact sheet using the exposure time determined by the test strip. The negative edges should be black with barely visible sprocket holes.

2.

Evaluating a Contact Sheet 1. Evaluate the final contact sheet visually in room light (not under safelight). 2. The contact sheet will be too dark if the negatives are thin, meaning that they were either underexposed (not enough light hit the film during exposure) or underdeveloped (development was too short or developer too weak). 3. The contact sheet will be too light if the negatives are dense, meaning that they were either overexposed (too much light hit the film during exposure) or overdeveloped (development was too long or developer was too strong). 4. Underexposed negatives will require shorter exposure time or smaller aperture on the enlarger. Overexposed negatives will require longer printing time or larger aperture on the enlarger. Contrast will change as well.

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XI. Exposure Log Frame F-stop Shutter Speed Description of Scene 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

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University of Michigan

XII. Filters for Cameras • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

POLARIZING FILTER - reduces reflections from glass and water surfaces. Darkens sky, reduces haze, can be used similarly to a neutral density filter. NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTER - increases amount of exposure needed without changing tonal values. This allows you to set the lens at a wider aperture or use a slower shutter speed. 80A (Blue) FILTER - balances daylight film for tungsten light. (Otherwise image will have an amber or orange cast.) 85B (Amber) FILTER - balances tungsten (indoor) film for daylight. (Otherwise image will have a bluish cast.) FL-B FILTER - balances tungsten film for fluorescent light. (Otherwise image will have a cyan/bluish cast.) FL-D FILTER - balances daylight film for fluorescent light. (Otherwise image will have a greenish cast.) 1A (skylight) or UV (ultraviolet) - often used as a lens protector. It absorbs ultraviolet rays that the eye does not see, but the film records as a haze. DAWN LIGHT - shafts of warm sunlight illuminate areas in contrast to still, cool, blue, deep shadows. MORNING LIGHT - after the mist of early morning has cleared, the amberyellow light of this time clearly delineates forms and texture. MIDDAY LIGHT - colors are what we perceive to be the “truest”; this is especially true in summer, when the sun is at its highest in the sky. AFTERNOON - shadows lengthen, colors warm, and the environment becomes more and more illuminated from the west. SUNSET - rich redness of light and cooling shadows. TWILIGHT - on the edge of darkness, the orange glow of sunset can shift to a wild variety of violets, pinks and magenta. NIGHT - Color! Long exposures, failure of reciprocity shifting color response, light from the moon and street lamps, alterations of atmosphere, all are recorded on film in a different way than the human eye realizes color and light.

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XIII. Colors of Light 1.

Black and White Evaluation

COMPOSITION - has the print been adequately cropped and distractions eliminated? Are the elements of line, shape, space, texture, light and dark tone presented in an appealing, balanced way? Are certain areas of the print distracting and “noisy”? CONTRAST - a print that shows a high standard of control may exhibit good blacks and whites with optimum gray tone range. Contrast refers to the difference in darkness or density between one tone and another. Are details showing appropriately in the highlight and shadow areas? REFLECTANCE - a print should show appropriate detail and brightness and should not be too light or too dark. DODGING AND BURNING - are there areas in which are too light or too dark and require manipulation such as the skin tone or background? Does poor dodging and burning show? GRAININESS - is there an impression of granular texture appropriate to the print? Is visual sharpness maintained? HIGHLIGHT - is a very bright area in a scene on a print or a very dense, dark area in a negative. IMAGINATION - is a unique and interesting perspective given? Is something or someone considered in a different way by the photograph? MOUNTING - are the boards and prints clean? Are edges cut straight? Is there any sign of dry mount tissue on the board or around the print? PRINT SURFACE - are there cracks, dents, or bumps visible on the print surface when held to the light? Do you see any stains or discoloration? SHADOW - is a very dark area in a scene on a print often lacking in detail or a very thin, light area on a negative. SHARPNESS - does the image or part of the image show crisp, precise texture and detail? Is the print inappropriately balanced soft? SPOTTING - are there any white spots or scratch lines present on the print that need spotting? Does spotting dye show?

