Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

EU-FAO Urban Food Security Project Improved Small-scale Chicken Production technical guide “The contents of this publication do not reflect the view...
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EU-FAO Urban Food Security Project

Improved Small-scale Chicken Production technical guide

“The contents of this publication do not reflect the views of the European Union”

A technical guide

Written by: Sinn Por

National Livestock Expert EU-FAO Urban Food Security Project FAO, Cambodia

E. Fallou Guèye, Ph.D. Livestock Production Systems Branch (AGAS) Animal Production and Health Division FAO, Rome, Italy Joachim Otte

Senior Animal Production and Health Officer, FAO-RAP, Thailand

Edited by: H.E. Dr Kao Phal

Department of Animal Health and Production, MAFF, Cambodia

Sar Chetra, Ph.D.

Department of Animal Health and Production, MAFF, Cambodia

Mr Mam Somony

Department of Animal Health and Production, MAFF, Cambodia

Ms You Porny

Graphic Designer EU-FAO Urban Food Security Project FAO, Cambodia

CONTENTS Preface...............................................................................................................................i Introduction.....................................................................................................................ii Chapter 1:Chicken housing............................................................................................1 1. Chicken house construction...............................................................................................................1 1.1 Structure of chicken house...............................................................................................................1 1.2 Blocking pen......................................................................................................................................2 1.3 Perch and roost for sleeping and hatching eggs.............................................................................2 1.4 Growing vegetables with chicken raising.......................................................................................3 2. Housing equipment.............................................................................................................................3 2.1 Chick cage care.................................................................................................................................3 2.2 Feeder and drinker...........................................................................................................................3 2.3 Litter...................................................................................................................................................6

Chapter 2: Chicken breed and breeding.......................................................................8 3. Breed selection.....................................................................................................................................8 3.1 Good egg hatching hen.....................................................................................................................9 3.2 Selecting grower female....................................................................................................................9 3.3 Selecting breeding cocks.................................................................................................................10 4. Reproduction.....................................................................................................................................11 4.1 Proportion of hens and cock for breeding....................................................................................11 4.2 Improving breed (crossbreeding)..................................................................................................11 4.3 Culling..............................................................................................................................................12

Chapter 3: Hatching and raising chick.......................................................................14 5. How to take care of hens during laying and brooding eggs?........................................................14 5.1 Nests.................................................................................................................................................14

5.2 Natural incubation eggs.................................................................................................................14 5.3 Young chick management..............................................................................................................15 5.4 Growing pen....................................................................................................................................18

Chapter 4: Chicken feeding and nutrition..................................................................20 6. What do chicken need in their feed.................................................................................................20 7. Providing feed to chicken.................................................................................................................21 7.1 How to provide feed to small chicks below 1 month of age?.......................................................21 7.2 How to provide feed to chicken over 1 month of age?.................................................................23

Chapter 5: Public nuisance...........................................................................................27 8. Public nuisance management...........................................................................................................27 8.1 Noise.................................................................................................................................................27 8.2 Odour...............................................................................................................................................27 8.3 Pest management and control........................................................................................................28

Chapter 6: Chicken health care...................................................................................30 9. Bio-security and hygiene..................................................................................................................30 9.1 Isolation pen....................................................................................................................................30 9.2 The management of raising place..................................................................................................30 9.3 Feed and water................................................................................................................................32 9.4 General management......................................................................................................................33 10. Main chicken disease and preventive treatment..........................................................................34 10.1 Newcastle Disease..........................................................................................................................35 10.2 Fowl Pox Disease...........................................................................................................................36 10.3 Fowl Cholera Disease...................................................................................................................36 10.4 Parasitic disease............................................................................................................................37 10.5 Preventive programs against major diseases recommended....................................................39

Chapter 7: Economic of chicken production..............................................................41 References......................................................................................................................43

PREFACE “Improved Small-scale Chicken Production” has been publicized as an output of the project of Micro and Small Enterprise Development to Achieve Food Security, Food Safety and SelfReliance for Urban Poor in Phnom Penh (EU-FAO Urban Food Security Project) with supported by EU, FAO and Fishery Administration of Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The project aims to help urban households along Phnom Penh’s river banks by providing technical and entrepreneurial knowledge and skills in micro-small enterprise development that will serve as a tool to improve the villagers’ livelihoods through increased income to buy nutritious foods to eat so that they can lead healthy lives to become productive citizens contributing to Cambodia’s overall development. This manual contains techniques collected from multiple sources. It targets small-scale farmers and trainees who aim at improving chicken production using simple basic raising techniques, applicable theories and practices on both local and three-blood chicken raising. This publication is prepared as a guide for beginners and experiences farmers who wish to raise chickens in small numbers. It includes information to larger scale operations, if decided to expand. This manual provides a comprehensive, valuable and practice-oriented technical guide for concerning bodies to use as a bright for exploiting the chicken production in order to improve the livelihoods of the urban and rural poor. The document contains the fundamental techniques, including housing, feeding, nutrition, general management and health care. The information presented is attempted to cover the important aspects. Certain management practices depend on the climatic and economic conditions of the given areas, and are based on the assumption that the chickens are raised in total confinement.

