PARENTS AS TUTORS OF THEIR OWN CHILDREN:

PARENTS AS TUTORS OF THEIR OWN CHILDREN: EFFECT'S OF A TRAJNING PROGRAM ON CHILDREN'S ACHlEVEMENT AND CONFIDENCE OF PARENTS by James Hendrikse A t...
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PARENTS AS TUTORS OF THEIR OWN CHILDREN: EFFECT'S OF A TRAJNING PROGRAM ON CHILDREN'S

ACHlEVEMENT AND CONFIDENCE OF PARENTS

by

James Hendrikse

A thesis submitted in confonnity with the requirements

for the Degree of Doctor of Education Department of Human Development and Applied Psychology Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto

O Copyright by James Hendnkse 2000

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PARENTS AS TUTORS OF THEIFt OWN CHILDREN: EFFECTS OF A TRAINING PROGRAM ON CMLDREN'S ACHIEVEMENT AND CONFIDENCE OF PARENTS

James Hendrikse, Doctor of Education. 2000 Department of Human Development and Applied Psychology Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto

A study invoiving 85 parents and their elementary school children was conducted to determine

the effect of a training program on parents' tutoring effectiveness as measured by their children's school achievement and the self-confidence of parents themselves. The results of this 16-week training provided drarnatic and conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of extramural tutonng when parents are systematically trained to do so.

The effects of such

tutoring upon children's Iearning outcomes were superior to unsupervised parent tutorinp and also more effective than small-group special education instruction in enhancing children's acadernic skills.

Furthemore, parents' self-confidence significantly increased as a

consequence of the training provided.

The findinps were examined in light of Bloom's ( 1984) 2-sigma postulate and against specific leming and motivational theories. The conclusions arrived at through this view into the black box of parent tutorinp suggested a more explicit and concentrated inspection by future research on the content and quality of parent-child interactions as opposed to the traditional surfacestructure preoccupations. This is a necessary step if the prevailing uncenainties in this focus are to be resolved. This research will be of benefit to both theorists and instructors of parent tutoring programs, and it will convey a clear message to parents who wish to help their children with schoolwork at home, that with informed support and guidance, effkctive extramural tutoring is well within their grasp.

1 am indebted to the parents and their children who participated in this research. 1 wish to

acknowledge the contribution made to my thinking on parent involvernent in their children's leaming by Dr. Dorothy Shipe and Dr. Malcolm Garber, my former professors at OISESpecial thanks to .Mr. Jim Hicks, formerly principal with the Peel Board of Education who encouraged me to develop a program to help parents N t O r their children at home. 1 owe much to my thesis supervisor, Dr. Judith Wiener, whose guidance, critical perspective and support spurred me on. Thanks also to the members of my thesis cornmittee, Dr. Car1 Corter. Dr.

Esther Geva. and Dr. Dale Willows for their critical reviews and support. Special rhrinks to my colleagues. Clare and Steve, for CO-instmctingthe Parents as Tutors training program and to Lyda McKenzie. a graduate of the first PTP, for putting the proe-

"on the rnap." Finally 1

gratefully acknowledge the help of Robin Sidhu in statistically analyzing the data and Denesc Coulbeck who brought to the organization of this thesis exemplary computer editing skills and a prevailing sense of humor.

This thesis is dedicated to the memory of my wife, Trudy, and to my children, Marÿke and Liam.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ...

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...............................................-.........*............

Ill

DEDICATION ......................................................................................

iv

LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................

ix

............................................... LIST OF FIGURES ......................... . . .

xi

...........................................

1

CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION

Definition of Extramural Parent Tutoring .................................................. Comparison of Nonparent and Parent Tutoring Research ............................... Conceptual Issues ........................................................................ Structural and Temporal Issues ......................................................... Pragmatic Issues.......................................................................... Empirical Issues ..........................................................................

3 4 5

6 7 9

Objectives of the Present Study .............................................................

9

Practical Importance of the Present Study ................................................. Theoretical Perspectives Underlying the Parent as Tutors Program .................... The Need to Train Parents R a t i o n a l e ................................................ The Process of Educating and Training Parents in the PTP ......................... Models of Instruction .................................................................... The Instructional Strategies .............................................................

10

I1 12 13 14

15

TheStatusandRoleoftheParentinthePTP ......................................... The PTP as an Instructional System ...................................................

16

..........................

18

CHAPTER 2:

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Parent-Child Tutoring Interactions in Different Contexts ................................ Parent Tutoring in Head Start ........................................................... Parent Tutoring in Home Schools ...................................................... Parent Tutoring in Family Literacy Contexts.......................................... Parent Tutoring in the Megaprojects ................................................... Parent-Child Tutoring Interactions in Surveys Syntheses and Reports ........... Summary ..................................................................................

.

15

20 20 21

22 24 26

27

Empirical Studies of. Extramural . Parent Tutoring ......................................... Study Characteristics.. ...................................................................

28 29

Major Findings ................................................................................ a) Effectiveness of Extramural Parent Tutoring ..................................... b) Effectiveness of "Unsupervised" Parent Tutoring ............................... c) Training versus Nontraining of Parents ...........................................

37 37 38 39

d) Comparison of Commercial Programs ............................................ e) Frequency and Duration of Tutoring .............................................. f) Long-Term Effects of Parent Tutonng ............................................ g ) Maxirnization of Tutoring Effects .................................................. The Contribution of Juel's (1996) Study to our Understanding of the Factors that Enhance Maximum Tutoring Effects........................... Surnrnary .................................................................................. What Future Research in Parent Tutoring Needs to Address and Achieve to Fil1 the Gaps in Our Knowledge ...................................

How These Needs Are Addressed in the Current Study ................................. The Study ...................................................................................... Hypotheses .................................................................................... A . Major Hypotheses ................................................................... B . Additional Research Questions .....................................................

40 41

41 42 43

45 46

47 48

49 49 49

.....................................................

50

Setting .......................................................................................... Participants ................................................................................... Treatrnent Group (ITPG) ................................................................ Wait List ................................................................................... Recruitment of Parents................................................................... Timeline ...................................................................................

50 51 52 53 55 56

Mesures ....................................................................................... Children's School Achievement ........................................................ ParentMeasures .......................................................................... Posttest Questionnaires .................................................................. Data CoIIection Procedures.............................................................. The Parents as Tutors Prograrn (PTP)................................................. The PTP Training Sessions .............................................................

58 58 59 60 62 63 63

Design of the Study...........................................................................

64

CHAPTER 3:

CHAPTER 4:

METHOD

RESULTS .................................................... 6 5

Data Analysis Procedures .................................................................... Tesfiubtest Abbreviations Used in Reporting the Results..........................

65 68

Integrity of Treatment and Research Design ............................................... Children's Characteristics at Pretest.................................................... Frequency of Tutonng ....................................................................... Impact of Tutoring on Children's Achievement ........................................... Cornparison of ITC and DTC Groups from Time 1. to Time 2.and Time 3...... Cornparison of ITC and DTC Groups from Time 1 to Time 2...................... Cornparison of Children in the ITCG with Children from the DTCG who were Informally Tutored .......................................................

68 69 71 73 73 74 76

Comparison of Children in the DTCG who Received Informal Tutoring by Untrained Parents with Children who Received No Parent Tutoring ....... Comparison of Children in the ITCG with Children from the DTCG who Received Regular Special Education Instruction from Time 1 to Time 2....... Comparison of Children in the ITC Group who No Longer Received Tutoring with Children from the ITC Group who Continued to Receive Tutoring from Time 2 to Time 3 ......................................... Comparison of Children's Achievement by Age ..................................... Impact of Tutoring on Parent Confidence.... ........................................... .. Posthoc Questionnaires ...................................................................... Parents' Ratings of the Components (Factors) of the Parents as Tutors Program ........................................................... Parents' Evaluation of their Children's Progress and Satisfaction with the PTP ....................................................... Summary of Results ..........................................................................

CHAPTER 5:

DISCUSSION

...............................................

Implications for the Organization of Special Education in Schools and for the Role of the Special Education Teacher ............................... .... Limitations ..................................................................................... 1 . ProceduraI Limitations .............................................................. 2 . Limitations of Omissions ........................................................... Theoretical Perspective: A View into the "Black Box" of Extramural Parent Tutoring ........................................................... The Manipulation of Time Frameworks....................... ............................. Time and Learning ............................................... ........................ Engaged or Interactional Sustained Learning Time (E/ISLT) ....................... Linking the Notion of EnSLT to Psychological Theory ............................. The Qualitative Manipulation of Time Frameworks ...................................... Informal Parent Involvement Practices and their Implications for the Current Study ................................................................ Implications for Future Research ...........................................................

REFERENCES

.................................................................

APPENDIX A Parent Questionnaires and Forms A- I

A-2 A-3 A-4

Advertisement to Parents About Program in School News letter Follow-up Letter to Positive Parent Respondents Selection of Training Session(s) Frequency of Tutoring Questionnaire

76 80 80

82 86 89 89 91

92 94 96

98 98

99 100

102 104 106

107 109

113 119

120

A-5 A-6 A-7 A-8

Parental Self-Confidence Questionnaire: Confidence in Tutonng Child (PdPost Forms) Factors Contributing to Tutoring Success Evaluation of PTP Effectiveness Evaluation of Child's Progress

APPENDIX B PTP Manual: A Companion to the Parents as Tutors Program B- l

..... 1 120 O

Tutorîng Log................................................................... 121 Word Lists ..................................................................... 1 22- 1 29 Phonics Assessrnent .......................................................... I 30 Precision Teachîng (Arithmetic): Sample Page.. .......................... 13 1 How to Construct Discovery Boards to Enhance Discovery Leaming ........................................................ 1 31 Self-Appraisai of Tutoring Knowledge and Skills 1 33 Form # 1: Mid-Session Appraisal. ....................................... Self-Appraisal of Tutoring Knowledge and Skills Form #2: End of Session Appraisal.. ...................................

134

Appropriate Individual Tutoring Plan.. .....................................

1 35

viii

LIST OF TABLES Table 1:

Analysis of Selected Individual Snidies in Parent Tutoring.. ................... 30-36

Table 2:

Demographic Description of Children Participating in the Study ..............

51

Table 3:

Number of Parents Attending Training Sessions ................................

57

Table 4:

Number of Parents who Tutored Various Skills .................................

57

Table 5:

Focus of Tutorhg by Grade Level.. ...............................................

58

Table 6:

WRAT Standard Scores and Gates-MacGinitie T-Scores for the ITCG (n=43) and the DTCG (n=42) from Time 1 to Time 3 ..............

70

Table 7:

Parents' Self-Report of Frequency of Tutoring Over Time.. ...................

71

Table 8:

Mean Frequency of Tutoring Sessions Per Week as Calculated from Parents' Tutoring Logs.. .....................................

75

WRAT Standard Scores and Gates-MacGinitie T-Scores for the ITCG (n=43) and for the Informa1 Tutored Subgroup of the DTCG (n= 16) at Time 1 and Time 2. ......................................

78

TabIe 10: WRAT Standard Scores and Gates-MacGinitie T-Scores of Children in the DTCG who Received Informal Tutoring (n= 16) versus those who did not (n=î6) at Time 1 and Time 2.. .......................

79

Table 1 1: WRAT Standard Scores and Gates-MacGinitie T-Scores of the ITCG (n=43) and Children in the DTCG who Received Special Education Support (n=10) at Time 1 and Time 2 . ........... .......... .

81

Table 12: WRAT Standard Scores and Gates-MacGinitie T-Scores of Primary Children (n=26) and Junior Children (n=17) in the ITCG at Time 1 and Time 2.. ........................... ..................................-

83

Table 13: WRAT Standard Scores and Gates-MacGinitie T-Scores of Primary Children (n=25) and Junior Children (n= 17) in the DTCG at Time 2 and Time 3 ............................. .................................. .

84

Table 14: Parent Self Report of Confidence in Tutoring their Children Over Time.. ...........................................................................

87

Table 15: Tutoring Confidence of Parents in the DTPG who Tutored their Children Without Training Compared to Parents who did not Tutor their Children during the First Session.. ....................

89

TabIe 9:

Table 16: Parents' Rating of Factors ..........................................................

Table 17: Parents' Evaiuation of Child's Progress as a Consequence of Tutoring ......................................................

91

Table 18: Parents' Level of Satisfaction with the Training Program ......................

92

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 : Parents' Frequency of Tutoring Over Time.......................................

73

Figure 2: Parents' Self-Confidence to Tutor Child Over Time.............................

88

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Parent involvement in the education of their children, in which extramural parent tutoring is embedded, has grown in prominence, and as a movement it has garnered support, endorsement and substantiations from several philosophical, political, psychosociological and educational quarters (Bloom, 1986; Comer, 1986, 1989; Dewey, 1916, 1932: Epstein. 1986; Haynes. Comer, & Hamilton. 1989; Mosteller & Moynihan, 1972; Plowden, 1967: Purkey & Smith, 1983: Walberg, 1984% 1984b)-

The current upsurge of interest in and the

implementation of School Councils in the Province of Ontario (Ontario Ministry of Education. 1994) is both a manifestation and a product of this sweeping trend. But as Comer ( 1986) hris

shown. parent involvement in their children's education is not new. In diverse ~vriysparents have always participated in their children's learning; it is just that today this interest and direct participation have taken on new dimensions and have assumed greater forrnality and qualification . The magnitude of the parent involvement movement and its implications for children's academic progress has k e n described by Seeley (1989) as a "new paradigm" (p. 46).

The ostensible and stated purpose of parent involvement is to enhance the school

achievement of children. As stated by Epstein (1992)The research suggests that students at al1 levels do better academic work and have more positive school attitudes, higher aspirations, and other positive behaviours if they have parents who are aware, knowledgeable, encouraging and involved. (p. 76)

Parent involvement, however, is not a unitary concept, but a spectrum of various activities that range from parent participation in school events and celebrations that go bey ond the traditional bake sale (Henderson, Marburger, & Dooms, 1986) to active participation in al1 aspects of schooldecision making and governance (Epstein, 1986). The extramural tutoring of children by their parents, which is the focus of this investigation, is one such participatory activity. Despite the sheer volume and diversity of the literature base, the duration of the parent involvement movement as well as its growing influence, the impact of specific parent participatory practices upon children's learning and achievement is not completely known (Fehrman, Keith, & Reimers, 1987; Ho Sui-Chu & WilIms, 1996). However, while it could be claimed that the focused participatory practice of extramural parent tutoring provides an

exception to the rule, in that parent tutoring has been shown to benefit children's Iearning (Topping & WoIfendale, 1985), the procedures adopted by and the results of the individuai studies in general. as will be shown, are limited and inconclusive (Goodlet & Goodlet. 19s I : Thurston & Dasta. 1990; Macleod, 1995).

In fact, parent tutoring is afforded a rather

incongrnous and somewhat contradictory place in the parent involvement literature. Despite the fact that this activity has provided almost al1 of the supposedly empirical evidence crilled upori to support and endorse the positive claims made on behalf of parent involvenient in

itic

education of their children (Henderson, 1981 ; l987), this contribution is neithcr overt l > acknowledged. nor its importance, despite the lack of definitiveness, fully rippreciritcd (Bemphechat, 1990; Swap, 1990; Swick. 1988; Ziegler. 1987).

The purpose of the present study is to address two major limitations in the rcscarch parent tutoring. First, there is no solid empirical support for the argument that al1 Sorrns parent tutoring guarantee significant increases in children's school achievement.

Therc

on 01' rirc

firstly too few empirical studies to demonstrate the validity of this popular thesis (Becher. 1985; Thurston & Dasta, 1990) as the overwhelming majority of these studies have involveci young children and their progress in phonics and word-recognition skills. While prcsenting a

promising picture of the positive efiecu of parent tutoring on children's reading. the results lack the experimental ngor to withstand critical scrutiny (Macleod, 1995). Funher. although children who are tutored by their parents may make gains beyond that of children who are not tutored. it is also important to ask whether these gains are such that they make a substantiat impact on the educationd attainment of the child. Second. there appears to be no substantive body of knowledge that explains why parent tutoring works in some studies and why it does not in others (Topping & Wolfendale, 1995). For example. there is no conclusive empincal evidence that shows that parents who receive systematic training in tutoring skills are more effective tutors than parents who are rninimally trained (unsupervised tutoring); in fact, the results are contlicting (Goodlet & Goodlet. 1981 ; Vinograd-Bausell. Bausell. Proctor, & Chandler. 1986).

In addition, theory to guide

investigation of preconditions necessary for effective tutoring is inadequate (Wasik. 1998)In this introductory chapter 1 begin by providing the definition of Extramural Parent Tutorhg that guides the study. Then 1 compare the nonfilial and parent tutoring research by highlighting conceptual. structural, temporal. pragrnatic and empincal issues

( w hich

are

defined below). This is followed by a statement of the objectives of the present study. and a discussion of its pnctical importance. The final section of the introductory chapter is devoted to the theoretical underpinnings of the Parents as Tutors Program which formed the basis of the training program for parents.

Definition of Extramural Parent Tutoring Extramural parent tutoring involves well-organized interactions between a parent and n child on a one-to-one bais (instructional dyad), conducted regularly, frequently, and over an extended period of time with the expressed intention of increasing the child's leaming or school achievement. Much of parent tutonng takes place out of school and in the home: hence the term extramural parent tutoring. It is this expression of stated intentionality. focus, frequency

and duration wbich distinguishes parent tutorïng from other f o m s of sporadic or occasional interactions by parents to help their children with schoolwork.

Com~arisonof Non~arentand Parent Tutorino - Research Wasik and Slavin (1993), basing their insights on extensive research in nonfilial

tutoring contexts. that is. the one-to-one instmctional dyads involving peer tutoring, cross-age tu toring, and tutorhg by professionaliy accredited teachers. developed several conceptual and organizational categories to systematize the prevailing issues in tutonng research.

These

categories are referred to as conceptual (a clear notion of the theoretical underpinnings of oneto-one tutoring. its function and its unique possibilities); structural (the surface elements or essential organizational preconditions for tutoring to occur at dl); temporal (the considerations of frequency. regularity and duration of tutonng interactions to ensure positive tutoring effects): pragmatic (considerations that go beyond structurai and temporal features. such as the training of parents. the nature and quality of the tutoring interactions that promote maximum tutoring effects), and. empincal (the robustness of experimental procedures ernployed in gathenng evidence and the reliability of the evidence itself).

Wasik and Slavin's (1993)

insights are pertinent to parent tutoring as well. Whereas nonparent tutoring research has gone beyond surface issues into an examination of pragmatic considerations, parent tutoring research. particularly in the United States. has generally and almost out of historical necessity demonsuated a clear proclivity towards showing that parents c m indeed successfully NtOr their own children at home. and. that they can do so without the incuning of exorbitant and additional costs to the taxpayer

(Mehran & White. 1988; Walberg. 1984a) or imposing burdens on teachen (Goodlet & Goodlet, 198I ).

Conce~tualIssues According to Bloom ( l984), one-to-one instruction (tutoring) under favorable conditions has the potential to increase academic achievement by two standard deviations. hence the t m ''2-sigma."

Bloom and his fellow researchers at the Chicago School.

demonstrated that children who receive regular and frequent tutoring by professionally accredited instructors typically made gains of this size.

Bloom contended that one-to-one

tutorhg interventions should only be considered successful if gains of this masnitude are attained. Bloom did not provide specific details conceming his use of the term "under favorable conditions." 1 assume that in addition to the professional expertise or accreditation of the tutor. he also had in mind stnicturai and temporal factors such as the level of organization. reylarity and frequency of tutoring interactions, and sustained learning time, al1 of which, in one-to-one tutoring research are collectively tenned "surface conditions." However. evaiuation research on tutoring intervention shows that while surface feanires are essential prerequisites for one-toone tutoring to take place, they are insufficient in thernselves to promote 2-sigma outcomes (Labo & Teale, 1990; Pinnel, Lyons, DeFord, Bryk, & Seltzer, 1994). Wasik and Slavin ( 1993)

provided evidence that the factors that produced such gains are pra&matic

considerations. According to Wasik and Slavin (1993), prapatic considerations involve the nature and quality of the interactions between the tutor and the learner, the affective relationship between the two. and the ability of the tutor to go beyond given precepts of the instmctional program to

seek alternative ways to accommodate learner needs.

The quality of the training and

supervision of tutors may be a critical factor in fostering effective tutoring. The importance given to the pursuit of 2 sigma gains in nonfilial one-to-one tutoring contexts, such as peer and cross-age tutonng, was logical and justifiable in t e m s of the advancement of knowledge and in terms of the practical advantages of securing optimal tutoring effects. However. neither the tacit acknowledgement of Bloom's postulate, nor its significance, have received comparable

attention in extramural parent tutoring research. It is clear that the consequence of this central omission in extramural parent tutoring theory-building and research represents the quintessential difference between extramural parent tutoring research directions. and those manifested in cross-age and peer tutoring contexts (Topping, 1998; Wasik, 1998).

Stnictural and Tem~oraiIssues

Structural and temporal issues (surface issues) are those established factors that essentially distinguish one-to-one tutoring from small and large group instmctional approaches. These surface issues forrn what is termed the "infrastructure" (Cloward, 1967) of the instmctional dyad and exist as preconditions for any constructive and fruithl tutot-ing to take place.

The surface factors include a clear intention to increase learning outcornes.

individualization of the instmctional program, adequate organization. the provision of appropriate instmctional materials, the opportunities for sustained and focused leaming, and regular, frequent and extended tutoring sessions. In nonfilial one-to-one tutoring contexts. these factors are regarded as essential (Cloward, 1967; Labo & Teale. 1990) and were established through theoretical analysis and empincal investigation.

Advocates of parent

tutoring. on the other hand, often view surface factors as optional (Goodlet & GoodIet. 198 1 : Tizard, Schofield. & Hewison, 1982; Vinograd-Bausell. Bausell, Proctor. & Chandler. 1986 and researchers continue to explore whether they are necessary. This continued preoccupation of parent tutoring researchers with surface issues as the review of the literature will show, have deIayed the examination of higher order variables that appear to be associated with Bloom's ( 1984)

2-sigma maximization principle, with the promotion of enduring achievement gains

(Bronfenbrenner, 1974), and with opportunities to close the achievement-gap between at-risk and normally achieving students (Shaywitz et al., 1995; Stanovich, 1986). These higher order

variables have attracted considerable attention from researchers in nonfilial one-to-one tutoring contexts (Juel, 1996; Mathes, Howard, Allen. & Fuchs, 1998; Taylor, Hanson, JusticeSwanson, & Watts, 1997). It is the present investigator's view, that the lack of definitiveness

of parent tutoring research that exists about these issues stems from the confusing of means and ends, and the absence of a strong sense of appreciation of one-to-one tutoring as a distinct instructional entity with its own unique reference points and preconditions. However, it is ais0 clear that while research in nonfilial one-to-one tutoring contexts has gone beyond the surface

issues and has, as a result, ennched Our understanding, it is irnperative that the exact contribution of these structural and temporal elements to tutoring effectiveness be clearly stated and definitively demonstrated, as a first step towards examining higher order principles in extramural parent tutoring (Wasik, 1998).

Pragmatic Issues Pragmatic issues involve options that may be introduced into the instructional dyad beyond the surface conditions. They are the higher order variables previously referred to and which provide the superstructure of one-to-one tutonng.

They may include. according to

Wasik and Slavin (1993), the need to educate and train the tutor. consideration of the stritus and role of the tutor as dependent, subsidiary or autonomous decision-maker and innovator in delivery of the instructional program. the character of the instructional program itself. the nature and quality of the interactions between the tutor and the student, and the presencc 01' community-based supportive mechanisms such as networking and tutors assisting other tutors. It wilI be shown in the literature review that the education and training of t h e tutor wcrc

found to be critical if tutoring were to be effective in nonfilial one-to-one tutoring contc'rts. and in those contexts such as Home Schools, Head Start, family literacy and large-scale cornmunit!.

involvement programs and initiatives. However, this is not a generally held truism in thc context of extramural parent tutoring.

In the studies specifically devoted to cvaluating

extramural parent tutoring, despite the fact that parents are generaily given some form of training and guidance, the importance of so doing is neither fully explored nor its significancc to the realization of program goals explicitly stated. Equally significant is the absence of a clear conceptualization or expectation of what benefits education and training confer to parents. In

the contexts of nonfilial tutoring, Home Schools, Head Start, family literacy and large-scale

community involvement programs and initiatives, education and training hold benefits for both tutor and tutored, and they act as a mechanism in the promotion of substantial and lasting gains in learning outcornes. In parent tutoring research, the need to train parents (whether rninimally

or systematicdly) continues to be debated and has led to considerable vacillation on the part of practitioners as to the merits of investing time in the provision of training programs. There exists in parent tutoring a critical need to resolve the issue of whether training is a necessary prerequisite to program success.

In much of the parent tutoring research the parent is generaily subservient to pro,oram goals and superimposed commercial instructional approaches, and not afTorded opportunities to choose suitable instructional methods or creatively manipulate the methods they are instructed to use to suit the needs and Ieaming styles of the child (Bergan, Newman, & Karp. 1983:

Buckley, 1985; Leach & Siddall, 1990). Yet, in other contexts such as in cross-age tutoring (Juel, 1991 ). effective parent tutoring programs in Head Start (Levenstein, 1970). farnily iireracy programs (Toomey & Sloane, 1994) and in the large-scale community involvement programs (Moses, Kamii, Swap, & Howard, 1989) tutors are given considerable freedom to act independentiy in interfacing the existing instructional program with learner needs: furthemore. parents are dominant forces in determining the realization of program goals and philosophies. In the contexts referred to, the psychosocial well-king of parents is carefully nurtured and their confidence and sense of seIf-efficacy increased through a variety of selfenhancing approaches. Parents in al1 of these contexts occupy dominant roles. are afforded that status and are viewed as worthy as the child is of careful study. Therefore, it is clear that the need to investigate the effects of the pragmatic variables on children's school achievement and on parents themselves appears to be a logical next step in parent tutoring research.

Em~iricalIssues Empirical issues involve the quality of the existing research, the methods used and the reliability of the results. In parent tutoring, the scope, the vigor, the sophistication of research design and the definitiveness of the results have been severely lirnited by three factors (~Macleod.1995: Topping & Wolfendale, 1995): a) the absence of a common language penaining to conceptual issues; b) the gravitaiion towards questions of structural and temporal importance and the failure to resolve hem; and c) the delay in proceeding to the examination of pragmatic issues. The review of the literature in parent tutoring wilI show that the number of studies that c m be considered acceptable in design (Shapero & Forbes, 1981) and both definitive and reliable in their results is meager (Thurston & Dasta, 1990). Funhermore. the generalizability of the results in aimost al1 of the studies no matter what their level of acceptance is lirnited; they are narrowly focused on young children's reading at the elementary grades

(Becher. 1985: ISBE, 1993) to the exclusion of parents. The lack of rigor in research design and methodology is manifested in the use of designs without control groups and the

conspicuous absence of inferential statistics in many of the studies. The need to pursue the existing issues in parent tutoring and the advantages in effectively resoIving them by using acceptable empirical methodologies is clear. It is dso overdue.

Obkctives of the Present Studv The present study has five objectives: To examine the impact of parent tutoring under trained conditions using the Parents as Tutors Program) (PTP) on the academic achievement of low achieving children in grades

K to 6. To compare the effects of parent tutoring on children's academic achievement when parents are trained to tutor their own children. with informa1 tutoring, where parents are not trained.

3 . To investigate the degree to which parent training in tutoring skills affects parents' selfconfidence in their ability to tutor their own children. 4.

To investigate the effect of parent training on the frequency with which parents tutor their own children.

5.

To identify the aspects of the parent training that parents view as most helpful in irnproving their skills in tutoring their children.

Practical Importance of the Present Studv In the 1990s educational changes combined with govemment underfunding of and cutbacks to critical prograrns in schools, have placed more of the responsibility of educating students on parents.

Curiously, these debilitating changes have not corne without moral

justification for entisting the support of parents:

As surely as you are your children's most important teachers, your children's ideas about education and its significance begin with you. Moreover, you bear a responsibility to participate actively in your children's education. (The National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983. p. 12) With change has also corne what many contemporary teachers refer to as "cumculum

dumping"; the inordinate amount of content to be covered within the constraints of available instructional time. Hence Shockey's (1984) larnent, "The teacher can't do it all." So, while teachers resist extensions to the school day and to the school year, parents are more frequently being asked to help their children with learning at home. But as has been shown, teachers who solicit parents' help in tutoring their children, are not able to provide them with the solid support they need to make their timecornmitrnents productive and effective (Cervone & O'Leary, 1966; Corner, 1989; Epstein, 1986). Teachers are literally caught in a catch-22 situation; they need parental participation and support but lack the necessary skills and

information to provide it; so they vacillate and abstain, or provide conflicting advocacies (Epstein, 1986). This point aiso ties in with homework. A vast amount of literature has endorsed homework (Doyle & Barber. 1990; Otto,

1985: Paschal. Weinstein, & Walberg, 1984) as a legitimate and effective way of enhancing

educational productivity by increasing insüuctionai time through and into the cumculum of the home (BIoom. 1974; Doyle & Barber, 1990; Frederick, 1983; Otto, 1985; Walberg, 1984a.

1984b: Paschal, Weinstein, & Walberg, 1984). Whether parents' interest in the possibilities and the proclaimed opportunities for assisting in the chiidren's schoolwork through extramural tutoring is acquired volitionally, or whether it has been suggested or thmst upon them by schools. is almost immaterial to the reality, that in either event, parents need and deserve educated and reasoned advice. Educators cannot provide such guidance when they are unsure about the effectiveness of extramural parent tutoring.

This sense of insecurity promotes

feelings of ambivalence in parents who may completeiy refrain from any efforts to tutor their children. or turn to unrealistic quick-fix commercial programs to help them instead (Delpit. 1988: Lightfoot. 1978).

The pressures on parents and conflicts they and educators face in bridging the gap between home and schooI (Hendrikse, 1992), suggest that there is a need to "fix the le&? roof' (Kameenui. 1993. p. 376) of extramural parent tutoring. It would be folly. for those of

us who see legitimate virtues in parents regularly and systematically working w-iih their chiIdren on schoolwork at home, to remove ourselves from the necessary obIigation 01providing extramural parent tutoring with the authority and enlightened advocacy thai i t c1early needs.

Theoretical Pers~ectivesUnderlving the Parents As Tutors Proeram The Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)(Appendix B) is the intervention employed and evaluated in the current study. The PTP rests on the principle that if parents wish to tutor their

children they should be provided with appropnate knowiedge and skills to increase their tutorhg expertise. The PTP anempts to do so systematically through a series of consecutive two-hour training sessions or workshops in Reading (two sessions). Anthmetic Computation, Arithmetic Problem Solving, Writing Skills, Spelling Skik, Study Skills. and Organizational Ski 11s.' While each training session involved approximately two hours of instructional and

interactional time, an additional haif-hour was added for individual consultation and guidance with instructors. The PTP was designed by the present investigator in coliaboration with several educators and colleagues and successfulIy field-tested on two separate occasions. In the study the present investigator and two teachers, who were trained in the principles of the PTP, sewed as instmctors. A detailed description of the organization, content and delivery principles is contained in the PTP Manual (Appendix B) and described in sorne detail in this thesis.

The Need to Train Parents - Rationale

The theoreticai reasons and justification for educating and training parents in tutoring know Iedge. skills and instructional strategies go beyond matters of imrnediate expediency thai parents want help, or that training helps to increase parents tutoring effectiveness (Topping k Wolfendale. 1985),to the universai notion that education and training confer benefits upon flic seif in direct ways. and collaterally upon significant others (Laosa. 1982; Schzictc.i-. 1991. Voyadanoff. 1987). Thus, the ùenefits that accrue to parents as a consequence

ot'

the PTP

intervention consist of increase in knowledge about tutoring, the acquisition of orgrinizational skills. the developrnent of tutoring expertise, and enhanced perceptions of self-worth and effectiveness. When tutored by their more competent and proficient parents children benefii b! way of increased motivation, leaming and achievement (Clarke-Stewart, 1988: Grolnick & Ryan, 1989). It is therefore thought that by training parents to enhance their tutoring knowledge and to increase their tutoring proficiency, more constructive and productive

' The workshops in Study and Organizational Skills were not included in the intervention in the currcnr study.

alternative ways of interacting with their children particularly within the context of academic tutoring would be achieved (Elkind, 1986; Gordon, 1977).

The Process of Educatin~and Trainino - Parents in the PTP The PTP narrows the field of parent participation in their children's leamine by

focusing specifically on the nature, the usefulness and the possibilities of one-to-one tutoring and on the extramural nitoring of school-related acadernic skills within the elementary school curriculum. The purpose of informing parents about one-to-one tutoring is to enhance their knowledge of its potential to drarnatically enhance their children's learning and the organizational or structural features that have to be in place if tutoring is to be worthwhile. The conditions of effective tutoring (Appendix B) are therefore presented in the first training session as it establishes the foundations for subsequent tutorhg interactions. This initial training session is considered perhaps the most critical aspect of the PTP. The purpose of educating parents in aspects of the school cumculum is to enhance their understanding of the concepts and language of their children's school program. This process of demystification prevails throughout the training sessions and is therefore seen as a source of personal ernpowerment which understanding brings. The academic skills taught to parents and the stratepies used to present hem are cumculum-tied; hence an interface exists between the PTP and the children's classroom program. which is in keeping with the recommendations made by Macleod ( 1995). Each training session adheres to an established format (Appendix B) which allows for theory-building, explication. interactions and the development of practical expertise through modeling of strategies. simuiations and CO-operativegroup work. and the application of what h a ï been demonstrated and practised to the parents' own children. Parents are assisted in

mapping out a learning profile for their child which includes a statement of needs and instructional objectives.

Parents are also shown how to select appropriate instructional

strategies and materials based on these profiles for tutoring purposes. These processes are

consistent with the general principles of effective pedagogy as outlined in seminal writings on the subject (Gagné, 1977; Glassner, 1993; Hewit & Whittier. 1997), with the specific

principles of prescriptive teaching (Bachor & Crealock, 1986), and with current views on the aduIt as leamer (Gayie, 1990; Knowles, 1990). It is consistent also with the view that individuals may construct their own understanding and exercise their own volition from what is oiven a

(Brown. Collins & Duguid, 1989; Fosnot, 1996: Steffe & Gale, 1995).

.Models of Instruction

The PTP incorporates and presents three distinct models of instruction which can be

placed on a conceptuai continuum. The Discovery Learning Model (Bronfenbrenner. 1974c: Reigeluth & Stein, 1983) and the Direct Instruction Mode1 (Becker, 1978: Englemann. 1980: Peterson, 1979) are the two extremes of the continuum. Located somewhere between these two instructional approaches is the Interactive Learning Model (Hilligoss, 1992; Palincsar. 1986; Weisberg, 1988).

NI of these instructionai approaches are based on considerable

literanire and sound theoreticai principles. As these are the dominant rnodels that form the instructional foundations of parent-child tutoring interactions within the context of the PTP, their theory and instmctional applications are emphasized in the first training session, and their specific applications in promoting the delivery of tutoring strategies are demonstrated in context in each of the ensuing workshops. While parents are provided with clear insights into these

methods, they are not coerced into using them either singularly or in combination in their tutorhg sessions. That parents should be the ultimate arbiters of what instmctional methoci works best with their children is a respected axiom of the PTP. So too is parent fidelity in reponing the instmctional methods and materials used in tutonng their children.

This is

accomplished through parents maintaining tutoring logs (Appendix A-9), and in the context of the current study, a self-reporting questionnaire (Appendix A-6) involving strategies and resources that parents find most usefi11 in their tutoring sessions and in open sharing sessions with their peers.

The Instructional StrateThe PTP provides on average ten instructional strategies for each of the major ski11 and sub-ski11 areas (Appendix B) which are Reading (Pnmary) (10 strategies), Reading (Junior) ( 10

strategies), Phonics ( 1 1 strategies), Reading Comprehension ( 10 strategies), Arithmetic

Computation ( 10 strategies),Arithmetic Word Problems ( 10 strategies). Written Langage ( I 3 strategies), Spelling (10 strategies), Homework (Organizational Skills) (10 strategies). and Study Skills (8 suategies). While each strategy is described in detail in Appendix B, they are sufficiently open-ended to aIlow for some improvisation in their presentation in the training sessions.

These strategies were selected from a variety of sources for their reputed

effectiveness in helping children increase their acquisition of school-related skills, and for their practical usefulness in one-to-one tUt0ring in the context of the home.

