Prepared for the U.S. General Services Administration By Jordan Shackelford, Alastair Robinson & Francis Rubinstein Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Retrofit Demonstration of LED Fixtures with Integrated Sensors and Controls Principal Investigator: Francis Rubinstein
The Green Proving Ground program leverages GSA’s real estate portfolio to evaluate innovative sustainable building technologies and practices. Findings are used to support the development of GSA performance specifications and inform decision-making within GSA, other Federal agencies, and the real estate industry. The program aims to drive innovation in environmental performance in Federal buildings and help lead market transformation through deployment of new technologies.
DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof, or Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof or Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The work described in this report was funded by the U.S. General Services Administration and the Federal Energy Management Program of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. PX0013225.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS United States General Services Administration: Michael Hobson, Kevin Powell, Julisa Mandeville, Michael Lowell, and Christine Wu. Metcalfe Federal Building: Josh Westhouse, Richard Weller, Anthony Venticinque, Rebecca Olson, John Caswell, Maria Roche, and Marc Colvin. Summit Federal Building: Mark Moody, Tyrone Pelt, Michelle Price, Les Fischer, Roderick Grant, Steve Jordan, and Lori Jones. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: David Parker, Dennis Dibartolomeo, Luis Fernandes, and Robert Clear.
For more information contact: Kevin Powell Program Manager, Green Proving Ground Office of the Commissioner, Public Buildings Service U.S. General Services Administration 50 United Nations Plaza San Francisco, CA 94102-4912 Email: [email protected]
LED Fixtures with Integrated Sensors and Controls: FINAL
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
ASHRAE–published Energy Standard for Buildings (except low-rise residential); the national standard for commercial building energy codes in the U.S.
Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (program of U.S. DOE)
Commercial Buildings Partnership (initiative of U.S. DOE)
Correlated Color Temperature
California Energy Commission
Color Rendering Index; a measure of the ability of a light source to reproduce colors accurately.
U.S. Department of Energy
Energy Information Administration
Energy use intensity. This is a metric for characterizing energy use defined as the amount of energy used in a space over a given time period divided by the area of the space and the time interval studied (kWh/ft2/year).
Foot-candle, a unit of illuminance (lumens/ft2).
Green Proving Ground program of GSA
U.S. General Services Administration
Global warming effect. This is a metric for characterizing greenhouse gas emissions and is a product of GHG emissions and their specific time-dependent global warming potential (g CO2,eq /kWh electricity generated, kg CO2,eq/ft2/year).
Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
Kilowatt-hours; a unit of electric energy.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Life-cycle cost; cost-effectiveness metric that characterizes the costs over the lifetime of the tested technology and takes into account costs from the initial investment, energy savings, operation & management, and salvage. The costs are converted to present value (PV) and are recorded here in $/ft2 and $/fixture.
Light-emitting diodes, also known as solid state lighting (SSL).
A metric for characterizing the lighting power in a given area, defined as lighting wattage divided by the corresponding floor area (watts per square foot).
Lumens per watt (lm/W); a unit of light source efficacy in converting electric energy to visible light.
Megawatt-hours; a unit of electric energy.
LED Fixtures with Integrated Sensors and Controls: FINAL
Net present value; the net present value is the sum of the present values of any present or future cash flows, both incoming and outgoing.
Public Buildings Service of GSA; the organization that has jurisdiction, custody, or control over more than 370 million square feet of building stock in over 9,000 Federal buildings.
Power factor is defined as the ratio of the active power to the apparent power (the product of root mean square (rms) voltage and rms current) and is a unitless value ranging from -1 to 1. Power factor represents the amount of current and voltage that the customer uses as a fraction of what the utility supplies. In this study, we look at ballast power factor where high power factors (> 0.9) are preferred, as low power factors may result in unusable power capacity in the electrical distribution system.
The CRI related to strong red tones. R9 is an important additional CRI to consider as strong reds are prevalent in skin tones and indicate whether the light source will be perceived as warm.
The general CRI, calculated as an average of the CRIs R1-R8, covering relatively low saturated colors evenly distributed over the complete range of hues.
Root mean square
Savings-to-investment ratio; the cost-effectiveness ratio of life-cycle savings from an energy improvement to the initial investment cost. If greater than one, the investment is cost-effective.
Spectral power distribution; the distribution of a light source’s luminous flux per wavelength of visible light (380 to 760 nanometers).
Simple payback period; a cost-effectiveness metric that characterizes the length of time required to recover the cost of an investment, defined as the cost of project over the energy savings at the site per year.
Total harmonic distortion characterizes the power quality of electric power systems and is a measure of the deviation from a sinusoidal waveform. Lower THD (