Sinn Por, E. Fallou Guèye and joachim Otte Cambodia, April 2013

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INTRODUCTION Raising chicken has become an increasingly popular for farmers. Keeping chickens makes a substantial contribution to household food security and income generation by using a small part of family labour only and, can access with the household that has limited locally feed resources. Adjacently of raising chickens, the farmer has available time for dealing with other tasks at the same time. Family chicken is one of a number of integrated and complementary activities contributing to the overall well-being of household members and other benefits. Chickens are a valuable source of protein in the human diets and can be raised in limited housing and fed on easily available resources in urban and peri-urban areas. They are the most important assets for poor farmers and their families by offering employment opportunities, generating additional income, ensuring food security and promoting gender equality in local communities. Technically, native and cross-breed chickens are easy to rear when compared to the rearing of pure exotic breed. They are widely known to be more resistant to high temperatures and probably also better adapted to more harsh circumstances (lack of feeds, poor health care, etc.). Above all, products (meat and eggs) from native and cross-breed chickens are of high demand on the markets because they are considered by consumers as more delicious and healthy. However, the raisers should not start into chicken raising blindly. They must have some basic knowledge of chicken raising including: chicken breed and breeding, nutrition and feeding, chicken health care and farm management, at least. This manual can be of use to both beginners and experienced chicken raisers when confronted with problems which arise. Referring to this introducing technique, one hen has ability to produce chicks from 6 to 7 cycles per year, low mortality rate of baby chicks and the average growth rate of a body live weight is 1.2 kilograms in 105 days.

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CHAPTER I

CHICKEN HOUSING

CHAPTER I

Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

CHICKEN HOUSING Housing is one of the most important factors for chicken production. The housing should be safe and comfortable for chicken living. Shelter is very important to protect chickens from bad weather, predators and diseases through isolation. Chicken housing should be constructed following technical advice. Size of housing depends on the number of chicken stocks. There are many models of chicken house to be considered, however, farmers should choose shelter with fenced-off runs (roaming the area). The advantages of shelter with fenced-off model: 

Protect chickens against rain, wind and hot sun,



Protect chickens against predators, wild animals and thieves,



Provide chickens easily with feed and water,



Facilitate vaccination and disease control/checking,



Reduce outbreak infectious diseases passing in and outside pen.

1. Chicken house construction The structure of chicken house depends on their land situation/size, ability or capacity and assets. The farmers in urban areas are almost poor and definitely a lack of land and different situations. The model of chicken pen, inner space and materials are as follows: 1.1 Structure of chicken house The pen is divided in two blocks (rooms) and typically 5 meters long and 2.5 meters width, 3 meters height from land surface with 1.5-1.7 meters height of the side column pole.

The number of blocks will be increased while the number of chickend enlarger, if possible. 0.7m 2.5m

5m

Fig 1. Structure of chicken house model

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

1.2 Blocking pen Blocking fence is a fenced-off area to keep chickens with different production (breeders, baby chicks and broilers) and isolate them from neighbouring chickens and people. 2.5m

3m  Seperate rooms using plastic net (one for parent stocks and another for offsprings, broilers),  Block the walking areas (premise) with nylon/plastic net far from pen 3 to 4 meters.

2.5 m

2.5 m

Nylon net Fig 2. Basic plan of chicken house model

 Seperate chickens in each block (room) according to the type of production: parent stocks, baby chicks, broilers,  The density of broiler chickens are 7-8 heads per one square meter.

Fig 3. Fended-off area blocked by nylon net 1.3 Perch and roost for sleeping and hatching eggs

Chickens prefer to roost at night on perches. Making perches for chickens to sleep, to keep the nests to lay and hatch eggs.  The roost construct 0.7 meters high from land surface and 0.7 meter width from the wall of pen,  Each interval of roost has 0.2 meters. Fig 4. Roost or shelf for sleeping and supporting nests

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1.4 Growing vegetables with chicken raising Running area of chicken house should be covered using growing vegetables like long vine plants, for example: ride gourd, sponge gourd, wax gourd, bottle gourd, bitter gourd etc. Advantage of growing long vine vegetable:  Give shade to chickens for playing,  Fruits can be used as a nutrition for both human and chickens,  Can use leafs as a chicken feeds. Fig 5. Growing sponge gourd to shade chickens

2. Housing equipment 2.1 Chick cage care Chick cage has to prepare before egg hatching. Technically, chicks should be kept in a cage for at least 3 – 4 weeks after hatching to reduce mortality among baby chicks.

How to make a good small cage for care chicks ?  Bottom and wall of cage is made from wooden/bamboo slats or wire mesh,  Posts or legs of cage have 0.4 – 0.5 m height to keep chicks safe from predators, especially, small rodents climd up the pole,  Cover rice hush on bottom of cage to keep chicks warm until 3-4 weeks.

0.5 m

0.5m

0.4 m

1m Fig 6. Cage for caring chicks

2.2 Feeder and drinker Feeder (feed trough) Feeders can be made in different ways. It should be made from available local materials at low cost and reduced spoiling of feed. The feeder can be placed outside the night housing.

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A good feeder should:

 Avoid any wastage,  Keep chickens out otherwise they will spoil or waste the feed. Fig 7. Feeder is made from bamboo

A good feeder can be made out of any materials like a piece of old car tyre and encircle a small rope for prevented scratch feed out.

Fig 8. Feeder is made from old car tyre

A good feeder should not tip over feed and scratch feed out. Feeder should be made from small plastic tank, container or pot.

Fig 9. Feeder made of small plastic tank

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Fig 10. Feeder made of small plastic container (Petronas pot)

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

Drinker (water trough) Drinking water is essential for chickens, and it should always be fresh and clean. Fresh drinking water keeps your chickens healthy and increases egg production. The drinker should be made out of anything which is low cost and easy solution such as plastic water bottle, bamboo, water hose, etc. Nevertheless, drinkers available at the market are recommended to keep good quality of water. Drinker can be placed outside the night housing. A good drinker should:   

Be easy to clean and rotate, Avoid to spoil water on the floor or allow young chicks to fall into it and drown, Be filled with fresh water daily.

How we make homemade drinker? Punch a hole about 2cm from the open end of the plastic can. Fill the can with water.