Each strategy is

demonstrated by one of the instructors; this is followed by parents modeling them with their peers. The instructors would further assist in the modeling process when pain of parents require additional suppon. A variety of typical student difficulties in the context of the specific

skill areas are simulated and presented for parents to respond to using the most appropriate choice of strategy. Next. parents are requested to select from the menu of strategies provided, or to produce strategies of their own, that appear to be consistent with the learning profile of their children and to share this with the group.

The freedom of parents to choose those

strategies that they see as most suitable to their children's needs, places a sense of ownership on parents. Furthemore, it is consistent with the procedures in effective parent involvement programs wherein parents act knowledgeably and autonomously on behalf of their children.

The Status and Role of the Parent in the PTP Parents are considered worthy of making reliable decisions about what 1s best for their children. A major principle underlying the PTP is that they can do so more authontatively when given appr~priateknowledge and skills. In the PTP parents form part of a community

with cornmon interests and destinies-the

improving of their children's learning through

extramural tutoring, and the enhancement of their own behaviors through workshop attendance and through the act of tutoring itself. The accommodations made in the PTP to attempt to promote the conditions of collegiality, sharing, and helping are rooted in the principles of cooperative learning and comrnunity-based support networks (Gordon, 1977; Johnson & Johnson, 1986). The PTP in rnicrocosm is designed to rnimic the shared experiences, common destinies and networking of the extremely successful farnily literacy and large-scale community involvement programs that are described in Chapter 2. In the PTP parents are models to other parents; parents through their participation and contributions help other parents deveiop ownership of the program itself. This level of transformation and ownership is associated with empowerment, which in itself, is considered a crucial mechanism for promoting drarnatic and positive changes in children (Moses, Kamii, Swap. & Howard. 1989).

The PTP as an Instructional Svstem

In terms of its conceptudization, organization, and deIivery, the FTP takes into account and reflects sound theoretical principles from a variety of reputable sources as shown. As

ri

system it is. however. flexible and open to change. It is a system built on the right of parents to ultimately decide what is best for their children by presenting parents with a body of wcllhoned. tfieoretically and practically sound choices and alternatives.

The PTP attempts to take parents beyond attention to the surface issues of one-to-onc

tutoring into the realm of essentially exercising their own volition, maturity and creativity. into developing the kind of program chat will approach Bloom's (1984) 2-sigma standard in its overall effectiveness. The PTP is designed to provide parents with the enlightened advocacy of understanding what one-to-one tutoring is al1 about, to put in place the necessary preconditions for its successful operation, and then to manipulate and expand the system in directions most favorable to the achieving of maximum benefits for their children's academic progress and their

very own personal growth. The central purpose of the present investigation is to assess e -

potency of parent tutoring when parents are traîned using the m.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

The literanires that encompass parent-child tutoring interactions and their reported outcomes are located in several distinct contexts.

These contexts are Head Start

(Bronfenbrenner, 1972; Lazar, 1979); home schools (Gustafson, 1988; Knowles, 1988; Lines, 1987: Wartes, 1988); family literacy programs and initiatives (Nickse, 1990; Toomey & Sloane. 1 99 1, 1994: Wolfendale & Topping, 1995): the large-scale community involvement projects of the inner cities of the United States, herein referred to as megaprojects (Cochran & Henderson. 1986; Corner, 1986, 1989: Gordon, 1977; Moses, Kamii, Swap, & Howard. 1989); school-board reports, surveys and syntheses (Becher, 1985; Gillum, 1977; ISBE, 1993: Moles, 1982: Walberg, Bole, & Waxman, 1 %O), and in individual research studies in

the United States and the United Kingdom. Parent-chiid tutoring interactions in each of these contexts will be briefly presented as to their distinguishing features, their overall respective contributions to the enhancement of children's learning. their unique contribution to our understanding of parent tutoring applications and the extent to which, either individually or collectively, they provide insights into the prevailing uncertainties in extramural parent tutoring. Considerably greater focus and detailed criticai analysis will be devoted to the individual ernpiricd studies themselves as only these studies narrowly and exclusively focus upon extramural tutoring and their direct effects

on children's school achievement under controlled conditions. Studies involving parent-child tutoring interactions in the other contexts will be excluded from detailed analysis for two

reasons: either these studies do not focus exclusively on parent tutoring as an independent variable in contnbuting to children's learning outcomes (as in Home Schools, family literacy prograrns and the megaprojects), or when they do (as in Head Start), the outcomes are stated as preschool achievements. Further delimitations will be imposed to include only a selected group of individual empirical studies: the grounds for excluding studies wilf be presented below. While al1 of these contexts have in coinmon parent-child tutoring interactions either as a singular discrete and explicit instructional approach to directly increasing children's achievement. or as one of several mechanisms used in consort to enhance children's Iearning. there exist considerable differences and variations among them. These include: the role and status of the parent in delivering the tUt0nng or instructional program;

the duration and intensity of training provided for parents to enhance their tutoring skills. program organization, management and delivery; the attention devoted to parents' psychological weI1-being as a consequence both of training and ongoing tutoring transactions, and the possible relationship between discernible personal changes and children's motivation and learning; the conditions of tutoring and the provision of guidelines and instructional materials: the frequency and duration of tutonng sessions and the [email protected] of the program itself; the research rnethods employed with respect to study-design, the collection, analysis and interpretation of the data; and finally. the specific purpose of the tutoring program. These salient differences between one parent tutoring context and another have made intercontext comparisons as to their relative effectiveness in enhancing children's leaming almost impossible. For similar reasons, comparisons involving individual empirical studies have likewise presented similar challenges, as Topping (1995) has pointed out.

Parent-Child tut or in^ Interactions in Different Contexts -

As a publicly sanctioned and organized endeavor, parent mtoring may very well have its origins in one of the greatest educational experirnents in the history of Western education -Head

Start. Parent tutoring was one of several educational approaches employed

in Head Start's early intervention studies to enhance the cognitive, language and achievement behaviors of very Young, preschool children (Bronfenbrenner, 1974). Despite the uncertainties that prevail as to the effectiveness of parent tutoring approaches in Head Start (Becker, 1978), studies by Beller (1972) and Karnes (1973) demonstrated two important principles. The first is that parent tutoring effectiveness in early intervention can be achieved and its effects maximized when the parent is the primary or dominant and not the subsidiary or secondary deliverer of the intervention program.

This

observation is clearly demonstrated by comparing the outcomes of the different parent tutonng approaches used in Head Start, a fact which is conceded by analyses of global as opposed to specific outcomes. The principle of parent autonomy and ascendancy is clearly demonstrated in these studies wherein the parent is the major and not the secondary nor the ancillary instructor of the child, and wherein the parent cm use herhis own discretion in adjusting the program to the child's needs. Second, the utiiization of a strong language-oriented program (verbal stimulation) in combination with parental autonomy (Karnes, 1973; Levenstein. 1970; Seitz, 1976) promoted learning gains which are, according to Tjossem's (1976) criteria of successfui intervention, immediate, durabie and diffuse. These findings point to the necessity for a verbally interactive as opposed to a static parent-tutoring instructional environment for program effectiveness.

The present investigator's analysis of the parent delivery-mode

programs in Head Start h a led him to conclude that Levenstein's ( 1970) language-based early intervention mode], in which the mothers enjoyed considerable autonomy in interacting with their children, secured drarnatic and permanent learning and developmental gains. These gains were not only superior to other parent delivery-mode intervention programs in Head Start

wherein the elements of verbal interaction and parental autonomy were not emphasized, but superior aiso to nonparent delivered early intervention prograrns.

- in Home Schools Parent Tutorino

Parent tutoring in Home Schools represents a curious phenomenon. Firstly, in home schooling parents not only instruct and tutor their own children, they are, by-and-large their children's only teachers. Secondly, despite the existence of a growing and persuasive body of Iiterature (KnowIes. 1988: Lines, 1987; Mayben-y, 1988), there is a certain mystique about what goes on in Home Schools even though they are sometimes open to public scnitiny. What is known is that Home Schools have their own ethos; parents do collaborate, net-work. selfeducate and they do indeed team-teach, pool resources and hire extemal expertise to further resource the children in more challenging aspects of the equivalent high school curriculum (Gustafson, 1988). However, the status of one-to-one instruction. while constituting a significant portion of daily instruction, is not clearly defined and its exact contribution to children's learning outcomes not readily quantifiable. Wartes' (1988) analysis of home school students' performance against several cornparison bands of cohorts in the Alaska Public Schools showed superior outcomes by home school students on state examinations in critical subject areas. Further, contrary to popular misconceptions, measures of self-esteem sho~ved no deleterious effects of home schooling on children either in the short or long term. Wright's ( 1988) criticism of the educational and philosophical underpinnings of Home Schools as a middle-class, privileged bastion, raised serious misgivings about Wanes' findings and conclusions. Wright stated that the achievement scores of home school children were high because of their middle-class socioeconomic status, and that they should be compared to children of sirnikir socioeconomic status attending traditional schoois. Whatever the veracity of Wartes' findings and the moral and empirical counters by Wright, what Home Schools demonstrate is that parents can ably tutor their own children for extended periods of time and that self-education and training are critical cornponents to their expertise. Fu rthermore, Home

Schools represent a virtual closed-system educational laboratory where opportunities for individuaiizing children's instructional needs are facilitateci and carried out unintempted over an extended period of time. If Wartes is right, it means that Home Schools have proven to be more effective in using available insüuctionai time productively than public schools.

This

critical difference between the two contexts explains why the former may have a fax- greater impact on students' academic achievement than the latter.

There is therefore much that

advocates of extramural parent tutoring, and indeed public school educators can learn from Home Schools.

Parent Tutorino in Famiiv Literacv Contexts It is said that the best way to define "family literacy" is to see it working in action and to talk to the people involved (Cairney & Munsie. 1995). While this is probably so. it is clear

from the literature that family literacy represents both a progression and a depanure from the earlier rather restricted involvement of parents in their children's reading. and subsequently. in their children's literacy. In family literacy the scope widens and s o does the role of the parent. Greater attention is given to ecological factors within the home. within the community. and wi thin the school that contribute to children's acquisition of positive literacy att irudes. hribi r.4 and skills.

But it doesn't stop there; farnily literacy becomes a platform for social aiid

institutional change (Wolfendale & Topping. 1995). and the foundations for the tranrformatioii of persona1 and comrnunity consciousness to the realization of new possibilities I o r childrcii and parents alike. The fundamental purpose of farnily literacy. as stated by Caimey and Munsie ( 1 995). "... to involve parents more intimately in the literacy development of ihçir chiidren" (p. 394) is never lost in this dynamic: parents l e m to read by reading to ihcir children. The purpose of parent-child mtoring interactions in family literacy programs is io address children's literacy needs in the first instance, to provide models for parents in the community to emulate (parents train other parents), and to act as a springboard to nddress

community and institutional issues and to affect social change. This "fanning-process" is characteristic of the three-stage approach used by the family literacy projects and programs in the United Kingdom and Australia. which may often take decades to complete and may involve several communities and substantial numbers of participants (Topping & Wolfendale. 1995). Several pro*garns and initiatives in the U-K. and in Australia best reflect the philosophy and goals of farnily literacy:

Branston's ( 1 995) ten-year CAPER program, Cairney and

Munsie's ïTALL Project (1995), Hancock and Gale's (1995) PACT scheme, Toomey and SIoane's ( 199 1. 1994) West Heidelberg Early Literacy Project, and PhiIl i p's ( 1995) twenty-

year Sydney Farnily Literacy Program. But it is Caimey and Munsie's ( 1995) TTALL Project (Talk To A Literacy Leamer) that perhaps best captures the spirit of farnily Iiteracy in its broadest sense. The TTALL project was first introduced a decade ago in a suburb of Sydney. Australia which manifested ail of the material, social and psychological imponderables associated with the "inner city." First introduced in two elementq schools the number of schools now participating in the project is estimated as exceeding one hundred. The imrnediate goal of the

TfALL Project was to improve parent and child attitudes to literacy and to enhance children's school achievement in al1 aspects of literacy development. The education of parents was seen as a critical element in this process; so too were the improvement of parental confidence and the

confidence of children and teachers. Parents were educated in the philosophy of family Iiteracy and trained in the principles of tutoring. These parents "outreached" and taught other parents in the community and together, as an empowered force, influenced school program and policies. The linchpin of family literacy progress is provided by the systematic education of parents in the philosophy and goals of family literacy, and in the imrnediate and ongoing training of parents in parent-child literacy enhancing interactions wherein ongoing extramural parent tutoring is prominent.

Furthemore, scrupulous attention is devoted to the self-

development of parents through self-confidence and self-efficacy enhancement initiatives to

better prepare them for successful involvements in cornmunity matters and for changes in career choices. in the long tem. The success of farnily literacy programs in enhancing children's literacy development concerns us here. It is imponant to observe that the evaluative process of family literacy effects on children's learning is based on long-term expectations, is forever unfolding in response to new demands: furthermore, the results are usbally expressed in both qualitative and quantitative terms. Important also is that no single variable or influence such as parent tutoring is seen to be the most critical element in detennining the outcomes (Phillips. 1995). The 'ITALL Project

produced good qudity process data (Topping & Wolfendale, 1995) showing positive changes in both children's academic achievement and parental behaviors, in cornparison with randomly

selected control groups. Children's outcome data included results in specific literacy skills such as reading comprehension, vocabulary, spelling and reading attitudes. Parental behavior outcomes included confidence ratings in parent-child interactions, school and community involvement. and personal aspirations and efficacy. The positive results obtained in the ?TALL Project are manifested also in other family literacy programs (Nickse, 1990, 1993).

such as those previously listed. What is important to Our understanding of extramural parent tutorinz in these programs is that it is both a vehicle for short-term learning enhancements and for the realization of long-term program goals. To these ends it is supported by ongoing parent education and community involvement. Its effectiveness is further bolstered by the nurtunng of parental self-confidence and their aspirations to the Iùlfillment of persona1 goals. Parent tutoring in family literacy then is both a means and end, and its influence embedded and almost indistinguishable from the ecologies of the prograrns themselves.

Parent Tutonno - in the Me~a~roiects The term "megaprojects" was coined by this investigator to connote the large-scale, enduring community involvement programs of the inner cities of the United States whose

purpose was to address educational inequalities and social disadvantage. These megaprojects

such as Armor's ( 1976) "Community Involvement Program," Comell University's "Family Matters Project" (Cochran & Dean, 199I ), Gordon's "Parent Education hvolvement Program" (Binford & Newell, 199l), Moses, Kamii, Swap, and Howard's ( 1989) "Algebra Project," share several comrnon features with the farnily literacy programs in the U.K. and Australia. These shared features relate to scope, size and life-span of the projects, social and institutionai goals, breadth and intensity of comrnunity involvement in schools. and the extreme devotion to the education and the psychological well-king of parents. The immersion of parent tutoring in the general fabric of procedures used to enhance children's leaming and school achievement is another shared feature. In these megaprojects, however, parent-assisted learning, whether carried out in the home or in the school, is of paramount importance in addressing a wide range of school-performance outcomes which may include personal responsibility. discipline.

attendance and self-esteem and academic progress. Drarnatic and lasting effects on students' achievement in reading, writing and mathematics are also reported and several writers have suggested that the megaprojects may very well provide the ideai environment and support systems that prornote maximum student achievement (Bemphechat, 1990; Corner. 1986. 1989: Swap, 1990). What sharply distinguishes the megaprojects from their farnily literacy counterparts, however. are the unequivocal and vibrant sociopoliticd overtones and expressions of empowerment to which the megaprojects expiicitly aspire, but which for the family literacy programs constitute an option. A brief description and analysis of a single example of the megaprojects, the "Algebra Project," will show the dominant charactenstics of

this unique parent involvement approach and the critical part that parent tutorhg plays in prornoting students' academic achievement.

The "Algebra Project" (Moses, Kamii, Swap, & Howard. 1989) best refiects the principles of the megaprojects in a compact and cleariy delineated fom: it also shares their dramatic successes. The project addressed the systemic exclusion of African American high school students from college onented mathematics programs in several high schools in Washington.

Students' negative perceptions of their ability to succeed in high school

mathematics, limited parental expectations, beliefs and aspirations for themselves and for their children, as well as restricted comrnunity awareness of their rights and obligations. were aii considered greater barriers to program inclusion and success than ability alone. While parents were systernaticaily trained to tutor their own children in high school mathematics. self-efficacy and self-confidence enhancement prograrns for both parents and their children were provided by the Howard Institute. Parent involvement in learning enhancing comrnunity projects and in

their children's high schools proceeded accordingly. The progress of successive groups of students in selected high school mathematics programs, the psychosocial development of parents and their children, and the responsiveness of those high schools targeted by the Algebra Project, were evaluated over a five year period. The results of the Algebra Project showed significant academic, personal, social and institutional achievernents which were consistent with those reported in the other megaprojects. Successive groups of AfrîcanAmerican students not only significantly increased in nurnbers upon entering previously limited high school mathematics courses, but obtained grades equal or superior to school norms. After graduation many students continued their studies in mathematics at postsecondan institutions and several pursued skill-related careers.

As a consequence of their own training and

participation in tutoring programs coupIed with the support provided by the Howard Institutc. parents experienced positive persona1 changes: these changes included alternati vc cxccr possibilities and choices and the pursuit of studies in higher education. Fundamental c h a n p were affected in school policy and governance consistent with the project's inclusiw

C Lho?;.

Parent-Child Tutorin-- Interactions in Survevs. Svntheses and Re~orts There exists a disparate body of literature which consists of reports of parent-child tutoring initiatives conducted by various educationai institutions and social agencies. Thesc reports are contained in several analyses, surveys and syntheses which descrihe parent participatory practices and involvement in children's education (Becher, 1985: Bemphechat. 1990; Burns, 1982; Gillum, 1977; ISBE, 1993; Moles, 1982; Swap, 1990; Walberg. Bole, CS:

27 Waxman, I W O ; Wolfendale, 1994). Whatever their origin, their orientations, sources of their empirical evidence and substantiations, these reports present a positive picture of the effectiveness of parental involvement in advancint children's learning. The direct effect of parent tutoring upon children's school performance and achievement is expressed as trends and general outcomes in these reports.

Back-up

information, when provided, is presented in atknuated and sketchy format, the ostensible purpose of which is to convey the purpose of involvement, global outcomes and trends, and the exhortation for continued research.

The tone of this body of Iiterature is generdly

optimistic, nonpolemical and unequivocally encouraging of direct parent participation through turoring in their children's reading in particular. There is no disguise either overtly or covertly that these contextual contributions are the final word on parent tutoring, nor for that matter, that the results generated by different forrns of parent tutoring applications are absolutely diable and incontestable and that the gains achieved by children are permanent. There are, in fact. constant reminders to the effect that the results are to be treated "with caution," that parent-chifd tutoring interactions c m be best enhanced by broader comrnunity support base. and by continued professional support and involvement. The generai absence of precision regarding the preparation of parents for tutoring, the provision of materiais and guidelines. and the

frequency and duration of tutonng interactions, as well as their general iack of specificity and concIusiveness separate these contributions from individually published empirical studies. It is for these reasons that the literature, while rooted in empirical research and routinely optimistic in its endorsement of parent-assisted Iearning, falls outside the orbit of more detailed scnitiny and analysis in the present literature review.

Summarv To summarize, the literature on parent-tutoring interactions reflects variability in terms of: (a) the range of learning environments in which parents are asked to participate; (b) the resilience of parents to adapt to hem; (c) the significant care and attention devoted to almost dl

facets of parental well-king and development in the majority of prograrns; and (ci) parent beliefs about the contributions they make to their children's learning and deveiopment. Several specific and critical shared elements, however, appear to enhance parental participation and tutoring effectiveness above al1 else, and which advocates of and researchers in extrarnunl parent tutorhg should be fully cognizant of: the importance of the education and training of parents;

the status of the parent and the favorable effects of parental autonomy; the importance of the psychologicai welfare of the parent and benefits to self-development through participation in the program; the opportunities afforded by the sheer duration of the progams for parents to become fully conversant with instructional procedures and employ them in unique ways to suit their children's changing needs and their own tutoring styles; a convergence toward a cornmon and shared cumculum between the home and the school;

entire cornmunity involvement and the supporting ethos this creates; the presence of an underlying philosophy or ethos of the existing projects and initiatives as

described in the above that goes beyond the narrow confines of specific ski11 orientations.

Emvincal Studies of Extramural Parent Tutoring

Eighteen studies whose purpose was to evaluate the effects of extramural parent tutorhg on the school achievement of children at the elementary or secondary school levels are described in this section. The studies which fa11 into this category were published individually in scholarly research journals in the U.S. and U.K. or as part of a collection of studies in a

single compendium such as in Topping and Wolfendale's (1985) text on parent involvement in their children's reading.

Not al1 of these studies, however, are included in this detailed

presentation and analysis. The first constraint pertains to the date of publication of the study. It is apparent from the Iiterature that studies conducted prior to 1980 are fully replicated by later

studies and the existing issues perhaps more exhaustively treated. Thus, out of expediency and to preclude unnecessary duplication. only the studies conducted and published after 1980 are included although, where appropriate, reference wiIl be made to earlier studies. A second delimitation is imposed, and this has to do with methodology.

Several individual studies

contained in the Topping and Wolfendale (1985) collection are nonexperimental in design and rely more on qualitative than quantitative measures of tutoring program effectiveness. This exclusionary measure is waived in the case of studies which despite their shortcomings, attempt to approach the presiding issues in creative ways, provide new insights, and point to new directions more rïgorous research should take in resolving them. Therefore these studies

are included more for the questions they raise and seek to address than for their stated results. Al 1 of the studies included are arranged in chronological order in Table 1 . There are two parts to this analysis. The first part is a brief survey of the characteristics of the studies: the second part addresses their major findings.

Studv Characteristics

Of the 18 studies reviewed (see Table l ) , 2 were classified as nonexperimental in design. 9 as preexperimental and 7 as tme experimental according to the combined classificatory formats devised by Campbell and Stanley (1966) and Shapero and Forbes (198 1 ) respectively. Two of the studies specifically focus on preschool children, 1 on secondary school students and the remaining 15 studies on elementary school-age children. Fifteen of the 18 studies focused on young children's reading (word-accuracy or wordrecognition skills and reading comprehension) exclusively. One study focused on the wnting skills of secondary school students (Dolan & Caroselli, 1982). The study of Goodlet and Goodlet (198 1 ) assumed a broader perspective by including spelling and mathernatics; the study by Thurston and Dasta (1990) also included spelling. One study (Bergan. Newman. &

Karp, 1983) exarnined the effect of tutoring on preschool children's learning of two intellectual tasks.

V I .

24

8

E

-2

g r msz, 3

\3

,- 3 -132 g =.

t

O

1 33 s. 2 . E 2:

C

,i

!-

2;; BO= ; . rrt: t

Table I

4iit lior (s) -

(cont'd.)

IDarliçipaiits . -

---

Hcasori for ï'utorii~g

- -- .. . -. -- --- .-

- - -- -

3 groiips of 1 iiiigiiitz, G . clcnicritary school cliildrcn l985)** of Asian rlescciit frorii 3 diffcrciit schools. (11-24) CA='?

Siibject arca (s) -- - -

- -

('oiiipoiieii t s of program - .

.-

teridiiig (Word l'est the bxogiiiiioii riiitl lcxihiliiy of ?aircd Reading 'oiiiprclicrisioii ). ipproacli wiili 13SI. siiidciits.

I'arciits iii grtmps A and 13 ~ i v c itraiiiiiig i aiid lioriic visits. (iroiip C parciils wcrc dirccicd to Iicar cliildrcii rcad biii rio iraiiiiiig was givcii.

l'liai Paircd Reading caii bc iiicffcctivc iutoriiig iiiciliod for al1 iypcs o f cliildrcn.

3 training

M/t:+

-Mixcd ability vlillcr, A., children )ohson, D, n=54 with ~'coinparablc" Ir hishcll, R. sizc conlrol groiip. l985)* CA=')- IO MIT;='?

-

-

Priiiiary school .) Narcing, 1.. agcd cliildrcii froni 3 l98S)** diffcrcni scliools n= 15 (13) 1i=15 (C).

CA='! MIF=?

- - .- - . -

-

. Trained Parent Group" (ITPG) and consisted of 43 parents. The other group of 42 parents. herein referred to as the "Delayed Trained Parent Group" (DTPG), received training from

January to April. If two parents participated in the study they attended together. Parents were divided into the treament (ITPG) and wait-list control groups (DTPG) according to the foIlowing procedures: 1.

Parents were infomed that because of sheer numbers it was necessary to run two back-toback sessions, the first starting in the Fa11 and the second, in the Winter, and ihat this exigency would actually facilitate the conducting of the intended study by this investigator.

2.

Given this information, parents were requested to choose the session most appropriate to their own schedules in the first instance but to be prepared to consider a voluntary rnove from one session to another should the numbers in one session be disproportionately higher than the other. As it turned out, parents' choice of session were fairly evenly distributed: forty-eight

parents actually preferred to attend the second session: five of these parents reconsidered and joined the first group through change in plans a week later.

Treatrnent gr ou^ (ITPG)

The ITPG was comprised of 43 parents (34 mothers, 9 fathers). They had 43 children

(32 boys, 1 1 girls) who participated in the study. The children ranged in age from 5 years I month to 1 1 years 9 months, with a mean age of 8 years 6 months. A description of the children in tems of their grade and other pertinent demographics is shown in Table 2. Of the 43 children, 9 boys and 4 girls were identified as having a mild intellectuai exceptionstlity. 7

other boys and 1 other girl as having a moderate behavior disorder, and 8 other boys as having

a learning disability. Six other boys and 1 girl were viewed by their teachers as being at-risk but were not formally identified. Nine children in the above (7 boys, 2 girls) received special

education assistance from the resource room during the course of the study. Further, seven other children (2 boys, 5 girls) involved in the study were identified as in need of English as a Second Language instruction on a daily withdrawal basis.

53 Wait List The DTPG comprised 42 parents (37 mothers, 5 fathers). They had 42 children (35 boys, 7 girls) who participated in the study. The children ranged in age from 5 years 2 months to 1 1 years 5 months with a mean age of 8 years 5 months. A description of the children is shown in Table 2. Of the 42 children, 10 boys and 1 girl were identified by the In-SchooI Student Referai and Diagnostic Team (ISSRDT)as having a rnild intellectual exceptionality. 4 boys as having a moderate behavior disorder, and 9 boys as having a learning disability. Seven other boys and three girls were viewed by their teachers as k i n g at-risk, but were not formally identified. Ten children in the above (9 boys, 1 girl) received special education assistance from the resource room during the course of the study. Further, eight other children (5 boys, 3 girls) involved in the study were identified as in need of EngIish as a Second Language Instruction on a daily withdrawal basis. Particulars penaining to the 10 students in the DTCG who had received regular special education small-group instruction during the first session are as follows: The children were delayed in both literacy and numeracy skills but had not been given a psychological assessrnent when the current study was conducted. The difficulties that these students experienced in literacy development were mainly in word-recognition. phonics-decoding, reading comprehension and wrîting ski1ls particularly spelling. The difficulties that these students experienced in numeracy development were mainly in computation accuracy, concepts and their application, and solving word problems. An exarnination of the initial achievement scores of these children, as shown in Table 1 1 , would suggest that as a group they were delayed in al1 of the skills measured. Al1 of the 10 children came from English-speaking backgrounds. The children were instructed on a withdrawal basis for 45 minutes every school day. The special education withdrawai groups were organized by grade affiliation as opposed to atrisk subject category or severity of difficulty in a particular skill area.

d)

The special education teachers had speciai education cenification or additional qualifications in a specialized area of exceptionality.

e)

The special education instructional mode1 adopted by the school was a Direct Instruction systerns approach. The Morphographic Spelling program was used with junior ievel srudents at-risk in spelling, and the Kottmeyer Spelling series was used with the lower junior and upper primary-level students. A series of S.R.A. Reading Laboratones as well as the Reading for Understanding Laboratory were used to provide instructional reading

materials for the students. The mathematics texts and instructional materials were drawn from the resources used in the regular classroom. f)

A progress report was shared with the parents and teachers once every six weeks.

Table 2 Demomphic Descn~tionof Children Participatinp in the Studv Group 1 (ITCG)

1

Group 2 (DTCG)

Tota1

43

42

Boys

32

35

Girls

11

7

C.A. Range

5.1-12.5

5.3-12.6

C.A. Mean

8.6

8.5

Ki ndergarten

6

6

Grade 1

8

5

Grade 2

5

8 I

Grade 3

7

6

Grade 4

8

7

Grade 5

5

6

Grade 6

4

4

Recruitment of Parents The following steps were taken to recniit the parents (see Timeline): Step 1: A newsletter advertising the school's intention to deliver the Parents as Tutors Program (Appendix A-1) was sent home. A tear-off section to indicate parent interest was included in the format.

Step 2:

Positive responders were contacteci by letter and telephone. informing them of an introductory meeting to take place at the school (Appendix A-2). Steps 1 and 2 were completed during the last two weeks of September.

Step 3:

The introductory meeting of the PTP was held in the school library in the first week of October. Ninety-six parents attended the meeting. The school principal presided over this meeting and introduced this investigator and the instructionai tearn. This investigator then outlined the PTF' and the nature and purpose of his proposed study. At this point the investigator aiso drew the attention of those attending to the unexpectedly large turn-out and the need to run two back-to-back training sessions. the first in the fall, the second in the winter.

Parents were asked to assist in

volunta.rily forming two approximately equal size groups which

WOU l d

facilitate

effective program delivery and interface with the design of the study. Two groups of parents identified themselves by electing to attend either the first or second training sessions (TSs). Parents then selected the specific TSs they were going to attend by completing a questionnaire (Appendix A-3).

Of the 96 parents attending the introductory session, 85 parents consented to participate

in the study with 43 parents attending in the fa11 and 42 parents attending the TSs in the winter (see Table 3). A breakdown of the distribution of parent-TSs anended and the skiilslsubjects tutored during the two sessions are shown in Tables 3, 4, and 5 . The parents were asked to commit the names of their chiidren they intended to tutor using the procedure provided by the

PTP and to consent to this investigator's tracking of their progress using the pre/post

I

-ITPG -- -

1 October

administer WRAT-R and Ciates-MacGinitie administer Frequency of Tutoring and Parent Tutoring Self-Confidence Questionnaires training begins * children formally tutored 1 November training continues chiidren formallv tutored continues I December children formally tutored continues administer WRAT-R and Gates-Mactiinitie administer Frequency of Tutoring, Parent Tutoring Self-Confidence Questionnaire, Factors of Tutoring, Evaluation of Child's Progress, and Evaluation of PTP Ouestionnaires J anuary children formally tutored (no contact)

UTYG - -- -

It

administer WRAT-R and Gates-Mactiinitie administer Frequency of Tutoring and Parent Tutoring Self-Confidence Questionnaires

'

-

-

~

--

1

1 I I

I children formally tutored (no contact)

1 I

-

- -

administer Frequency of Tutoring and Parent Tutoring Self-Confidence Questionnaires training begins children formallv tutored training begins children formallv tutored children formally tutored training continues

I

1

administer Frequency of Tutoring Questionnaire

1

training continues administer Frequency of Tutoring. -I'utorin_r Confidence. Factors of Tutoring. Evri turition of Child's Progress, and Evaluation 01' PTP

,

May administer WRAT-R and Gates-MacGinitie

administer WRAT-R and Gates-MricGinitit.

assessrnent procedures which were already in use by the school, and to consider and consent to

participate in a study designed by this investigator and to be used by him for dissertation purposes.

1 I

administer WRAT-R and Ciates-MacGinitie

-

Marc h children forrnally tutored (no contact) L

b

,

1

I

I

4

1 1

1

Step 4:

During the introductory meeting al1 parents who consented to involve themselves and their children in the study were requested to complete severai questionnaires and were informed that they wouid again be asked to do so at the end of their respective training sessions. The pretest questionnaires were adrninistered in the following sequence: Frequency of Tutoring Questionnaire (1 ) (Appendix A-4): Confidence in Tutoring Questionnaire (Self-Appraisal) (1) (Appendix A-5).

Table 3 Number of Parents Attendino train in^ Sessions

TSS -

-

-

1

ITPG

1

DTPG

#1: Getting Ready to Tutor

43 (100.00%)

42 (100.00%)

#2: Reading ( 1 )

40

(93.02%)

36

(85.71%)

#3: Reading (2)

40

(93.02%)

36

(85.71%)

#4: Math (Comp)

35

(81.39%)

38

(90.47%)

35

(81.39%)

38

(90.47%)

#5: Math (Problems)

1

1

#7: Spelling

43 (100.00%)

42 (100.00%)

Al1 of the TSS

36

34

(83.72%)

(80.95%)

Table 4 Number of Parents who Tutored Various Skills Group 1 (ITPG)

Group 2 (DTPG)

Reading

40

38

Arithmetic

33

32

Writing

34

35

Spelling

38

35

Ski Il Areas

1

1

Table 5 Focus of Tutonng bv Grade Level

1

1

1

Group 1 (ITCG)

1

Group 2 (DTCG)

Kdgn

1

2

3

4

5

6

Kdgn

1

2

3

4

5

6

Reading

6

8

5

7

8

5

1

6

5

8

6

7

6

0

Writing

4

7

5

6

7

4

1

3

5

7

5

7

6

2

Spelling

2

7

5

7

8

5

4

1

5

7

6

7

5

4

SkillAreas

IAnthmetic

1

4

1 6 1 3 1 6 1 6 1 4 1 4 1

3

1 6 1 6 1 2 1 5 1 6 1 3 1

Measures

Two standardized test-batteries for measuring selected components of children's school achievement, and two separate questionnaires, with Likert-type rating scales for describing parental confidence levels and frequency of tutoring were used in this study. In addition. after parents and children completed the study, the parents were given questionnaires to assess their experience of the program.

Children's School Achievement (i) The Wide Range Achievement Test (WFWT)

- Revised, Level I (Jastak &

Wilkinson, 1984) tests reading, spelling and arithmetic. There are two levels to the test; the first level (used in the present study) is suitable for ages 5 to 12. The reading section of the WRAT consists of letter identification and word recognition tasks only. The spelling section consists of a series of single dictated words that the student has to write. The arithmetic section consists of counting and number identification as well as algorithms. Except for the reading subtest, the WRAT can be administered to groups of children.

Rach analysis test-retest

reliability coefficients range from .79 to .97;concurrent validity estimates are reported within

the.7 1 and -98 range across subtests (Harrison, 1989). The WRAT (Revised) is popular with educators because of its apparent ease of administration and scoring (Clark, 1983). (ii) The Gates-MacGinitie Reading Achievement Tests (Gates)

- Revised Canadian

Edition (MacGinitie, 1979) is a multifaceted, timed, paper and pencil group reading test which was designed to reflect the content of the curriculum in Canada. The readiness level (Basic R) consists of letter recognition, letter-sound, visual discrimination and single sentence reading activities. Subsequent levels of the test (A-E) which were used in this study, al1 consist of single-word vocabulary matching tasks and passage reading comprehension questions. Each level of the Gates-battery cornes in separate, attractively presented and illustrated student booklets and each level has two fonns (1 and 2). Technically the tests are favorable (Bachor & Crealock, 1986). Intemal consistency estimates (Kuder-Richardson 20) are good.

These

estimates are reported as -86 to .94 for the vocabulary subtest and -85 to -94 for the comprehension subtest. Split-half reliability coefficients range from -85 to -97; content validity is reponedly adequate (Bachor & Crealock, 1986).

Parent Measures The Tutoring Confidence Questionnaire is a self-appraisal questionnaire (Appendix A-

5 ) incorporating a 3-point rating scale which spanned two extremes. "very linle" and "a F a t deal." It was designed to assess parental self-confidence in tutoring their own children. The questionnaire posed the question "how confident are you in your ability to successfully tutor your own child." This questionnaire was administered as a pretest at the introductory meeting for both groups of parents who consented to participate in the study. The same questionnaire was readministered to the DTPG again at the commencement of their training at the beginning

of the second session. The questions were then rephrased to reflect tirne-lapse and the impact of the training provided (Appendix A-5) in a second questionnaire which was administered to both groups at the end of their respective training sessions (December for the ITPG and Apnl for the DTPG).

The Frequency of Tutoring Questionnaire was developed by this investigator to assess the frequency of tutonng done by parents per week. The six-point rating scale spanned two extremes. "none at d l " to "every day" and parents were asked to circle the number that best described the frequency of tutoring sessions they conducted per week. This questionnaire was adrninistered at pretest and again at posttest.