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Photography Studio Handbook

University of Michigan

XIV. Dry-Mounting Photographs SUPPLIES: (provided by students) • R.C. prints • Archival Mount Board – white, ivory or off-white usually looks best; black – acceptable depending on prints • Seal Products Dry Mounting Adhesives FOR COLOR

EQUIPMENT: (provided by the photo lab) • Dry Mount Press – set to just past 200°F -pre-heat for 15-20 minutes • Tacking Iron -set to medium heat -pre-heat for about 2 minutes • Roller Cutter

BEFORE YOUR DRY MOUNT, FIRST SPOT YOUR PRINTS! BECAUSE IF YOU MAKE A MISTAKE, YOU CAN STILL RE-WASH YOUR PRINTS, AND IF YOU GET A LITTLE SPOTTING DYE ON YOUR MAT, IT’S RUINED. STEP ONE: Tack dry mount tissue to BACK of print in about 2-3 places, towards the CENTER of the print. STEP TWO: Using the roller cutter, cut through print and tissue to cut away the white margins in the print. STEP THREE: Tack the dry mount tissue to the mount board being careful to hold your print perfectly straight and not pull it out of alignment when you gently lift the corner to tack only the tissue to the board. STEP FOUR: Place mount board, dry mount tissue, RC print “sandwich” into the dry mount press between sheets of paper; EMULSION SIDE UP for 45 SECONDS. STEP FIVE: Carefully remove your work from the press and allow to cool flat. Under pressure is best, i.e. under a pile of heavy books.

Page 22

Photography Studio Handbook

School of Art & Design

University of Michigan

XV. Defects in Negatives APPEARANCE OF

POSSIBLE CAUSE(S)

PREVENTIVE ACTION

Vertical streaks of greater density

Overagitation or improper agitation motion;

Check agitation procedure; check

through sprocket holes of 35-mm

light fog

camera, film cartridges, cassettes,

DEFECT

AFTER-THE-FACT REMEDY

film

None

magazines, and darkroom for light leaks

Forked, branch-like lines on

Static charge built up film advance or

Advance film with even, steady stroke;

negative, denser than image.

rewind

rewind slowly and evenly

Rounded corners on negatives

Wrong lens hood or other attachments

Use proper lens hood and attachments

(vignetting)

cutting into filed of view

for each lens

Fine, light parallel line on

Cinch marks caused after processing by

Handle film carefully; cut negatives in

negatives, parallel to edges of

winding roll for storage too tightly

short strips and store flat in glassine

None

Prevalent in cold, dry weather

strip

None

Retouching

envelopes or plastic sheets

Fine, dark parallel lines on

Cinch marks caused before processing by

Handle film carefully; keep camera and

negatives, parallel to edges of

winding film too tightly, or could be caused

processing equipment extra-clean

strip

by burrs in camera or grit on felt lips of film

Retouching

cartridge Pin holes (sharp, clear holes in

Overstrong acetic acid stop bath, or dust

Use weaker stop bath or plain water

film emulsion)

on film emulsion during exposure

rinse; make sure camera is free of dust

Clear dots of transparent

Air bubbles clinging to emulsion during

Rap bottom of tank against sink or

negative that are denser at their

development

table top to dislodge bubbles

edges

Spotting

Retouching

immediately after loading film and developer

Dark “half-moon” (crescent)

Film crimped while loading developing reel

Load carefully, use proper reels

None

Haloed spots of film, same

Water drops fall on dried film, then dry, or

Handle film carefully; keep negatives in

Retouching

density as image but with darker

uneven film drying

storage sheets; use wetting agent after

marks

outline

wash and before drying

Wavy, uneven density wash, like

Insufficient developer in tank to cover film,

Check tank capacity and use proper

lines, usually parallel to edges of

or much too little agitation

amount of solution; review agitation

strip

None

procedure

Uneven areas of greater density

Light fog in darkroom or chemical fog

Double-check darkroom “dark level” for

spread irregularly over negative

during processing

safety; use fresh, properly-mixed

Emulsion “blistered” and lifting

Extreme temperature change in liquids

Check thermometer, water supply

off base in some areas

during processing; insufficient hardener in

heater, cooling unit, mixing valve,

(reticulation)

hypo

process correctly, follow

Tiny bits of foreign matter dried

“Dirty” water supply with high mineral

into film emulsion

content

Brown and yellow stains showing

Improper fixing and/or washing

None

chemicals None

manufacturer’s recommendations

up on negatives some time after

Use water filter(s) on supply line(s)