 Punched hole

 Cover a plastic can with a pie plate and quickly invert both.

The position of the punched hole and the vacuum in the plastic can regulate the water level in the plate. A weight (like a stone) on the can prevents falling down.



Fig 11. Homemade chicken drinker

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A good drinker which is made from plastic available at the market is recommended due to keep the water in good hygience and quality long time.

Fig 12. A good drinker for chicks and broilers chicken

2.3 Litter Litter reduces the risk of disease: this is particularly the case for small chicks which are susceptible to cold, humidity and air currents.

Litter is dry moisture-absorbing material which is spread on the floor (straw, hay, sawdust, rice husks, etc.). Litter absorbs chicken droppings and waste water from your drinkers.

Fig 13. Spread rice hush on the floor for small chickens

Litter absorbs chicken droppings and waste water from your drinkers.

Fig 14. Rice hush absorbs droppings and keeps the floor dry

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CHAPTER II

CHICKEN BREED and BREEDING

Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

CHAPTER II

CHICKEN BREED and BREEDING

There are many breeds of the domestic chicken species. In Cambodia, chicken breeds were distinguished into 3 main categories: 1) local breed, 2) exotic breed, and 3) hybrid. Local chickens are better adapted to local conditions but are usually lighter in weight and lay smaller eggs than hybrid ones. Cambodian people prefer local chicken meat, and its cost is higher compared to meat from hybrid and exotic breeds. Almost offsprings of exotic chicken in Cambodia is the breeding of the local chicken with exotic breed mainly such as Isa-Brown. Generally, the breeding of local hens and genetically improved cocks should be recommended as obtained offsprings have a better grow performance than their parents and have the same characteristics and raising requirements as those of the local ones.

3. Breed selection Chicken breed plays an important role in chicken production. When choosing a breed of chicken, the following important factors should be considered:    

High price of chicken, Local market situation of chicken (high market demand), Local preference (skin and hair colour), Experience of chicken raising.

Chickens of local breed are much cheaper to keep and suitable for small scale raising in urban, periurban and rural areas because they are better adapted to local conditions, less susceptible to diseases, when compared to exotic breeds, and hatching their own eggs. The recommended big-sized chickens of local breed are Kork, Tmart, Sampov, Kandong, Kragnas, etc. Hens have body weights of over 1.5 kg and roosters over 2.5 kg at maturity.

Fig15. Local hen and rooster are good for egg and meat production

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3.1 Good egg hatching hen The basic criteria for selection of hens must:

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 Have body weight of at least 1.5 kg and high growth performance,  Be able to produce over 12 eggs of good quality,  Have high fertility and hatching rate.

Fig 16. Hen with 15 chicks 3.2 Selecting grower female After about 17 weeks the second selection step has to take place, preferably at a time when the offsprings have reached a good size. The selection criteria are the following: Select breeding hens Select few off-spring growers per nest from good producing hens. The potential for good egg production is transmitted from mother-hen to its chicks.

Fig 17. Choose healthy growers from producing hens

 Choose fast growing, healthy females,  Select females that search continuously for feed,  Select hens that start laying early,  Select hens that have healthy legs (no mites under the scales).

Fig 18. Healthy hens and look continuesly for feed

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3.3 Selecting breeding cocks

Select a cock from good producing hens. The potential for increased egg production is also transmitted by father.

Fig 19. Choose a grower cock from producing hens

 Select a fast growing cock,  Select a cock that goes after or chases hens.

Fig 20. Choose a cock always chasing hens Remember  If the cock is too old and lack of breeding, the farmers should exchange their cock with a better cock of neighbouring farms,  The farmer should realize the importance of changing the cock regularly to prevent inbreeding. When farmers need exotic chickens (or an improved breed), they should exchange or replace their own cocks with another crossbreed or improved cocks at neighboring farms. Fig 21. Exchange a good cock between neighbour farmer Caution Do not inbreed a father cock with daughter, sister hens. Inbreeding leads to: o Poor egg production, o Weaker offspring and therefore more susceptible to diseases and higher mortality, o Poor fertility and poor hatchability, o Deformed offspring.

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CHAPTER II

When bringing in a new hen or cock, always keep them for two weeks in a separate coop (quarantine) to see that they are free from disease. you can put one of your chickens with it to see if it develops a disease.

Fig 22. Always quarantine all new incoming chickens

4. Reproduction Chickens start breeding at 5 - 6 months of age. Parent stocks for reproduction should not keep for more than 3 years of age because it will effect to the hen is low egg production, low egg fertility and low growth performance. Hens and roosters keep separately from broiler chickens and chicks.

4.1 Proportion of hens and cocks for breeding

The ratio of hens and cocks are very important for chick production. It is important to correct mating ratios between hen and rooster. One rooster is technically served with 6 – 8 hens only.

Fig 23. One cock with 6 healthy hens Avoiding: Do not keep two roosters in one pen to avoid any fighting and poor mating. 4.2 Improving breed (crossbreeding) Exchanging program of father or mother stock should be made when farmers want to get better offspring. The crossing between local with hybrid chickens produces young chicks with a potential for laying more eggs and growing faster, better and bigger. This potential can be reached if the farmers also improve the management, such as feeding, housing and health care.

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Better offspring Crossing Exotic chicken

Local chicken

More eggs

Fast growing and bigger

Fig 24. Exchanging program to get a potential offsprings In this case, farmers should select exotic and cross-breed chicken which has quite similar physical body and skin/hair colour to local chicken breed and high demand of market and prefer by the consumer.

The crossbeed chicken with Khmer-ISA brown (KI) cock has similar hair colour to local cock but it grows faster and has bigger body size .