However, the DTPG was administered the

questionnaire at three points; at the i n d u c t o r y meeting, at the commencernent of their training session in January (this provided a reiiable indicator of how much tutonng some parents had done without training) and at the termination of theû pro=g-am in Apnl.

Posttest Ouestionnaires Three other questionnaires designed by this investigator were administered at posttestThese questionnaires were used to provide information considered important to this study and to the value of the PTP concerning further refinement and development, adjustments and consolidations. Each of these questionnaires employed Likert-type rating scales. The Tutoring Factors Questionnaire was designed to assess the usefulness of certain resources which this investigator has temed factors which parents considered helpful in providing an effective program for their children. Thirteen factors were identified and used to determine whether there existed clusters of proximal and distal ones that were associated with levels of children's achievement. If proved to be the case, future programs following the PTP mode1 could well incorporate and emphasize these in their organizational format.

Furihcr.

while it is evident the majority of these thitteen factors are representative of professional insights (Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1994) and may indeed not reflect those factors or influences that parents themselves found to be significant in their tutorhg outcornes. an opponunity for parents to express their own views is provided (item # 12) (Appendix A-6). A 4-point rating scale spanning the extremes of "not at ail" and a "great deal" provided opportunities for parents to respond to a single question involving the extent to which each factor helped thern with their tutoring (e-g., the first factor "working on a regular basis with

your child," the fifih "consulûng with your child's teacher"). Of importance are the factors conceming instructional strategies used in the tutoring sessions. The purpose of this was to establish the extent to which parents had used the three insüuctiond methods and specific strategies taught in the training sessions and to gain access to ones that parents may have developed themselves. Thus, what this questionnaire was designed to achieve was to identib those pragmatic forces or influences that make for successful and optimum tutoring effects-an issue which is of criticaI importance to nonfilial one-to-one tutoring research and one which is certainly gerrnane to this study as well. The Parents' Evaluation of Child's Progress Questionnaire was designed to establish how parents rated the extent of their children's progress as a consequence of tutoring (Appendix A-8).

The questionnaire employed a 3-point rating scale which spanned the

extremes, "a little improvement" and "very good improvement" to the single question conceming children's progress as a consequence of tutoring in specific ski11 areas when training was provided. The rationale for this questionnaire was to determine parents' sense of the fruits of their own efforts and to evaiuate the accuracy of their perceptions or evaluations 01'

their children's progress. The Parents' Evaluation of the Usefulness of the PTP Questionnaire was designed to

determine the level of satisfaction with the training they received in the PTP. .4 single quesLiori designed by this investigator used a Cpoint rating scale spanning two extremes "noi cffc.ctivc" and "very effective" (Appendix A-7) conceming parents' evaluation of the K P in mscriiig thctr

needs ("fulfilling your goals"). If the PTP is to continue to be employed as a vchicle

!or

enhancing parents' tutoring knowledge, skills, strategies and confidence. the parcni

a3

consumer must be listened to and adjustments to sorne aspects of the program bc made accordingjy.

Data Collection Procedures As mentioned above, the measures were administered during three time penods. The achievement measures (WRAT-R and Gates-MacGinitie) were given to the children in September/October. December, and ApriUMay . These tests were administered by classroom teachers as previously mentioned, in the children's homerooms, over a five-day period. and in accordance with the procedures established by the school. The subtests of the WRAT-R were administered first in the following order: Spelling (Group), Arithmetic (Group) and Reading (individually). Thereafter. the subtests of the Gates were adrninistered in the following order: Readiness (Kindergarten), Reading Vocabulary grades 1-6 and Reading Comprehension grades 1-6. Children who had difficulty following group-directions were given instructions individually. Both groups of parents completed the Tutoring Confidence. Frequency of Tutoring. and Tutoring Factors questionnaires during the second hdf of the lntroductory Meeting in laie September. then again in December (ITPG only), in January (DTPG only) and in May

(DTPG). At the final wrap-up session which almost al1 of the parents attended. parents in the ITPG were asked to complete the Frequency of Tutoring questionnaire again to show whether their tutoring frequencies had changed during the no contact period (January-May).

The

questionnaires, Parent Evaluation of Child's Progress and Parent Evaluation of the Usefulness of the PTP were administered in the final TS of each group respectiveiy. The questionnaires

were assembled in a package in the following order: I . Frequency of Tutoring; 2. Tutoring Confidence; 3. Factors of Tutoring; 4. Evaluation of Child's Progress; 5. Evaluation of PTP Usefulness.

With some individual variations. parents took approximately 10 minutes to

complete the Frequency of Tutonng and the Tutoring Confidence questionnaires, 15 minutes to complete the Factors of Tutoring questionnaire. and 5 minutes

CO cornplete

the Evaluation of

Child's Progress and the Evaluation of the PTP Usefulness questionnaires. To expedite completion of the questionnaires, to clarify content and to ensure that each parent understood the method of responding using the rating-scale format, each questionnaire was

slowly read aloud by this investigator with parents following each word.

Each

statementlquestion was rephrased to promote understanding. Once this was done parents were allowed to complete the form. Two assistants were on hand to guide parents who encountered difficulties. However, after rephrasing, al1 parents (with the exception of two who wished to complete the questionnaires at home) enthusiastically completed the questionnaires.

The Parents as Tutors Prooram (PTP) The program used to train parents was the Parents as Tutors Program (PTP). The

program was developed by this investigator with considerable collaboration from colieagues and parents two years prior to conducting the current study in response to many parents'

expressed need for information about tutoring, skills and strategies that would prepare them for extramurally tutoring their children. The use of the PTP on two separate occasions prior to the current study provided the b a i s for subsequent refinement and expansion from its original three ski11 areas of focus to its present six. Again. this expansion was accomplished in direct response to the wishes of parents to have training in a greater variety of skills. The PTP -Manual (Appendix B) describes the philosophy, the skill areas and the instructional strategies employed in the present study: each parent who participated in the current study received a bound copy of this manual at the end of the program. Parents were, however, given working pages in the training sessions.

The PTP Training Sessions The current study utilized seven separate training sessions (TSs) or workshops to cover the critical skill areas. The skill areas were: 1.

Getting Ready to Tutor

2.

Reading (Part 1)

3.

Reading(Part2)

4.

Arithmetic Computation

5.

Arithmetic Problem Solving (Word Problems)

6.

Writing

7.

Spelling

8.

Summary and conclusion

Each TS was delivered once a week during the evenings in the school library. Each TS lasted for approximately two hours with one hour added for individual consultation. adhered to an established sequence of steps:

Each TS

1) Introduction; 2) Defining the Ski11 Area:

ContenVImportance; 3) Common Student Dificulties in Skill Acquisition; 4) Presentation of Strategies: Modeling; 5) Group Interactions/Simulations; 6) Developing an Instructional Plan for Child (What to aim for. where to begin and how); 7) Sharhg; 8) Discussion/Conclusions:

9) Individual Consuitations. The instructional materials used by parents in the tutoring sessions were supplied by the school. Basal readers. phonics workbooks and math texts were collected from classrooms and graded: parents utilized them on a loan system (Appendix B). instmctional materials were supplied by the

In addition. nonpublished

resource team: parents were also shown how

to construct their own materials. In the current study, this investigator coordinated and directed the TSs, and together with two trained instructors, delivered the program.

Parents kept a

record of the tutoring sessions with their children in a Tutoring Log (Appendix A-9) provided for that purpose. Entnes in these logs were examined by the instmctional staff and assistance provided where necessary.

Desien of the Studv As discussed above. the 85 parents were divided into two groups: an immediate

training group (ITPG) consisting of 43 parents. and a delaycd training group (DTPG) consisting of 42 parents. The DTPG served as a wait list control group. The ITPG received training in the PTP in October/November/December, and the DTPG received training in the PTP in February/March/April.

The training involved 7 weekly evening sessions of

ûpproximately 2-hour group instruction. and an additional hour for individuai consultations. The rneasures described above were administered in September/October (pretest), December,

and ApriYMay (posttest). Thus, for the ITPG. pretest, posttest. and 4 month follow-up data were collected. For the DTPG two sets of pretest data and posttest data were collected. If "delayed entry" was the preconceived design for the study, it blended in very well to the overall wishes of the parents with respect to their admittedly busy schedule.

When

inforrned that the PTP would be delivered once a week for seven training session weeks and that a rnutualiy agreed upon venue would have to be democraticdly arrived at. approximately one-half of those parents present in the i n d u c t o r y meeting comrnented on and were

absolutely in favor of this researcher providing an identical second session in the new year, that is at the end of the fint session of training, to accommodate their schedules even if they had to

delay tutoring their children. The fortuitousness of this event therefore precluded any coercion or deliberateness on the part of this investigator to present a design at the expense of parent

volition.

RESULTS

The major purpose of this chapter is to present the results of the current study and to

evaluate the extent to which these resuits confirm or refute the nul1 hypotheses, or conversely, support or reject the hypotheses stated in chapter 2 of this thesis. The secondary purpose of this chapter is to examine several rdatively unexplored issues in parent tutoring. such as the potency of parent tutoring to generate lasting gains in children's achievement. and the relative effectiveness of parent tutoring and small-group in-school special education instruction in increasing children's achievement. Also included in the analyses are three secondary issues concerning the resources or factors that parents found most useful to their tutoring, parents' evaluation of their child's progress as a consequence of tutoring, and parents' evaluation of the success of the PTP in meeting their needs; noninferential statistical techniques were employed in the analyses of the data. A section which describes the data analysis procedures and a section which establishes

the grounds for confirming the integrity of the current study will precede the above.

Data Analvsis Procedures The data were organized into two categones. The primary data were outcorne data on

children's school achievement, and parents' self-confidence and on parents' frequency of tutoring. The secondary data comprised parents' selection and rating of factors most useful to their tutoring, parents' evaluation of the level of progress made by their children as a

consequence of tutoring. and parents' evaluation of the effectiveness of the Parents as Tutors Program in fulfilling their goals. A 2 (group) by 3 (time) repeated measures MANOVA was done for each of the five

measures of children's school achievement (standard scores from the WRAT-R and T scores from the subtests of the Gates-MacGinitie) across the three time periods. A group x time interaction effect would represent the hypothesized outcornes. Univariate t-tests were used to show the magnitude of the differences between the groups on al1 the measures for Time 1. 2

and 3. Changes in children's achievement scores from Time 1 to Time 2. represented a focal point in the measuring of several critical questions.

These questions involved differences

between the ITCG and the DTCG; between the ITCG (n=43) and the inforrnaily tutored group

(n= 16) in the DTCG; between the ITCG and the special education group (n= 10) in the DTCG, and between the informally tutored group and the nontutored group (n=26) in the DTCG. For al1 of these comparisons. a 2 (group) by 2 (time) repeated measures MANOVA was done for each of the achievement measures. Univariate t-tests were used to analyze the magnitude of the differences and the statistical significance thereof between the groups involved in the analyses on al1 of the measures. The second primary source of data was obtained on parents' self-confidence in tutoring their children and on the frequency with which they tutored.

The frequency of parent

responses for each level of the 3-point, and 6-point rating scales respectively were tabulated at each of the time periods. For parents' selfconfidence and for frequency of tutonng, the changes in parents' ratings and the magnitude thereof across 2 time periods for the ITPG. and across 3 time penods for the DTPG as a result of training. were calculated using the Pearson chi-square for between- and within-group comparisons. Each of the secondary sources of data was obtained through the administration of parent rating-scale questionnaires at the end of the respective training sessions.

The first

secondary source of data concemed the factors that parents found most usefuI to the success of their tutoring. Only the raw-score ratings and their conversion to percentages for each of the

13 factors of tutoring were computed and reported. Two other questionnaires, narnely parents

rating of their children's acadernic progress as a result of the tutoring provided under uained conditions. and parents' evaluation of the ETP in meeting their needs. provided data for which raw scores were computed and then convened to percentages.

TesUSubtest Abbreviations Used in Remning the Results W-R

(WRAT Reading)

W-S

(WRAT SpeIling)

W-A

(WRAT Arithmetic)

GM-RV

(Gates-MacGinitie Reading Vocabulary)

GM-RC

(Gates-MacGinitie Reading Comprehension)

Intemitv of Treatment and Research Desim

There are essentially two questions to be addressed to confinn that the current study was conducted true to its conception and that the results were free from intentional bias. The first question concemed the characteristics of the two groups of chiidren who panicipated in the study with respect to their demographics and to their relative levels of acadernic achievement

prior to receiving the intervention. This question is al1 the more pertinent as the study employed a static group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1966) in which the placement of the children into the two groups was predetermined by their parents' choice of training session. The second question concemed the assurance. and the demonstration thereof. that both groups of parents were given the identical training intervention and that both groups of children were tutored under the conditions established in the PTP.

Chi ldren's Characteristics at Pretest

As previously stated, the two groups of children shared cornmon demographics with only marginal variations with respect to age, gender. grade placement and exceptionality starus (see Table 2, p. 54). These strikingly similar charactenstics meant that there were no apparent biases to begin with that would favor one group over the other. The analyses of the pretest results at Time 1 on al1 of the measures of children's school achievement revealed no significant differences in the mean scores between the two groups of children as shown in Table 6. This was confirmed by a MANOVA comparing the two groups at Time 1 for al1 of the achievement tests, E(5,67)=. 123, ~ = . 9 7 8 . Univariate F-tests showed no differences for WRAT Reading (W-R),

E( 1,7 1 )=.3 14, p=.577; WRAT Spelling (W-S).

F( 1,7 1 )=. 174. ~ = . 6 7 8 :WRAT Arithmetic (W-A), E( 1,71)=.078, ~ = . 7 8 1 : Gates-MacGinitie -

Reading Vocabulary (GM-RV),

E( 1 ,7 1)=.00032.

p=.986, and Gates-MacGinitie Reading

Comprehension (GM-RC), E( 1.7 1)=.0266, p=.87 1. Neither group had an initial advantage or head-start: the significant gains made by the ITCG compared with the DTCG at Time 2 could not therefore be attributed to predisposing achievement factors. There were three procedures that provided evidence that parents had received the same training and that they regulariy and frequently tutored and implemented the p r o p m as planned.

The first source of evidence was based on parents' attendance of the training

sessions. As shown in Table 3 on page 57, 36 of the 43 parents (83.72%) in the ITPG. and 34 of the 42 parents (80.95%) in the DTPG, attended al1 of the seven training sessions.

Parents' mastery of the skills taught in the training sessions were monitored through modeiing. simulation and cooperative learning expenences which assured that their progress in acquirinf the tutoring skills was evaluated. Furthemore, in these sessions appropriate steps were trikcn to ensure that individual assistance was given to parents who were experiencing difficulties in mastering the skills. The second and third sources of evidence depended on the fidelity of parents in accurately completing the frequency of tutoring questionnaires and their tutoring logs.

Table 6

Time 1

Time 2

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

33.93

16.19

37.67

1 1 -82

Tirne 3 Mean

S.D.

WRAT Reading

ITCG DTCG WRAT Spelling

ITCG DTCG WRAT Arirhmctic

ITCG

DTCG -

--

Gatcs-MacGinitie Reading Vocabulary

ITCG

DTCG

44.8 1

5.29 I T s G*'

Gatcs-MacGinitie Reading Comprehension

ITCG

DTCG

Note:

*p,. exemplified in the current study by virtue of the significant effect of extramural parcnt tutorinc on children's school achievement when parents were approprîately trained. The approrrch that I will adopt is to go beyond the

PTP focus into assuming a more genenl and iiicnninglùl

perspective without losing sight of the applicabiiity of any theoretical insights

tti

whrii

i\

manifested in the workings and in the outcomes of the intervention employed in ~ h i sstud) . The path that is contemplated leads to an examination of what essentially establishrs thc uniqueness of the tutoring dyad other than its instructional ratio of one-to-one. into thc oppominities that this felicitous ratio affords for the manipulation of instructional variables particularly with respect to the construct of time.

The second path taken leads to an

examination of the intnnsic advantages of educating and training parents for effective

extramural tutoring with respect to personal psychosocial transformations of which self-

efficacy and self-confidence are focused on in the current study. The two paths are seen to converge in that the education and training of parents provide the catalyst that enables parents by virtue of their own personai development to fully exploit the inherent potentiai of the one-toone instructional ratio. to knowledgeably and skillfully manipulate time and to give it meaning that has more to do with its productive use than with its standard notion of temporality. A build-up to this exegesis will consist of a b i e f review of some pertinent observations previously presented. According to Bloom (1984) and others (Cloward, 1967; Polloway, Cronin, & Patton, 1986; Scruggs & Richter, 1995) one-to-one tutoring presents opportunities for maxirnizing

individuai learning that cannot be matched by other instructional approaches.

These

opportunities exist in the instructional dyad itself. As has been shown in this thesis. Wasik and Slavin (1993) argued that pragmatic factors (the abiIity of the tutor to manipulate the instructionai prograrns in productive ways) constituted the maximizing agent; for Juel (1996) the active ingredient was the inventive cognitive and affeçtive attributes of the tutor.

The

present investigator has already commented on the plausibility of these contributions to our understanding of the maximizing principle in one-to-one tutoring interactions. and perhaps. if al1 these elements could be combined in a single program the resuks would be formidable. In

fact. the conducting of the current study represented an attempt to rnicrocosmically mimic several of the favorable conditions of the various parent tutoring contexts delineated in the review of the literature. Bloomfs (1984) findings, however, did not inciude any references to these contexts; his findings were anchored in one-to-one tutoring by professionally accredited tutors; this narrowing of focus thus limits the search and directs our attention inward towards considering what the opportunities of one-to-one tutoring are chat when fully exploited. maxirnize learning outcomes. This redirection of focus is emphasized above al1 by Mathes, Howard, Allen, and Fuchs (1998) who invited us to peer into the "black box" of one-to-one

tutoring for the solution to this conundrum. It is in fact a quest for universality-a

universality

based on sound theoreticai principles, on logic and plausibility and on unconfounded evidence.

The Mani~ulationof Time Frameworks It is the current investigator's considered opinion that the missing part of this puzzle

consists in the manipulation of time frameworks (Bloom, 1974), a notion which is implicit in the concept of one-to-one tutoring. The notion of tirne frameworks was borrowed from economic theory where it was viewed as a static, irnrnutable principle. In that context, the enhancement of productivity depended on the manipulation of the factors of production such as labor. investment and so on; these factors of production are the alterable variables of economic productivity theory.

In contrast, time frameworks in educational productivity (Walberg,

1984a) was considered an alterable variable (Bloom, 1974) in that it was the way that time was manipulated. emphasized or qualitatively altered and distributed in instructional contexts in particular. that facilitated learning. It is clear then. according to Frederick ( 1983), that the notion of time frameworks refers to the allotted time in which tasks and interactions in a temporal sense (which involves a stipulated beginning, definite intervals allotted to task performance. and a stipulated end) and the way it is manipulated and applied. in the qualitative sense.

This distinction has implications for learning; it also sign-posts the fundamental

difference between one-to-one tutoring other than the numerical ratio, and larger group instructional approaches. The theme concerning the productive use of time, represented a major part of Walberg's earlier writings ( l984a, l984b). Walberg viewed the traditional time-bound organization of schools as representing an unproductive use of learning time: he also saw students' extncumcular activities as a waste of extramural learning time. temporal sense (temporal time framework).

Walberg was using time in a

Juel ( 1996). however, expressed a more

qualitative view of time frarneworks in drawing attention to the essential difference between

one-to-one instruction and larger group instructional approaches and, in so doing. established the practical importance of the concept. Juel remarked:

Part of what appears to make one-to-one tutonng successful is that ail of the activities ... c m be personally delivered at the right moment, and repeated as frequently as needed for an individual child to understand. intemalize and recall. (p. 27 1 ) However, the exploitation of the time frameworks to the best interests of the learner's needs and learning progress does not come automaticdly (a point not entirely appreciated in parent tutoring research); it is secured through the appropriate training of the tutor (Bloom. 1984). It is the current researcher's informed conviction that there are cogent theoretical reasons for designating the manipulation of time frameworks as the source of the maximizing principle in one-to-one tutoring and, more specifically, in the context of the current study, in explaining the significant gains in children's school achievement beyond the organizationai and delivery of program features (surface stmcture). A suitable introduction to this exegesis which the present investigator wishes to develop in the following pages, is a consideration of the dominant characteristics and advantages of individualized instruction which is the inescapable hallmark of one-to-one instruction: it is an approach which does not optimally succeed in small-

group learning contexts such as is typically found in special education. While individualizcd instruction adheres to certain theoretical guidelines such as the interfacing of the Iearner's instructional program with the learner's psychoeducational profile, which incidentally can be formulated irrespective of context (small or large-group instruction), what makes one-to-one tutoring so critical to its implementation and development is the availability of uniniempted and unconstrained time (temporal time framework) to ensure this. One-to-one tutoring is in essence a time-manipulative paradigm and this very obvious characteristic has eluded the close inspection of many. One-to-one tutonng affords unconditional time to manipulate program and to change course when obstacles anse, opportunities for reinforcement, opportunities to establish bonding, opportunities to be instructionally creative and realistically inventile. even opportunities to provide short-cuts to learning and thus compact instructional and leaming

time-al1

of this to provide the most effective program for a single individual. The overriding

message that emerges from one-to-one tutoring so far as tirne frameworks are concemed. is that the tempo of instruction within the delivery of the instructionai program in al1 its manifestations can be immediately adjusted to suit the leamer's ability to assimilate new skilIs. This is why. as previously intimated, while the frequency of mtoring is related to increases in learning outcornes, it is the use to which this frequency is put that is decisive in detennining the level of skill development. The ability of the tutor to engage in quality-time which translates into productive-time. as opposed to frequency-time (temporality), can most favorably be accomplished through appropriate training.

Time and Learning The notion of tirne and the productive use of time frarneworks as they penain to instructional time. has received considerable focus (Frederick, 1983; Haertel. Wal berg. 6r Weinstein. 1983; Hill & Stafford, 1974; Kameenui, 1993; Wyne & Stuck. 1982) sincri Bloom's (1974) publication, "Time and Learning." The practical significance of tirne. in

ri

global sense. and as it pertains to education, and the productive use thereof. are reflected in govemrnents' attempts to lengthen the school day, to shorten the summer holidays. ro mow

10

all-year school ing, and the attempts by school administrators to diminish intrusions irito sustained and unintemipted learning. Sustained learning time (SLT) ties in with the general notion of the productive usc 01 time and it has been used by home-schoolers in particular in drawing our attention to onc of tlic major differences in leaming opportunity between their own instructional contexis anri ihosc the public schools. Also, in the study conducted by Dolan and CaroseIli

(

01

1982). parcni..'

expIoitation of instructional time and their children's productive use thereof to enhance their writing skills were viewed as the factors that determined the success of the intervention. Wc also know that opportunities for sustained leaming time has also been cited as the major distinguishing factor that separates one-to-one instruction from group-oriented ones ( Cloward.

1967: Polloway, Cronin, & Patton, 1986). There is no guarantee, however, that sustained

learning (a temporal concept) produces optimum achievement outcomes.

Uninterrupted

sustained silent reading (USSR) for exarnple. which is a very popular method used in schools to encourage students' independent reading habits, has the built-in problem that only close supervision and some kind of interaction between the student and teacher will confirm that USSR (a qualitative concept) did actuaily occur and that the student was not indulging in some

other silent past-time. The point k i n g made here is that the notion of sustained learning tirne

(SLT) is not in itself sufficient to parantee productive learning unless the notion has to be broadened to include other conditions. The reason why Wasik and Slavin (1993) were so readily successfui in debunking the notion of SLT as containing the seeds of the maxirnizing principle in one-to-one tutoring and which, coincidentaily, se~iously deflected subsequent research to finding solutions in variables extraneous to the dyad, is because the traditional notion of SLT was limited. The traditional notion of SLT is a static and mechanistic one, and is therefore misleading. If accepted as such and used as a first principle of successful learning it can only cause one to expect success but not necessarily achieve it. Further, if the traditional

notion of SLT lacks dynarnism and purposefulness to be accepted as a potency principle. the next course of deliberation would be to go beyond the tnditional usage and limitations. while still retaining the conceptual framework of manipulating "time frarneworks" to suit leamer needs. because in essence, it would be illogical and self-defeating to do otherwise. Time indeed has value if used appropriately. We need, therefore, to go one step further and consider the notion of engaged or

interactional sustained leming time (EASLT) which. according to this researcher's best intuitions, provides the best available explication of the ultimate source of tutoring effectiveness. It is a viewpoint that finds support in several psychological theones and constructs. The viability of the notion is also supported by the nature of the interactions that occurred in the tutorhg sessions as recorded by parents in their tutoring logs.

Enoaoed or Interactional Sustained Leamine Time (F/ISLn

It is being argued that sustained and unintempted time just Iike the frequency of tutoring time, only provides the temporal context of learning, that is the time framework: it is up to the tutor to manipulate it towards productive learning outcomes (Wyne & Stuck, 1982). Teachers even in small-group instnictional situations have comrnented on the bief or even absence of sustained and unintempted time to interact and engage with the students on an individual b a i s to increase understanding and mastery of skills. Thus, the notion of engaged or interactionai sustained time implies that sornething is actively happening between the tutor and the Ieamer and that it is k i n g done so unintemptedly. Strong evidence has emerged from the study conducted by Juel (1996) to show this to be the case in accounting for the differences

in leaming outcomes between different cross-age tutoring pairs. The more successful dyads showed different interactional frequencies and patterns which suggest variations in E/ISLT.

In the current study, parents overwhelmingly chose the interactive leaming approach as their dominant program style. and as their tutoring logs have shown, they appeared to have successfully combined this with Direct Instruction. For example. in teaching children to recognize the letters of the alphabet, parents would present al1 of the letters in their sequence on flashcards and then ask the child to identify those they already know and then to suggest methods that parents should use to help them learn the rest. Through a process of negotiation. both the parent and the child would arrive at a happy medium. that is a synthesis. This appeürs to exemplify the interactional approach to learning the letters of the alphabet. Parents would then proceed to name the letters of the alphabet in sequence and ask the child to repeat letters as they are pointed to and read. This is a form of direct teaching. Once the parent and the child had completed the task. the negotiated approach to learn the letten was re-introduced. It would

appear that by introducing the exposure of the letten through direct instruction the parent was actually providing the child with a specific focus or context which established the beginning and the end of the letters of the alphabet, that each letter had a distinct narne or sound and that each had a unique configuration. Therefore, the acceptability of the negotiation depended on a

review based on what is known about the alphabet. It is interesting to note that parents who combined the two teaching methods appeared always to commence their instmction with what the child confessed to knowing and then ont0 ways in which what is not known in chat skillcontext cm best be learned. When parents used the combination of approaches they would note the sequence, e.g., "used

ITM (interactional Teaching Method) then

DTM (Direct

Teaching Method) and ITM again in division" in their logs. Parents, in the confines of the home. have the unintempted sustained learning time (USLT) to do just that. Parents in home schools also attest to a high level of USLT (Gustafson, 1988). In both contexts, though, parents need the appropriate training to ensure that the quality

of these engagements and interactions lead to significant learning outcornes. The content of this engagement and interaction between the Ntor and the learner are skills that that can be leamed; these skills can range from explaining, instmcting, coaxing and confirming, dialoguing and questioning, reinforcing and evaluating, modeling. leading and guiding. The options are many. the selection and the appropriateness thereof will depend on the expertise of the tutor and the knowledge that tutor has about the learner. This is why parents as tutors of their own children have a decisive advantage over nonparent tutors and why training can extend this in dramatic ways.

Linkino the Notion of WISLT to Psvchological Theow This dynarnic notion of engaged interactionai sustained learning time as a mode1 for explaining the potency-principle of one-to-one tutoring finds a welcome home in theories of individual differences in skill acquisition. It is the contribution made by Ackerman and his colleagues ( 1987, 1988, 1989) to our understanding of the basis for individual differences in leaniing that gives the notion of ISLT and its implications their practical viability. According to Ackerrnan ( 1987. 1988. I989), the acquisition (mastery) of skills depends on a process involving a hierarchy of operations at three levels. The first is the level of Assimilation where the skill to be learned is presented and its parameters explained; the

second is the Ievel of Rehearsal where the new ski11 is practiced in different ways; the third is the Autonomous level where the skill is successfully intemalized and automatically retrieved. According to this three-tier mode1 of individual skill acquisition, the precondition for skill mastery at the autonomous level depends on the integrity of the sub-levels of rehearsal and assimilation. It is apparent that this three-tier conceptualization explains the acquisition of any skill from riding a bicycle to learning how to solve complex mathematical equations. However, the critical point is the assimilation stage, and it is the interactions at this level in the hierarchy that is most pertinent to the notion and implications of E/ISLT in one-to-one nitoring. The assimilation stage can be comparatively time-consuming because al1 kinds of

accommodations take place. The learner needs time at this first level to sort things out. and it is the active participation and involvement of the teacher to help the learner establish pathways to success at this first stage that helps the learner to speed up the process and to rnaster the requirements of the skill at this level. Unintempted and sustained time is essential for this engagement to result in the learner moving to the next level; full and active engagement between the teacher and the learner ensures it. In the regular classroorn the notion of SLT or E/ISLT is what the teacher considers appropriate (the norm). The teacher's conceptualization of the norm is a rule of thumb based upon an average of tirne, whether SLT or E/ISLT. the students need to l e m a new skill. This is an artificial and static notion of learning time and is reinforced by the

time constraints of the school day. It is clear that within the normative time framework cenain students. especially those at-risk, lose out, as they require more time than the average student to learn new skills particularly at the assimilation stage. Fcrther, because time is limired in the

traditional classroom. individual engagements and interactions are minimal. In the absence of skillfully led interactions, the integrity of leaming at the assimilation stage is jeopardized wiih negative implications for the next two levels of skiIl acquisition. As the new skill or concept h a not been fully understood at the assimilative stage, the skill or concept cannot be cffectively

isolated from others or transferred at the rehearsal stage. Mastery of the skill or concept at the autonomous level proceeds haphazardly and inaccurately with the individual having to back-

track to the two lower levels, which in itself is time-consurning, for support. Frustration. overloading of short-tenn memory. lack of motivation, lack of confidence, and dissonance may v e q well be the affective and cognitive consequences for the prevaiiing lack of integrity of ski11

acquisition for at-risk students who need more time to sort things out at the assimilation stage.

On the positive side however, our knowledge of this critical phase in skiII acquisition provides an opportunity to exploit this dynamic in the best academic interests of at-risk students in parricular. who need more SLT and MSLT in their mastery of skills than normally achieving children. through one-to-one tutoring. The source of the potency of tutoring. indeed parent tutoring effects, consists in the fullest exploitation of the opportunities for complete skill mastery at the first level of ski11 acquisition-the

assimilation stage. The regular classroom

environment cannot provide the time element required, nor can small-group instruction (which explains why extramural parent tutonng is more effective in secunng superior learninp outcomes than small-group special education resourcing, and why the results of the study showed this to be true). It is not that parents are more effective than certified public school teachers; it is just that they have the opportunity to exploit more eficiently the opportunitirs provided by one-to-one tutoring which classroom teachers desire and vigorous1y fight for. but do not have. If "time" as Shakespeare said, "is a thief," it is also a gift.

The Oualitative Mani~uiationof Time Frarneworks

If the notion of engaged and interactional sustained learning time as

;i

hasi3 f o r

explaining the potency of one-to-one tutoring has any validity beyond the modei of indi\.idii;il skill acquisition provided by Ackerman and his colleagues ( 1 987, 1988, 1989). it i s the naturc of the engagement and interactions themselves in establishinp learning and problcni solung behaviors for the learner to emulate and integrate, which under time-restricted, time-deprived. and static sustained time conditions would be difficult to do. Here the quantity and the quality of these engagements and interactions are focused upon.

The body of researched-based literature that sustains this conceptualization is drawn from several diverse but converging quarters. The work on active learning (Hess & Shipman. 1965), distancing strategies (Sigel, 1982, 1985), representational thinking (McGillicuddy-

Delisi. 1985). bridging context interaction and scaffolding (Rogoff & Gardner. 1981) are significant within this total contribution. What this research tells us is that the quality of interactions between the parent and the child has a striking impact on the effectiveness of problem-solving behaviors. The current snidy has also shown that by qualitatively enhancing parents' behaviors through participation in the strategies just presented, they can indeed transfer these new and more productive habits to their children. To do so parents need to be placed in situations with the children in which the demand for the use of these strategies is called upon to successfully solve problems.

The parentshild tutoring context is an ideal

ecosystem in which to do this as Clarke-Stewart (1988) has pointed out. But parents need sustained time to mode1 these strategies and their children need sustained time to practice. understand and successfully use them.

Therefore implicit in the notion of engaged and

interactional sustained time is the reality of altemate and more productive ways of solving problems. Whether parents actually employ these interactional behaviors that promote effective learning outcornes is at this juncture a moot point. One of the limitations of the current study consisted in the absence of home-visits and some mechanism for monitoring parent-child behaviors in the tutoring context as Juel (1996) succeeded in doing in her study of cross-age tutoring. However, the drarnatic results produced by the current study strongly suggest that parents did engage and interact with their children around problem-solving tasks in desirable ways. The fact that al1 of the parents reported using interactive learning at various points in

their tutoring (see Table 16, p. 90) provides evidence that corroborates the conclusions drawn from the results. The d issue, though, is the role of training in providing parents with the necessary knowledge, skills and strategies to effectively tutor their children at home.

In the current study, training was considered the linchpin of parent-tutoring success and al1 of the above explains why. However, teaching parents alternate ways to solve problems

and having them demonsuate this in helping their children learn better is one thing: convincing

them that it is a good thing is another. This is where parental motivation, attitudes and expecrations corne in.

It is apparent that when positive attitudes and expectations and

confidence in ones' own ability provide a framework for productive interactions, these interactions achieve p a t e r efficacy. Children are very sensitive to the degree of congruency between their parents' feelings about an insinictional task and the intrinsic worth of the task itself (Grolnick & Ryan, 1989). A substantial and citical body of knowledge now exists that su bstantiates the view that parents' attitudes, expectations and beliefs about schooling and learning guide their behaviors with their children and have a causal influence on their children's expectations and attitudes about their own ability (Ames & Archer, 1987; Greenberger & Goldberg, 1989; Schaefer, 1991; Stevenson & Baker, 1987). Further, how parents perceive their own ability to both organize and control their own lives determines the confidence with which the numiring and teaching of their own children are carried out. This aspect of parentalcontrol is referred to by Bandura (1977a, 1977b, 1986) as self-efficacy and is something that is subject to transformation through education and self-realization experiences (Sw ick, 1 988). Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, and Brissie (1992) showed that the level of parents' self-efficacy is directly related to the extent to which they are willing to participate in their children's education. The preparedness to act and the quality thereof are also dependent upon the parents' leaming of productive psychosocial behaviors (Tyler, 1978).

The motivation, the positive attitudes

required and belief in their ability to achieve what they have set out to do (self-efficacy) al1 influence the extent to which parents can successfully manipulate or qualitatively change the "time framework" in tutoring to their children's advantage. The education and training of parents holds the key to their success. Persona1 selfconfidence and the strong link that this construct forges with perceived self-efficacy was isolated from the many other motivational constmcts as a cntical element in determining the success of the e x m u r a l tutoring program. Parents lacking in self-confidence would not engage significantly in risk-taking behaviors and therefore, by analogy, would be

reticent to manipulate instructional strategies to suit their chiIdrenls needs, or activate qualitative changes in SLT opportunities. A fundamental tenet of the current study is that appropriate education and training could raise the levels of parents' self-confidence in tutonng their children: a logical deduction from this thesis is that such changes would create a readiness on the part of parents to engage in interactional sustained time and raise their ability to successfully affect such interactions. The significant academic progress made by dl of the children in the current study when parents were trained to tutor them coincided with the rernarkable and positive transformations in parents' self-confidence. While it was not possible to do more finite analyses of the relationship between changes in children's achievement and

changes in parents' self-confidence at more frequent points, the posttest comparisons at Time 1 for the ITPG and the ITCG, and then again at Time 3 for the DTPG and the DTCG,

substantiated the relational thesis. What is more, and worthy of consideration, is that with the ascendancy of positive changes in parents' self-confidence and concomitant increases in the levels of children's academic skills. the bonding between parents and their children increased.