Retouching

Use fresh chemicals; fix properly, wash

None

thoroughly, use hypo-eliminator bath

processing Mottling on negatives

Improper agitation, exhausted developer,

Agitate properly; use fresh developer;

outdated film

use only fresh films

Film very brittle, cracks and

Drying temperature too high, humidity too

Check drying conditions and correct;

breaks easily

low; excessive hardener in hypo

follow hypo manufacturer’s instructions

Excessive curl in negatives

Humidity too low during drying

Correct drying conditions

Crystalline deposit on negative

Film not washed, hypo dries on surface

Wash film properly

None

Rewash and redry

Rewash and dry or allow to absorb ambient humidity

surface

Page 23

Rewash and redry

Photography Studio Handbook

School of Art & Design

University of Michigan

surface Slime on surface of negatives

Impure wash water or stale wetting agent

Use filter(s) on wash water line(s); use

Rewash and redry

fresh wetting agent Image blurred over entire film

Camera or subject movement during

Use tripod for slow shutter speeds

frame

exposure; shutter speed too slow

(longer than 1/60 with normal lens); use

Blurry, indistinct image of

Dirt of moisture on lens

None

faster shutter speeds if possible Clean lens; use lens cap when not

unnaturally flat contrast Part of image blurred, part

Film not flat in camera; pressure plate out of

Have repairman check camera, repair if

irregularly sharp

alignment

necessary

One plane in scene rendered

Improper focusing; too large an f-stop for

Check focusing technique; have

sharply, remainder blurred

required depth of field; lens out of

camera checked by repairman and

alignment

repaired if necessary

Light fogging film during processing

Check developing tank and darkroom

Image tends to reverse on negative (solarization) Multiple images on negative

None

shooting None

None

None

for light leaks Double exposure; 35-mm sprocket holes

Check film counter, advance

may be torn, allowing advance mechanism

mechanism tension, transport system;

to cock shutter without transporting film;

repair if necessary

None

faulty transport system Negative too contrasty-highlights

Overdevelopment of underexposed

Correct exposure and development

very dense, shadows too clear

negative

technique

Negative too flat-no shadow

Underdevelopment of underexposed film

Correct exposure and development

detail

Try printing on soft paper

Try printing on hard paper

technique

Negative too flat, but has good

Underdevelopment of correctly exposed

Check processing procedure and

range of detail

negative

accuracy of thermometer and timer

Negative flat, with highlights

Underdevelopment of overexposed

Check exposure and metering

Print on hard paper and burn in

blocked and some detail

negative

techniques

highlights

showing in shadows

Page 24

Try harder paper

Photography Studio Handbook

School of Art & Design

University of Michigan

XVI. Defects in Prints APPEARANCE OF DEFECT

POSSIBLE CAUSE(S)

PREVENTIVE ACTION

AFTER-THE-FACT REMEDY

Fine, dark lines on print emulsion

Emulsion abrasions from rough

Handle paper carefully, clean

Reprint

handling or grit in developer tray

trays, use fresh chemicals

Air bubbles in developer, inadequate

Agitate properly, develop face up

Reprint, spot, or retouch

Round light spots on prints

agitation of print in developer Round dark spots on print

Air bubbles in hypo

Agitate well during fixing

Reprint

Very small, sharp, brownish-red

Rust in wash water settling into

Use filter on wash water supply

Try rewashing, or remake

spots and lines (rust colored)

emulsion

Brownish, smear-like smudges

Old, overused and/or oxidized

and stains

developer

White finger marks on print

Handling print with greasy hands

print Use fresh developer

Reprint

Handle paper by edges and rinse

Reprint

hands in clean water periodically Dark finger marks on print

Handling print with chemically

Handle paper by edges and rinse

contaminated hands

hands in clean water periodically

White spots, squiggles, and lines

Dust, dirt, or lint on negative, glass

Clean enlarger and printing area

on prints

carrier, lower condenser lens surface,

thoroughly at start of each

or print emulsion in easel during

printing session

Reprint

Reprint, spot or retouch

exposure Small black spots

Pinholes in negative

See recommendation for

Spot the negative

negatives Iridescent, silvery-brown, irregular

Exhausted acetic acid stop bath;