Fig 25. Three-blood cock (KI) 4.3 Culling Culling is used to immediately remove unproductive hens, cocks and sick chickens from the flock during the production period because you can see the difference between good and poor layers. This increases the production efficiency because you then do not waste feed on unhealthy or unproductive chickens. Remember: Before culling layer or rooster, you should make sure that all replaced new layer and rooster are already in place.

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CHAPTER III

HATCHING and RAISING CHICKS

Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

HATCHING and RAISING CHICKS 5. How to take care of hens during laying and brooding eggs ? 5.1 Nests

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Baskets, pots and cardboard boxes can be used for nest. Dimensions suitable for basket or pot nest is 25 cm base diameter, 18 cm high walls, and a 40 cm open top diameter.  Nest should be available when hen starts laying eggs,  Make laying nest with thick dry rice straw or banana leaf for keeping warm during brooding,  Equality between hens and nests to avoid any fightings for laying eggs,  Nest laying egg should be place shady secluded out of direct sun light,  Put tobacco, banana leaves in the bottom of nest against external parasites.

Fig 26. Nest made from dried rice straw

Fig 27. Nest made from dried banana leaf

5.2 Natural incubation eggs Naturally, chicks hatch after 21 days of brooding. In very dry season, slightly damp soil or cloth can be placed under the nesting material to assist the hen in maintaining the correct humidity. The main factors to be considered in improved hatching management (eggs produced and chicks hatched):  Provide good feed with both quality and quantity,  Ratio of hens and cocks (6-8 hens should be served by 1 cock),  Place good feed and fresh water near the brooding hen to avoid hen leaves from nest for food that can damage embryo in case of cooling eggs,  Brooded nest should be thick and warm,  Do not disturb hen during brooding avoid break eggs and leaved eggs for long time. Fig 28. Hen is brooding eggs in her nest

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A simple way to increase the number of chicks per cycle A brooding hen is capable of hatching from 10-14 eggs at the same time depending on the size of the hen. If one hen begins brooding with less than ten eggs, we should collect the eggs from another hen which is laying eggs to fulfill brooding hen. During brooding, do not add any eggs into brooded nest.

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1st hen start to brood but she has only 9 eggs

Combined eggs into one nest

Hen is brooding with many eggs

2nd hen is laying eggs Fig 29. Combine eggs from two nests to increase cycle of production 5.3 Young chick management The number of eggs produced and the number of chicks hatched depend on:   

The quality and quantity of feed provided to chickens, The laying, brooding and hatching place, The way the eggs are stored during the period the hen is producing eggs,  The age of the eggs given to the hen for hatching. Increasing the number of eggs produced means that the hen has to be provided with good chicken feed. Fig 30. Good hatching of eggs Remember: When the eggs have been hatched by a hen in the nest, it should immediately take care of the chicks. The aim is to prevent the chicks fall out her nest.

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How to obtain high output and 6 to 7 cycles of chicks per year ? With traditional practice, a hen hatched in average 3-4 times a year only. In order to obtain high output and 6-7 cycles of chicks per year, they should practice the program as follows:

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56 days (starting to lay eggs)

46 days

15 days

36 days (eggs hatched) Fig 31. Production cycle of chicks per nest The practices are as follows: 5.3.1 How to handle and care for chicks under 10 days old ? Baby chick needs to be taken care of and good management, otherwise the mortality rate among young chicks can be very high. Chicks at this stage need warm temperature and good quality of feed. However, the first thing baby chicks need is fresh water and start needing food after 1 day. Step 1. Preparing cage for keeping mother and baby chicks   

Cage should be already prepared (shown in 2.1, Fig. 6), Unroll plastic bag on the bottom of cage, and Spread out the rice hush or sawdust on the surface of plastic bag. Fig 32. Prepared small cage for hens and chicks

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Step 2. Transferring mother and baby chicks to the chick’s cage



Keep mother hen with her chicks in a separate small cage during the first two weeks, Providing adequate feed and water to hen and chicks.

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Fig 33. Keep mother and her chicks together in small cage after hatching

If there is no cage, Angrot can be used to keep hen and her chicks together but need to place on dry floor or scatter the rice hush at the bottom to avoid moisture.

Fig 34. Keep mother and her chicks together in Angrot after hatched Remember: The foot of Angrot must be surrounded by wire mesh or bamboo slats to barrier baby chicks leave outside.

Step 3. When cold, extra heat should be given ? Baby chicks can be killed by cold weather. To keep baby chicks warm, the cage must be covered at around night time to protect them also against rain and cold weather by using plastic bag or old blanket. Cage

Angrot

Fig 35. Warm chicks up by covering plastic bag or old blanket during cold day

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Remember: Do the same until chicks are 30 days old.

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5.3.2 How to handle and care for chicks from 10 – 30 days Step 4. Let’s chicks free from the mother  10 days or two weeks take mother hen out of cage,

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 Hen should be kept in breeding pen,  If the weather is becoming too cold than normal, place clay pot with charcoal inside or electric lamp to warm chicks up. Fig 36. Warming chicks by using electric lamp or clay pot with charcoal

If possible, warm chicks up in the morning before 8 o’clock by moving the chick’s cage with chicks to expose baby chicks to sunlight.

Fig 37. Warming chick up in the morning by exposing to sunlight 5.4 Growing pen Step 5. Transfer all chicks to growing pen when aged 3-4 weeks Chicks can not be kept permanently in small cage. When chicks are able to adapt to the surrounded environment at 3-4 weeks of age, they have to be moved to growing pen as a broiler production. The stock density for broiler production is 7 to 8 heads per square meter. Fig 38. Chicks are moved to growing pen for broiler production Remember: If you keep small chicks with big chickens, be sure that your chicks received enough feed and water and did not get any pressures from older chickens in the same pen.