The present

investigator was struck by the frequency with which children who were participating in the study would approach him at opportune times with excited conversation about the help that they were receiving from their parents and the proficient teachers their parents had become since entering the prograrn. The assumption that the quaiity of the attachment between parents and their children grew during the course of the study as a consequence of mutual growth in persona1 and

academic skills, appreciation, and respect, must be entertained as an underlying factor that may conceivably have contributed to the significant gains in children's achievement scores. A bief inspection of the salient features of attachment theory (Bretherton & Waters, 1985; Mardell. 1985) as they converge on this discussion, suggests that the quality and intensity of attachment

between children and their parents (pnmary care-givers) are fomented by mutually enhancing experiences (tutoring interactions and learning together), unmitigated (unambivalent) self-

confidence, and overt displays of self-eficacy by parents (parents becorning more knowledgeable and instructionally comptent). The present investigator had a first-hand insight into the possible effects of growing attachment between children and their parents through the eyes and voices of the children; but the parents too openly shared similar manifestations of increased attachent informally in the training sessions and in conversation with the instructional tearn. The exact contribution that increased attachment between parents

and their children made to increases in children's achievement scores was neither anticipated nor determined as the direct effect of tutoring was the major issue. However, if parental selfconfidence is inextricably woven into aitachment behaviors in a cause-effect spiral. then it is plausible to suggest, without risking the integrity of the present findings nor the conclusions drawn. that the efiect of growing attachment between children and parents in the current study on children's achievement scores, was mirrored in the effect of gains in levels of parents' selfconfidence and parallel gains in levels of children's self-confidence which. given certain delimitations in the data-collection procedures used, was not determined. The above discussion raises an issue equally germane to the current investigator's quest for the underlying principles of tutoring efiects on children's school achievement and coherent theory-building. It is to the possible effect of informa1 parent involvements in their children's education on children's achievement scores that attention is now directed.

Informal Parent Involvement Practices and their Im~licationsfor the Current Studv Although the expressed intention of the current study was to investigate the direct and exclusive effect of parent tutoring under trained conditions upon the academic progress of children in the first place, it could be said that despite the precautions taken in the study to prevent possible biases in the results, insufficientconsideration was given to the possibility that certain less forma1 parental behaviors may have conuibuted to the dramatic gains made by the children in their school achievement. Acknowledgement of this possibility and some detailed analysis of what these behaviors are and their possible effects on children's learning are both

timely and necessary. Nevertheless, it is the present investigator's steadfast view, that the academic gains made by children in the current study were increases made over and above the gains accmed through classroom leaming and school related experiences and through the contributions to learning made by nonformal parent involvement behaviors in the home and in the schooI. The resuits of this study showed that children in the DTCG who were informally tutored made progress on al1 of the tasks during the first session (Time 1 to Time 2) prior to their parents being trained. These results are consistent with the findings in particular of Goodlet and Goodlet ( 1 982) and Vinograd-BauseII, Bausell, Proçtor, and Chandler ( f 986) thrit informal tutoring benefits children's learning. However, it is not known what instructional methods or strategies were used by the parents of the children in the infomally tutored group as they were not given tutoring logs in which to record their tutoring interactions. nor is it known what previous training if any they had received or whether they h3d undenaken networking with other parents in the community. What is known. however, is that the parents who informally tutored their children did so at least three to four times a week (Table 7) and that they did so with greater self-confidence ratings in their ability to tutor than the other parents

involved in the study (Table 9, Time 1).

Whatever the source of these parents' self-

confidence, whatever the nature and quality of the informal tutoring transactions. ir is clear ttiar informal tutoring does hold certain advantages for chiidren's school achievement pro,v e s s a 5 shown in the current study and that if a choice were to be made. informa1 parent tutoring

15

better than no tutoring at ail. On the other hand, in view of the effect of training o n parent\' tutonng skills as reflected in the significant gains made by children in al1 of the skills mcasurcd. and in view of the significant impact on parents' self-confidence ratings, systematic trdining nnt only secures these positive outcomes but guarantees them. It is therefore advisable thai parents be trained in tutoring knowledge and skills if they are going to tutor their chiidren than to do so

with no training at al]. It is also necessary that future research focus more explicitly on informal parent tutoring practices to ascertain the nature and degree of parent tutoring

knowledge and practices, as well as the organizational, structural and pragmatic characteristics of the tutoring sessions themselves. There are sound logicai and empiricai grounds for assuming that certain parentai involvements in their children's school experiences and progress, other than focused tutoring. impact children's school performance. It is just as plausible to assume that most of the parents who participated in the current study who tutored their children also involved themselves and their children in these inforrnal learning enhancing behaviors and activities. To assume that parents did not engage in inforrnal learning-enhancing behaviors with their children would be counterintuitive and somewhat limiting. As parents were not requested to record their informal interactions and influences in the tutonng logs, it is not known with any degree of accuracy or certainty as to the nature of these encounters, their frequency and their duration. The absence of such information is regretted but it is not considered to be a critical factor in funher deliberations later on in this examination. In addition, it is unlikely that parents only began the informa1 learning enhancing behaviors when they received training in the PTP- Their high motivation to tutor their children suggests that they were already engaged with their children's schooling pnor to begianing the PTP. According to Walberg ( l984a, l984b), home-environment factors contribute as much to children's school performance and achievement as do school variables. Walberp used the rem. curriculum of the home, to describe those factors in the home that contributed to chiIdrenls success in schoots. These factors are essentidly behaviors ranging from parents' open display of interest in their children's school experiences and progress, through the sharing of informal iearning-enhancing activities such as selective televisions viewing. to assistance with homework and, if required, sustained acadernic tutoring.

Walberg's

conceptualization of the curriculum of the home and its impact on children's learning and school progress was global in that he did not attempt to provide performance indicators for his categories; however, he did emphasize that parent tutoring was essential to ameliorating the academic skills of children who were academically at-risk, and he based this directive on

research findings (Walberg, Bole, & Waxman, 1980). Walberg's ( l984a, 1984b) contention that the multiplicity of parent-child interactions that constitute the curriculum of the home contribute directly to children's learning and school achievement, was based on direct evidence (Iverson & Waiberg, 1982; Marjoribanks, 1979; Rosen & D'Andrade, 1959: Walberg & Maqoribanks, 1976) and upon reverse logic. With respect to the latter, Walberg maintained that the family dynamics of disadvantage'd, at-risk children reflected significantly lower weightings on learning-enhancing behaviors and interactions than the family dynamics of n o m d l y achieving children from soçioeconomically favorable home backgrounds, hence the

unfavorable school experiences. Subsequent studies by Walberg and associates (Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1990) and by researchers in the parent involvement field (Bemphechat. 1990; Fehrman. Keith, & Reimers, 1987; Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, & Brissie, 1992;

National Centre for Education Statistics, 1989; Stevenson & Baker, 1987) provided empirical support for the overall contribution to chi ldren's

SCho01

performance by parent involvement

behaviors in the home and at school. However, the specific contribution of each of the factors that ranged from informa1 conversations and shows of interest to focused tutoring at home, was not comprehensively established (National Centre for Education Statistics, 1989). The only direct empirical evidence to show the specific effect on children's school achievement by a single home-factor were the individual studies that focused on extramural parent tutoring, as described in the current study. Against this background, Fehrman, Keith, and Reimers (1987), ISBE (1993), Swap ( 1990)

and Wolfendde (1994) formulated three models of parent involvement in their

children's education and their distinct contributions to and effects upon children's leming and school progress. The fint model encompasses traditional home-schooi relationships such as parents attending schooi open-house and celebrations; this model is reportedly ineffective in enhancing children's school performance.

The second model embraces direct parent

participation in their children's education and includes both formal and informal aspects of the curricuium of the home. There appears to be unequivocal support in the parent involvement

literature to the notion that parent-assisted learning which as a distinct activity is ensconced in the second model, and is a most efficacious approach to helping children at-risk increase their cornpetencies in reading and numeracy skills in the short term but far less successful in resisting wipe-out effects (Swap, 1990). The less fornial parent behaviors and parent-child interactions with respect to their contribution to children's learning were not emphasized although their importance was acknowledged. The third model is parental empowerment and the transformation of schools to better serve their cornmunities. Here Comer's pioneering work invol ving comrnunity-based and time-extended parent involvernent projects in New

Haven, and its influence, are clearly discernible ( 1989, 1986, 1980). It is within the scope of this model that parent involvement is the most efficacious in securing signifiant and lasting chi1dren's achievement gains and positive personal and cornrnunity transformations as well. These contributions have already been presented in the review of the literature: so too has the tacit admission of researchers in the remarkable megaprojects that to single out and assess the magnitude of a specific variable in the plethora of seemingly intenvoven leaminp and project enhancing behaviors (which. incidentally embraces many features of the second model) would be both empincally challenging and antithetical to the holistic principles of parent invoivernent. A recent study conducted by Ho Sui-Chu and Willms (1996) addressed the relative

effectiveness of four dimensions of parent involvement on the academic achievement of 24,599 eighth-grade children in the United States. The four dimensions of parent involvement

in children's education examined by the two researchen were, Home Discussion. School Communication, Home Supervision, and School Participation. These four dimensions were selected from twelve parent involvement factors as categorized and described in the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) (National Center for Education Statistics. 1989). Of panicular significance to the findings of the current study. was that discussion of school-related activities in the home had the strongest relationship with the eighth-gnde students academic achievement. This finding has implications for the current study particularly with respect to the way in which the drarnatic gains made by the children under trained conditions are interpreted.

Given this preamble, the issue is whether by focusing exclusively on the effect of tutoring under trained contributions especially on children's academic progress. the current investigator failed to acknowledge the possibility that informal parent involvement behaviors may have occurred and that these behaviors positively infiated children's achievement scores. The presumption here is that parents were provided with more than just tutoring knowledge and skills in the PTP; also, that parents had ample time

CO indulge

in quality interactions with

their children as direct tutoring only consumed a fraction (an average of approximately 50 minutes per tutoring session 5 times a week as the records show) of extramural tirne. It is the current investigator's view that parents did participate in learning-enhancing behaviors with their children beyond the need to tutor. To assume otherwise would be both unreasonable and demeaning but that it could not logically be demonstrated that these factors significantly contributed to or inflated the existing achievement scores. Lest the present investigators' position regarding parent tutoring and other forrns of parent involvement in their children's education be misinterpreted or misunderstood. he wishes to assert his advocacy of parents assuming a wide range of participatory responsibilities and

activities in the best interests of their children's school progress and achievement.

This

cornmitment is based on the belief that it is not only the prerogative of parents to do so. but because it appears to be the most potent force that parents have at their disposa] and within their sphere of influence to provide the best possible learning opportunities for their children. His personal advocacy and bias therefore represents an inclusive and mu1tidimensional invoi vemen t of parents in their children's education; an involvement which incorporates learning-enhancing behaviors and interactions of both formal and infonnal kinds as the occasions demand. and an active involvement of parents in their children's school as well.

His position is thereforc

consistent with the ethos of the megaprojects and family literacy movernents; this orientation he has attempted to reflect in microcosm in the conducting of the present study and in expressed

preferences in his thesis.

Despite these insights and possibilities, the evidence together with the research contributions presented in the above suongly suggest that it is sustained and uninterrupted time for learning and instruction that provides the second step in the chain towards maxirnizing children's achievement (the organization of the surface structure of the tutoring context k i n g the first), and that the opportunities provided by engaged and interactional sustained learning time under and within conditions of favorable personal and interpersonal behaviors between the parent and the child, which is the third and final step, that secure it!

lm~licationsfor Future Research It would be both brash and erroneous to conclude that the above represents the final word regarding the source of extramural tutoring success generally in enhancing chil dren's learning, and the source of its potency in maxirnizing that achievement. as Bloom

( 1984)

anticipated. What can be said is that the line of thinking thus represented has kinship with the views of Melton (1967) who advised us to go beyond ihe processes of associative bonds and

superficial structures, and to investigate the interactions that underlie and influence the outcornes. Wasik and Slavin (1993) and Juel (1996) attempted to d o just that in nonfilid tutoring contexts. The current investigator has also attempted to d o so.

If thcre is :in>

delimitation to this study it is simpIy that there is little direct evidence of what really trrinspircd in the tutoring encounters between parents and their children, except by way of indircct information. It would appear that more observational research, such as that undertakcn by Jucl (1996) may provide this investigator with observational evidence that the theory of engagcd and interactional sustained time has practicd validity and provides the missing piece in thc puzzle to Bloom's (1984) "2-sigma" postdate.

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Reudirzg Teacher. 35.337-447. Juel. C. ( 1996). What makes literacy tutoring effective? Reading Researclz Qrtc A SET OF OBJECTIVES KNOWTNG THAT YOU WERE DOING THE RTGHT THING BEING ABLE TO SELECT AND CONSTRUCT APPROPRIATE MATERIALS CONSULTING WITH YOUR CHILD'S TEACHER WORKING WITH OTHER PARENTS IN YOUR COMMLJNITY USING A TEAM EFFORT AT HOME USING A SYSTEM OF REWARDS TO ENCOURAGE YOUR CHILD YOUR CHILD'S GROWING SUCCESS USmG THE DIRECT TEACHING METHOD USING THE DISCOVERY TEACHING METHOD USING THE INTERACTIVE TEACHING METHOD OTHER .................................................................. FINALLY, PLEASE LIST THE SKILLS YOU TUTORED:

Thank you

EVALUATION OF PTP EFFECTIVENESS

FORM #6:

EVALUATION OF PTP

NAME: ....................................................................... LOCATION: ...................................................

DATE: ...............................

Dear Parents:

Now that we have corne to the end of the program w e would like to know how effective the PTP has been in fulfilling your goals. Please circle 1 . 2.3. or 4.

1

NOT EFFECTlVE AT ALL

2

VERY LITTLE

3

QUITE EFFECTIVE

4

VERY EFFECTIVE

Thank you for participating in the program!

APPENDIX A-8 EVALUATION OF CHILD'S PROGRESS

FORM #3:

APPRAISAL OF CHILD'S PROGRESS

XAME: .- ....................... ................................

DATE: ...........-......- . ... - ...- .- .

Dear Parents:

Thank you for participating in our program. We sincerely hope that the training sessions have been of great help to you in helping to successfully tutor your child/children. Please take a minute and let us know to what extent your child has improved in the ski11 area(s) that you have sought training in and which you subsequently provided tutoring at home. Please circle 1. 2. or 3 alongside the appropriate training session(s). 1

a linle improvement

2 3

satisfactory improvement very good improvement

READING

1

2

3

ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION

1

3

3

ARITHMETIC WORD PROBLEMS

1

2

3

WRITING

1

S PELLING

I

-7 3

9

3

3

Thank You. We appreciate your attendance. Good luck in your continued tutoring.

APPENDIX B

PTP MANUAL A Companion to the Parents as Tutors Program

Compiled by James Hendrikse

Appendix B is a reformatted copy of the PTP Manual which was used in the curent study. The need for refonnatting was essenûally to Save space. A copy of the complete PTP MANUAL in its original form was aven to the parents \vho panicipated in the study. A copy of this manuai can be obtained by contacting the present investigator.

Concerning -4ppendix B ....................... . . . . ..................................................................... .4cknowledgements .............................................................................................................. About this Manual ....................... , . . , ................................................................................... . . Objectives.

...................................... An Overview ........................................................................................................................ Tips for Parents ................................................................................................................... Training Session if1 : Agenda ............................................................................................... Conditions for Effective Tutoring ....................................... ...-

.........................................

Instructional Materials .................... ...,........ . . ..................................................................... Content of Training Sessions ............................................................................................... How Well do you Know Your Child: Reading

(Statu & Tracking of Progress Forrn) .....

HOWWeH do you Know Your Child: Writing

(Statu & Tracking of Progress Form) .....

HO\VWeII do you Know Your Child: Mathematics (Status & Tracking of Progress Form) ..... 1nstructional Methods ...........................

. . ...........................................................................

How the Instructional Methods of Discovery Learning . Direct Teaching and Interactive Learning are Modeled in the PTP Training Sessions .......................................

.

Discovery Leaming .Direct Instruction Interactive Learning: Their Salient Features ........................................................................................................ Applying the Three Instructional Approaches to Decoding Skills in Reading ....................

. .

Instructional Terrns and their Applrcation ........................................................................... Instructional Strategies Provided in Various Skills Areas in this Manual ............................ About "Instructionai Strategies" (ISs).................................................................................. How to Choose the Appropriate ISs for Tutoring Your Child ............................ ......... ......... Using the ISs in Tutoring Your Child ................................................................................... OrganiUng the Tutoring Sessions.........................................................................................

.. u

... vil1

Instructional Strategies in Detail Tutoring Reading

......................................................................... 29

Instructional Materids ........................................... ....................... . . . ...................... 29 Tips for Enhancing Children's Reading .......................................................................

31

Reading in the Junior Grades.......................................................................................

34

Strategies to Increase Reading Skills (Prirnary): Operational Areas........................... 35 Strategies to Increase Reading Skills (Primary) ...........................................................

35

.4 Selection of Strategies to Increase Reading Skiiis (Primary) ...................................

36

Strategies to Increase Reading Skills (Primary) in Detail ............................................

36

Strategies to Increase Reading Skills (Junior): Operational Areas .............................. 42 Strategies to Increase Reading Skills (Junior)..............................................................

43

A Selection of Strategies to Increase Reading Skills (Junior) ...................................... 43

Strategies to Increase Reading Skills (Junior) in Detail ............................................... 44

Tutoring Phonies

.......................................................................... 52

Instructional Materials ................................................................................................

52

Strategies to Increase Phonics Awareness and Application: Operational Areas ....... 53 Strategies to Increase Phonics Awareness and Application..................................... 53 A Selection of Strategies to Increase Phonics Awareness and Application ................ 51

Strategies to Increase Phonics Awareness and Application in Detail ......................... 54

Tutoring Reading Comprehension

................................................ 61

Instnictional Materials ................................................................................................

61

Strategies to Increase Reading Comprehension: Operational Areas........................... 62 Strategies to Increase Reading Comprehension .......................................................

62

A Selection of Strategies to Increase Reading Comprehension ................................... 63

Strategies to lncrease Reading Comprehension in Detail ........................................... 64

Tutoring Arithmetic Computation

............................................... 71

Instructional Materials .................................................................................................

71

Strategies to Increase Cornpetence in Anthmetic: Operationai Areas ......................

72

Strategies to Increase Competence in Anthmetic.....................................................

73

A Selection of Strategies to Increase Cornpetence in Arithmetic ................................

73

Strategies to Increase Cornpetence in Anthmetic in Detail ......................................... 74

5. Tutoring Arithmetic Word Problems

.................m...

Instructional Materials ..............................................................................................

83 83

Strategies to Increase Cornpetence in Solving Word Problems: Operational Areas ... 81 Strategies to Increase Cornpetence in Solving Wo:.! Problerns ................................... 8 4 A Selection of Strategies to Increase Cornpetence in Solving Word Problerns............ 85

Solving Word Problerns ...............................................................................................

85

Strategies to Increase Cornpetence in Solving Word Problems in Detail ..................... 8 6

. .......................................................................... 88

6 . Tutoring Wribng 0

Instructional Materials ................................................................................................ 88 Strategies to Increase Written Language Cornpetence: Operational Areas................. 89 Strategies to Increase Written Language Cornpetence .................................................

90

A Selection of Strategies to Increase Written Language Cornpetence ......................... 91

Strategies to Increase Written Language Cornpetence in Detail .................................. 91

7

.

Tutoring Spelling

.........................................................................99

Instructional Materials .............................................................................................

'1')

Conditions for Effective Spelling ................................................................................

1 O( )

Ways to Assess Spelling ............................................................................................. 100 Strategies to Enhance Spelling Skills: Operational Areas ........................................... 101 Strategies to Enhance Spelling Skills .........................................................................

101

A Selection of Strategies to Enhance Spelling Skills....................................................

102

Strategies to Enhance Spelling Skills in Detail ............................................................. 102 The 100 High-Frequency Writing Words.................................................................. 104 The First 100.......................................................................................................... 105 ...................................................................................................... The Second 100 105 The Third 100........................................................................................................ 106

The Fourth 100....................................................................................................... 106 The Fifth 100........................ . . ......................................................................... 106

8. Tutoring Homework (Organizational Skills)

.................................107

Instructional Materials ...............................................................................................

107

Strategies to Assist with Homework (Organizational Skills): Operational Areas ..... 108 Strategies to Assist with Homework (Organizational Skills)..................................... 109 A Selection of Strategies to Assist with Homework (Organizational Skills) .............. 109

Strategies to Assist with Homework (Organizational Skills) in Detail ....................... 109 Studying for Tests: Sample Grid................................................................................ 111 Homework Time-Table ............................................................................................... 112

9

.

Tutoring Study Skills

...................................................................113

1nstnictional Materials ................................................................................................

Il3

Strategies to lmprove Study Skills and Habits: Operational Areas ........................... 114 Strategies to Improve Study Skills and Habits............................................................ 1 1 1 A Selection of Strategies to Improve Smdy Skills and Habits ....................................

Il5

Strategies to Improve Study Skills and Habits in Detail ......................................... 116 Study Time-Table .......................................................................................................

119

Studying for Tests: Sample Grid ................................................................................

120

Homework Time-Table ...............................................................................................

120

Appendix B-1

...................................................................................... 121

Tutoring Log ................................................................................................................

121

Say Basic Sight Words, Part 1..................................................................................... 112

.

Say Basic Sight Words Part 1 (Primer) ...................................................................... 123 Say Basic Sight Words.Part 1 (Grade I ) .................................................................... 124

.

Say Basic Sight Words Part 1 (Grade 2 ) ....................................................................

125

Say Basic Sight Words Part 1 (Grade 3) ....................................................................

126

.

Good Words to Know (Grade 4) ................................................................................ 127 Good Words to Know (Grade 5) ................................................................................

128

Good Words to Know (Grade 6) ................................................................................

129

Phonics Assessrnent .................................................................................................... 130 Precision Teaching (Arithmetic): Sample Page........................................................... 131 How to Construct Discovery Boards to Enhance Discovery Leaming ...................... 132

Self-Appraisal of Tutoring Knowledge and Skills Form # 1 : Mid-Session Appraisal ............................................................................ 133 Self-Appraisal of Tutoring Knowiedge and Skills Form #2: End of Session Appraisal ....................... ................................................. 134 Appropnate Individual Tutorhg Plan (AITP) ........................................................... 135

vii

1 wish to extend my thanlcs to the parents and children who participated in the Parents as Tutors Prograrn (PTP) for whom this MANUAL was written. and. to those colleagues who contributed ideas towards its completion-

James Hendnkse Program Coordinator

viii

This MANUAL serves as a cornpanion to the Parents as Tutors Propam (PTP) and it is designed to provide ideas and guidelines for parents to follow in tutoring their children.

This MANUAL can also be used by instructors to teach parents how to tutor.

'

The core of the PTP are the Skills Training Sessions (STSs) or workshops. The purpose of the STSs is to provide participants with the INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES (ISs) in various ski11 or subject areas that would enhance their effectiveness in helping their children learn. The STSs also give participants oppomuiities to see the stxitegies king demonstrated. to practise these themselves with other participants and. to choose the strategies that they consider appropriate to their children's needs. learning s e l e s and level of development. This MANUAL c a n o t be used in isolation. That is, the user must attend the STSs to get the most of what is contained in the MANUAL. For instance. several of the ISs are coded in not-so-familiar titles. By attending the workshops. participants "get the message!" Specifically. this MANUAL contains ideas, advice. guidelines and specific ISs in nine (9) subject or skill-areas which form the backbone of the STSs. These are: CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE TUTORING IN THE HOME

READING (PRIMARY) READING (JUNIOR) ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION

ARITHMETIC (SOLVING WORD PROBLEMS)

WRITTEN LANGUAGE (WRITmG) SPELLING HOMEWORK (ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS) STUDY SKILLS

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

The purpose of the PTP is to provide parents with the appropriate knowledge. skills and instmctional strategies to effectively tutor their children at home. The following objectives will guide the delivery of the individual training sessions or workshops: 1 : Parents will learn how to establish die appropriate conditions for mtoring their children at home.

#2: Parents 4 1 know the sources of instructional materiais such as r d i n g tests. math tests, word lists. +3: Parents will understand the DISCOVERY LEARMNG METHOD by simulating its

application. H: Parents will understand the DIRECT INSTRUCTION METHOD by simulating its

application. =5: Parents will understand the iNTERACTiVE LEARNTNG METHOD by sirnulatins its application. 36: Parents will know how to locate their child's LEARNTNG STATUS in a specific skiiI. #7: Parents will know how to select the pre-arranged INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES.

#S: Parents will demonstrate their mastery of the LEARNING STRATEGIES in simulation activities. #9: Parents will demonstrate their rnastery of an APPROPRIATE

IN DI VI DU.\I

TUTOMNG PLAN (AITP) by writing one for their child. $ 1 0: Parents will know how to make INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS such as llrisli-cards.

personalized word lists in reading or in spelling. board or card games. and d i s c o w ~ . boards of their own. #11: Parents will demonstrate that they know how to evaiuate their child's progress througl~

entries in the TUTORING LOG. gl2: Parents will know how to maintain their TUTORING LOGS through appropriatc

entries. #l3: Parents will help other parents who need help in tutoring their children. $14: Parents will learn to work COOPERATIVELY with other parents in the training

sessions.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

The Parents as Tutors program (PTP) is an instnictional prodesigned to provide parents with knowledge, skills and strategies to assist them in tutonng their in sciiool-related activities at home. The PTP was designed by James Hendrikse in response to the expressed need of parents of elementary school children for such assistance. The PTP in its present form-seven skills trainîng sessions (STSs) or workshops-is a refinement of two popular and successful trial runs. The STSs are delivered once a week over a period of seven to eight consecutive weeks. Each STS takes approximately 2 1/S hours to complete. A PTP Manual (an instructional guide for both parents and teachers) which is given to graduates of the prograrn. was developed to complement the workshops. D e s i ~ nof the PTP

The design of the PTP reflects what parents said they needed. Parents wanted to know how to set up a leamhg environrnent in the home to enhance tutoring interactions. Nest. parents wanted to help in tutoring reading. writing. spelling and arithmetic. The PTP in its present forrn is a response to those needs. The PTP SkilIs Traininn Sessions (STSs) o r W o r k s h o ~ s The PTP provided seven separate STSs or workshops. each approximately 2 1!2 hours long and organized in the following sequence:

MEETING #A:

Introductory Meeting (Parents are given details about the PTP)

STS fC1:

Conditions for Effective Tutonng

STS #2:

READING (Part 1)

STS #3:

READING (Part 2)

STS #4:

ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION

STS #5:

ANTHMETIC PROBLEM SOLVTNG (Word Problems)

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

STS 86:

WRITING

STS #7:

SPELLMG

MEETING #8:

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

WRAP-UP (Social and PTP Evaluation)

Two additional (optional) STSs are d s o offered.

STS $8:

ORGANIZATIONAL SKlLLS (HOMEWORK)

STS #9:

STUDY SKILLS

Or~anizationand Deliverv of Each Skills train in^ Session Each separate STS obeys the sarne training format and instructional sequence. This provides the fiamework and sequential flow of the AGENDA.

INTRODUCING THE SKILL AREA CONTENT AND SCOPE OF STS IMPORTANCE OF SKILL COMMON LEARNER DIFFICULTIES iN SKILL AREA STRATEGIES TO EhTHANCESKILL ACQUISITION MODELING OF STRATEGIES SIMULATIONS YOUR OWN CHILD SHARING IDEAS SUM-UP INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLiNG ( 1/2 hour)

Parents as Tutors Program (FTP)

James Hendrikse, Progarn Coordinator

TIPS FOR PARENTS 1. CHILDREN'S NEEDS

Children need to be physically and emotionally cared for. Parents can help meet these needs by providing and ensuring a healthy life-style (nutritious meals. rest. protection). Children need to be loved and accepted and responded to in a respecthl way. Parents need to hug their kids. give their kids t h e , develop their codldence, praise their successes and be there in an accepting way when they stumble. Children need to make sense of things and parents c m respond by listening. encouraging. allowing tirne for reflection and encourage their children to take reasonable and responsible risks. 2. YOUR CHILD AM) READING

Talk to your child fiom the earliest age. Surround them with language. esplain. question. read. read. Encourage them to talk. Tell stories and retell of al1 kinds. Have your child read with you (share). Talk about the pictures. run your finger underneath the print as -ou read. Make simple word games matching words with pictures. Play "sound" games (rhyming garnes- beginning sound games in your home. on wallcs, in the car). Establish a routine for reading e v e v day. Start a library for your child. Let your child select books from the public library, purchase books fiom stores (your child should be taught this skill). Be a reading model for your child. Talk about the book your child has purchased or read. Encourage your child to read to you ... later on poetry. essays. articles. Share. talk. Talk about your own books etc. Ask about what he/she has read at school that day (make this a habit).

Be your child's writing role model. Let your child see you w~ite. Read what you've written 10 your child from ver). early on. Encourage your family to write ... birthday cards. linle messages. invitations. Keep a journal and show your child how it's done. why. Display your child's wrinen efforts (yes, your own as well). How about a writing display board? Forget about spelling. Praise the tiniest effort. Give your child gifk associated with writing (pens. paper. crayons. desk. desk lamp, diary. dictionary. eraser ...). Be an interested listener and reader. Talk about the writing, help with phrasing etc.. and praise the finished product. Encourage your child to write to relatives and significant

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

institutions. Always be there to encourage and to help. Read your child's writing done in school. 4. YOUR CHILD AM) SPELLING

Be realistic: do not ask for perfection but do encourage habits that will help your child to become a better speller such as read a lot, write a lot. Help your child to p~oofreadwhen this activity needs to be done. Help your child with a personal spelling book and go over the words on a regular basis (read. cover, write). Help your child to develop the necessary words (with their correct s p e b g s ) prior to writing. Do not ask your child to look up the correct spelling of words in a dictionary. Play spelling games or verbal games inforrnally. Let your child quiz you (make intentional mistakes). 5. YOUR CHILD AND MATHEMATICS

Do al1 you can to develop your child's sense of numbei size' length. weight. width. volume. area and tirne. From early on rnake use of the properties in your ou-n home to explore mathematical concepts and relationships. Talk math! Involve your child in real-life mathematics. counting things, sorting things, giving change. estimating, weiC&ing items. keeping scores.. . Encourage your child to develop hobbies that require building and measuring. planning and problem solving. At the b e g h h g of counting and adding. subtracting, etc.. always use physical objects or manipulatives. Do some simple computational problems using counters and even drawings. Tell math stories and set little puzzles. Play math games (e-g., snakes and ladders) and strategy garnes (e-g.. checkers. chess). When you start to help your child with homework talk to the teacher about methods. When tutoring explain the ski11 or concept to be learned. show it. give examples and have ':Our child tackle the homework. Always rnake sure the work is done. Check for accuracy and provide logical support. 6. YOUR CKiLD AND HOMEWORK

Establish a homework routine. location and time-table particularly when >.Our child reaches the junior grades. Develop a stratejy that \vil1 ensure that your child h o u - s n-hat homework is to be done. how long it will take to do. what form it \vil1 be espressed in and when it should be handed in. Check the finished product and make sure that it is in the bag to take to school. Show a genuine interest in how well your child has performed (time invested is tirne respected). You can help by intervening when the going gets tough (don't do the homework, help solve the problem). If you have to tutor, make sure you know what you're doing.

Parents as Tutors Program (FP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

7. YOUR CHILD AND STUDYING

Provide a suitable location and physical environment for studying (fiee fiom noise and distractions, cornfortable, equipped with the necessary resources etc.). Help you child to draw up a study-tirnetable (particularly during exam times) showing also the dates of tests. Successfil (productive) studying is not an overnight rush (in fact you don't study the night before!) it is a continuous process of refining and distilling. A week or two prior to doing the test your child should be reviewing the bare essentials and not trying to read the course book. Good studying is good studying habits. Your child should know how to read a book. how te look for the main ideas. how to chunk. how to do jot-notes and summary index cards. And this must be done almost daily (1/2 hour). Prior to the exams quiz your child or have yow child develop either mock papers or ask the teacher for previous ones. Do 1-question mock exams in your home: it's o o d practice! With your child evaluate the work. Always provide positive support!

Training Session #1: AGENDA 1.

Introductions (Again)!

2.

Gening Ready to Tutor (Establishing the Conditions for Effective T u t o m ) (Hand-out: Take Home).

3

The 3 KlNGS INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS (Overview) (Hand-outs: Takc Horne). DISCOVERY LEARNING METHOD DIRECT INSTRUCTION METHOD INTERACTIVE LEARNING METHOD

4.

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES (What, How. When)

5.

Sequence of Insmctional Steps (A Model) (Hand-Out: Take Home)

6.

About ...

Task Increase, Task Decrease, Task Balance Leaming Opportunity

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

Optimum Learning

FOmMTS (QFL (CF), (MF),

(Jm, (GF)

TUTORWG LOG TIPS FOR TUTORlNG (Uand-Out: Take Home) Concerns/Wrap Up Individual Help frovided by SEVEN EXPERTS so don't hesitate!

CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE TUTORENG GETITNG STARTED If ?ou intend to work with your child/children on a regular basis. here are a few tips that will allow al1 of you to get the most out of the tutoring sessions.

COMMUNICATION Explain to Sour child and other members of your family why.. .

LOCATION Choose a suitable place in your home away fiom noise and distractions. Your child's own bedroom may be the most suitable. 3.

COMFORT The place must be amenable to tutoring. e . g , table. chairs.

3.

TIME

How often, how long are questions only you c m answer. Remember children have to have time to play and to be alone. 5.

STORAGE Store al1 materials in a suitable box.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

DISPLAY Display your chiid's successes for al1 to see.

PREPARED Plan for each session. Keep a record of each session. PRAISE

Don't forget this important ingredient!

TEFMINATION Know when to stop!

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Any serious and consistent effort to tutor your child at home wili require the availability of instructional materials. In the PTP we draw your attention to and rnake avaiIable various materials and resources that would help you in your tutoring efforts and in organizing Iearning materials for your child.

THE PTP MANUAL A copy of this MANUAL is given to al1 participants at the end of the program.

"TAKE-HOMES" (T-Hs) FOR PARENTS T-Hs are printed handouts distributed at each TS to provide detailed guidelines to the presentations. The handouts contain both content and procedural information usehl to parents' further understanding of concepts and procedures. The T-Hs therefore reinforce what is happening in the TSs.

"TAKE-HO!WESW(T-Hs)FOR CHILDREN These are printed activity sheets for children to do at home. Spelling and reading iists (sight vocabulary) for children to review are exampies of T-Hs.There are T-Hs for children's use in al1 ski11 areas of the skills presented in the TSs.

Parents as Tutors Prograrn (PTP)

4.

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

"PERMANENT" INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS (PIMs) PIMs are those materials that are used in the day-to-day tutoring sessions. We advise parents to obtain/collçct these prior to the first tutonng session. Here is that Iist. pencils and erasers color pencils/crayons blanMined writing paper blank playing cards/index cards adhesive tape scissors der storage box stop watch tutoring log (multiple copies) a copy of Moyer's Supplies Catalogue tape recorder and blank tapes paper clips/stapler highlighter envelopes reward stickers We also recornmend that if you have not already done so. ta help your child start hisher oun library which \-vil1 include a suitable dictionary.

S.

"SPECIFIC" INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS (SIMs) SIMs are usually provided by the PTP such as construction paper bristol board for use in the construction of activities such as games. discovery boards and posters. Part of the PTP curriculum is to teach parents how to construct very practical and uncomplicated activities to enhance interaction and leaniing in the tutoring sessions. A second and indispensable group of SIMs is

published reading materials (texts) published math materials (texts)

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

published phonics materials (texts) published word and spelling lists. The PTP sets aside individual and group-copies of published materials currently used in the school. The rationaie is that the instructionai materiais most [email protected] are those k i n g used in the children's classrooms. These materials are distri buted to PTP participants on a needs basis: participants sign books "out" and "in." very much dong the lines of the library system. Al1 texts are preselected and "graded" by the instructional staff.

CONTENT OF TRAINING SESSIONS SESSION #1:

GETTiNG READY TO TUTOR

There are altogether NINE things you need to do or have in place to make your tutorincg sessions with your chiidren productive. These nine conditions or principles. are civen under "Conditions for Effective Tutoring" (see pp. 7-8).

k

SESSION #2:

READING 1

This session wiIl focus on things you c m do before your child starts to read (prereading activities) and the stages of beginning reading. You wi11 be s h o w how to read to your child. listen to your child read to you and share books. You will also be show-n how to sct about developing your child's sight vocabulary. how to increase your child's phonics aurareness and how to use phonics effectively. You will also be shown how to make y o u r child's o m reading books and how to make reading a meanuigfiil daily event. The strategies >+ouwill be taught will also provide you with corrective measures should your child be esperiencing difficulties with early to late primary level reading. SESSION # 3 :

READïNG 2

In this session you will see how important reading becomes in processing information and in applying reading skills to persona1 responses and in making judgements. You will also be shown how to increase reading fluency and speed through word inventories. precision reading and scanning. and reading productively in specialized ski11 areas such as research and projects. Reading with understanding will also be an area of focus. Many o f the strategies presented in Reading 1 can be used as corrective measures if your child is esperiencing difficulties with reading at this level.