Use fresh chemicals, agitate

stains on print

residual developer saturating emulsion

vigorously in stop bath and fixer

General over-all gray tone, veiled

Light fog; unsafe darkroom light level

Check safelights, intensity and

Reprint under safe lighting

placement

conditions

Reprint

highlights with slightly lighter

Reprint

margins Print very dark, with over-all gray

Extreme overdevelopment; chemical

Adjust exposure and

appearance, including margins

fog; outdated paper

development times; mix chemicals properly; use fresh paper

Yellowish stains discolor print after

Inadequate washing; contaminated

Wash properly; use hypo-

drying; image areas fade

dryer

eliminator bath; clean dryer

Inadequate fixing or too-weak fixer

Use fresh, properly mixed fixer

Reprint

eventually Brownish stains discolor print after drying and highlights darken Grain in print partly sharp, partly

Negative buckling or popping in carrier;

Use heat-absorbing glass

blurred in irregular pattern from

paper buckling in easel

between negative and light

one print to the next Grain in print blurred in regular

Reprint

for the correct time Reprint

source; use easel with borders Enlarger out of alignment

Repair and/or align enlarger

None

Grain in print unsharp although

Enlarger poorly focused or poor-quality

Use grain-focusing device; get

Reprint

negative image is sharp

enlarging lens

better enlarging lens

Prints curl excessively

Drying too hot at low relative humidity

Use print flattener before drying

Print emulsion peels from paper

Wash water too hot; radical

Adjust temperature properly,

base

temperature changes during wash

maintain better control

Print lightens too much in fixer

Hypo too strong, bleaches prints

Mix fixer correctly

Reprint

Print darkens too much after

Some papers “dry down”; inspection

Learn to estimate how much

Reprint

drying

light in darkroom too bright

papers you use will “dry down”

pattern from print to print

Store prints flat under weights

from appearance when wet

Page 25

None

Photography Studio Handbook

School of Art & Design Print dark with poor contrast range

Print overexposed on soft paper

University of Michigan

Adjust exposure and

Reprint

development times, and switch to paper of higher contrast Print dark with poor highlight detail

Print overexposed on paper of too high

Adjust temperature and

contrast

development times, and switch to

Reprint

paper of lower contrast Print too light, has washed-out

Print underexposed and

Adjust exposure and

look with insufficient highlight

underdeveloped

development times

Print underexposed on too soft a paper

Increase exposure and paper

Reprint

detail Print too light, but highlight areas have good detail

Reprint

contrast

Tonal range good, but blacks are

Print overexposed and grossly

Adjust exposure and

mottled

underdeveloped, or pulled, in

development times; check

developer that may be too strong from

dilution of developer

incorrect dilution

Page 26

Reprint

School of Art & Design

XVII.

Photography Studio Handbook

Film Processing

Please see the graphics beginning on the following page.

Page 27

University of Michigan

School of Art & Design

Photography Studio Handbook

32 Page 28

University of Michigan

School of Art & Design

1.

Photography Studio Handbook

University of Michigan

Film Processing Time/Temperature Table

DEVELOPER : SPRINT (supplied by lab)

FILM TYPE TRI X

TIME/TEMPERATURE_______ 65°F 68°F 70°F (minutes) 9 1/2 8 1/2 8

72°F 7 1/2

HP5

11

10

9

8

T MAX (400 ASA)

11

10

9

8

T MAX (100 ASA)

14

11 1/2

10

9 1/4

T MAX (3200 ASA)

19

17

15

13 1/2

PLUS X

9 1/4

7 1/2

6

5

FP4

10 1/2

8 1/2

7

6

PAN F

6 1/4

5

4 1/4

NR

AGFA (100 ASA)

8

6 1/2

5 1/4

NR

AGFA (400 ASA)

16

13

10 1/2

9

AGFA (25 ASA)

10

7

5 1/2

NR

DELTA (100, 400 ASA) 12 1/2

11 1/2

10 1/2

9 1/2

NEOPAN (400 ASA)

8 1/2

7 1/2

6 1/2

10

9

8

9 1/2

NEOPAN (1600 ASA) 11

See the lab monitor for any films not mentioned for developer time/temperatures.

* NR - NOT RECOMMENDED (less than a 5-minute development times not recommended due to probable uneven development of negatives.

** DO NOT USE PRINT DEVELOPER

Page 29

School of Art & Design

2.