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CHAPTER IV

CHICKEN FEEDING and NUTRITION

Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

CHICKEN FEEDING and NUTRITION Chickens are kept in a pen with limited areas of running. They must be provided with all the feed they need. The regular supply of low-cost feed with good quality is essential for improving chicken production. Chickens need sufficient feed of good quality to ensure good growth performance, quality of reproduction, egg production and maintenance of good health.

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The locally available feed resources that chickens can find around the villages are not always rich in required nutrients. Therefore, the supplementation of chickens using commercial feed should be recommended.

6. What do chickens need in their feed The diet of chicken must include the following essential nutrients: Water is essential for all body functions. Chicken can live for several days without eating but if it does not drink water it may die within a day during hot weather. Protein is to grow from baby chicks to adulthood, to replenish the body’s muscles, organs and fluids, contribute to the growth of features, beak and claws, and produce eggs. The sources of protein are found in fish, earthworm, insect, bean, groundnut, dry Cassava leaf, duck weed, Leucaena leaf, etc. Energy is to enable body movement, stay alive, maintain body temperature and growth. Energy can be found in corn, broken rice, grain bran, Cassava meal, dry coconut flesh. Vitamin is to maintain body’s functions, produce healthy life and strong offsprings and fight diseases. The sources of vitamin can be found in green vegetable, fruits, yellow grain, etc. Mineral is to develop strong bones and good feathers, produce shells around the eggs, and assist in chemical reactions in the body. Chicken requires two important minerals in great amounts: Calcium and Phosphorus. These minerals can be present in the sea and snail shells, bones, eggshells etc. Minerals, which are required in small quantities, include iron, zinc, copper, iodine and manganese.

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Main Ingredients of Chicken Feed

Fig 39. Groups of essential nutrients in diet

7. Providing feed to chicken There are different feeds available for the different types of production. Broilers are given the same feed as growing chicks. Never give this to laying hens. The main differences are in the amount of protein found in the different feeds, and also the amount of calcium (lime) they contain. Laying hens need much more calcium to enable them to make eggshells. Commercial feed can make chicken to produce more, grow fast (broilers) and lay many eggs (layers) but it is expensive. So, the better for local chickens is be supplemented with locally available feeds. 7.1 How to provide feed to small chicks below 1 month of age ? Baby chicks in this period need to be provided with a commercial feed (containing between 2022% of crude protein). The chicks must be fed 3-4 times daily. Commercial feed is expensive, thus it should be provided to chicks during the first week only and, after, it should be mixed with local feeds in 50:50 or 1:1.

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A good mixed feed is: Chicken Feed (Commercial Feed)

50% or 1 kg commercial feed with 50% or 1 kg local feed.

Local Feed (broken rice, rice bran, maize, etc)

Fig 40. Mix commercial feed with local feed forchicks in the same amount

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Crush your grains in small pieces (maize, broken rice, bean) before giving to chicks. But do not crush the grains to powder.

Fig 41. Crush grains in small piece to provide small chicks

For the first 3 days provide feed to the chicks by putting on plastic bag, piece of iron-sheet, old tray with very low edge, etc. It makes baby chicks easier to find the feed. Fig 42. Provide feed to baby chicks on plastic bag Place chick’s feeder here When you provide commercial feed to baby chicks and don’t want the mother to eat, enclose only mother with bamboo and separate feeder. Fig 43. Enclose hen with bamboo to prevent eating chick’s feed Remember: Do not feed small chicks with low quality of rice bran that mixed with debris rice hush because it causes problems on intestine of chicks. The chicks can even die if the problem is serious.

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7.2 How to provide feed to chicken over 1 month of age ? From this stage, chicks should be fed in an average proportion 1:2 of commercial feed and local feed resources which are available in and around the village. Chickens have to be provided with feed at least twice a day, in the morning and in the evening. Local feed rations can be produced from feed resources that are locally available for free or cheap to collect in and around the villages such as: rice bran, broken rice, paddy rice, corn, Cassava, water lily, Leucaena leaf, flesh of coconut, duck weed, grass, and vegetables etc. Local Feed (rice bran, corn, vegetable,etc.)

Local Feed (rice bran, corn, vegetable,etc.)

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Chicken Feed (commercial feed)

Fig 44. Mix commercial feed with double of locally available feed resources

When preparing feed, especially local feed, it should be remembered:

Do not provide paddy rice direct to chickens. you should soak it in water for 2 days and warm it by covering after, to let it germinate. Fig 45. Soaking paddy rice in plastic pot

Fig 46. Paddy rice is germinated

Birds have no teeth to cut and chew so all vegetables and grasses must be chopped in small pieces.

Fig 47. Chopping vegetables and grasses in small pieces to mix with other ingredients feed

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The flesh of cononuts is rich in protein and energy. Scrape the flesh out of the nut and give to chickens. you can find it at market after they squeezed the cream. Add no more than 1/10 of your other feed.

Fig 48. Dry flesh of coconut under sunlight and keep in bag for chickens when you have more fleshes.

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Do not feed one sort of grain only. Provide a mixture of different sorts or alternate of grains.

Fig 49. Provide many types of grain in chicken feed

Create a source of protein by making a compost heap. A good compost heap produces a lot of insects, maggots and other sources of protein. How to make a good compost heap ?  Put up a wall surrounded with

wooden board,  Heap together of all plant materials,

weeds, harvest residures, old litter and other manure,  Spray water regularly over and turn

the heap upsite once every month. Fig 50. Chickens are finding their feeds in compost heap

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If possible, vegetable and grass gardens should be grown near the chicken house or elswhere with the aim of feeding chickens.