Parents as Tutors Pfograrn (PW)

SESSION #4:

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

ARlTHMETIC COMPUTATION

This session will focus on pre-number activities as well as learning how to add. subtract. multiply and divide with whole nurnbers. The pre-number activities will invoive using concrete materials and the languqe of math concepts, properties and relationships to develop the groundwork for later work with numbers and signs. You will l e m how ordinary everyday things in your home cm be used to stimulate math activity and interest- Working with nurnbers using the "four processes" will involve strategies to increase accuracy of recall and speed of finding soiutions to simple equations. Again, the strategies you will be s h o w can be used in helping your child to become better mathematicians.

SESSION #5:

ARXTKMETIC PROBLEM SOLVING

In this session you will be taught strategies to detect why difficulties in solving wordproblems in math occur and how they can be corrected. The strategies will range fiom basic "read-back talk-back" approach, to mapping and visualizing. and can be readily applied to enhancing your child's problem solving skills in this area.

SESSION #6:

WfUTING

You will learn how reading and writing are connected and how important it is to develop both reading and language skills in your child. - You will be shown ho\+-m-riting likc readinp. moves through a series of stages and what you can do to help your child in each stage of development to become more effective writers. beghing with k i n g your chiIdts "ghosr wirer" to developing forms of personal wrîting. as in response and journal witing.

SESSION #7:

SPELLING

You will learn to view spelling in the context of your child's own wnting. l ' o u \vil1 l x shown ways to detect the nature of your child's spelling status and to apply practicai strategies to enhance speliing performance.

OPTIONAL SESSIONS SESSION #8:

HOMEWORK (ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS)

In this session you will learn how to lay the foundations for effective homework skills from early on in your child's school experience. The emphasis is on organization and persona1 responsibility.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

SESSION #9:

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

STUDY SKILLS

You will learn about effective study habits and strategies which children have to learn from early one and successfully apply them when study becomes a daily necessity. Organization. needs and tirne-management are central concepts and applications.

NOTE You may fmd that your child has very special needs. We will provide you with individual time afier the training sessions to address these needs or, you may wish to share these concerns with the entire group.

HOW WELL DO YOU KNOW YOUR CHILD: READING STATUS AND TRACKING OF PROGRESS FORM INSTRUCTIONS: This form is designed to @de your tutoring by drawing your attention certain skills or behaviors that your child cadcannot perfonn at hisher CURRENT d e level. It is not intended to be a test. Make observations as you go dong at THREE DIFFERENT TIME PERIODS: at the BEGINNING of tutoring. MID and END.

10

CIRCLE ONE:

Beghnhg

Mid

End

GRADE:

CHILD'S NAME:

BEHAVIORS 1.

Can say the alphabet ................................................................

2.

Can narne the letters of the alphabet ............ . .........................

3.

Knows the sounds of individual letters...................... . . . ........

4.

Knows the sounds of letter-clusters .........................................

5-

Knows how to phonetically decode a "none-sense" word ........

6.

Can read at least (1 0) (20) (50) sight words..............................

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

7.

Can read a basic sentence at grade level.....................................

8.

Can read a hl1 paragraph at grade level .....................................

9.

Can read a full chapter fiom a grade level text ....................... ...

10.

Your chiId is motivated to read .................................................

1 1.

Your child reads or attempts to read independently .................

HOW WELL DO YOU KNOW YOUR CHILD: WRITING

STATUS AND TRACKING OF PROGRESS FORM INSTRUCTIONS: This form is designed to guide your tutoring by drawing your attention to certain skills or behaviors that your child can/cannot perform at hidher CURRENT + d e level. I t is not intended to be a test. Make observations as you go dong at THREE DIFFERENT TIME PERIODS: at the BEGINNING of tutoring, MID and END.

CIRCLE ONE:

Begïnning

Mid

End

GRADE:

CHILD'S NAME:

BEHAVIORS Can copy the UPPER CASE letters of the alphabet .................... Cam copy the lower case letters of the alphabet ....................... ....

Prints UPPER CASE letters fiom memory (50%) (100%) .......... Prints lower case letters from memory (50%) (100%) ................. Can spell(10) (20) (30) (40) (50) (1 00) words fiom memory ......

Can w i t e a sentence.................................................................... Can write a paragraph ...................................................................

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

8.

Uses appropriate punctuation and capitalization .........................

10.

Uses appropriate sequencing ........................................................

11.

Uses appropriate details ...............................................................

1 2.

Writes interesting stories...............................................................

13.

Writingisliketalking .....................................................................

HOW WELL DO YOU KNOW YOUR CHILD: MATHEMATICS STATUS AND TRACKING OF PROGRESS FORM INSTRUCTIONS: This form is designed to guide your tutoring by drawing your attention to certain skills or behaviors that your child cankannot perform at hisher CURRENT + d e

Make observations as you go along at THREE DIFFERENT TIME PERIODS: at the BEGINNING of tutoring, MID and END. level. It is not intended to be a test.

CIRCLE ONE:

Beginning

Mid

End

GRADE:

CHILD'S NAME:

BEHAVIORS 1.

Recognizes the numerals 1-10 ......................................................

2.

Can match number of counters to their numeral ...........................

3.

Cancountto(l0)(20)(30)(50)(100) ..........................................

4.

Knows value of numbers to 100 ...................................................

5.

Understands concepts of (ADD) (SUBTRACT) (MULTIPLY) (DIVIDE) .....................

6.

Can (ADD) (SUBT) (MULT) (DIV): No Regrouping ................

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendnkse, Prograrn Coordinator

7.

Can (ADD) (SUBT) (MULT) (DIV): Regrouping ......................

8.

Cari SHOW (+), (-), 0,(DIV) sentences with counters ............

9.

Can solve WORD PROBLEMS (One-step).................................

1 0.

Knows names of basic 2-dimensional shapes ...............................

1 1.

Knows names of solid shapes .......................................................

12.

Can (Tell Time), (Measure), (Weigh)............................................

l---J-4

L

INSTRUCTIONAL IMETHODS There are THREE instructional methods that will be taught in the training sessions. These are.

2.

DIRECT INSTRUCTION

3.

INTERACïIVE LEARNING

A major part of the first training session. "Establishing the Conditions for Effective Tutoring" \vil1 be devoted to explainhg what these major instructional methods are. their unique orientations. their applications in the teaching of various skills. and their usefulness in rhc tutoring context. The hitonng context is ideai for any one of these instructional methods to be applied. It is hoped that parents will develop a working knowledge of these methods and employ them in tutoring their children. The application of these methods to tutoring various skills will be demonstrated in the training sessions where parents will mode1 them in COOPERATIVE leaming groups and in one-to-one SIMULATIONS. Parents should choose the instructional method(s) which best suits their child's LEARNING STYLE and tlieir own COMFORT level.

INSTRUCTORS in the PTP should read a major text in each of the instructional methods to familiarire themselves with the philosophy, procedure and application. Thc recornmended texts are:

Parents as Tutors Program (PTE')

1.

James Hendrikse, Prograrn Coordinator

DISCOVERY LEARMNG - Morine, H.. & Morine, G. (1973). Discovety: A c/zallenge' fo reachers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hdl.

2. DIRECT lNSTRUCTION - Englemann. S. (1 980). Direct insirucrion. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall. 3. INTERACTIVE LEARNING - (i) Wittrock. M. C . (1987). Teaching and student thinking. Journal of Teacher Education, 38, 30-3 3. As interactive leaniing is integral to cooperative learning. instmctots should read (ii) Johnson, D.. Johnson. R., Holubek, E., & Roy. P. (1984). Circles of learnirtg:

Cooperarion in the clussroom. Alexandria, V A : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Developrnent. INSTRUCTORS should also read a central tex? on COOPERATIVE LEARNWG as this instructional approach is an integral part of the training sessions. Two recomrnended readings are. (i) Johnson, D. W.. & Johnson. R. T. (1986). Learning together and alorle. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall. (ii) Johnson. D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1985).' Cooperative learning and adapti\?e education. In W. C. Wang & H. J. Walberg (Eds.). Adapting insrmction lo individird dzflerences. Berkeley, C A : McCutchan.

HOW THE INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS OF DISCOVERY LEARNING, DIRECT TEACHING AND iNTERACïIVE LEARNING ARE MODELED iN THE PTP TRAINING SESSIONS Apart fiom a presentation of the three instructionai approaches using thc EXPOSITORY, TEACHER-DIRECTED approach during the first training session "Getting Ready to Tutor." parents will have the opportunity of experiencing these instructional approaches first-hand and use them in cooperative leaming and SIMULATED acti\,itics throughout the training sessions. It will become clear that the instructional incthods employed by the INSTRUCTIONAL TEAM in delivering the PTP incorporates çach of the methods at different points in the overail presentation. This is so not only because w e wish to provide you with fiequent opportunities in observing the application of these methods for

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

increasing your tutoring knowledge and skills. but also to demonstrate that certain skills may more productively be learned under certain instructionai conditions. You will observe. the principles of DIRECT INSTRUCTION king used in TEACHER-DIRECTED activities particularly at the [email protected] each new training session at which point the

GOALS set for that session are STATED, the METHODS and the MATERIALS used to achieve them are RECORDED and the EVALUATION process is described. Also. DIRECT TEACHING is undertaken to DEFiNE the SKILL(S). to DEFINE and DESCRiBE the NSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES and PROMPT and PRAISE you as you mode1 them; the principles of DISCOVERY LEARNING beuig used in your own determination of the LEARNING STATUS of your CHILD, in your own SELECTION of the APPROPRIATE INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES to match your childfs learning status, and in your own determination in choosing appropriate instnictional materials: the principles of MTERACTIVE LEARNING king transacted through group PROBLEM-SOLVING activities in COOPERATIVE LEARNiNG wherein the solution to a problem is a PRODUCT of the total contribution of members of the croup. You will experience the advantages of COMMUNICATING. LISTENING. QUESTIONING. ENCOURAGING. SHARING and CONTIUBUTING.

b

it is hoped that by placing you in these instnictional environments you will understand their differences. appreciate their power and use them at propitious points in your tutoring. You will therefore not only expand the instructional options you have at your disposal and thereby increase the QUALITY of your interactions with your child. but you will also become a PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL for your own chiId to emulate.

DISCOVERY LEARNING, DIRECT INSTRUCTION, INTERACIWE LEARNING: THEIR SALIENT FEATURES 1.

DISCOVERY LEARNING

Leaming, according to the Discovery Learning Model. is dependent upon the leamer making INDEPENDENT observations and judgements in selecting fiom several alternatives. or, reconstructing novel alternatives in amving at a solution to a problem. While the notion of independent thinking and observation is central to Discoveiy learning, the foundations for these to take place must be METICULOUSLY organized by the teacher so that the leamer is "steered" in the right direction. It is important that the teacher has a clear idea of what esactly the learner is to leam, or, it is important that the parent has a clear idea of what her

Parents as Tutors Program (FTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

child is to l e m . For example, you the parent. wishes to teach your child different combinations of numbers that when added together equal 20. You must clearly articulate the PURPOSE of the task to your child. Then you wiil have to provide your child with the MATERIALS, that is the numerais O - 10 with the stipulation that in any combination a numeral c m be used more than once or, only once. Also. that the set of addends (the numerals to be added) can be of any nurnber. e-g., 10+10=20, or, 1+9+6+4=20. Your child wi11 discover that there are a number of possibiiities. When your child provides hifier OUTCOMES your role is to evaluate with your child their validity and through skillfbl questioning and LEADS you will encourage your child to continue to pursue other combinations. You will observe that in this example your child is not oniy engaghg in quite challenging independent thinking using hidher own STYLE but is also consolidating mastery of addition facts to 20. It has already k e n pointed out that the DISCOVERY BOARDS recommended in the training sessions have a distinct place in DISCOVERY LEARNING particularly with younger children. However, this fact shodd not deter you fiom using the DISCOVERY LEARNING MODEL WITH OLDER CHILDREN e.g.. in STUDY SKILLS. and in ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS where children with as previously stated. clear guidance and goals. have to determine for themselves the "best fit" SOLUTION to their own problems. You as a parent cannot DIRECT their behavior al1 the time: this represents a good moment to introduce DIRECT INSTRUCTION. C

2.

DIRECT INSTRUCTION

In the DIRECT DJSTRUCTION MODEL the teacher or instructor leads the learner into skill mastery through systematic programming which includes the "breakdown" of complicated skills into "manageable" units; the use of an agreed upon system of signs and signals (prompts and verbal reinforcements) help the learner master each skill. DIRECT INSTRUCTION is therefore a TEACHER-DIRECTED instructional approach DIRECTED at specific leamer deficits in a skill area or domain such as reading. writing. spelling. arithmetic. There are several commercial programs such as DISTAR, CORRECTIVE READING. and MORPHOGRAPHIC SPELLING which are based upon the principles of DIRECT INSTRUCTION. However these are highly specialized programs which require intensive training to effectively manage. As these programs fa11 outside the scope of the PTP (although we will be happy to counsel parents who are interested in exarnining these commercial programs by proving them with the appropriate literature and contact). it is the METHOD in DlRECT NSTRUCTION that will be presented in the PTP. DIRECT INSTRUCTION is a hi-&ly FOCUSED and clearly sequenced instructional procedure. In DIRECT INSTRUCTION first things do come first. The instructor organizes the leaming task into a HIERARCHY of what is terrned SUB-SKILLS whose mastery lead up to the mastery of the TARGET SKILLS. For instance your child is "unable" (DIRECT INSTRUCTION language is very PRECISE) to add columns of three digit numbers with regrouping. In DIRECT INSTRUCTION it is your job as the instnictor to determine EXACTLY where the source of your child's dificulties kgin. This is achieved through a

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

series of "BACK-TRACKING" procedures by presenting your child with the begiming of regrouping. e-g., 6+7, or, 26+8 and then to move on to more complicated patterns. In this process the instructor teaches the CONCEPT of regrouping, shows its operation (MODELING), instmcts the learner to show mastery over the procedure by explainùig and dohg an example. and then the instructor proceeds to the next LEVEL. When a point is reached where it is apparent that there is a "BREAK-DOWN" in the ability of the learner to EXECUTE the required procedure very STRUCTURED, FOCUSED TEACHER-LEAD instruction takes place be-einning with a clear statement of the OBJECTIVE and what the learner must do to reach the stated OBJECTIVE. in other words. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA. The role of the learner is to listen and observe attentively. ta accurately repeat the instructors leads and to apply the principles presented to solve a specific problem. The learner will be instructed to solve several like-problems to prove mastery. The DIRECT INSTRUCTION MODEL is an extremely potent instructionai procedure because it clearly establishes what the child has to leam and what exactly the instructor (parent) has to do to ensure that leamhg (MASTERY of a skill) takes place. We are e n c o q g g parents to use the SEQUENCE of INSTRUCTIONAL STEPS presented in this MANUAL as an "anchor" to guide their tutoring whether they are usine DISCOVERY LEARNING. DIRECT INSTRUCTION or WTERACTIVE LEARNING.

As the name implies. MTERACTIVE LEARNING involves a personalized style in which the teacher INTERACTS actively in an interested and supportive manner with the learner. In the INTERACTIVE LEARNING MODEL. the leamer contributes as much to the best way in which learning can be transacted and the desired outcomes reached. In a perfect interactive leaming situation the teacher interacts to guide W n g and behaviors of the learner into productive outcomes and, in this respect the teacher is more of a partner. a resource or intermediary such as in COOPERATIVE LEARNING as opposed to the sole EXPERT and dispenser of skills such as in DIRECT INSTRUCTION. Verbal interactions and activity-based leaming are strong features of the INTERACTIVE MODEL. As in DISCOVERY LEARNING and DIRECT INSTRUCTION the GOALS to be achieved are always foremost in the transactions. There are several advantages to using the interactive learning model as an instructional base. The literature suggests that the teacher through interacting with the learner. gets a "feel" for the leamer's needs. interests, leaming styles and achievement level which helps in the development of a realistic and meaningful program because it builds on learner strengths and motivation and not upon deficits and alienation. Furthemore. as interaction implies some sort of agreement, the learner identifies with the prograrn and assumes part-ownership. These qualities appear to blend in very well with our ideas about democratic parenting in which the child's views and feelings are respected; the supportive nature of the inreractive mode1 also lends itself extremely well to parent tutoring. The fact that the interactive learning model is "OPEN-ENDED" and DYNAMIC makes it a favorable instructional method for accommodating and for developing both parent and child

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

behaviors in the tutoring context. For instance, in the section of the PTP concerning the enhancement of WRlTTEN LANGUAGE (WRITMG) SKILLS. the INTERACTIVE LEARNiNG MODEL provides an excellent tiamework for helping the child to choose one theme fiom several to write about and for the parent who may already have one in mind. to understand through PIE-WRITTNG CONFERENCE with her child. why there are good reasons for her child choosing some other themes. The PRE-WRITING CONFERENCE between the parent and the child is an MTERACTIVE LEARNING procedure if it is -oenuinely collaborative and respecthl of the child's interests. abilities and needs. The prem~itingconference \vil1 be demonstrated in the training sessions: for now it is important to point out the verbal interactions between the parent and the child in deciding what the most suitable theme for writing about would be. why. how. and what would be needed to make the qualiw of writing best reflect the child's interest, knowledge and experience. The only \va). It may ver? \\-el1 this can be achieved is through DIALOGUE or VERBAL be that during this process a theme neither the child nor the parent had preference for in the first place would be chosen. From that point on it is a munial journey which always keeps in sight the fact the child is RESPONSIBLE for ultimately doing the WRITING. So help could be provided in pre-writing vocabularies. sequence of ideas. organization. presentation and PUBLISHING.

APPLYING THE THREE IlrjSTRUCllONAL APPROACHES TO DECODING SKILLS IN READING Let's apply the three instructional approaches to enhance decoding skills in reading. Let's assume that there are three parents who have k e n trained in the PTP. Parent A uscs the DIRECT INSTRUCTION approach: Parent B uses the DISCOVERY LE.-\RNIN.Our child's input: let your child help you establish the objectives and what behavion will show that thc objectives have been attained.

When the ski11 that you want your child to learn is TOO EASY (that is !.Our child already knows it) e-g.. c m already read the Primer Dolch words fluently. wh>*no[ practise the Grade 1 list instead if the objective is to increase your child's SIGHT VOCABULARY? This then is an opportunity to "upgrade" the task, or. TASK INCREASE (TI). On the other hand if your child is struggling to read the Dolch Grade 1 words it is important io "downgrade" to the Primer or Pre-Primer words to give your child a "fair start." This is what is meant by TASK DECREASE (TD). Once you can establish a happy balance between

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

what your child knows or c m do and what he/she does not know or can't do. you vil1 have provided TASK BALANCE (TB). Now (TB) provides LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES (LOS) for OPTImM LEARNiNG (OL) to take place.

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES PROVIDED IN VARIOUS SKILL AREAS DY 'THIS MANUAL

NUMBER OF STRATEGIES

SKILL AREA READING (Primary)

10

READING (Junior)

10

PHONICS

11

READING COMPREHENSION

10

ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION

10

ANTHMETIC WORD PROBLEMS

10

WRITTEN LANGUAGE

13

SPELLING HOMEWORK (ORGANIZATIONAL SKiLLS) STUDY SKILLS

ABOUT "INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES" (ISs) Strategies are deliberate actions to achieve certain results or outcornes. " 1 nstruc tionül Strategies" (ISs) or. teaching strategies. are used in educational settings to increase students' learning. The ISs in this MANUAL and presented in the STSs. are designed to help childrcn learn school-related knowledge and skills. These strategies can be very easily mastercd: sonis are most familiar. othen fairly new. All. however, are educationatly sound. This MANUAL contains one hundred and two (102) ISs. Apart fiom the 1%. this MANUAL also contains general "tips" for parents in each skill-area; things that parents can do to increase their children's learning on an informal. day-to-day basis.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

HOW TO CHOOSE THE APPROPRIATE ISs FOR TUTORING YOUR CHILD This has already been done for you (pre-selected). Al1 you have to do is have a fairly clear picture in your mind of what your child is able to do in the skill-area in which you are wing to provide tutoring. I f you attend the appropriate STS your instnictor will help you locate your child's "learning status" (LS) on the "grid"which bas been designed for each skillare. By "learning süitus" (LS) we mean the level of skill-development that your child shows in a particular skill-area, e.g.. Spelling. We have termed these "operational areas" (NOT GR4DE LEVELS) because these areas (used in the PTP) te11 you where your child is "operating" in that skill. For instance "Pre-Reading" is one operational area (OA) in reading: another is "Reading Fluently."

-

QUESTION: Would you use the identical 1% for two children. the first whose "LS" in Reading is in the "Pre-Reading" OA. the second, whose OA is "Reading Fluently"? Once you have located your child's LS in the OA, turn to the next page where you These are the ISs you are gohg to use in your tutoring sessions! rvill find the appropriate Es.

However. parents can experiment with various ISs in any given skill-area. In the PTP workshops (STS) parents are encouraged to develop their own and to contribute to the existing IS "pool."

USING THE ISs IN TUTORING YOUR CHXLD We recornmend that you try the pre-selected ISs one at a time. As you are tutoring your child on a regular basis. you will have the opportunity of seeing for yourself which of the strategies are more effective than others in increasing your child's skill-development and motivation. Some strategies you will be more comfortable with than others. If you and your child like them al1 and. if they are "doing the job." then do use them al1 in one tutoring session. Or. ?ou can use a single strategy per tutoring session. The ideal is to help your child learn: to move from one level in the OA to a higher level in the hierarchy. In other words. to increase your child's learning status (LS). The OAs provide you with a fairly accurate "map" of the broad developmental steps in each of the skill-areas covered in the STSs and in this MANUAL.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

ORGANIZJNG THE TUTORING SESSIONS If you have taken the step to tutor your childlchildren doing so on a regular basis is recomrnended. Try to avoid conflicts or clashes with "popular" events in your child's day. Do not rush things. Daily tutoring of one-half hour to forty-five minutes duration (weekends fiee) is considered ideal. Incorporating home-work that your child has to do into the tutoring sessions is also recomrnended. "Tutoring" can involve anything fiom just "reading to your child" (a very useful strategy with very young children) to teaching your child a strategy to help solve word problems in arithrnetic. If you are going to "tutor" your child on a regular basis some intentionality or purpose must be behind it. That is, you read to your child to improve his/her reading. or listening, or language. Given this "purposefulness." you must organize the tutoring time appropriately.

In tutoring, "first things do corne first" (a lesson you learn in the STSs). So begin by reviewing the section on "CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE TUTORING IN THE HOME" (STS SI ) and apply thern! Organize your tutonng sessions in a predictable sequence and try sticking to that sequence. Here is a sequence to follow: 1.

ESTABLISH THE SETTING (Decide on the skill you are going to teach. the strategies you must use. materials and activities.)

2.

R E W W PREVIOUS SESSION'S ACTMTIES (Your child can do this.)

3.

INTRODUCENEWACTIVITY (Inform your child what he/she is going to l e m or do)

4.

DELIVER THE PROGRAM (Tutor using strategies)

5.

EVAL,UATE PERFORMANCE (Your child's progress and your own effectiveness. Don't forget to PRAISE and REWARD)

6.

GAMEORACTIVITY (Finish up with a "FUN" activity that is related to the skill)

7.

PREVIEW NEXT SESSION (Prepare your child for what's ahead)

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Prograrn Coordinator

1. TUTORING READING

GROUP (A) MATERIALS: These materials must be obtained from your child's TEACHER and should be part of the resources used in the classroom. 1.

GRADED or "LEVELED" READiNG BOOKS (Your child's teacher will provide your child with the appropriate level for your child).

The instructors in the PTP will collect copies for use in the pro*be devised for you to borrow and return them. 2.

and a system will

GRADED WORD LISTS (Your child's teacher will provide your child with the appropriate word lists such as classroom lis& or the Dolch or the Spache word lists).

NOTE The instructors in the PTP will provide you with copies of the Dolch Graded Word Lists as well as the PTP Graded Word Lists. Copies of these are in the Appendis section of the MANUAL.

GROUP (B)MATERIALS: These materials will be provided by your INSTRUCTORS in the training sessions:

3.

Upper Case and Lower Case letters of the ALPHABET.

4.

PRECISION TEACHING word lists (Dolch).

5.

PHONICS work-sheets

6.

Blank and half-blank/half-lined exercise books for your child's OWN BOOK OF. STONES and for your child's own WORD BANK (note that you must alphabetize the pages in sequence)

Parents as Tutors Program (FTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

GROUP (C)MATERIALS: You will have to constnict these materials yourselves:

FLASH CARDS (use Bristol board or index cards) with individual words. individual letters. or individual sounds. etc., clearly printed for your child to respond to. You will taught how to do this. Your child's PERSONALIZED WORD LIST or WORD BANK. You will be tau& how to do this.

Your child's OWN BOOK OF STORIES. You will be shown how to do this. A Reading. Letter Recognition or Phonics GAME. You will be shown how to do this.

GROUP (D) MATERIALS: You wiIl have to PURCHASE these or BORROW them from appropriate sources: 1 1.

Suitable STORY BOOKS for your chiid to read or. for you to read to your child.

12.

A suitable PHONICS TEXT if required. You will be shown samples and guided in your decision.

13.

A

TAPE RECORDER.

14. A STOP-WATCH or other TIMER.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

TIPS FOR ENHANCING CHILDREN'S READING WADING IN THE PRIMARY GRADES

1.

READING TO YOUR CHILD

This should be a daily event (1 0- 15 min.j. Encourage conversation about the text and related things. Questions are very important: encourage your child to ask them too. 2.

YOUR CHILD READCNG TO YOU

As soon as your child is able to read even a single word or a make-believe story. Do not intempt except perhaps to sound out a difficult word. You may wish to engage in dialogue afienvards.

3.

READING WITH YOUR CHIW)

Shared-Reading is a pleasant cooperative activity. You can read a sentence and your child then reads another. and so on. Later on paragraphs or even pages. During the early stages of reading you may wish to have your child read dong with you (remember you should be reading slowly slightly ahead of your child with your finger tracing under the words a s you -oo dong: speed things up when your child demonstrates greater fluency-this is Simultaneous Reading). 1. CREATING AWARENESS OF WORDS The intent of this is to have your child realize that words even when taken out of the context of a story still have meaning. Start with pointing out objects (ask your child for their names) in your house preferably starting with your child's bedroom and pnnt the names ofthe objects on individual flash-cards. These cards should be taped to the objects and removed when needed for word-recognition drills. When you ask your child to place the words on their objects start with only one (give sound clues) or two cards.

5. CREATING YOUR CHILD'S O W BOOKLET VOCABULARIES You may wish to extend activity in (4) by cutting out various shapes of key objects e-g.. house, school, from catalogues (or draw themhave your child draw them) and through a process of questions have your child narne people or objects associated with h e m ("what's in a house?" or. "what can you find in a houe?"). Clearly pnnt each name (word) on a strip of

Parents as Tutors Program (FïP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

paper or flash-card. Store each group of words in separate envelopes or boxes and label them. e.g. House Words? etc. Eventually your child will have a nurnber of context vocabularies. Playing word-recognition pames with these vocabuiaries can be fun. 6.

CREATING YOUR CHILD'S OWN STORES

Using the format in (5) you can now print a short experience story about "MY HOUSE" for you and your child to read. . Make each story highly predictable by using repetition. An extension of the above would invoive your child telling you a story. e-g.. "MY SNOWMAN" and you doing the edithg (cutting it down to size) for publication. Your child can draw the picture. A variation of this is to write your own story about the snowman and to read it to/with your child.

NOTE: Your child must be dongside of you throughout the writing expenence. Stones must be fiequently reviewed and your child should be encouraged to read the nones to other memben of the family (even neighbors and visitors). 7.

L E A W G NOTES AM) MESSAGES Start with a happy face and one word. eg.. "Hi"! Put this in an envelope and print. "TO ... (Mom? Dad? Grandma?).

Read messages to and with your child; repeat basic vocabularies and extend range of experiences. Your chîld rnay wish to write al1 kinds of messages to al1 kinds of people and "thingsU-you should help to compose these. Eventually letters will be produced.

8.

DEVELOPING AN AWARENESS OF SOUNDS FOR PHONICS Point out how pictures/words sound the sarne (rhyme). Play guessing rhyming garnes using the objects in your home and immediate environment. e g . "Something in the room sounds like CAT. .."(MAT). "It begins with.. . (initial sound) " It ends with.. . (final sound) and so on. You can also use matching pictures in the same way (sort and classiQ by phonetic patterns).

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

9.

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

SEEJNG PHONETIC PATTERNS IN W O R D S This must be rneaningfblly done in the contexts of the child's own reading. Help your child to sound out and reinforce this by providing your child with additional words of similar phonetic structures ("WORD FAMILIES"). Read and review the words that have been developed according to their visual and auditory sirnilarities, e-g.. action. fraction. fiction. nation. to establish rule and enhance reading fluency (automaticity).

10.

DEVELOPING A PHONlCS OR SIGHT VOCABULARY PICIlONARY Use unlined scrapbook. Label the pages A-Z and giueldraw pictures. Pnnt names. Review.

11.

DIRECTED READING As children get older and begin to read more sophisticated literature you may wish to provide them with vocabularies that will anticipate that of the text (Prepared Reading). Review these words prior to reading. The words can be provided by your child or by your child's teacher who will undoubtedly know the next focus in the reading-based program.

12.

WORD LISTS

Sometimes children need to learn "word lists" such as the Dolch. Spache, or Fry's (published word inventories). Consult with your child's teacher. You may wish to pt-int each word on separate flash cards. In helping your child learn. start with TEN of the easiest words first. Your child reads and you help by sounduig out. Place the words in two envelopes. one group that your child is able to r a d , the other that your child has still to leam how to read. Play garnes. eg., Rummy, Fish, as a motivator. Help your child to form connections (mnemonics) in trying to quickly read them. e.g., meaning or shape or phonetic connections. Review known words prior to introducing new ones.

While published word lists are very useful they should not replace or assume greater importance that the words currently used in your child's classroom reading and writing program, or your child's own persona1 words that he/she needs to know for writing.

Parents as Tutors Program (VTP)

13.

James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

YOUR CKILD'S O W LIBRARY Start one early in your child's reading experience. Constantly inspect the Iibrary with your child (read tities to/with your child, play "what's in this book" oral game). Browse, talk, [email protected], evaluate. Introduce your child to the public library early on and kclude visits to book stores as a special treat (don't forget to give your child a book dowance for purchashg books or book-related things). You may wish to develop a chart of "Books 1 Have Read."

13.

READiNG CAMES You can purchase or you can constmct with your chiid simple reading games from phonics, through single words, to simple instructions and coded messages. Involve your family in this informai cooperative approach to enhancing "family literacy."

READING IN THE JUNIOR GRADES Many of the procedures used in the above c m be productively employsd \vitn children at-nsk for reading in the Junior Grades. TXe level and compiexity of the rcading task will determine the strategy and the starting point. It is my considered opinion that the habit or routine of SHARED-READING can still play a vital role in developing children's reading skills at the junior level. It is in this rather informal context that parents can get to know how well their children have mristered thc required vocabularies and how effectively they c m use a variety of decoding strategies to dsal with challenging words. It is also in this context that you can probe your ciiild's understanding of the text and through interactive questioning raise your child's thinking and insights to new levels. It is also a context for informal spelling and response-writing activities as well as a point in setting the stage for your child to do independent literacy activities including the completion of homework.

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING SKILLS ~ OPERATIONAL AREAS OPERATIONAL AREAS

~

STRATEGIES ff 1

$2

#3

#4

#5

#6

if7

#8

#9

310

1. Pre-Reading

2. Beginning to Read

3 . Reading with Difficulty 4. Reading Fluently

5. Reading but Not Understanding Well

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING SKILLS (PRIMARY) Strategy K 1:

Establishing a "Reading Culture"

Strategy #2:

Reading to your Child

Strategy iC3 :

Your Child Reading to You

Strategy #4:

Reading Together

Strategy $ 5 :

Repeated Reading

Strategy #6:

Building a Sight Vocabulary fiom Scratch and Whose Words?

Strategy #7:

The Many Wonders of your Home

Strategy ff8:

"Sure-Fire" Ways to Get Reading Started

Strategy #9:

Situational Phonics

Strategy # 10:

The Parent as "Sleuth":Situational and Response Reading

~

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING SKILLS

O STRATEGIES

OPERATIONAL AREAS

$6

ff7

ffl

#2

#3

1. Pre-Reading

S1

S2

S4

3. Beginning to Read

S1

S2

S3

S4

S6

S7

S8

3. Reading with Difficulty

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

4. Reading Fluently

S3

S4

S10

5. Reading but Not Understanding Well

S3

S5

SI0

M

if5

fC8

ff9

S8

S9

810

SI0

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING SKILLS (PRIMARY) IN DETAIL Sff 1: ESTABLISHING A "READING CULTURE"

By "Reading Culture" is meant a culture of LITERACY that provides individuals particularly young children with positive literacy habits, expectations. experiences and behaviors that will encourage them to want to READ. to WRITE and to COMMUNICATE effectively. We are taiking about PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT and LITERACY COMPETENCE. As a parent you must be seen by your child as establishing a mode1 of literacy in what you do. say and expect. So really it starts with you and there are a million and one strategies to help you develop a "READING CULTURE" in your home. You must show an interest in READING by reading al1 kinds of materials. alone, with. and to other members of your farnily. You must begin to purchase suitable books for your children and help them to develop their own libray. Use books as a REWARD for chores well done. There should be times set aside for READING so that it becomes a predictable expectation and something to look forward to. Talk about books. newspapers. Draw your child's attention to WORDS WORDS WORDS al1 over the place. And more. Question. explain and INTERACT. WRiTE as well as this shows that reading is someone's writing. Draw attention to what words Say, on signs. on TV, on labels, names, colors, and so on. Treat

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James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

books with LOVE and RESPECT. Do ali of this BEFORE your child begins to read: your child will read sooner given these experiences. S#2 : READING TO YOUR CHILD

Reading to your child is (should be) a very intimate and warm SHARING EXPERIENCE. The quality should be s w h that your child wants to do it again. Therefore choose a suitable book to read to your child (remember your child could be 10 years of age!). Encourage your child to help choose the book. Choose a book that would take 10-15 minutes to read (very young children) or. a "CHAPTER BOOK" for your older child. Even read a book that only has pictures. So, you tell the story in an interesting way (now that's reading!). Get your child CLOSE to you (very young children could be cuddled) so that you both SHARE the text. As you read dong. trace with your finger BELOW the words as you read (SEQUENCE). Obey the SIGNS (punctuation) and READ WITH EXPRESSION. Maybe you wish to follow-up with a CONVERSATION about the story. Use INTERACTIVE leaniinp (IL) approach with leadiig questions (what, why, where. when. who) (QF) and (EF). You may even pause in your reading because you need to make a point (always ASK) or your child wishes to make a COMMENT. Read a page again if your child loves to hear it again. Finish with "what do you think about the story" NOT "did you like the story." ENCOURAGE REFLECTION AND LANGUAGE. Encourage INTERACTION. S#3:

YOUR CHILD READING TO YOU

There are TWO reasons why you should want your cfiild to read to you. One is for FLN: the second is to help your child develop READING FLUENCY. It is important to be aware of this distinction. In both instances help your child choose a book that is fairly readable. Ask your child to read the FIRST TWO SENTENCES. then the TWO SENTENCES IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PAGE and then the LAST TWO SENTENCES on the page. If your can read 80% of the words then the book is "readable: for your child. This means that as there are 10 words per line (approximately) more than 2 "unreadable words" (20%) will create extreme difficulties for your child. This method is called "HENDRIKSE'S RULE-OF-THUMB READABILITY FORMULA" (teach your child the method too). If your child is reading for FUN (and let's face it. it can't be much fun when you have to struggle with the words) visually SHARE the text. GET CLOSE (as in SU). Now when your child DOES smiggle with one or two words per line, simply ASSIST your child by helping to SOUND OUT (phonetically DECODE) and give the word and let your child c a r y on. Don't FUSS!! Remember to PRAISE your child's efforts. Maybe at the end if the MOOD is right pose the question, "what do you think about the story" ...and encourage REFLECTION. ANALYSIS. EVALUATION AND INTERACTION.