Photography Studio Handbook

University of Michigan

Chemical Mixing Procedure FILM PROCESSING CHEMICALS AND AMOUNTS FILM DEVELOPER 1:9 60 ml developer + 540 ml water = 600 ml film

developer.

Get film developer from the lab monitors. Bring a clean beaker to lab monitor. They will give you 60 ml film developer. Mix with water (at the temperature of your mixed chemicals, generally 68 F) to make 600 ml. This amount will fill a two-reel film tank (35 mm). Discard after each use. STOP BATH 1:9 100 ml stop + 900 ml water = 1000 ml stop bath. SAVE: will turn purple color when exhausted. FILM FIXER 2:8 200 ml fixer + 800 ml water = 1000 ml + 30 ml hardener = 1,030 ml film fixer. (Add hardener last) SAVE: Have lab monitor check regularly. After you put 200 ml fixer in a beaker, fill with water to make 1000 ml, then add the hardener. Minimizes gas fumes from fixer when hardener is added to concentrate. FIXER REMOVER 1:9 100 ml fixer remover + 900 ml water = 1000 ml fixer remover. SAVE: will turn clear when exhausted. PHOTO FLO Water to fill film tank + 1/2 capful Photoflo. Gently mix to avoid foam forming on surface. DISCARD

3.

Print Mixing Procedure PRINT PROCESSING CHEMICALS AND AMOUNTS FOR INDIVIDUAL DARKROOMS. PRINT DEVELOPER 1:9 100 ml developer + 900 ml water = 1000 ml paper developer.

Page 30

School of Art & Design

Photography Studio Handbook

University of Michigan

• Get paper developer from the chemical room. Bring a clean beaker from darkroom. Discard after each use. STOP BATH 1:9 100 ml stop + 900 ml water = 1000 ml stop bath. SAVE: will turn purple color when exhausted. PAPER FIXER 1:9 100 ml fixer + 900 ml water = 1000 ml SAVE: Have lab monitor check regularly. • When stop begins to turn purple, you should have lab monitor test your fixer. Bring fixer in a beaker for testing. FIXER REMOVER 1:9 100 ml fixer remover + 900 ml water = 1000 ml fixer remover. SAVE: will turn clear when exhausted

4.

Gang Darkroom Print Processing Procedures RC PAPER ONLY: Must be enrolled in a photo class and provide U. of M. ID. PRINT DEVELOPING: 11/2-2 MINUTES with constant agitation. STOP BATH: 15-30 SECONDS with intermittent agitation. PRINT FIXER: 2-5 MINUTES with continuous agitation. Follow your instructor’s directions. WASH: 2 MINUTES minimum in each tray. Follow instructor’s Recommendations. DRYER: While print is thoroughly wet, place print face up in print dryer. No test strips or prints smaller than 8” x 10”. Place smaller prints on screens for drying.(located in chemical room.) • Do not move the print tongs from tray to tray! Tongs must remain in each chemical. This will minimize chemical staining and contamination.

Page 31

School of Art & Design

Photography Studio Handbook

University of Michigan

Discard all unwanted prints and test strips. Do not leave in chemicals or wash trays. Prints left at end of printing session will be discarded. NO solarization allowed in gang darkroom. See Joe St. George or a lab monitor for options. No food of beverages allowed in the darkroom!

5.

Individual Darkroom Print Processing Procedures FIBER BASED PAPER: Must be enrolled in a photo class and provide U. of M. ID. PRINT DEVELOPING: 2 MINUTES with constant agitation. STOP BATH: 15-30 SECONDS with intermittent agitation. PRINT FIXER: 5 MINUTES minimum with continuous agitation. WASH: 5 MINUTES minimum. FIXER REMOVER: 2 MINUTES intermittent agitation. WASH: 10 MINUTES constantly changing water. SQUEEGEE: Place print emulsion side down, on slanted white plane in chemical room. Gently squeegee back to remove excess moisture. Be careful print will permanently mark easily if handled roughly. Place on screens to dry. Takes several hours to dry. Do not move the print tongs from tray to tray! Tongs must remain in each chemical. This will minimize chemical staining and contamination. You must provide your own tongs. Save your stop bath, fixer and fixer remover. Discard the developer. Wash out trays and sink when finished.

Page 32

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