Fig 51. Growing grasses and vegetable garden near chicken house

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Before providing feed to chicken, all ingredients must be well mixed.

Fig 52. Mixing all ingredients together before providing them to chickens

Fig 53. Provide mixed feeds to feeding chickens

Be careful: Do not feed chickens on vegetables and grasses which have been treated with chemical pesticides or insecticides for killing insects or pests.

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PUBLIC NUISANCE

Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

PUBLIC NUISANCE 8. Public nuisance management 8.1 Noise Chickens make characteristic noises. Normally, only roosters crow at any time of the day. Many urban peoples have banned the chicken rearing because of its noise. In this case, the practices should be done as follows:  Number of roosters per pen should be limited to the maximum proportion of cocks and hens 1:6-8 to avoid fighting for hens,  Chickens should not be disturbed especially the hens.

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Equal number of laying nests and hens to avoid fighting for laying eggs.

Fig 54. Prepare enough comfortable laying nests for hens 8.2 Odour Odour is another source of concern in urban environments. Most chicken odours are associated with ammonia produced in poor management practice. The solutions for reducing the odour in raising place are as follows:  To properly ventilate the housing area to keep the floor and roosts dry by removing all curtains for shading on the wall of chicken house,  To clean the manures in and outside chicken house regularly,  To collect out of all dirty litters (straw, rice husks, sawdust...) which is spread on the floor,  To make a compost of chicken wastes and use it for growing vegetables as a good fertilizer.

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Fig 55. Chicken roost and floor are dirty with chicken manure

Fig 56. Chicken house is well cleaned

8.3 Pest management and control

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Flies and other insects are concerns to all chicken producers and have impact on the neighbours. The best way to prevent flies is to keep the litter dry, clean pen regularly.

After good cleaning, the pen should be disinfected every few weeks to kill the microorganisms that are living on the objects and flied worms by spraying TH4.

Fig 57. Disinfection inside and around chicken house by using TH4

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CHAPTER VI

CHICKEN HEALTHCARE

Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

CHICKEN HEALTH CARE Chicken health is the basic fundamental for chicken productivity. In case of outbreak of infectious diseases, most of the chickens die and farmers loose a lot of income every year. Disease-causing agents can be transmitted very fast from one bird to another. Diseases make chickens become sick and some can cause death. Sick chickens can easily pass on the disease to healthy chickens living closely together. Other means of disease transmission are vermin, insects, parasites, etc. How to avoid diseases?

9. Bio-security and hygiene 9.1 Isolation pen

 Seperate chickens in different blocks by production: parent-stock, small chicken, age and broiler production,  Keep all chickens in house and let them roam around in fencing.

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Fig 58. Separate chickens in different production or age

 Must ban outsiders entering in chicken farm: midleman/buyer, other chicken raisers, visitors etc,  Only allow visitor who has been disinfected thoroughly near the chickens. Fig 59. Barrier with bamboo to ban outsiders entering the farm 9.2 The management of raising place  Pen should be built on a terrace higher than floodwater level,  Chicken should be kept in house and fenced in running area instead of letting them roam around freely,

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

 The floor of pen should be covered with rice hush or/and sawdust to make it dry,  Gather rice husk or/and sawdust away in every 2 – 3 months or when it is dirty.

Fig 60. Spread on the floor of rice husk or sawdust to make it dry  Renew the litter regularly and get rid of old litter immediately,  Clean and collect chicken manure and its waste daily in and outside pen,  The droppings/manure should put on the gardens or in fields to fertilize the vegetable/plants.

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Fig 61. Clean manure and collect chicken waste in and outside pen

Before starting each new flock production 1-2 weeks, each pen including equipments and materials should be cleaned and disinfected by lime.

Fig 62. Spread lime-water on the ground in and outside chicken house before starting each production

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

Use TH4 to disinfect microbs in and outside chicken house every 34 weeks. If there is an outbreak diseases in neighboured farms, the disinfection should be conducted every day until no sign of diseases occuring. Fig 63. Spray TH4 and water at chicken house to kill microbs and other parasites

Clean or disinfect the empty chick’s with disinfectant and dry under sunlight.

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Fig 64. Clean chick cage with TH4 or lime and then dry under sunlight directly 9.3 Feed and water

 Provide regular fresh and potable water daily,  Clean drinkers and feeders regularly and replace new water at least one time a day.

Fig 65. Replace fresh water and feed daily

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

9.4 General management What to do with sick and dead chickens ?

Do not allow outsiders enter or accross the chicken raising places (chicken buyer/midleman, outsided raiser, visitor...)

Fig 66. Banning and fencing to prevent entering the place of chicken raising

The chickens that look unhealthy should be kept far from chicken farm to observe the health progress and treatment.

 Remove all dead birds immediately from the chicken house,  Burn out or deep bury of chicken dead that cause by diseases to eliminate any possible remaining source of diseases,  Don’t eat the body of dead chickens that causes by infectious disease.

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Fig 67. Quarantine the chickens that look unhealthy far from flock to control health situation

Fig 68. Deep bury and burn out of dead chicken cause by diseases

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

 When many birds are sick and dead, do not touch and away from them,  Do not use or give the left-over from sick chickens to healthy chickens.

Fig 69. Many chickens are sick and dead at the same time Caution: If many birds are sick or dead in the period, you have to contact the nearest veterinary worker or concerned organization to report the disease signs and determine the causes of any disease.