Parents as Tutors Program (ITP)

S#4:

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

READING TOGETLfER

This is part of what is caiied "SHARED READING." It is usually referred to as SIMULTANEOUS READING and it apparently has untold benefits. The idea is that b y reading the sarne words together you "imprint" upon your child's rnind what the words SAY. In this strategy?you read SL1GHTL.Y AHEAD OF YOUR child; your finger GUIDES your child's visual contact with the words. You do not PAUSE to correct (except in correcthg yourself). The strategy also encourages your child to focus by LISTENING as well as b y LOOKING. Afterwards INTERACT using (IL), (QF), (EF). Very young children who have not yet learned to read and who dearly want to "pretend read" would benefit greatly fiom this experience. S#S:

REPEATED READING

This can be done in two ways. The first is for your child to read a prescribed PASSAGE or SHORT STORY more than once to gain fluency and a sense of cornfort and then to READ TO YOU. The second approach is better: your child reads the material to you and you assist in helping your child in decoding challenag words (OPPORTUNITY WORDS). Then read again as greater fluency is reaccheed. By the third or forth attempt almost complete fluency is acquired. Remember. for a start. the reading material must be fairly READABLE to your child (no more than 30% LJNREADABLES). The strategy also encourages GOOD READING HABITS for remembering details. etc. Even EXPERT READERS do repeated readings! S#6:

BUILDING A SIGHT VOCABULARY FROM SCRATCH AM) WHOSE WORDS?

This strategy is designed to help gneral develop a POOL of readily recognizable words (AUTOMATIC WORD RECOGNITION) by using Direct Instruction (DI) to do so. The question is "whose words" or "what words" do you want your child to autornatically recognize. Do you want to teach your child to learn "other people's words" such as words from commerciaily published lists (PUBLISHED WORD MVENTONES) suc11 as the DOLCH WORDS (see Appendix) or the words your child dearly needs for hisher reading and writing (PERSONAL WORD INVENTORIES)? Building a SIGHT VOCABULARY FROM SCRATCH really provides the due. We are assuming that your very young child has acquired only a FEW WORDS and you wish to help hirnher extend that number. Well the words most meaningful to your child at this stage of development are the words MOST USEFUL for YOUR CHILD'S IMMEDIATE NEEDS I N EARLY READING. You can use the PRE-PRIMER DOLCH WORDS and p h t each word neatly on an INDEX CARD. Using the (DI) method you practise reading each word with your child: that is. you Say the word and your child repeats it. Then, "what is the word?" "Good, the word is CAT." Or, "let's try agah..." Frequent exposures in this way is designed to help your child remember

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James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

the words. You can help fiirther by POSTING 5 WORDS AT A TIME on our child's closet door and at various opportunities INFORMALLY read them with your child. You rnay also wish to display your child's successes by giuing the words on index cards into a SCRAP BOOK labeled "WORDS I CAN READ." You may even play a simple card game (GF). (IL) with the newly acquired words (add a few new words to challenge) and invite other rnembers of your family to participate. "Whose words" may be answered by helping your child to develop a workable sight vocabulary in SPECIAL INTEREST AREAS such as PETS, MY FAMILY. COLORS, WNTER. Use the Interactive Leaming Method (ILM) by helping your child to provide you with hisher words on the subject. These words can be printed on INDEX CARDS (for QUIZZING in FLASH CARD drills and for GAMES) and STORED in LABELED ENVELOPES (the beginnings of a PORTFOLIO). Limit the number of words to TEN. The words must be your child's own words but you rnay add (with permission) one or two of your own. Review the words before you move ont0 a new theme. Review in different ways. e-g.. reverse roles. and (QF).

S#7:

THE MANY WONDERS OF YOUR HOME

This s t r a t e 0 focuses on the NAMES of THINGS in your home just ~vaitingto have a LPLBEL placed on the! Apart from being a wonderful way of enhancing your child's spoken WORD POWER (concepts) by drawing attention to the names of h g s (QF) "what is the narne of the room in which you sleep?" "What is the name of this piece of b i t u r e that we sit on?" (pointing to the SOFA). "Good, what is a SOFA for" (IL), the process personalizes emerging reading. Do not stop with a name, extend its meaning and application. The best place to start is in your child's BEDROOM where direct ownership exists. You uill need a black MARKER, MASKING TAPE. and BLANK INDEX CARDS. You play the N A M E GAME by selecting at first only the most prominent OBJECTS. e.g.. TOY BOX. BEDCHAIR. BOOKS. Afier printing the names of separate cards (with your child \vatchhg and listening as you go.. ."b.. .es..d then BED" deliberately.. .what does the ivord sa'. (QF). ..good.. .BED." And you amch the CARD (Label) to your child's bed where he/she can SEE it and TOUCH it. The central idea is that your child at a very young age is k i n g EXPOSED to the fact that PRiNTED WORDS as found in BOOKS and hold wonderful mysteries that can be UNLOCKED for their meaning. Those squiggly shapes on the page which we cal1 letters do indeed stand for real things. Al1 we need to do is learn how to use the letters. So the object is redly not to directly teach reading (no drills please). But don? stop there. Always extend the realm of possibilities. So let's assume that you would like to "test" your child's "memory" for matching the WORD (Name) with the object. Reduce Task ( T R ) to Say FIVE labels. Use (GF) in (IL). You Say, "please give me the card which says BED" (CF). So your child gets the card. "Good.. .what does the word say?.. .BED.. .that's good." "Now please get me ..." Once you have al1 FIVE cards you Say, "Let's see if we can put them back where they belong" (IL). "This word says.. .b.. .e.. .d.. .BED...good.. .now put it

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James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

back where it belongs.. .good." You can extend the possibilities depending on your child's readiness to be extended so you can Task Increaçe (TI) until you reach Task Balance (TB). By the way your child will have a wonderful opportunity to "show off' to fiends. relatives how well he/she can read by actually taking them on a TOLX of her bedroom. Now aren't there SIGNS and LABELS practically everywhere we go? Now to the KITCHEN. Sarne thing. How about the label DANGER or the words DO NOT TOUCH. Indeed your home is literally full of wonders just waiting to be explored by an imaginative mind. S#8:

"SURE-FIRE" WAYS TO GET READING STARTEID

This in my opinion is a "fail-safe" way of getting reading started with young children and in helping to improve the reading fluency of at-risk readers throughout the p d e s - e v e n reading-disabled aduits. Some educators refer to it as the LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE approach because the reading stems from and builds upon the individuals direct esperiences and imrnediate needs. In this approach the words for your child's reading are your child's OWN WORDS with sorne EDITING done by you. To get started you will need 1/2 page blank/lined exercise book, writing and drawing materials. YOU are your child's WRITER. With v e q young children start with your child's DRAWING (use your child's need to draw something. e.g.. FLUFFY THE CAT. Your child draws and colors the house car (the PICTURE of the cat. O.K.?) while you watch and comment (IL). (QF). (EF). Once the dram-ing is done PRAISE. Now, "what do you what to Say about FlufQ?" "FlufQ is a pretty cat" (reply). "Good.. .let's write.. .Fluffy is a pretty cat.. .that's a nice story about FlufB.. .she is a pretty cat." "Let's read it together.. .(SIMULTANEOUS PAIRED READMG). ..good. Do you want to try reading it alone.. .I'll help you.. .very good." You may do this over and over ...y Our child has smelled success. Your next step in\-olïes taking the FIVE words in the sentence-statement and print them in random form (miscd up) onc below the other neatly BELOW the story in a different color. Now itfs a different cxercisc. You want to have your child recognize the separate words. Use only TWO kex words (TD if you like. or al1 (TI). Use the same process "let's see if we can read each word togcther.. ." etc. Do ONE a DAY but always start by reading to/with/ or your child reading to >-ou.thc previous storylstories. Review the words. You can use the same procedure ~ v i i l i short descriptive STONES. e.g, Start with your child's interest or spark hisher imagination. "Let's write a linle story together about your visit to the strawberry f m ...would >-oulike to draw a picture fint?. ..pood." Now let's write the story.. .you tell me about the thmi and what you saw.. .and 1'11 help you put most of it down on paper." So your child tells ii all. Edit as you go dong. Finally you are going to have only SIX or SEVEN sentences. Your child will understand that space is limited. "That's a good story.. .now let's read it iogether. Good, now try reading it back to me.. .very good. as you help DECODE the challenging words. Now list the KEY WORDS below or on a clean page. The key words arc OPPORTUNITY WORDS and a few "easy words." ..lu

'

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

You will no doubt understand that the appeal of this strategy is in the PERSONALIZATTON of learning as a vehicle for enhancing reading attitudes and skills. The vocabularies and experiences are CHILD-CENTERED (your child). Furthemore it exposes your child to the WRIï?NG PROCESS and to the very reai notion that his/her thoughts and feelings are worth writing down and that they c m be written down with the appropriate support. Now the stories can be shared; not other people's nones. your child's stories. S#9:

SITUATIONAL PHONICS

This strategy involves helping your child to use phonics DECODWG SKILLS in reading situations where the exact PHONEMIC STRUCTURE is required to help c a r y on with the process of reading; in other words it responds to your child's immediate needs to successfbliy decode challengïng words. It is NOT teaching ail of the phonic elements and their applications as in a phonics course, rather it takes what is needed and applies it in a specific reading context with your help using the (DI) method. This strategy is described fully in the phonics skills section, S#lOI Strategies to Increase Phonics Awareness and Application. Briefly. if your child is unable to successfully decode a word. e-g.. "flashlight." );ou assist in sounding it out and in this instance show how the word can be segmented into two distinct syllables (DI) ... "fl.. . a h ... flash.. .l.. [email protected] ... light ... flashlight ....flashlight." Also you may detect a specific breakdown, e.g.. the "fl" blend and without too much distraction from the text. simply Say. "how do we sound the two letters that make the blend.. .-es.. ."fl" ...like in flashligh~fly. flow. Do you know a "fl" blend word?" So you help build up connections for your chiid. You may not intervene at each need to decode: simply sound the word out then say it and have your child continue reading. S#10: THE PARENT AS "SLEUTH": SITUATIONAL AND RESPONSE READING

The term "sleuth" means PRIVATE EYE or DETECTTVE. Your job is to DETECT the error patterns your child is making in the MECHANICAL ASPECTS of reading such as inappropriate use of phonics decoding skiils. lack of a suitable supply of SIGHT WORDS that can be automatically or spontaneousiy read, inappropriate attention to punctuation. in eeneral and in specialized areas of reading. We are actually using some of the principles of MISCUE ANALY SIS to help our child read better. The need for your child to participate in a wider range of reading GENRE and with greater degees of complexity increases at each nade level. Essentially your job is to get to the BOTTOM of things by looking for PATTERNS of inappropriate or unproductive reading behaviors, help your child overcome certain hurdles, tackle the next ones as they arise and proceed fiom there.

b

C

You start with your child READING ALOUD the TARGET MATERIAL (that is. the reading material that is being used in your child's leaming at school). You will find in the APPENDIX of this MANUAL a CHECKLIST OF READING SKILLS AND NEEDS that you can use for guiding your evaluations and for focusing on specific READING

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James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

BEHAVIORS of your child. The list has k e n kept to a minimum. You will explain the purpose of the list and of the activity to your chilci (EF) and answer questions (QF). You will ask your child who, by the way, is well-aware of hisher reading difficulties. h i f i e r thoughts on the subject, what the major and lesser ones are (IL) and how these can be overcome. Jot these down and pencil them in on the chart. As you have done lots of sharedreading with your child (you have already established a Iiteracy partnership) this is a natural event. You will need to have a copy of your chïld's readmg materiai; failing that use a pencil to "mark"in certain behaviors on the page (erase later) or simply jot points down or move directly ont0 the CHART. Now WATCH and LISTEN VERY CAREFULLY. At the end of the reading (or you rnay stop it at any point because you have gathered enough CLUES to work with) enter your FMDINGS (evidence) on the chart. Review your findings with your child: they may exactiy match your child's previous observations (IL)- Now you have to decide where to START and your child should HELP YOU DECIDE (IL). SET the primary OBJECTIVE with your child and write it down.. ."uill use phonics decoding skills to decode opportunity wordsll' "will read obeying the puncniation si=." "will read the key words with/to mothedfatherheading partner BEFORE reading the text." DO ONE THWG AT A TIME. DON'T TRY TO SOLVE YOUR CHILD'S READING DIFFICULTIES IN ONE SESSION. BE REALISTIC! It is suggested that you employ the Direct Instruction (DI) method in helping your child overcome the more challenging reading behaviors that you have focused on and to use the specific strategies in this section to assist you in your endeavors. Once your child has overcome one barrier focus on another. You may gïve tutoring in any nurnber of reading behaviors: use (TI), (TD), (TB).

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING SKILLS (JUNIOR): OPERATIONAL AREAS OPERATIONAL AREAS

1. Reading with Diff~culty (Strategy Deficit)

2. Reading Fluently ( Automaticity)

3. Reading but Not Understanding Well (Language Deficit)

STRATEGIES

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James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING SKILLS (JUNIOR) Strategy # 1:

Reading to your Child

Strategy $2:

Yow Child Reading to You

Strate= #3:

Shared Reading

Strategy #+4:

Decoding Strategies in Situational Phonics

Strategy #5:

Repeated Reading

Strategy $6:

Word Power

Strategy fC7:

How to Read a Book

Strategy $8:

Understanding the Text

Strategy #9:

Preparing for Response Reading and the Reading- Writing Comection

Strategy # 10:

A Personalized Reading Plan ("Balanced Menu")

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING SKILLS

(JUNIOR)

OPERATIONAL AREAS

STRATEGIES

Si

S2

S

S4

S5

S6

2. Reading Fluently (Automaticity)

SI

S2

S6

S8

S9

SI0

3. Reading but Not Understanding Well (Language Deficit)

S2

S3

S4

S5

S8

S9

1. Reading with Dificulty

(Strategy Deficit)

SI0

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING SKILLS (JUNIOR) IN DETAIL

Apply procedures in SfC2 "Reading to your child" (READING SKILLS PRIMARY). If you have never engaged in this practice before it might be difficult to initiate it just Iike that when your child is in the junior grades. So choose the RIGHT OPPORTUNlTY to do this. when your child REALLY NEEDS something very specific to be read to hirnher because the materials provided by the teacher are too chalienging. EXPLAM (EF) why this approach is k i n g used: maybe your child has alternatives. Evaluate the benefits of pour child's suggestions. However, if you do wish to start this wonderfil experience and partnership without any specific goal in mind. you may wish to use a GAME-LIKE approach (GF) and "test" your child's ability to recall specific details (Listening skills) with a "reward" for effort and performance. If your first ENCOUNTER goes well, the door is open for similar esperiences until it becomes an eagerly anticipated routine. Make ACCOMMODATIONS for your child's age (perhaps. no "cuddfing") and sensitivities. Good luck. S#2 : YOUR CHILD READING TO YOU It is easier to initiate this procedure when your child is in the junior grades and up, than S#l. as there is a greater need to do so when your child is experiencing reading difficulties. Your chi1d KNOWS that this procedure "makes a lot of sense": your child is

therefore a willing participant. Use procedures as in SM. "Strategies to enhance READlNG SKILLS (Primary) and MODIFY appropriately. S#3:

SHARED READING Use SM in "Strategies to lncrease Reading Skills (Primary)" and modifu accordingl>-.

S#4:

DECODING STRATEGIES IN SITUATIONAL PHONICS Use S# 10 in "Strategies to Increase Phonics Awareness and Application."

S#5 :

REPEATED READING Use S#5 in "Strategies to Increase Phonics Awareness and Application."

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

S#6:

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

WORD POWER

The purpose of this strategy is to increase your child's "POOL" of readily recognizable words either as individual HIGH-FREQUENCY words as in commercially published word lins (Dolch, Spache). words that are related to your child's B.4SAL reading program at school. specialized much needed words such as SCIENCE words and terms. PROCEDURAL words (directions to follow in carrying out learning tasks. e-g.. CALCULATE' SOLVE, REVIEW), and THEMATIC words. e-g., HALLOWEEN words. Where you and your child start depends on your child's PRESENT CRITICAL NEEDS (what the immediate ciassroom demands are and what your child's immediate reading needs are in attempting to read from one level or, even from one page or chapter. to the next). As the commercially published lists of HIGH-FREQUENCY words are readily amilable (see Appendix for the DOLCH words and for HENDRIKSE'S JUNIOR-LEVEL WORD LIST to supplement the DOLCH) you will need to help your child read them with FLUENCY. L'se (DI) method. ALWAYS have more than 1 copy at hand, one for your child and one for you. Or. share a single copy. Have a p e n d and paper at hand. EXPLAIN the PURPOSE and the PROCEDURE (ALWAY S) (EF). Select appropnate level-T) or (DT) appropriate -!l . You rnay wish to use ALL the words in the list or perhaps only the first 15: again ( IT). (DT). You may begin TRIAL 1 by reading words to your child who fo1loa.s as ?ou DELIBERATELY read aloud. Or. you can have your child read aloud. Let's assume in Trial 1 your child reads. "Good." TRIAL 2: "Now let's read gain. This time 1 am gokg to RECORD how you read (don't say "mistakes") and 1 am gohg to help you with challenging words" (rneaning. you are gohg to Say the WHOLE word or STRETCH the word out phonetically: in either case your child then REPEATS the word). Afier Trial 2 !.ou providc your child with a list of OPPORTUNITY WORDS (OWs). THESE ARE T H E WORDS YOU WOULD LIKE YOUR CHILD TO READ FLUENTLY. Now ?ou havc ;i MODIFIED LIST of words. Now use the identical procedures in Tl and T2. Whatcver tlic outcome RETAIN these (OWs) and if you have time add (IT) 10 new words froni the list. Repeat process and so on. Considering the list of words (INVENTORIES) other than the given lists i DOLCI I and HENDRIKSE) ask your child's TEACHER(S) for a list of IMMEDIATEL17 I'SEFI'I. WORDS so that your child can learn to readily read them when they appear in class Re\.icu them as in the above. You will be given copies if readers in the PTP which arc ilie readers your child will be using in class. You c m help PREPARE your child t'or thc eventuality of reading a specific chapter or text by simpiy assisting your child to PREREAD! This activity will prepare your child for new vocabularies and the need for npply ing certain strategies to cope with them. Don't wony about your child k i n g bored! The purpose of tutoring at home is to prepare your child for successfÙ1 expenences ai school. Besides. children are never bored when they can show that they can do things v e n well. So help your child to PRE-READ the text and so increase hisher word power!

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

Helping to increase your child's readily recognizable pool of words is one thing: increasing your child's reading speed is another. ITKREASING SPEED OF READING either of separate words or words in context, is an important reading behavior in view of the amount of reading students have to do these days. You can do this either intuitively. that is a "no sweat approach" to increasing reading speed by simply asking your child to do consecutive or repeated readings and you simply intuitively time the change in speed. or forrndly through a process caiied PRECISION READiNG as described below. In both of these approaches the principle is not to teach WORD-RECOGNITION but to INCREASE THE SPEED OF THE AUTOMATIC RECALL OF WORDS ALREADY KNOWN. This can only be achieved through PRACTICE. Let's start with your child's NEW WORD POWER of recently acquked 20 Dolch words that you so successfiilly tutored using the previous (Di) method. Now 20 is a good number because any number out of 20 can be easily converted to percentages (%) e.g.. 10 out of 20 is 50%. Also if you repeat each word 5 tirnes your total words on the page would be 100 (which is a nice number to work with). Now let's Say you take the twenty words and spread them neatly on the first 2 lines of a page (10 words per h e ) and then RANDOMLY REPEAT the words 4 times each (100 words in dl) you will have a PERFECT PRECISION TEACHING WORD CHART (see appendix as one has been done for you). Make a second copy. Now you will need a STOP WATCH, an ACETATE (plastic) sheet and a WATERSOLUBLE MARKER (we'll supply you with these but you have to purchase your own STOP WATCH). Now here is the procedure. Tell your child the purpose of PIECISION READING. You need a baseline. So. Trial 1 instruct your child (CF) to read the words NATURALLY and that you will assist with chauenging words. You also Say that you are going to TIME the speed of hidher reading and then upon several subsequent TRIALS you \vil1 expect him/her to REDUCE the TlME in reading the 100 words as well as REDUCING the amount of HESITATIONS. So now at the end of each trial you have # of Words Read in ...minutes. and number of HESITATIONS per 100 words. Decrease the minutes and hesitations. You will have to decide what is the TASK BALANCE (TB) point: IO0 words in 1 minute. O hesitations? FOUR trials is recommended because at the end of the 4th trial you re-arrange the words by simply moving the LINES OF WORDS around. You do al1 your markings on the ACETATE sheet placed over YOUR COPY. Record the totals o n paper. REVIEW before the next trial. SAVE lists. You may wish to have your child GRAPH hisher progress and record each progressive trial: display for al1 to see. Now you c m do the same with OTHER words! S#7:

HOW TO READ A BOOK

Some children need help with how to read a book. where to start and how to finish. Teachers attempt to help students in this process which is sometimes taken for ganted by asking their students to do "book reports." This strategy and focus is not about book reports; it is about a usehl orientation that actually prepares children for getting the most out

Parents as Tutors Program (PTF')

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

of their reading. Teach your child to start with the n T L E and the AUTHOR. Your child should form some idea (anticipation) of what the book is aii about: in fact the TITLE of a book is h e d in such a way so as to catch your attention and to invite you to respond to it and eventually read it. The AUTHOR's name is most important because yow child may have read other books by the same author, knows something about the writer's "viewpoint" and s q l e and would like to read another book by the same author. Or. it could be an author someone highly recomrnended. Next. your child should read the COVER commentary about the writer. the contents of the book. or the story. After that your child should open the book and peruse the CONTENTS (if it's a technical book to see if the book contains information your chiId needs Say. for a project) or the CHAPTER HEADINGS. Your child would be wise to page to a section. e-g.. TREES, to GLOSS over the contents (pictures and subtitles) to an "eye-catching" CHAPTER and read a few sentences to get the author's style and focus. Next FLICK through the pages for al1 kinds of ViSUAL CONTENT. e.g., drawings, pictures, tables. Young pre-reading children are very adept at glossing over pictures and deciding if the book is at al1 worthwhile to borrow. Older children have to be taught more sophisticated "BROWSING" habits. Finally, before actually deciding whether to READ the book, your chiId should look at the POSTSCRIPT (Novel), or the LIST of REFERENCES and GLOSSARY of TERMS and the APPENDIX if it is a technical book. In READING A BOOK you want to enjoy and remember. Some people will read a novel once through and then CONTEMPLATE. OTHERS will read a chapter and then CONTEMPLATE. The latter is probably better for makùig JOT-NOTES particularly if the novel is a prescribed course book. TECHNICAL books should be read differently as you may only wish to read the RELEVANT SECTIONS or CHAPTER. As your child must not HIGHLIGHT other people's books. the ski11 of doing SOT-NOTES must be learned. Jot-Notes c m range fiom a single word to a sumrnative sentence. They should be powefil enough to contain many compacted thoughts, e.g, AIR POLLUTION contained in an entire chapter. These notes are for review at exam time as they JOLT the memory. So teaching your child what's in a book and how to read it saves time and gets the most out of what is a tirne-consuming but pleasurable and rewarding activity. Use either (IL), (DI) or (DL) in the process of tutoring your child in this context. BREAK DOWN each step into DISTINCT BEHAVIORS. Do a FLOW-CHART of the STEPS to REMTND y o w child. The FLOW-CHART should be fixed to your child's REMINDER BOARD.

This is a challenging activity because the reader (your child) brings to reading a book hisher own experiences (or lack thereof), language experiences, strength of vocabulary, level of comprehension. and hislher ability to actually READ the words. You can help your child develop independent and rewarding habits towards understanding the text. The section in this Manual, "Straregies to Increase Reading Comprehension" is devoted to helping in this area in more detailed and specific ways.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

You will incorporate to begin with the S E P S in S#7 "How to read a book" and take it from there. Determine with your child (IL) the PURPOSE OF READING (is it hisher own purpose. e.g., to "find out something about the history of ou.town." or someone else's. e.g.. "describe the different webs that CHARLOTE spun and their si-gificance." In the first instance your child will only want to read (consider the time factor) sections or relevant parts of a historical text. The sections should be read with severai specific QUESTIONS you and your child wi11 have developed (IL) in the PRE-READING CONFERENCE (PRC). These questions should provide your chiid with a PERMANENT TEMPLATE (FRAME WORK) for midertaking similar tasks (WHEN, HOW, WHO, WHY. HOW, WHERE. etc.). Your child should read the relevant sections over QUICKLY to see if the contents are at al1 worthwhile: this is the FIRST READING. The SECOND READING should be more concentrated because in this phase the QUESTIONS are answered in JOT-NOTE. The THIRD and FINAL PHASE is to READ the JOT-NOTES. If the JOT-NOTES make sense that's rewarding reading. If they leave gaps your child must RE-READ and fil1 the gaps. You can help at al1 phases? e-g., if the text is challenging you can SHARE-READ (Pause. Prompt, Praise). If the vocabularies are challenging and provide (LOS), show your child how to use CONTEXT for MEANING or locate the word/tenn in a DICTIONARY or THESAURUS (DI) (DL). Act as an AUDIENCE when jot-notes have been completed (IL), (QF). (EF). Invite your child to ORALLY @ve a SUMMARY of his /her FINDINGS (Presentation Format) (PF). Finally, you want to teach your child how to STORE such VALUABLE INFORMATION or FUTURE reference. e.g., studying for exams (the roots of GOOD STUDY HABITS have the oriin S#l3) by copying the jot-notes and vocabularies ont0 clearly LABELED iNDEX CARDS and placed in an appropriate size BOX for instant reference (RETRIEVAL). Understanding the text is as much a process of developing effective reading for meaning habits as it is applying reading for understanding strategies. Novel study, e.g.. CHARLOTTE'S WEB obeys the same process. The questions may be predetermined but the process of reading for understanding is the same. The STEPS are (PRC) using (IL). FIRST READMG of ENTIRE novel with the additional component of NOTING the page numbers that contain relevant information to the question. SECOND

READING should concentrate only on the RELEVANT PAGES with JOT-NOTING to specific questions fiamed in (PRC). SHARED-READiNG (IL) and explication of challenging words (LO) will be decoded through CONTEXT/DICTIONARY search. In the nest phase REVIEW the jot-notes with your child (IL). Finally your chiId formulates a SUMMARY and CONCLUSION (IL) with you as the audience. The next strateçy S#9 will focus on how the information or finding is to be DELiVERED or PRESENTED in a FORMAL way. S#9:

PREPARING FOR RESPONSE READING AND THE READING-WTING CONNECTION

Begin by reading and applying the SEQUENCE OF STEPS described in S#8; S#9 is a follow-through of those steps. In S#9 you are teaching your child the rewards of doing

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

everything towards completely understanding the text. The RESPONSE and the READWGWRITTNG connection simply buiid on the JOT-NOTES to complete the process. Once your child has ASSEMBLED the jot-notes (that is arranged them in their organizational categories to make the final presentation (ORAL or WRITTEN) appropriateiy sequenced), and once you have heiped your child to present the FiNDINGS in SUMMARY FORM, you will help your chiid to work out an INTRODUCTION and a CONCLUSION. This will be done thmugh (IL). A good approach is to READ TOGETHER (SHARED READING) a few MODEL sarnples of short introductions and conclusions. Your source Read what the would be NON-FICTION TEXTS, e.g., WHALES, SNAKES. DICTIONARY says about INTRODUCTIONS and CONCLUSIONS. With these as GUIDING exampies fust, ASK your child to ORALLY provide a short introduction and Conclusion (CF) and TAPE them. PLAY-BACK and (QF) (IL). Now do a SECOND. PLAY-BACK and COMPARE (MF). Have y o u child select the BEST with reasons (IL). Next step is to assist your child in writing the DRAFT (see WRITMG Strategies) as your chiid has aiready worked out the sectional headings. The reorganized jot-notes provide the CONTENTS or substance of the DRAFT. Your child writes and upon completion Re-READS independently and then READS ALOUD to YOU (S#2: "Yom chiId reading to -ou"). HELP with technical aspects, e.g, SPELLING. PUNCTUATION. SYNTAX.. EDIT and then FINAL DRAFT (RE-READ, read to YOU). Help your child decide on a SUITABLE TITLE (IL) and COVER DESIGN (your child's OWN effort). Assist in TABLE of CONTENTS if required and list of REFERENCES if required. PUBLISH. S#10: A PERSONALIZED READING PLAN ("BALANCED MENU")

Your child should be exposed to and should read a variety of different kinds of books and materials. Your child should be made aware of the wide range of human experiences and reflections that can be "accessed" through different literatures. So "what's in a Iibran" should be your place to start with your child. Through "guided" inspections of books on the librap. shelves (Guided Discovery) your child will get to know what's "out there." Visits to book stores. pemsal of magazine racks should be included in this exposure. The actual borrowing of "new kind of book" (the switch ffom Say FICTION to NON-FICTION) or the purchasc thereof. should be the culmination of these guided tours. GUIDING your child's personal reading habits stems fiom these first encounters. The GOAL is to encourage your child to read a variety of GENRE (categories of literature) and to achieve a BALANCED READING MENU before they be& to SPECIALIZE in or FOCUS on one particular area as they get much older. The personally enriching experiences of reading POETRY, BIOGRAPHIES. ARTICLES either independently or in SHARED-READING times with you. are critical to widening their own experiences and perceptions, to broadening the range of their knowledge and WORD POWER, and to MOTIVATE them to choose for themselves an area of special life-long focus.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

Developing a PERSONALIZED and BALANCED reading PLAN with your childe from early one will ensure that your child's interests. needs and skill-development are REQUITED (fulfilled). Your role is to help your child develop such a plan using the (IL) model: this means guiding, organizing and sharing their personai reading to begin with. To start (afier the library tours, etc.) help your child to develop a READING RECORD using a BLANK EXERCISE BOOK. The FIRST HALF OF THE BOOK should be BOLDLY LABELED "FICTION" and the second haIf "NON-FICTION." The meanings of the terrns \vil1 be reached through library visitations and (IL) (DL) methods. Next help your child t o present different categones of non-fiction and fiction books, e-g.. novels, histoncal fiction. poetry. biographies etc. Every SECOND PAGE should contain a separate heading. e-g.. AUTOBIOGRAPHIES. The GOAL which is to be âmved at through conversations with your child (IL) is over t h e , to read in each CATEGORY and to list the TITLES of the TEXTS or SOURCES. There should aIso an agreed upon plan to read MORE in one category than the other because your child's repertoire of knowledge or experience needs to be EXPANDED (TI) in that area, e.g., the reading of READABLE SHORT NOVELS in FOREIGN LANGUAGE. e.g., FRENCH. REWARD STICKERS should be given for books/materials read. ,4 " balanced menu" also involves DEVELOPMENTAL READING

interactions particularly if your child is at-risk in reading. In this context you want your child to be esposed ro learning or directly experiencing the SUB-SKILLS that make up reading such as PHONICS DECODPJG SKILLS, SIGHT WORD RECOGNITION SKILLS. Reading for SPECIFIC INFORMATION. etc. The purpose of exposing your child to these reading behaviors and to consciously participate in them either generally or in a focused \va? becausc the mastery thereof is critical to your child's reading development. is to ensure that your child has a knowledge of the various INGREDIENTS of the reading process and the variet\. of uscs to which reading can be put. Al1 of these sub-skiIls can be HIGHLIGHTED througti INTERACTIVE AND SHARED-READING experiences. Specific strategies to enhancc their mastery have already been given. A balanced READING MENU therefore \vil1 includc a VARIETY OF BOOKS in different areas as well as a variety of READING STR:\TEGI ES and PROCESSES that provide the mechanical FOUNDATIONS. With better nitxhanics children wi11 read more, and, by reading more children will fûrther refine the mechanics. Ttic classrooms of the future will embrace a personalized and balanced menu ripproach t o enhancint children's reading development.

In "situational" or "response reading" (that is. reading in specialized areas and reading to get information to successfülly complete a set task such as in mini-research projccts) the S C 0PE of your INVESTIGATION is considerably narrowed because with at-risk chi ldren in particular. the dificulties have their roots in LACK of appropnate specialized lan-page. possibly experiences and LACK of an appropriate WORD POOL (Word Power). Eithcr way. it is imperative to do PRE-READING CONFERENCES (PRC) with your child using the (IL) method. Let's say that your child is going to read (or has attempted to read) about

Parents as Tutors Program (FIT')

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

"Different Trees." This is part of a class assignment (situational and response). In the (PRC) ask your child to describe the purpose of the reading (QF), (EF). Then ascertain the level of your child's knowledge about trees. It may very be that your child has an expert knowledge of trees but just cannot read their names and habitat (a very typicai LD child-good knowledge but reading disabled). Go for the names fust: get them fiom your child and neatly print them one under the other on a page labeled "Different Trees." As you print you slowly read (draw out the letters.. .this is called STRETCHING). Your child reads backhith you, etc. (see strategies). Now go for other features, e.g.. purpose of trees. Same process (edit). List purpose words under "Purpose of Trees" sub-title (teach your child organizational skills as well. Complete al1 categories you and your child have developed. NOW, read over al1 of the words (even phrases). Carefiil! 100% fluency is NOT the goal; REDUCING the number (LO) words IS!! NOW YOUR CHILD IS MORE READY THAN WSHE WAS TO SUCCESSFULLY READ THE M4TERIAL. Use ASSISTED-READING PROCEDURES if you need IO in haWig your child read TARGET MATERIALS (TM) aloud. As you proceed jot down and help decode NEW (LO) words. Transfer new words into appropriate sections of your key word list. The key word list of situational and response reading vocabularies should be stored for REVIEW as -ou proceed with the next unit. Eventually your chiid will have a fairly healthy portfolio to refer back to for reading AND for writing purposes.

Parents as Tutors Program (m)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

2. TUTORING PHONICS

YOUR CHILD'S IMMEDIATE NEEDS 1.

A copy of your child's DIRECTED PHONICS PROGRAM (if there is one) for the TERM fiom your child's TEACHER.

2.

A list of "NONE-SENSE" WORDS for simple diagnostic purposes from your PTP INSTRUCTORS.

3.

An APPROPRIATE PHONICS TEXTBOOK which c m be obtained in the PTP.

4.

APPROPRIATE ACTIVITY PAGES which c m be obtained in the PTP.

YOUR CHILD'S RE-OCCURRING NEEDS 1.

TAPE RECORDER

2.

HAND-MIRROR

3.

WRiTING PAPEWMARKERS, etc.

4.

BLANK FLASH CARDS

5.

DISCOVERY BOARD if required (BRISTOL BOARD)

6.

ASSORTED COLORS OF CONSTRUCTION PAPER

7.

A PHONICS CHECKLIST (fiom PTP)

8.

A SCRAPBOOK for your child's PHONICS PICTIONARY

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendnkse. Program Coordinator

STRATEGIES TO XNCREASE PHONICS AWARENESS AND APPLICATION: OPERATIONAL AREAS

1. Pre-Reader

Not Reading Yet 2. Just Beginning to Read

3. Reading with Dificulty 4. Spelling with Difficulty

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE PHONICS AWARENESS AND APPLICATION Strategy 1:

Learning the Alphabet: 3-KINGS STRATEGY

Strategy $2:

Leamïng the Single Consonant Sounds: 3-KiNGS STRATEGY

Strategy $3 :

It's in your Home!

Strategy #4:

Al1 the Worid's a Sound (and the Car Game)

Strategy #5:

I'i! Sound and You Repeat (Paired Phonics)

Strategy #6:

1'11 Sound and You Give Me the Word

Strategy $7:

Take A Shot!