10. Main chicken diseases and preventive treatment How to recognize a sick chicken ? you always observe the chickens when you feed them. There are main abnormal symptoms which may indicate the type of diseases:

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 Less activity,  Less or stops eating,  Diarrhoea, blood in faeces,  Sneezing, difficult breathing. How to prevent chickens from becoming sick and dead ?  Chickens have to be provided with good housing (comfortable shelter), good nutrition,  Keeping the flock apart and isolate from outsider chickens (not move in and outside pen),  Vaccination of all chickens: o All chicks and growing chickens in the farm have to be vaccinated regularly before they are sick or infected with diseases, o Each chicken should be vaccinated against three diseases at least (Newcastle disease, Fowl pox and Fowl cholera) throughout its rearing period, o Parent-stocks have to be re-vaccinated against Newcastle and Fowl Cholera diseases every 4 months. When and which can be vaccinated ?  

Only healthy chicks and growing chickens, Chicks and growing chickens before they are sick,

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

 The interval of using each type of vaccine is at least 1-2 weeks. How to store vaccine in good condition ?    

Keep vaccine in a cool and dark place, Never expose it to sunlight, Do not use the vaccine that had expired date, Do not use vaccines that broke/lose the seal.

The brief of major diseases often outbreak in (local) chickens is as follows: 10.1 Newcastle Disease What are the main signs of the disease ? It is found everywhere and the mortality rate can be very high. Clinical sign shows depression, weakness, greenish diarrhea, sneezing, coughing, difficulty in breathing. The symptom of nervous system can be found after few days: drooping wings, twisted and circling of head and neck. Chicken will suffer from respiratory distress. Fig 70. Sign of problems with nervous system (twisted head and neck)

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Vaccination and control (Newcastle disease)

There is no treatment for this disease. Only vaccine can prevent disease. This vaccine can be given to the chicken via the eye and nose drop method. The vaccine can be safely administrated when chick has 3 to 5 days of age and be revaccinated every 4 months.

Fig 71. Drop Newcastle vaccine on nose and eye

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

10.2 Fowl Pox Disease What is the main signs of the disease ? It causes skin lesions or necrosis like spots on skin especially around the mouth, nose, head, legs and feet and other part that has no feathers. If lesions occured on eyes it could make the chick blind.

Fig 72. Signs of spots on head caused by Fowl Pox disease Vaccination and control (Fowl Pox disease)

Only regular vaccine is the best practice to prevent disease. There is no effective treatment to kill it. Normally, the disease almost occured in small chicks under 2 months. So chicks must be administrated vaccine in 1-2 weeks of age.

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Fig 73. Administrating Fowl Pox vaccine 10.3 Fowl Cholera Disease What are the main signs of the disease ? It is found everywhere and can cause high levels of mortality in chickens. The most obvious sign is a sudden high number of deaths without any signs. Other signs are breathing problem, swollen combs and wattles, discharge from nose and beak, and greenish-yellow diarrhea.

Fig 74. Signs of Fowl Cholera disease with diarrhea symptom

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

Vaccination and treatment (Fowl Cholera) The better prevention is the regular vaccination of all healthy chickens at farm when chickens have 2 months of age. Fowl Cholera is caused by bacteria, so you can use antibiotics to lower the mortality of chickens. However, do not use sulpha drugs with layers, as it will affect the reproductive organs. Fig 75. Administrate vaccine to prevent Fowl Cholera disease

Be careful, do not select treatment method as a priority because it is too late and costly.

10.4 Parasitic diseases Chickens infested with parasites are unhealthy, weak, lack of growing, thin and more sensitive to diseases. However, chicken can be killed by parasites if it is too serious. Fig 76. Unhealthy chicken infested with parasites External parasites

Fleas

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Tick

There are many external parasites affected to chickens. They live on the skin and often suck blood chicken such as fleas, lice, mites and ticks. External parasites can cause a drop in production, easy to accept diseases and even killing young chicks, somtimes.

Mite

Lice

Fig 77. The major external parasites Treatment and control Good hygiene is the basis for controlling external parasites. Asuntol and TH4 are readily available in the markets. Nicotine or other herbal remedies may also be used.

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

Internal parasites

Internal parasites live in the digestive tract. There are many types of internal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms.

Fig 78. Round worms in chicken feaces

Treatment and control  Good hygiene, housing and contact directly with faeces can decrease the infestation,  Regular treatment every 3 months with Levamisole or Mebendazole.

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Fig 79. Mixing of deworming medicine with feed to feeding chickens Remember  Use 1 tablet of Mebendazole or Pyrantel with 8 to 10 Kg of chicken by mixing with feed,  Before using of each deworming medicine, please consult with veterinarian or seller medicine.

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

10.5 Preventive programs against major diseases recommended Schedule for vaccination and deworming program

3-5 days

Newcastle vaccine drop 0.1 ml/head through eye and nose

10-14 days

Fowl Pox vaccine via wing

2 months

Fowl Cholera vaccine via muscle

2.5 months

Deworming (Internal parasites) mix Levamisole or Pyrantel with feed

Remember Before proceeding each type of vaccine, make sure that all chickens are healthy. Before buying and using vaccines or/and medicines, you have to consult with veterinarians.