Strategy #8:

Upper-Class Phonics

Strategy #9:

Letrers are Families Too

Strategy # 1O

Situational Phonics

Parents as Tutors Prograrn (PTP)

James Hendnkse. Program Coordinator

PHONICS ASSESSMENT Strategy # I l

"None-Sense" Words

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO INCREASE . PHONICS AWARENESS AND APPLICATION

1. Pïe-Reader Not Reading Yet

SI

S2

S3

2. Just Beginning to Read

S2

S5

S6

3. Reading with Difficulty

S5

S6

S7

S8

4. SpeIhgwithDifficulty

S7

S8

S9

SI0

S4

S9

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE PHONICS AWARENESS AND APPLICATION IN DETAIL S# 1: LEARNING THE ALPHABET: 3-KWGS STRATEGY

The 3-King's Strategy involves the use of the dominant instructional methods in thc PTP. These are as you are aware. Direct Instruction (DI), Discovery Learning ( D L ) and Interactive Learning (IL). Select either one of these methods in helping your child master thc alphabet by being able to (i) Say the letters of the alphabet in their proper sequence. and c i i ) identiQ the upper and lower case letters at random by name. The ability of your child to print the letters as you say them is a third but very sophisticated option. MATERIALS: Your materials for DI wiI1 consist of UPPER and LOWER-CASE letters printed in sequence on white paper and separate letters on index or flash cards (2 sets each for matching game and sorting). Materials for DL wilI consist of DISCOVERY BOARD and corresponding "TILES" on which UPPER and LOWER-CASE letters are printed (Appendis). Both sets of materials can be used in INTERACTIVE LEARNING.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

START any approach by establishing whether yow child c m "say" the alphabet. then' whether he/she is able to [email protected] the letters by name and than take it from there. DIRECT INSTRUCTION: Use "ALPHABET SONG." Sing-a-iong slowly and point to individual letters (i) as you go. Play "LOOPS"(purposely waiting for your child to give nem letter by pausing in the Song). TAPE of Song will be provided in training session. (ii)

Use instructional materials to estabiish NAME-LETTER reco-pition.

(iii)

"ACID TEST" is whether your child can name the leners randomly. then accurately copy them and still later PRINT THEM ALL fiom MEMORY (by the end of KINDERGARTEN).

Child repeats narnes of letters as you Say them. Use QUESTION-format ("what is this letter?"), COMMAND-format ("give me/point to the letter.. ." ). MATCHING-format ("give me the leiter that is the same as this one"). ROLEformat (reverse roles with your child).

DISCOVERY LEARNING: (i) Your child assists you in making the DISCOVERY BOARD materials (Appendix B- I ). (ii)

Your child helps you put the TAPE into the tape-recorder.

(iii)

Provide pencil/paper/eraser.

You are now ready to provide your child with discovery-opportunities towards mastering rlic skills as stated. Initiate each new discovery with a GUIDING-statement which must esplairi 10 your child what is to be learned or achieved ("1 want you to place these upper case letrcrh in their right places on the Discovery Board and show me when you're done" or. "iistcn to tilc alphabet Song then let's sing it together."

INTERACTIVE LEARNING: You wïll need (DI) and (DL) materials to enrich your interactions. You \vil1 need 10 duplicate upper and lower case letters to make 2 sets of cards as a GAME-forma1 uill hc. used. You will use the basic RUMMY CARD GAME or the "begin-end" BOARD Ci A iC1 LI with "markers." Your child is to help you in deciding the format. Try to involve othcr FAMILY MEMBERS. S#2:

LEARMNG THE SOUNDS OF SINGLE LETTERS: 3-KINGS STRATECY

Once you have successfully helped your child learn the NAMES of the letters of the alphabet you will find tutorhg your child to recognize the SOUNDS of the single letters a lot easier to do. REMEMBER there is no law that says you cannot do both at the same time if

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

your child is READY for that "mix." If you've been readuig to your child, dohg lots of backand-forth conversation, listening to music and other sounds, your child will have already been exposed to different S O W S (Auditory Awareness). In leaming the sounds that letters make (in this case single letters) you are simply giving the sound (PHONEME) like "s" a referent ( M O R P H O G W H ) Idce the letter "S" or "S." PHONEMIC awareness is gerting your child to recoenize the difierent sounds in words. or, how two words are the same (rhymi ng ).

STRATEGIES/MATERIALS: Use either (DI), (DL) or (IL) rnethods. Make use of materials in S#1 when required. For this unit you will also need 26 pictures in duplicate (2 sets) to help your child link the letter sound with the initial sound in the name of the picture, e.g., picture of an APPLE ("a" or "A" is for "apple"). Likewise. a picture of a ZEBRA ("z" or "2" is for "zebra"). You will receive these sets of pictwes in the training sessions but you may wish to find more suitable pictures fiom magazines and catalogues. In this event you and your child can go on a treasure hunt! (i

Use a large SCRAP BOOK (to be provided) for your child's "LETTER-SOUND PICTIONARY." Print upper and lower case letters A-Z on top of pages. Each page will have space for gluing in pictures according to their corresponding initial sounds. e.g.. ail "b" beginning picture names on "Bb" page. Do daily ROUTINES with open scrap book like "m is for ...?" Your child points to picture and says. "mouse." Use the various FORMATS as previously described. Eventually cover the picture and your child has to retrieve it from memory. or, cover the letter and reverse the question. There are nurnerous variations you can invent. The important thing is that you now have a ready-made resowce (the scrap book) for you and your child to refer to and for your chiid to enjoy on hidher own.

(i i)

Use the letter-cards (see S # l ) and the second set of pictures which should be glued on to index cards (flash cards) for MATCHING GAMES. Remember to START SMALL (2 letters and 2 correspondintg pictures) then (TI).

(iii)

Use GAME BOARD in S#l and use LETTER-CARDS for SOUNDS instead of for names. Also use set of PICTURE-CARDS for the INITIAL SOUND (Le.. if you pick up a picture of the BALL you must Say "b" for bail to gain a space).

(iv)

Use the iNDIVIDUAL LETTER SOUND TAPE provided in the training session so that your child can use the tape in consort with the "LETTER-SOUND PICTIONARY" in DISCOVERY routines on hisher own. The TAPE provides 2 dues to the accompanying page in the book, eg., "H" for HAT" (your child has the LETTER and PICTURE clue in the statement).

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

S#3:

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

IT'S IN YOUR HOME!

Your home is full of names of objects. etc.. like BED. TOYS, DOG. So inforrnally use these in a GAME FORMAT. "1 can see something in the kitchen that begins with "P" (the object is POT). Your child has to guess the object from the first sound. You may add the second sound "0"and maybe the third "Tl'to help your child. This creates AUDITORY or PHONEMIC awareness and it is a very important skill in your chiid's EARLY READING. Good opportunities for switching roles and MATCHING FORMAT. e-g.. it begins with the same sound as CAT. It could be CUP or COOKIE! S#l:

ALL THE WORLD'S A SOUND (ANDTHE:CAR GAME)

You want to draw your child's attention to the sounds outside your home in walks or as you travel on long trips especially by car (no cart-boredom and restlessness with this came). So. on walks, or sitting in your home you play the same game. e.g.. there's something I can hear (or see) that beguiç with the "RN(RAIN? ROAD?). Do (GF) and (MF). Again aood for PHONEMIC AWARENESS. 3 L.

S#5:

I'LL SOUND AND YOU REPEAT (PAiRED PHOMCS)

Here you are using printed words fiom your child's READER or WORD LIST to show that each word is made up of sounds which when BLENDED give the word. You must start with 3-letter REGULAR sounding words like cat. fun. etc.. and work up (TI). This is teacher-led with you pointing to each letter as you sound and produce the word. This process is often called WORD ATTACK SKILLS (Phonics). Now your child repeats as you point to the sequence of letters to be "attacked" and produces the word (blending). Sometimes you may help your child even further ushg SIMULTANEOUS READING. Afier a first unsuccessful try have your child DECODE (sound out) with you. then your child tries on hisher own. Use (CF) and (EF) S#6:

I'LL SOUND AND YOU GIVE ME THE WORD

This is called AUDITORY BLENDING or C L O S W . It is a critical skill in phonics application. You provide the sounds of the individuai letters of a word (start with 1 syllable words then (TI) to PLURALS. etc., to two syllable and so on). Explain purpose. Start with "this word says. .. S.. .u...n." What is the word? Good!" Or. "Let's try again" (TD). You m a i wish to provide a picture or function clue such as "it shines in the sky." Then repeat the process of sounds only. Use (IF) and (GF).

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

S#7:

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

TAKE A SHOT (FIRST SOUND, LAST SOUND RULE)

This is a more challenghg extension of S#6. The format is the same only now y o u provide the FIRST and the LAST letter sounds in the word. Confine this activity to 1 syllable words without plural or other endings (just the ROOT WORD). So you go "m.. .n" (there are several options, "moon." "man," "mean," etc.). You are exercising CLOSURE o r 4'our child's ability to complete the task when given specific clues. Use (GF) and (EF). S#8:

UPPER-CLASS PHONICS

Here you are moving into the use of PHONICS BOOKS or PRINTED PHONICS MATERIALS. The purpose of using these materiais is to REINFORCE GOOD TEACHING. or as a follow-up. The term Upper-Class Phonics is used to suggest that this procedure for teaching phonics or word-attack skilis is more typical of the upper primary t o junior -grades as opposed to a phonics program for pnvileged children. The materials allow your child to apply what has been already been leamed on his/her own. e-g.. you have taught the short vowels. now yow child has to apply the rules in to reading a text. An appropriate page or section of the text or appropriate printed material is selected: once the task is explained. and confirmation achieved (do a few examples). your child proceeds. Your task is to monitor. provide (EF) when required and then help your child to EVALU.4TE. Use (EF) and (CF). S#9 : LETTERS ARE FAMILIES TOO

Some letters make the same sound as others. e.g.. "C" in CAT. and "K"in KITTEN: "A" in CAGE. "AY" in DAY. "AI" in RAIN. etc. Helping your child l e m that single letters and CLUSTER-LETTERS. e.g.. ch. and squ. etc.. produce unique and sometimes sounds identical to other letter-combinations is an important fact for children to learn and to discover. You can use the (DI), (DL), or (IL) methods to enhance your child's mastery and then lead into TEXTBOOK or PRMTED WORKSHEET reinforcement (SfC8: UPPER-CLASS PMONICS).

In using the (DI) method, proceed fiom the SOUND (PHONEME) to the LETTERS (GRAPHEMES). Let's Say you wish to teach the letter combinations that represent the "LONG 1" sound. You may wish to use the (QF) like "do you know words that have the "1" sound in it? Like MY for instance, and let's wite them down." So you build a list of words that contain "Y" as in FLY. "igh" as in HIGH. "eye" as in GOODBYE, "uy" as in BUY. and so on (the range will depend on the age and the readindphonetic ability of your child so. TI or TD accordingly). Print these neatly under the heading "1" FAMILY. I t is critical that when you do this you choose firstly a family that is fairly straightforward like the short vowels; then choose a sound-letter(s) pattern that presents difficulties for you child in DECODING and SPELLNG. This will corne in usehl in S#9 (SITUATIONAL PHONICS). Your chïld

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

reads the hst of words; you may even ask your chiid to write the possible representative MORPHEMES for the given sound. and then spell the words as part of the evaluation. Use (QF) and (MF)When using the (DL) method provide your child with a blank EXERCISE BOOK. Each page wi11 be labeled with the SOUND that will g o u p the variant spellings in words m d perhaps picture clues. This will be demonstrated in the training sessions.. You start by esplaining the purpose of the Discovery and proceed from there. The first page should contain the SOUND your child already knows: the second page should contain one that poses a LITTLE diffrcutty. Now provide your child with approximately 30 words to categorize by "SOUND FAMILY" by writhg them on appropriate pages. Then READ, and then SHARE. Nexs choose 2 new sounds (one "easy," the other chaüenghg). Use (QF) and

(W. The (IL) method can proceed fiom a (QF), (EF) to a (GF). Start fiom where your child IS. that is the precise SOUND-LETTER(S) combinations that are causing a breakdown in READING or SPELLING progress. Use the (QF) and (EF) to establish reasons for difficulties and ways to resolve them. It is important that you identify the challenging words by simply asking your child to READ aloud and as you go highlight the WORDS and LETTER PATTERNS. These are then (LOS). Your child then wrïtes the words under the SOUND FAMILY. reads h e m back to you. explains their MORPHEME differences in producing the same sound. Together you may find the RULE that will help your child accurately recall how to pronounce the letters and letter-clusters in specific words and hou- to accurately spell them as well. The (GF) you may use couid be a BOARD FORMAT (substitute letter clusters such as "00." "of for single letters). then a second set of cards with the WHOLE WORD. C.B. BROOM. OYSTER with the added task of identibing the WORD FAMILY. e.2.. "an 00 word." You may aiso use the PLAWNG CARD FORMAT as in RUMMY. On one side of' the card are the LETTERS. e.g., 00, on the other the word "SCHOOL." You score more points if you can identiQ the FAMILY just by the letter combinations. than if ?ou check b y looking at the word.

S#l O:

SITUATIONAL PHONICS

Here your child's CURRENT READING materials provide the CONTEXT. The (DI) is an excellent method. Your child reads aloud to you. You assist when a word is not correctly read (MISCUE) or when your child does not attempt to read it (REFUSAL). In either event your child PENCILS under the word (to be erased later) and this becornes a (LO). You (PAUSE), ask your child to read the sentence again, then PROMPT your child to SOUND IT OUT. You help if needed by sounding out and you Say the word; you ask your child to repeat the process (PRAISE) then you carry on. This is SITUATIONAL PHONICS

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using PAUSE, PROMPT, PRAISE (PPP). Your next step wili be to print the challenging words (or have your child print them) then RE-READ (RR) at leisure or for reference. The purpose of this strategy is to teach your child to attempt teading the words using PHONICS DECODiNG and to transfer what has been learned in other readings.

PHONICS ASSESSMENT S # l 1:

"NONE-SENSE" WORDS

You will be aven a list of "none-sense" words. These words have k e n constructed for their sounds: they are not real words, e-g., GUB, TOOS, STEFT, CHOYF. etc. They are intended more as a DIAGNOSTIC TOOL to assess your child's mastery of the SOUNDS our letters make as opposed to anything else. The "none-sense" words have been conveniently categorized, e.g., Short Vowel Words-TAM. NIZ. SUG. etc.. and by reading them your child will reveal his/her mastery of PURE SOUND-SYMBOL MATCH. Use (CF) and establish a NEEDS profile and TEACH if needed. Select fiom strategies in the above.

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3. TUTORING READING COMPREHENSION INSTRUCTIONALmamas GROUP (A) MATERIALS: These materials must be obtained from your child's TEACHER and should be part of the resources used in the classroom. 1.

A standard readùig text currently used in the classroom which includes different question types.

2.

A copy of a text used in the classroom which includes multiple-choice questions.

3.

A Iist of question types c-mently being explored in the classroom.

GROUP (B)MATERIALS: These materials will be provided by your instructors in the training sessions: A printed list of the main question types used in reading comprehension tasks with model answers. A brief list of questions appropriate to problem solving in each specific ski11 area. A list of general question types that can be used in interactions between the parent and

child in the context of day-to-day conversation and in reading.

GROUP ( C )MATERIALS: You will have to construct these materials yourself: 7.

Individual flash cards which will be used as prompts to elicit specific responses from your child. The flash cards will have printed on them "W" questions and inferential question types.

8.

Individual flash cards containing model answer statements to which the child has to provide a specific question.

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You wiIl have to purchase these matenals: A tape recorder

Indes cards Crayons Markers

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING COMPREHENSION: OPERATIONAL AREAS OPERATIONAL AREAS

1 . Literal Meanincg

Di fficulty

2. Inferential Cornprehension Difficulty

4. Difficulty with Higher-

Order Thinking and Processing

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE READING COMPREHENSION Strategy f: i :

Establishing the Habit of "Talkinl 'Bout Things"

Strategy $2:

Rereading and Repeated Reading

Strategy #3 :

Anticipating Content and Outcomes

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James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

Strategy %:

What's in the Text?

Strategy # 5 :

The Famous "Five Ws" (and Don't Get Tripped Up by the "H")

Strategy $6:

I f You Can't Do it All, "Chunk!!"

Strategy $7:

1'11 Give You the Answer and You Give Me the Question

Strategy ff8:

What's in a Word?

Strately ff9:

Higher Order Responses (Inferential Questions)

Strategy # 1 O:

Mapping

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO INCIWASE

READING COMPREHENSION

OPERATIONAL AREAS

1 . Literal Meaning

STRATEGIES

SI

S2

S4

S5

S7

S1

S2

S3

S4

S9

S1

S3

S8

S9

SI0

Difficulty 2. Inferential Comprehension

Difficulty

3. Difficulty with Higher-

Order Thinking and Processing

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James Hendrïkse. Program Coordinator

STRATElGIES TO INCREASE READING COMPREEIENSION IN DETAIL S# 1: ESTABLISHING THE HABIT OF "TALKLN' 'BOUT THINGS"

From very early establish the habit of tallcing about ali kinds of things. Nothing ivould be too inconsequential for indulging in some kind of conversation. €vin monologues are good conversation pieces with your child watching and listening as you do the laundry for instance. naming the articles, their colors, their textures. theK uses. their sizes. Talking is a very economical way of describing one's world; conversation (talking about things) is an INTERACTIVE F O R . of orai ianguage. Reading and writing are extended f o m of ianguage communication and so are many forms of THINKING. But SPOKEN LANGUAGE cornes FIRST then WRITING, so it is logical to assume that if your child has not had much SPOKEN L ANGUAGE experiences. convershg in reading and writing will suffer accordingly.

Your child's level of understanding of READING materials c m be enhanced when from the very beginning encourage and even CONTRIVE spoken lanLguge interactions. Ask open-ended questions that cannot be settled with a simple "yeslno"; provide quite lengthy but not too complicated explanations and INVITE responses. Use a varie- of NOUNS. VERBS. ADJECTIVES. and TALK in FULL SENTENCES. Do not confine your conversations to physical things, journey into the ABSTRACT and include FEELINGS. Play WORDS GAMES, invent NEW WORDS. tell stones and INVITE QUESTIONS. Invite OPINIONS and JUDGEMENTS. So get into the habit of "talkin' 'bout things" and open the doors to communication. S#2 : REREADINC AND REPEATED READING

These are excellent strategies to refiesh one's memory of what we have just read. These strategies are present in READING (Primary and Junior). Ofientimes when you re-read something you discover something new (like watching a re-run of a good movie). We use these strategies to promote RECALL OF DETAILS, to CONFIRM/REFUTE FIRST IMPRESSIONS. and to promote understanding. S#3:

ANTICIPATING CONTENT AND QUESTIONS

READ or Re-READ ISs #7, #8 & #9 (READING SKILLS JUNIOR) Teach your child the habit of PREDICTING the CONTENTS (FICTIONAL or Start with TECHNICAL) OF A BOOK (TEXT) just by reading the TITLE. SIMULATION FORMAT (SF). Explain (EF) purpose of the simulation and focus. Explain

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that y ou have written FIVE "imaginary" books. Each book has a ONE-WORD TITLE. The GAME (GF) is for your child to guess what each book is about. As you have the contents in mind it would be easy to c o n f i ï d e n y your child's best intuitions. Reverse roles! Discuss outcomes (IL). Next. move into REAL BOOKS. Both of you mess contents and outcomes (technical books may not have outcomes but novels will). SHARE responses (orally or in writing) and check against INFORMATION provided in PREFACE, INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER HEADINGS, GLOSSARY, REFERENCES and POSTSCRIPT. PREDICTING content and outcomes is part of Pre-Readiig behaviors. Teach your cliild to form a habit of doing this. Now once this is done, your child should activate thinking about POSING several QUESTIONS that he/she would be interested in k i n g "answered" b y reading the book itself. So RETURN to SIMULATIONS (SF) and you as the imaginaq author of an i r n a g i n q book answers your child's questions (and vice-versa). You could start with the question. "why did you decide to write "Neighborhood Watch?" and wait for the answer before proceeding. Notice how this builds on talking about things! Notice how it encourages role-playing and extended experiences. Now DEVELOP a list of several questions and critical evaluations. Now transfer to REAL BOOKS or a SiNGLE CHAPTER. Anticipate content and outcomes, compose questions. Read the chapter (use one of the strategies) CHECK PIEDICTIONS and find answers to questions. Now you \vil1 have prepared your child for in-class DIRECTED READING ACTIVITIES. S#4 : WHAT'S IN THE TEXT?

Your child will fmd out by READING the TEXT (Re-Readinmepeated Reading Strategies). The TITLE has provided a clue. What's in a text is really what the author wishcs you to know or experience that perhaps hasn't been "said" in a certain way before. So your child brings home a short novel to read ovemight and to return to school the nest da' ~vitha fairly clear and accurate idea of what the text is about (the author's message). and hou VI SU AL-AIDS like chapter headings, pictures/photographs, tables and diagrarns assist in t hc understanding thereof. Use modified S#3 in the above to SPEED process of anticipating content and outcomes in Pre-Reading Conference (PRC). Now have your child read the tesi and if your child is familiar with the process and if he/she wishes to, have him/her do JOTNOTES (see SfC8 in READING (JUNIOR) ). Next step is to confirm/refute "predictions" and provide a TEXT-BASED interpretation (IL). Use (EF), (QF), (MF) to cnhancc REALISM of your child's interpretation by teaching him/her to always REFER BACK TO THE TEXT. RE-READ RELEVANT SECTION(S) or ENTIRE TEXT if that is what is called for. When ready. your child orally presents hisher fmdings in an organized form. or. WRITES findings down in a well-organized fashion (use Assisted Writing Stratcgies if needed). Use (IL) to EDIT, MODIFY for "take-back-to-school" assignent.

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S#5:

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

TKE FAMOUS "FIVE Ws" (ANDDON'T GET TRIPPED UP BY THE "H")

The farnous "five Ws" refer to the traditional question modes in what is terrned LITERAL COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS as opposed to INFERENTIAL or EVALUATIVE QUESTIONS. These "W" question forrns areT WHEN, WHY. WHERE. WHAT. and WHO. The question modes are embedded in our spoken lan*page interactions. ChiIdren are constantly presented with DIRECïED READING ACTIVITIES in their classrooms: these @RAS) are followed up by the teacher o d l y QUIZZING the students' understanding of the TEXT with " W questions. The "H" refers to HOW. Children's UNDERSTANDING of the questions occur naturally in day-to-day experiences: what they learn is transferred to how well they can apply them to READING MATERIALS.

This strategy demands that you make sure that the child CAN READ the TEXT. You do this by asking your child to READ ALOUD. You can do various assisted reading strategies to enhance FLUENCY and translate challenging VOCABULARIES (use context dues (IL)). Ne>n assist your child (IL) in TELLING BACK what the text is about. Your child will have to REPEAT READ to provide a quaiity presentation. Once this is done assist your child in PHRASMG SIX QUESTIONS that can be answered by referring to the text (MF). There should be one QUESTION for each of the W " modes and ONE for the HOW mode. This can be done orally fus. Next step is to LOCATE the ANSWERS. This can be done by RE-READING with the questions at hand and as your child proceeds. to use the pertinent information to satisfy the question. An alternative is for your child to RE-READ the entire text through and then rely on MEMORY to respond to the questions. The benefit of the second procedure is that your child will be using important PROCESSING techniques. e . g interpretation. surnmarizing... to respond. as opposed to just copying the relevant With fiequent experiences in this focus. your child will words from the text. AUTOMATICALLY have the question modes in the "back" of hisher mind as hekhe reads along and begins to answer them on route to completing the reading. Teaching your child ho\v to do JOT-NOTES and the benefits thereof will certainly support quality responses to "Wu and "H" type questions in Reading Comprehension. S#6:

IF YOU CAN'T DO IT ALL, "CHUNK!!"

This strategy really involves DECREASING THE TASK (TD) by dividing the TEXT into MANAGEABLE PROPORTIONS. e.g., PARAGRAPH CHUNKING as atiernpting to effectively respond to the ENTIRE text at one time would be OVERWHELMING. Teachers cal1 this procedure "Program Modification." Your child should learn to apply this strategy to UNFAMILIAR CONTENT or THEMES especially. The first step is for your child to read the ENTIRE text first (for continuity) unless specifically directed to read only certain sections. The second step is to DlVIDE (CHUNK) the text into VISUAL SECTIONS, e.g., paragraphs or sectional headings or chapters. Next

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step is to use "W" and "H" and other question modes as in S#5 (above) in generating 5 or more questions on his/her own. Re-read the SECTION and respond to the questions (IL). (QF). (EF). Final step is to cross-check for confirmation. Maybe the section does not contain information to satise a WHERE question. That's O.K. Now in similar fashion using (IL) help your child to deal with each subsequent section (CHUNK). At the end of each activity your child must ORALLY or in WRITING give a brief SUMMARY-STATEMENT of the section. Use ASSISTED-WRITTNG strategy(ies) to enhance your child's mastery of the task. Remember. as the EMPHASIS is on UNDERSTANDING the TEXT, your child's teacher wiII be the one to whom this understanding is to be shown. The procedwes descnbed in the above wili help to prepare your child for any follow-up activities your chiId1steacher may provide. S#7:

I'LL GIVE YOU THE ANSWER YOU CIVE ME THE QUESTION

RE-READ S#5. Use the same MATERIALS/CONTEXTS in S#7. ROLE-PLAY. Instead of fiaming the questions fiame IMAGINARY and REAL ANSWERS (based on the test) to which a "W"-Mode question must be provided. This strategy is designed to consolidate the appropriateness of the RESPONSE to a specific kind of "W" question and to help your child PREDICT just what kind of INFORMATION or STATEMENT-FORM w i l l be required for a satisfactory RESPONSE (MF). The skill should be practised ORALLY first and then transferred to the writing mode, e.g., (you): "He stayed home because he wasn't feeling very well." Response (your child): "Why did he stay home?" OR. "How was he Ceeling that day?" When QUESTION responses are INAPPROPRIATE use (IL). (EF). (MF) to help establish TIME, PLACE, QUALITY and MANNER c o ~ e c t i o n sthat the "W" and "H" question modes represent. Move fiorn IMAGINARY to REAL TEXTS but not to role play until mastery of skill is clearly demonstrated.

S#8:

WHAT'S lN A WORD?

This strategy is designed to enhance your child's KNOWLEDGE of the MEANING OF WORDS (Word-Power). The important point to REMEMBER is the GOLDEN RULE. that the WORDS WORTH LEARNING ARE THE WORDS MOST NEEDED by your child in his/her daily schoolwork. This means that there are limits to what you should try to do: you are not to have your child go through the dictionary to fmd the meanings of al1 the words currently in use. Apparently of al1 the words currently circulating in children's spoken and written language, 60% are commonly shared words and only 10% are RARE (technical words) .

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The SOURCE of your child's SPOKEN and READMG Vocabularies corne fiom ongohg DAILY NEEDS. A real student of NEW WORDS to his/her eyes or ears will probably encounter no more than 25-35 new words a day. That student will write each word down in a little NOTE-BOOK as he/she encounters them, finds their meanings by remembering their CONTEXT, by resorting to a DICTIONARY or THESAURUS or b y ASKING SOMEONE. Actually those ARE the principle sources of finding out " M a t ' s in a WORD" (that is. their meaning and application). Helping your child to be AWARE of words starts very early on through presenting your child with a rich and varied spoken and written language CULTURE and by ENCOURAGING INTERACTIONS (IL). Draw attention to words your child obviously doesn't understand and establish the habit of doing so because it is important to know what things reaI1y mean. As your child grows into reading you should encourage your child to d o c k the meanings of unfazniliar words using the strategies the "good" student of words uses in the above. You should help to have your child develop hislher own PERSONAL DICTIONARY or THESAURUS. Play vocabulary enhancing WORDS GAMES (GF) as there are several wonderhl BOARD GAMES amilable in stores and children love them. INVENT new words with your child. and together RESEARCH how certain words came into usage, e g . the word "sandwich." Discovering what words mean in a TEXT is to enhance UNDERSTANDING. Failure to understand what a single word means in a passage could seriously damage chances of fùlly understanding what is k i n g conveyed. e.g.. "Paul's nature was essentially gregarious." Your child cannot "unlock" gregarious or essentiaily from that context. Your child has to read on. So why not stop at that point and refer to the DICTIONARY where the words will be defined. Start therefore by having your child read aloud or silently and HIGHLIGHT or COPY the challenging words (LO words). As some words are criticai to the understanding of what follows. IMMEDIATELY attempt to decode it for meaning (context. dictionary. etc.). Use a JOT-Note definition form e.g., a SIMILE ("gregarious" = "sociable" or. "loves cornpany"). Unless the text is totally beyond your child's READING and MATURATION level. your child will not have to resort to more than 2 dictionary searches per page: other less challenging words can be decoded using the context. "Doubtful" words should be dictionary researched. Now your child may have 30 NEW WORDS listed: isn't that a WONDERFUL (LO)? Think of its as 30 NEW EXPENENCES and ALL GOOD!! Once the FIRST readiig for DECODING words has been accomplished your child should RE-REREAD for continuous meaning and then respond to the questions based on the text.

Now. never let a word "die"; a word worth researching is a word worth KNOWING and USING. Your child should READ the new VOCABULANES to someone ( p u ) and

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then without "peeking" DEFINE them and then ORALLY use them in spoken sentences. Then proceed to the next TEXT. Words in CONVERSATIONS (e-g.. oral presentations. lectures. etc.) should also be jotted down in a little POCKET BOOK and afierwards DECODED: good listeners and inquisitively minded people do this ail the time and then use the fruits of their good habits in their own conversations! S#9:

HIGHER ORDER RESPONSES (INFERENTlAL QUESTIONS) .

INFERENTIAL questions draw upon the child's critical ability to evaluate certain statements made in the context of a text or statement. Example: "What influence did Charlotte's webs have on Wilbur's fate and do you think her sacrifice was a nght thing to do." Now this is no longer a "W-mode question; it is very complex particulariy for children who are at-risk in reading. FUS&the written statement in itseIf may be challenging and the writingresponse demanded may be even more so.

Use the (IL) method. Your child has read the text as you KNOW because you did ASSISTED-READING. First step is help your child READ the QUESTION and then DECODE its MEANING (IL) (QF) (EF). What is "influence" (read S#8) for strategies. what is "Wilburfs FATE" etc. "so what does the question mean and what do you have to do?" "Tell me what Charlotte did and WHY ("W"-mode). Good. Was it a good thing? Why ("b7"mode). Wlat would have happened had Charlotte not spun the webs (PREDICTION). What happened to Chariotte? Why? (EVALUATION). Once the question has been REPHRASED for UNDERSTANDING use (IL) method for developing firstly a SPOKEN RESPONSE (we do this first in our minds before we ivrite) and the a WRITTEN one. Use JOT-NOTES to pin-point OWN RESPONSE. cg.. " 5 different webs." "messages," "Charlotte tired." "Wilbur wins prize." ... Now help put the jot-notes together to SUPPORT a POMT-OF-VIEW. Next. use (IL) to present (Orally. Witten) OPENING STATEMENT which should contain your VIEWPOINT. The jot-notes wiIl help to develop that viewpoint and provide factual information to support it. Then the CONCLUSION which is really a summary of how your child has demonstrated her POINT OF VIEW. So now your child has a PROCESS and an ORGANIZATIONAL scheme for PRESENTING his/her CRITICAL RESPONSE to the question.

DECODE the QUESTION: JOT-NOTES; INTRODUCTION; ILLUSTRATION: CONCLUSION. Then READ-BACK, REVIEW. EDIT and PUBLISH (submit for evaluation). S#10: MAPPING

This strategy is a usefùl VISUAL conceptualization of the CONTENTS of a NOVEL in novel study assignments especially. It is also an effective strategy for assistini! in the understanding of technical tex& and in solving WORD PROBLEMS in MATHEMATICS.

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Here we are going to confine ourselves to applying the strategy to NOVEL study. e.g.; "Charlotte's Web." A CONVENTIONAL novel contains 4 basic organizational elements.

These are: SETTING (background, location). CHARACTERS, ACTION and OUTCOME(S). In other words in a novel something happens to/with certain characters in a certain place and time to produce certain results. The READER will ENJOY or appreciate the novel more if he/she understood how the ELEMENTS "interacted" to produce the results. REMEMBERiNG specifics or details within these elements helps with that understanding. We can use a MAP for each element and as your child reads each chapter the contents of the MAPS change. The purpose is to teach your child the VALUE of these MAPS and to FILL them in as he/she reads each chapter and then to refer back periodicaily for the PATH taken. In other words. MAPPING gives your child a sense of DIRECTION. Use (IL) or (DI) methods to help with your child's understanding of KEY CONCEPTS: MAPPING (purpose), BACKGROUND. CHARACTERS. ACTION, OUTCOMES. Provide examples in a short story or SENTENCE. e-g.. "One morning ai breakfast Livvy's father announced that he was going to do away with one of the new-born pigs. This news caused Livvy to protest and to rush out to the pigsty to prevent the link pig from k i n g slaughtered." Now given the ELEMENTS of the MAP w k h have k e n PFUNTED in FOUR different SPACES or BOXES on a blank page, ask your child to re HEAR or re-READ sentences and SINGLE WORDS tliat fmd an appropriate HOME in the maps. Your child will probably go for CHARACTERS first. Use (IL). (QF). (EF) in assisting in MAPPMG other KEY WORDS, eg., "morning~" "breakfast." "announced." etc. REVIEW and adjust accordingly. ROLE-PLAY to consolidate concepts and pro~edurc.5~ NEXT. use information in SECTIONS on the MAP to RE-TELL the "story" and to rtns\\.cr specific questions. es%.."what was Livvy's father going to do that moming?" Once your chilil has MASTERED the principles of MAPPING assist (IL) in applying the strate!'. to novch he/she is currently required to STUDY. Explore further the USEFULNESS of MAPPING in RESEARCH READIK 1 'Ci or in WRITING. Use (IL) and (DL) methods.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

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4. TUTORING ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION

GROUP (A) MATERLUS: These materials must be obtained fiom your child's TEACHER and should be part of the resources used in the classroom. 1.

GRADED or GRADE LEVEL ARITHMETIC TEXT BOOK(S)

The instmctors in the PTP will collect copies for use in the program and a system wilI be devised for you to borrow and return them.

2.

A copy of your child's teacher's MONTHLY MATH LESSON PLANS

GROUP (B) MATERIALS: These materials will be provided by your INSTRUCTORS in the training sessions: 3.

PRECISION TEACHING COMPUTATION worksheets in addition. subtraction. multiplication and division as you require them. An example of a precision teaching computationai drill-sheet can be found in the Appendix of this MANUAL.

4.

CENTIMETER SQUARES paper for counting, showing or graphing. You will be taught how to use the worksheets.

GROUP (C) MATERIALS: You will have to constmct these materials yourself: 5.

A number-recognition DISCOVERY BOARD. You will be shown how to construct this.

6.

Asymbol(nurnber)-objectmatchingDISCOVERYBOARD. Youwillbeshownhow to do this.

James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

7.

Addition. multiplication and subtraction blank CHARTS to encourage accuracy and speed in computation. A copy of one can be found in the Appendix of this MANUAL. Your instmctor will show you to use them.

CROUP (D) MATERIALS: You will have to PURCHASE these materials:

8.

Lots of unlined paper. string, crayons.

9,

INDEX car& for making FLASH CARDS in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division for use when required.

10.

A STOP-WATCH or TIMER.

1 1.

Assortment of BUTTONS, COUNTERS. PLASTIC CONTAINERS.

12.

MEASURlNG CONTAINERS used in the kitchen.

13.

A set of BATHROOM SCALES.

13.

A RULER and a TAPE MEASURE.