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 

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CHAPTER VII

ECONOMIC OF CHICKEN PRODUCTION

Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

ECONOMIC OF CHICKEN PRODUCTION In general, the farmers can get more profit if they have experiences and abide by this technical guide. The income will be increased if the farmer increases investment in chicken production. The estimates of costs and returns for chicken production include purchasing, growing the birds and other assets supporting production and from other sources such as input suppliers. The technical and economic assumptions incorporated into estimates for cost analysis of this chicken raising technique are following:  The cost in this budget pertains to 7 heads of parent stocks (6 hens and 1 cock) and a flock of first cycle in total 60 heads of growing chicken which are produced by parent stocks,  Hen has ability to produce chicks in 6 to 7 cycles per year,  Locally available feed resources fed to layers and broilers make up about 60-70 percent of the diet,  The chicken housing can be used for 30 cycles of chick production,  Field labour for taking care chicken runs about 1.5 hours per day,  Mortality rate of chicken, particularly baby chicks less than 2%,  The average growth of body weight 1.3 kilograms per head in 105 days (3.5 months). Referring to the cost-benefit analysis in Table 1, 7 parent stocks produced a cycle of one flock of chickens which has 60 heads were harvested and sent to market at 3.5 months and has total body live weight 78 Kg (live broiler weight/head, kg is 1.3). The price was given as farm get price at $3.75 per kg by collector. Based on the economic analysis indicated that: production cost per 1Kg (life chicken) - breakeven / kg is $2.23, unit production cost per cycle - breakeven / head is $ 2.90 and the total income is $293.75 including chicken dung, gross margin per kg weight is $1.52 and gross margin per cycle is $ 119.79. Table 1: Cost-benefit analysis of chicken raising

2 blocks of sheds - 1 (parent) + 1 (broiler) Parent stock: 7 heads No.

Item

Variable Costs Labor for daily care chicken 1 (1.5hr/[email protected] days) 2 Feed for parent (7 heads) Parent stock for 50 days 2.1 (commercial feed 30%), (7 [email protected]) Parent stock 50 days (local feed 2.2 70%), (7 [email protected])

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(Own 7 parent stocks for chick production, production cycle 3.5 months, assuming 60 adult chickens ready for sale) Sellable broilers/cycle: 60 heads Use/life Unit Total Cycle time price US$ unit cost (cycle)

Unit

Qt

Person/day

19.69

3.00

59.06

1

59.06

Kg/head

9.45

0.50

4.73

1

4.73

Kg/head

26.95

0.25

6.74

1

6.74

A

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

3

Feed for chicks

Chick (60 heads) to 3.5 months (commercial feed 50%) Chick (60 heads) to 3.5 months 3.2 (local feed 50%) 4 Vaccination 3.1

Kg/head

105.00

0.63

65.63

1

65.63

Kg/head

105.00

0.25

26.25

1

26.25

Fowl Cholera

cc/head

7.00

0.04

0.25

1

0.25

Newcastle

cc/head

7.00

0.02

0.11

1

0.11

Fowl Cholera

cc/head

60.00

0.04

2.10

1

2.10

Newcastle

cc/head

60.00

0.02

0.90

1

0.90

Fowl pox

cc/head

60.00

0.02

0.90

1

0.90

4.1 Parent stock (7 heads)

4.2 Chick (60 heads)

5

Deworming

Tablet/head

67.00

0.03

1.68

1

1.68

6

TH4 (1 liter)

Time

0.02

6.00

0.12

1

0.12

Total Variable Costs (TVC)

168.45

4

Fixed costs Labour for shed construction (5 person-days to shed) Purchase of parent stock responsible for 1 block of broilers under study Cost for growing shed (for each of the blocks under study) Feeder trough

5

Drinker

Pc

2.00

1.75

3.50

30

0.12

6

Spray pump

Pc

1.00

1.75

1.75

30

0.06

B 1 2 3

Person/day

5.00

4.00

20.00

30

0.67

Head

7.00

5.63

39.38

18

2.19

Pc

1.00 72.50

72.50

30

2.42

Pc

2.00

1.00

2.00

30

0.07

Total fixed cost

5.51

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Total cost (A + B) Production size (sellable produce Head - live broiler - unit Live broiler weight/head, Kg Kg/head (average) Total harvest (sellable chicken), Kg

C

60

60.00

1.30

1.30 78.00

Unit production cost per cycle - breakeven / head

2.90

Production cost per 1Kg (life chicken) - breakeven / kg

2.23

Income Farm gate price/kg - at $3.75/kg Chicken manure Total income

D

173.96

Kg Bag (50Kg)

78.00 1

3.75 292.50 1.25

1.25

292.50 1.25 293.75

Gross Margin Per kg live weight Per cycle:

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1.52 119.79

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Improved Small-scale Chicken Production

REFERENCES 1.

Adam A. Hady and Ron Kean, 2011, Poultry in Urban Areas

2.

Christine Ahlers et al., 2009, Improving village chicken production, ACIAR

3.

Dr. Muladno, 2008, Local chicken genetic resources and production systems in Indonesia, FAO

4.

E.B. Sonaiya and S.E.j. Swan, 2004, Small-scale Poultry Production, FAO

5.

Khiev Borin, 2006, Broiler and layer production in rural area, Department of Agricultural Extension, MAFF, Cambodia

6.

Min Sophoan, 2010, Techniques to raise local chickens to be highly productive, AVSF

7.

N. van Eekaren et al., 1995, Small-scale poultry production in the Tropics, Agrodok

8.

N. van Eekaren et al., 2006, Small-scale chicken production, Agrodok

9.

Patricio S. Faylon, 2003, The Philippines recommends for Livestock Feed Formulation

10. Patricio S. Faylon, 2006, The Philippines recommends for Broiler Production 11. Phillip j. Clauer, 2010, Raising Fowl in Urban Areas 12. Rural Veterinarian of Cambodia (2001), Animal raising technique 13. Sinn Por, 2012, Local Chicken Raising for Market, Tonle Sap Technology Demonstration for Productivity Enhancement Project, Cambodia 14. Sinn Por, 2013, Commercial Chick Production, Tonle Sap Technology Demonstration for Productivity Enhancement Project, Cambodia

REFERENCE

15. Tokuchi Tanaka, Small scale poultry production

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