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE COMPETENCE IN ARITH1METIC: OPERATIONAL AREAS STRATEGIES

OPERATIONAL AREAS #1 1. Pre-Symbolic

2. Symbolic 3. Computing with Difficulty 4. Computing Fluently

#2

#3

ff4

$5

#6

#7

$8

#9

H O

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE COMPETENCE IN ARITRlMETlC Strategy Rr 1 :

Your Home as a Math Laboratory

Strategy +;i2 :

Toward a Mathematical Language and a Frame of Mind (Organizing your Child's Thinking Using Concrete Materials)

Strategy #3:

Showing. Telling, and Writing

Strategy fCI:

From Beans to Integers and TeH Me a Story

Strategy # S :

How to Teach a Ski11

Strategy $6:

The Four "Cardinal Sins" of Computation

Strategy R7:

Faster than a Silver Bullet

Strategy ff8:

Doing it with Cue Cards

Strategy #9:

How to Teach Concepts

Strategy 8 10:

Staying One Step Ahead of your Child

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO INCREASE COMPETENCE

STRATEGIES

OPERATIONAL AREAS #1

ff2

f ~ 3 f ~ 4 $5

1 . Pre-Symbolic

SI

S2

S9

3. Symbolic

S1

S3

S4

S9

3. Computing with Difficulty SS

S6

S7

S8

4. Computing Fluently

Si0

57

W6

#7

$8

$9

#10

Parents as Tutors Program (I'TP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE COMPETENCE IN ARITHlMETIC IN DETAIL S# 1: YOUR HOME AS A MATH LABORATORY

Think about it: your HOME has more objects and things to COUNT. MEASURE. WEiGH, SORT. GROUP. ARRANGE, ADD, SUBTRACT, DESCRIBE (in math terms) and ESTIMATE than any CLASSROOM* So why not use them to help your child fiom ver). early on to build a NUMERACY CULTURE of the HOME? And everything can be done NFORMALLY in daily routines, in conversations. observations. hancilincg objects. and in playing simple NUMBER GAMES ("I'U count to FIVE and it's bed-tirne: 1. 2. ...") or even in READING children's books that have numbers as part of the themes.. ."Three little pigs." "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs." The point about numbers and the l a n p g e of mathematics is that you really have to draw young children's attention to their IMPORTANCE and invite mathematical THINKING, OBSERVATIONS and QUESTIONS to really develop mathematical concepts and their applications in your child. So. "why can't we get 6 sandwiches into this sandwich box"? Use everyday things in your home to describe the mathematical properties of other objects and things.. ."how long is this string? It's as long as daddy's legs." Make your child aware of the days. the dates, the weeks, the months, the seasons. ages. birthdays. telephone numbers. etc. You may even wish to arrange ACTIVITIES in your LABORATORY. like (i) things we can measure and weigh so that concepts of heaw and light are EXPERIENCED: (ii) things we can COUNT: (iii) arrange by SIZE; (iv) describe by SPEED; (v) by ORDER (first. second..): (v) by SORTING (more, less): (vi) by making MORE or LESS (add. subtract) and so on. Later use SYMBOLS (that is numbers and signs) to describe what you do ~ v i t hthings and objects. Help your child LEARN the names of the NUMERALS and what thsy stand for. Maybe learn to PRINT them. Play NUMBER BOARD GAMES. e g . Snakes and Ladders, Dominoes. Use the DISCOVERY BOARD for MATCHING. Invent >-Our own Eames. Al1 this can be done before your child enters school. The (IL) and (DL) methods arc IDEAL approaches to enhancing your child's growth in mathematical concepts and skills. S#2:

TOWARD A MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE AND FRAME OF MIND (ORGANIZING YOUR CHILD'S THINKING USING CONCRETE MATERIALS)

This strategy and focus builds on S#l. The difference is that it is a 1itt)e more FORMAL and DELIBERATE. Use (IL) and (DL), (QF), (CF) and (EF) in your endeavors to teach your child the essential knowledge and skills for more ABSTRACT (SYMBOLIC)

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thinking later on. Use the CATEGORIES in S#l as a guide in your deliberate interactionswith your child. You want to use mathematical l a m e (terms) to o r g e your child's behaviors. as well as CONCRETE MATERIALS (objects such as counters, buttons. string. cups. etc.) to DEMONSTRATE their MEANING. What does "three" mean to a young child if it is not followed by an ASSOCIATION. e-g., 3 buttons. 3 balloons. There is a time for (DI) afier you and your child have explored SIZE (by arranging objects accordingly thus using the language of "big," "small," "bigger than." "smaller than." "greater than." etc.) by giving your child DELIBERATE and SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES (CF) ("give me /point to/show me the biggest apple.. .); in NUMBER ("point to the group of marbtes that is the greatest.. .): in MEASURES ("which piece of string is the shortest? Give it to me.. ."): SORTMG ("Place these Smarties in 3 equal groups"); SERIATION ("put the bal1 away FIRST. the bear away SECOND.. .). In al1 of these exampies yocr child is actually HANDLING the objects. Use (QF) and (IL) to help your child cany out the appropriate MATHEMATICAL BEHAVIORS. Now ROLE-PLAY by allowing your child to DIRECT your behaviors. T'here is ONE CONDITION. your child must use the LANGUAGE of MATHEMATICS as you have demonstrated to get the action going. Use the sarne materials. More abstract notions (concepts) such as TIME can be explored together then following it u p with a MUTUAL conclusion or EVALUATION, e.g. go on successive WALKS Lvith your child (count the treeshouses on the way). First walk is just down the road: second walk is around the block. Walk at same pace. Observations "which wdk took longer to do. why'l" (IL) (QF) (EF). Next day walk to the postbox a house away (how many letters are we going to post). Now add that TIME-EXPERIENCE to the question and perhaps rephrase. "\\.hich of the three walks took the least amount of time?" (notice "ta& increase (TI)). NOLV.hou can you confirm this? Well. you can do al1 THREE consecutively. O R you could seize the opportunity and introduce your child to some kind of MEASURING APPARATUS (ho\{ about an EGG-TTMER?). After each walk show the difference in the EGG-TIMER. M a y h c together (IL) you can mathematically PHRASE your observations. Now you can c l'fecti\-cl! evaluate your initial responses. You may wish to extend the concepts by helping >-out-chilcf make abstract cornparisons like "which of these two animais will get to the comcr storc faster.. .a.. .and.. ." You could even make predictions together (HYPOTHESES) and actuail! go out and TEST them. e-g.. "which of these TWO eggs will cook sooner. the small onc or tlic big one?" Put BOTH eggs in the same pot at the same time and take them out after a speci tic time. COOL. Crack. OBSERVE. TEST (cut into halves). EVALUATE. DISCUSS ( 1 L 1. S#3 : S H O W G , TELLING, AND WRiTiNG It is said that if a child is able to show what he/she means in math, describe i t in words and w i t e it down (express it in numbers) he/she has fully understood that skill. Bcar this in

mind when helping your child to solve WORD PROBLEMS.

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James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

TEACH your child to use different ways of showing (counters, drawings, graphing) a mathematical STATEMENT (e-g., "there are 20 marbles," "if 1 take 10 apples away fiom 12 1 wil l have ... lefi"). Physical objects (manipulatives) are very very important in ALL aspects of mathematical development. Descnbing in words what is happening is rediy THINKING ALOUD. In many cIassrooms children are encouraged to "TALK MATH" to themselves or to their partners. DONG and TALKING heip to GUIDE THINKING. They also allow you the P.ARENT to really GRASP what your child is thinking in solvine a math problem and it provides you with the opportunity to help steer your child into more productive thinking.

The process is very straightforward. Let's take a very BASIC skiil in math first. You are teachhg your child to use showing, and tallcing (describing) and then use symbols (numbers) to convey that he/she has understood number CONCEPTS (kindergarten skill). Use (DI). (CF): "Take eight counters from the box and put them on the table" (Your child does but does not count them ALOUD). "How do you know there are eight counters and not seven?" (Your child counts ALOUD. Some other behavior like "1 know there are 8" won't do. Therefore (IL). "Now write the number to show how many marbles you counted." (Your child writes the number 8.) Let's take a higher-order skill. "You have six buttons and four buttons more. How many buttons do you have altogether?" With effective leaming and practice at the preceding levels your child should perform these actions: takes 6 buttons from jar by counting them and places them on table and counts again; takes 4 four more buttons from jar. counts them. puts them on table too and re-counts. Now your child counts al1 the buttons and says. " 10 buttons altogether. Six buttons and 4 buttons make ten buttons altogether." Now your child writes the NUMBER STORY. 6 buttons and 4 buttons make 10 buttons altogether. Finally your chiid converts the STORY into a SYMBOLIC AV-4THEMATICALSTATEMENT: 6+4=10. Then says. 6 plus 4 equal 10. Do you set. h o ~ vessential these processes are for learning number properties and facts? And hou. relevant this process is in çolvhg WORD PROBLEMS? REMEMBER when ,ou teach your child this skill. take ONE STEP AT A TIME (you can MODEL the process than DIRECT YOUR CHILD and INTERACT to assist/redirect/correct. then give more practice opportunities and (TI)). S#l:

FROM BEGNS TO INTEGERS AND TELL ME A STORY

This builds on SM. Here we are teaching your child to perform ARITHMETICAL OPERATIONS (ADD, SUBTRACT, MULTIPLY. DIVIDE) using showing (~vithany suitable manipulatives), then symbolic expressions, and then INVENTMG a STORY to display UNDERSTANDMG. ALL mathematical equations or statements TELL SOME KIND OF STORY. Remember this as most of the skills in math we as older people have acquired we Iearned by ROTE. We want to avoid this habit in our children so we need to give them TIME. There are great rewards down the road.

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James Hendri kse, Program Coordinator

In any arithmetical operation the elements and symbols cm be shown and a story invented. To teach the pnnciple. take this example which can be shown using manipulatives mgher numbers can be shown using centimeter cubes or diagrams): 5 x 4= ? assume that your child does not know the answer but understands the SIGN. Assume that you have taught the S#3 strategy eariier on to your child. Your child will CONVERT the syrnboiic statement (EQUATION) to common lanmiage: "5 groups of 4" and will proceed to take 4 beans from the container. count them again and then place them on the table. He/she does this 5 times but puts each successive 4 beans in separate groups. Your child checks the number of groups to make sure there are only 5 and then double checks the number of counters in each. Now your child is ready to put them altogether. Your child now counts all of the beans but DOES NOT mix them. He/she double checks. There are indeed 20 beans: the 30 is witten as the answer to the equation. YOUR CHILD HAS UNDERSTOOD THE NUMBER CONCEPTS, THE SIGN, THE OPERATTON AND THE NEED TO DOUBLE CHECK. IF THERE IS A BREAKDOWN in any one of these components. your child will be unable to successfully solve the equation. When helping your child to s o h e any number sentence (equation) make sure that your child knows the components: you fmd this out by using S M To teach your child this skill, take ONE STEP AT A TIME. Start with. "read this a r i t h e t i c staternent (or number sentence, or equation) to me. Now show me how you do it.." and take it fiom there. INTERVENE (IL) at the point where the "breakdown occurs." By the way WTEGERS as you will know fiom the training sessions is a mathematicd term for WHOLE NUMBERS. Use it with your child. Can your child TELL A STORY to show that helshe understands that 5 x 4 = 20 does not have to be about beans? (IL) opportunity as you demonstrate your story about the equation: "Five children go apple-picking. Each child picks four apples. How many apples did the children pick altogether?" Now ROLE-PLAY. S#5:

HOWTOTEACHASKILL

You can use either the (DI), (IL) or (DL) to teach a skill in mathematics. However there has to be a process underlying al1 of these methods to ensure that learning has taken place. and here it is: 1.

EXPLAIN THE SKILL THAT YOU WISH TO TEACH AND ITS IMPORTANCE.

2.

PROVIDE AN EXAMPLE OR TWO INVOLVING THE SKILL.

3.

ENQUIRE WHETHER YOUR CHILD KNOWS HOW TO USE THE SKILL TO SOLVE A PROBLEM.

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James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

DEMONSTRATE HOW THE SKILL CAN BE USED TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM AND OTHERS LIKE IT. PROVIDE YOUR CHILD WTTH A SINGLE EXAMPLE TO SOLVE. EVALUATE YOUR CHILD'S PERFORMANCE WTH YOUR CHILD. TASK REDUCE (TR) and RE-TEACH IF PROBLEM EXISTS. PROVIDE ADDITIONAL SAMPLES (TI) FOR YOUR CHILD TO DO AND CO-EVALUATE.

REVIEW WTH YOUR CHILD THE PRINCIPLES TAUGHT AND LEARNED. PRAISE. S#6:

THE FOUR "CARDLNAL SINS" OF COMPUTATION

This stratew has nothing to do with the church: it has everything to do witfi how to DETECT computational errors that your child is HABITUALLY performing In other words your child doesn't h o w how to solve an arithmetical equation. Saying that your child cannot add. or subtract really "begs the question" for wouldn't you really Iike to know what !.Our child is not doing right in adding in failing an arithmetic test? We are LOCATING THE BREAKDOWN in the successful completion of a skill. The 4 Cardinal Sins (CSs) are:

WRONG OPERATION

eg..

ï+6= 1

FAULTY ALGORITHM

e-g.,

7+6= 14 (spot the breakdown?)

FAULTY PROCEDURE

e-g.,

43

(spot the breakdown?)

x8

3224

RANDOM RESPONSE

(spot the breakdown?)

e.g., 3867 +9679

3832

(spot the breakdown?)

WHICH IS THE MOST DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND? YES, RANDOM RESPONSE.

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James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

You start by inspecting the kind of problems your child is experiencing in ONE skill. The problem is GENERAL, and has afYected performance throuehout the application of that skill. e-g.. FAULTY PROCEDURE iN MULTIPLICATION (above). Once y ou have established the SOURCE of your child's difficulties in multiplication you may wish to c o n f m this by presenting your child with TWO additional samples to solve. ASK YOUR CHILD to TALK THROUGH the problem as he/she attempts to do it but to READ THE PROBLEM ALOUD FIRST. If there is indeed a genuine breakdown in ski11 mastery y ou rnust TEACH THE SKILL by using the steps in S#5. You rnay wish to st& however by W O K I N G YOUR WAY UP (that is break the problem down to its simplest form and then work your way up (TD), then gradua1 (TI) until (TB). So commence with 8x3, then 8x4. then 8x43 ...using S#4 procedures if needed, and the notion of PLACE VALUE (demonstrated in TSs). Teachhg 8x43 and how to "regroup" the "2 tens afier multiply ing 8x3" is the TEACHING OPPORTUNITY. Use S#5 in principle. S#7:

FASTER THAN A SUVER BULLET

Competence in arithmetic computation depends on two factors: ACCURACY and SPEED. The previous strategies have focused on UNDERSTANDING and using the correct procedures to enhance accuracy. Now we would like to present a single strategy to increase your child's computation SPEED. The strategy involves PRECISION TEACHING which is a rnethod already presented to enhance children's READING SPEED. Let's say that you would like to increase your child's ability to do computations quickly in ADDITION involving SINGLE DIGITS. Your child has already shoun the abi lit? to work accurately with or without counters: we want to increase AUTOMATICITY, For this activity you will need blank paper (letter size), a sheet of ACETATE or plastic covenng a WATER-SOLUBLE MARKER and a STOP WATCH as well as easy access to a PHOTOCOPIER. START SMALL (TD)! NEATLY print 10 singledigit addition problems for your child to solve. e-g., 5+3= and anange HORIZONTALLY across the page (longside across). ALWAYS do TWO COPIES (one to be stored). Explain purpose of the activity (EF) and that each performance wilI be TIMED and RECORDED on a TABLE or shown on a GRAPH. Why TIME? (QF), (EF). Cover the first sarnple set with acetate and instruct your child to use the marker instead of a pencil for the practice run. Use stop watch to t i n ~ c speed of completion. METHOD of SCORING. ONE POINT FOR EACH CORRECT solution, and SUBTRACT 1/2 point for each incorrect one. Tally the responses and adjust for errors. Note the time taken. e.g., 1 minute. Your child's FIRST TRIAL SCORE is 9 1!2 in 1 minute. Now (if you wish) remove Acetate (pencil only) and state that the objective is to get 10 in less than a minute. "Give it your best shot!" DECIDE if 10 problems are too few. so INCREASE (TI) to a MULTIPLE of TEN (ALWAYS). Say 30! Make a copy. FIVE TRIALS would be suficient to significantly ùicrease on the same TASK.

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James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

To Save time. instead of printing new problems every time simply CUT OUT =ch' LINE of 10 problems and RE-ARRANGED them on another page, scotch tape and photocopy. Do severai mixing of lines to make 50. DO NOT GO WITH MORE THAN 50 (requires a great deal of concentration). Do FIVE minute PRECISION DRILLS A DAY. You will (IT)and switch to a different computational procedure. Don't forget to CHART progress. Do reinforce ATTAINMENT OF REASONABLE GOALS which you have established with your child (IL) with STICKERS!! DISPLAY SUCCESSES FOR ALL TO SEE. In no tirne your child \vil1 compute "faster than a silver bullet!" SM:

DOING IT WTH CUE CARDS

Having to remember the processes in computation or in problem solving. the fomulae when there hasn't been many opportunities to practice (ski11 maintenance) can pose problems for your child. So you want to help your child REMEMBER to add with regrouping. for instance. without having to ask you DIRECTLY. Teaching your child how to construct CU E CARDS. filing them away for fiequent REVIEW or when they are really needed for studying at esam time. is an appropnate strategy. Assist your child at the beginnulg. You uill need INDEX CARDS. different colour MARKERS and a BOX for storing. Choose a procedure which you and your child INTUITIVELY know stands a chance of king forgotten if not reviewed on a daily basis. Present your child with a MODEL SAMPLE (one that shows ALL FACETS of thc procedure). Example: 423 x 207. Align the problem and using (IL) suggest >,Our cliild perform the operations on paper first and as he/she moves dong to DESCRIBE ALOI'[) EVERY STEP. As your child performs these behaviors take a COLOR PEN and YISUALL-1' TRACK the process by drawuig lines with arrows. Nunber and circle each swp in t h c PROCESS (see example "A" below). When the process is completed and the solution i b CORRECT ask your child to rz-explain by refemng to the lines. arrows and numbcrs. 1f t h c "marks" on the page MAKE SENSE (that is. successfully guide actions) neatly COPY thc MODEL ont0 the INDEX CARD. That is the cue card for multiplying a number b'. thrcc digits (or 1. or 2. or more than 3). This process is also tenned a "Flow Chart." The CUE CARD strategy will also work for LOWER-ORDER problems i i i computation where the process is shown in a series of STEPS beginning \\-ith t l i c presentation of the problem as it is presented (see exarnple "B"). Remember you and your child can decide on any system to employ in creating cue cards: the system must be the product of your child's own imagination or mind. but you can play a part in definin2 it more ciearly .

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"A"

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

423 x 207

423 x O (tens) 000 [O] (placeholder) -

423 x 2 846 -

S#9:

(hundreds) 1001 (placeholder)

-

X X X X X

X X X

X X X X X

HOW TO TEACH CONCEPTS The steps for teaching concepts in mathematics are:

EXPLAIN the concept as best you can. eg.. TRIANGLE or. ADDING. by SHOWiNG, DIRECTLY EXPERIENCING or by DRAWING. Use CONCRETE MATEMALS. Use either (IL) or (DL) to EXPLAIN or DISCOVER its essential FEATURES or CHARACTERISTICS, e.g.. a TRIANGLE has THREE SIDES (any triangle): ADDING is GROUPMG things together to fonn a NEW NUMBER SET. PROVIDE PRACTICE using the CONCEPT. e-g., CLASSIFY SHAPES. SORT SHAPES; do ADDITION problems. identiQ the ADDITION PROCESS in a word problem. NOW REVIEW by having your child TALK-BACK and SHOW-BACK.

GIVE ORAL/WRITTEN/ILLUSTRATIONEVALUATION.

S#10:

STAYING ONE STEP AHEAD OF YOUR CHILD

As your child moves through the grades, you may wish to "refiesh" your knowledge of current practices and skills. You don't want to appear lacking in confidence when trying to tutor your teenage child in math when you are unsure about the process. So go to your

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child's teacher. obtain a copy o f the program outline for the TERM as well as a copy o f the CURRENT TEXTBOOK. Study these well and practise. Make your child AWARE of this. DON'T BE EMBARRASSED. YOUR CHILD W L L RESPECT YOU MORE. YOU ARE PROVIDIXG A MODEL. YOU DON'T KNOW EVERYTHING BUT YOU AFE WILLMG TO L E M . So stay ONE STEP AHEAD of your child. You already are. anyway!

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

5. TUTORING ARITHMETIC WORD PROBLEMS INSTRUCTIONAL .TERIALS GROUP (A) M A T E W S : The materials are the same as those required for ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION #s 1 and 2.

GROUP (B) MATERIALS:

These materials will be provided by your WSTRUCTORS in the training sessions as required: Practice WORKSHEETS in various areas of problem solving as your child requires them. e.g. Time. Money. Fractions. Measurernent. etc.

GROUP (C)MATERIALS:

You will need the DISCOVERY BOARDS as in ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION 3s 5 & 6.

GROUP (D) MATERIALS You will essentially use the materials in ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION #s 8-14.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE COMPETENCE IN SOLVING WORD PROBLEMS: OPERATIONAL -AS

1 . Reading the problem

2. Understanding the problem 3. Understanding the concepts 4. Understanding the operation

5. Understanding the procedure

6. Understanding how to forrnulate the solution

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE COMPETENCE IN SOLWNG WORD PROBLEMS "In mathematics first things do corne first." James Hendrikse

Strategy +! 1:

Reading the Problem Aloud.. .

Strategy X2:

Unravelling the Message

Strategy #3:

Show Me that You Understand It

Strategy ff3:

Tell Me What Must be Done

Strategy ZC5 :

Step-By-Step

Strategy $6:

You Do It!

Strategy #7:

Let's Look at Your Solution

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James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

Strategy #8:

A Plan for Al1 Seasons!

Strateg #9:

What Suits You Best (Other Models)

Strategy # 10:

Do One Like This

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO INCREASE COMPETENCE IN

SOLVING WORD PROBLEMS STRATEGIES

OPERATIONAL AREAS #1

fC2

ff3

54

1 . Reading the problem

Si

2. Understanding the problem

S2

S3

3 . Understanding the concepts

S3

S4

4. Understanding the operation

S4

S5

S6

5 . Understanding the procedure SS

S8

S9

6 . Understanding how to

S8

S7

fC4

#5

S8

S 10

$6

forrnulate the solution

SOLVING WORD PROBLEMS Essential Behaviors 1.

Being able to READ the problem

2.

Understand the VOCABULARY and CONCEPTS

3.

Understand the QUESTION

4.

Know what PROCEDURES to use

$7

$8

$9

g10

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James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

5.

b o w what STRATEGIES to use

6.

Know how to FORMULATE (STATE) the solution

Here is a straightforward strategy to help p u solve word problems in mathematics:

READ the question

THWK about it RETELL the problem in your own words if possible SHOW it SET ü P the details ("boxing technique")

EXECUTE (perform) the operations

CHECK FORMULATE the solution

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE COMPETENCE IN SOLVING WORD PROBLEMS IN DETAIL The STRATEGIES Sffl-Sff7 are really a SEQUENCE of STEPS or SIGNPOSTS ifcorrectly done will enhance effective problem solving. When your child esperiences difficulties in this area (and many children do) by taking your child through one step at a tinie \vil1 help you to establish just at which point in the sequence a breakdown has occurred. For instance. if your child is at-risk in reading, the breakdown s i 1 1 probably occur at point # I when you ask your child to READ the problem "aloud." So. S#l is not only a strategy it is also a method of assessment. To help your child you will have to provide support at that level ENHANCING YOUR CHILD'S READING SKILLS IN MATHEMATICS. So you will refer to strategies in READING to enhance your childs reading ability. In al1 probability if you presented your child with the sarne word problem orally. helshe would succeed in finding the soIution. Your child's teacher should also make adjustments to accommodate your child's needs by pairing your child with a peer tutor (reading together or king read to). Your child should not be penalized for not k i n g able to read the problem. It is critical though. that when reading instruction is provided. the TARGET BEHAVIORS should be directed at

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mathematical vocabuiaries and concepts (KEY WORDS and OPERATIONS). Your child's classroom teacher should provide you with such vocabuiaries. One of the INSTRUCTORS in the PTP wilI assist you individually in drawing up a MATH-SPECIFIC VOCABULARY.

The subsequent steps S#2-S#7 (see list on previous page) are self-explanatory and should become part of the sequence of your instruction in tutoring your child to solve word pro blems. S#8:

-4 PLAN FOR

ALL SEASONS!

This s t r a t e g is really the "straightforward strategy" presented on the previous page. The sequence should be taught to your child WHILE WORKiNG THROUGH current esamples. Each step should be BOLDLY PRINTED on CHART PAPER and mounted for >-Ourchild to see and to get into the habit of using. Many. many difficulties that children experience in solving word problems can be traced to poor reading strategies and to the lack of a consistent PLAN for approaching WORD PROBLEMS. S#9:

WHAT SUITS YOU BEST (OTHER MODELS)

This (1s)should really be worded "what suits your child best." Here we want to draw upon your child's NATURAL STYLE of solving problems and to MAKE IT MORE EFFECTIVE. We can enhance children's preference for solving problems by asking them (IL) how the' would best go about solving one, bearing in mind though that FIRST THINGS DO COME FIRST IN MATH (read the problem first). Your child may prefer ILLUSTRATING the problem- or. simply TALKING ALOUD about it. or. using CONCRETE MATERIALS. or some short hand. If it's effective DON'T TRY FIXING IT. HELP M A U IT MORE EFFICIENT. However. there may corne a time when the persona1 preference may no longer be effective enough for solving different problems. In this event you should TEACH other ways of showing or coding a problem such as MAPPING and WEBBiNG which will be esplained in the PTP. S#I O :

DO ONE LIKE THIS

This is really a CONFIRMATION STRATEGY in dl aspects of mathematics instruction. When you have completed your tutoring and you wish to know whether your child has reaIly leamed the skill, simply ask your chiid you do an activity very similar to the one just used in your tutoring, e.gt you tutored a 2-step problem involving percentages. set your child a similar 2-step probiem involving percentages. EVALUATE. RE-DO or CLOSE.

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6. TUTORING WRITTNG

GROUP (A) MATERIALS:

These materials must be obtained fiom your child's TEACHER. 1.

A list of the WRITING TOPICS for the MONTH/TERM.

2.

A list of essential VOCABULARIES for the TOPICS.

3.

A copy of a CLASS DICTIONARY.

GROUP (B) MATERIALS:

These matenals will be provided by your INSTRUCTORS in the training sessions: 4.

A printed copy of BARBARA SITTON'S key SPELLMG WORDS appropriate to

your child's LEARNING STATUS in written hnguage. 5.

Appropriate exercise books for your child's JOURNAL W T I N G .

6.

A copy of "MY OWN WORDS FOR WRiTING" booklet.

7.

A printed copy of a GRADE-APPROPRIATE story to give y o u an idea of the writing

expectations for your child's GRADE LEVEL.

GROUP (C) MATERIALS:

You will have to constmct these materials yourself: 8.

A WRITING FOLDER for your child's PORTFOLIO of writings.

9.

A list of PERSONALIZED high fiequency words with their correct spellings organized into a BOOKMARK format for instant use for your child. Your INSTRUCTORS will show you how this is to be done.

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10.

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

A MSUAL RECORD (LIST) of your child's writing (by TITLE) to be displayed in

your HOME. You will be shown how to do this.

CROUP (D) MATERIALS: You will have to purchase these materials if you don? already have them in your home: An INSTAMATIC CAMERA for taking pictures of interesting people, objects. animals. creatures, places and things that catch your child's interest on walks. car rides. visits. etc.. and wodd promote conversation, drawuig a d o r writing. e-g., the house pet. Therefore a photo can be used instead of a drawing.

Unlined paper in various SIZES (you can cut shapes if you wish to match the theme) and COLORS. Lots of UNLINED (BLANK) WHITE writingdrawing paper. A TYPEWRITER OR COMPUTER WITM PRINTER.

Lots of CRAYONS, MARKERS. LABELS. A TAPE RECORDER.

A FULL-LENGTH MIRROR.

CONSTRUCTION PAPER for making covers or for backing.

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE WRïlTEN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE: OPERATIONAL AMCAS

1 . Pre-Writing

2. Beginning to Write

3. Writing with Difficulv 3. Writing Fluently

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James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

STRATEGIES TO INCREASE WiWITEN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE "A child's first picture is his/her first story." James Hendrikse

"Children learn to write by writing." James Hendrikse

Strategy # 1 :

Establishing a Writing Mode1

Strategy #2:

Reading, Talking?and Writing

Strategy #3:

Teliing Stories

Strategy fi:

Tell Me About the Story in Your Picture

Strategy $5:

Leaving Notes and Messages

Strategy #6:

Receiving Notes and Messages

Strategy +7:

1'11 Be your Ghost Writer

Strategy g8A:

Starting a Journal Together

Strategy ff8B:

Once Upon a Time and Creative Story Writing

Strategy #8C:

Do It My Way

Strategy $9:

Words We'll Need and Words We Use (Preparing for Writing)

Strateey ft 1O:

Directed Writing Mode1 (Application)

Strategy # 1 1 :

Response Writing

Strategy fC 12:

Research Writing

Strategy # 13:

Portfolio

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James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO INCREASE WRHTEN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE

1 . Pre-Wnting

SI

S

Sc

S5

S6

2 . Beginning ro Write

SI

sz

sj

S6

S7

3 . Writing with Difficuity

a

si

S9

Si0

4 . Writing Fluently

SII

SI? SI3

s9

STRATEGXES TO INCREASE WRITI'EN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE

S# 1: ESTABLISHING A WRITING MODEL This involves several behaviors on your part that provide your child with a good n-riting mode1 ("my mom as a writer" "my dad as a writer"). You want to instill the habit of writing in your child by showing that its FUN. MEANINGFUL and REWARDING (you write a letter to granny and you get one back). The very act of your writing something WITH YOUR CHILD PRESENT sends a strong message to your child about CONTEXT and PURPOSE (explain why we write) and PROCESS (what we do when we write)- Yow chiid \vil1 absorb these behaviors. Printing LABELS to mark certain items in the home. writing your chiid's NAME are al1 acts of writing. When done. READ what the labels or your letters SAY. That writing has a message (afier al1 what are books al1 about) is what your child needs to know. If your child wishes to write to granny even if he/she is yet unable to do write, LET HIMMER! Then read back. Remember, your child's first picture is your child's first written story. Use (EF), (QF). S#2 : READING, TALKINC, AND WRITING

Again we're talking about MODELING and INTERACTING prior to your child k i n g able to write independently, and continuous to your child's development as an independent writer. Al1 of the behaviors of reading, talking and writing are essential to providing the foundations of future literacy development of which writing is a part. So start v e l early on to read to your child, use language to interact with your child in stimulating, thoughtfûl and meaningful ways, and provide your child with a writing mode1 (SH). These

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behaviors will shape your child's attitudes to writing and to aii other aspects of literacy development. They will also provide your child with the CONTENT (vocabularies. knowledge. skills and strategies) that form the core of reading and writing. As your child nrows into writing. he/she will continue to develop more sophisticated reading habits and cc spoken l m - m e behaviors which in turn will fuel personal writing development and expertise.

S#3 : TELLING STORES What is in writing? A STORY or NARRATIVE. We al1 have something to Say. fiom a sinele word. to many. Writing helps to get it out and afKrms the self. Being able to write is not a magicai thing that happens overnight; it is a process of development that depends on early experiences! attitudes and interactions. In ail experiences. the mind keeps count, so. in witing. we need lots of things to count on to be able to write successtùlly. Therefore if writing is conveying a story or a personal narrative. children have to expenence a number of "counts" that make for something to write about or how to write it well. TelIing stories backand-forth (Interactive Learning) is the bed-rock of vvriting; without a storylnarrative you have nothing to Say. And if you don't have an ORAL (AURAL) story you really don? have much of a count to even begin writing. As they say, if you don? have a "bun in the oven" nothing's -ooing "to pop out." We humans love stories: today there are professional story tellers: before w e learned the art of writing we depended on story tellers. So begin by telling stories and shars stories with your family. Oh. by the way, telling what happened on the way to the store or to the vet is also a STORY!! Your child telling you about the cat upsetting the milk is a wonderfûl story. In story-telling you listen. share and respect. You can tell stories on walks. in cars. in stores and really nice stories before bedtime. Reading a book to your child is simply another person's story: and that's good. Watching TV and talking about it. listening to the radio. are others. Don't get too formal. the world is full of stories just waiting to be told! !

-

S#4:

TELL ME ABOUT THE STORY IN YOUR PICTURE

This is exactly what it says. It is a precursor t o "please read me (or please may 1 read) the story you wrote." The purpose is to have your child ELABORATE ideas. to retell. and to be appreciated. So, why don't you draw a picture as well and have your child ask ?ou? Rernember your child's first picture is hisher first written story. The one comes before the other. What you have to do is to encourage your child to do more, to talk about it, to be appreciated and respected as a visual story-teller and pdually. with appropriate literacy experiences and instruction move into another form of story-telling-WRITING. Now. take each picture and allow your child to decide whether to,

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James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

(a)

add it to hisher collection (portfolio)

(b)

fiame it and display it in the HOME

(c)

photocopy and send the origïnal/copy to relativeslmake a postcard.. .etc.

DON'T EVER LET A STORY DIE!! S#S:

LEAVING NOTES AND MESSAGES

What a splendid way of showing that the words on paper convey something important and how invithg it must be to a child to want to use the sarne medium to get somewhere (like trying to climb the staîrs to get a view ftom the top ... have you ever observed how involved and meticulous a child is in this pursuit?). Start with a famiiy member leaving you a short message like, "1 love you," or, "Say helio to Katie" (your child's narne). Read the note with Katie Sitting alongside. Who is this message fiom Katie? Wlo WROTE it? Then. why? how? Be INTERACTIVE. Use (QF). Would you like to reply? Would you like to WRITE a reply? (Scribbiing is O.K., so is a drawing). Let's put it in an envelope (why?). How about a message to Santa (at a suitabie time of course). Leave a message for your child and help with the reading of it (yes, even read it to your child who is yet unable to read). How about a "1 love you note," or, "Have a nice day" in your child's snack box on the first day of school? KEEP the messages (one day soon your child wiIl be able to read them.. .what fun!). Do 1 or 2 a day and don't be afraid to l a v e a message for the CAT that stayed out al1 night. Help your child read it to the cat (now isn't that a good reason for your child to want to learn to read? Very much Iike wanting to climb those stairs!) S#6:

RECEWING NOTES AND MESSAGES

Use ideas in S#5. Receiving notes and messages really implies that your child is t h e recipient of a reply to hisher assisted~unassistedmessage in the first place (picture. scribble. or words). Help your child DECODE and fûlly interact to keep the enthusiasm and continuity going. Extend this activity and assist your child in doing a letter or note to someone outside of the home. Help your child to deliver it personally. e.g.. a message "corne play with me tomorrow" to a friend next door, or. a birthday invitation (al1 hand dehered). or mail a letter and wait for the reply. How nice to receive a letter fiom dad at work!

S#7:

I'LL BE YOUR GHOST WRITER

You wnte the story or message for your child who is yet unable to write or has extreme dificulty writing. But al1 of the words are your child's OWN WORDS. What are WE going to write? O.K. that's a good idea. Let's start.. .you talk and I write. O.K. now let's

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read back what WE'VE written so far. If your child is derribing an event or telling a stoqf you may wish to stop at strategic points and READ BACK. This affords you the opportunity to redirect or edit your child's thinking. Rernember, when you do READ BACK. run your finger under the words as you and your child read dong slowly together (Simultaneous Reading). Store the writing (writing portfolio) and before you start ghostwiting another story with your child, read the last story back together, or. if you think your child is able to decode most of the words. have your chilci read the writing back to you aloud. NOWdo you see the READING-WRITTNG connection? Now you can't always be your child's ghost writer (your child won't permit this!). So help your child towards independence (particularly your older child who still finds witing very chaiienging) by doing SHARED-WRITING (SW). In ( S v you and your child decide what the writing task is going to be about (there has to be some focus as you are writing together). Once this has been achieved decide upon who writes first, how much (a sentence. a paragraph, a word?) that is. you are laying the ground niles. Then start. Each effort has to be read aioud as you or your child wrïtes. Developing a shared-writing partnership with your child is developing a shared experience of trust. The experience in itself exposes your child first-hand to the process of writing (thoughts and the editing thereof). Your presence and active participation aiso provides your chiid with an instant source of help for phrasing. spelling and ideation. Donlt worry about DEPENDENCY: your child writing in consort or your child orally relating the story as YOU write is a wonderfbl leaming experience and is preferable to doing no writing at d l !

S#8A:

STARTING A JOURNAL TOGETHER

A journal contains statements of the days' experiences. A journal also contains REFLECTIONS. You will be given a suitable exercise book for use with your Young child. This book has pages which are 1/2 blank and 1/2 lined. The blank section is for drming o r for frarning a picture or a photograph. The sooner you start the better. Your child can entcr anything he/she wants by way of xribbles, words or pictures to describe a personal insight. You will of course inform your child why journals are kept and then how valuable the? arc in the reading-writing connection. Besides. journals can be wonderfui Christmas gifts io a friend or relative. Just w a p thern as you would wrap a @fi! At your child's PRE-WRITISC; STAGE a DRAWING plus just a single word that you print for your child (hold hisihcr hand on the pencil as you print) is an adequate entry. So your child draws Scottie the poodlc (your house pet). Now you praise the picture drawing attention to the dog's qualities then (IL) to get your child elaborating ideas and explaining why the tail is not s h o w in the picture. Now let's write, "Scottie." So you print Scottie on the first line. You may wish to invite your child to contribute more (QF). Your child will: "Scottie is a good dog" and ?ou print this message with your child's heIp. Now (QF) and then READ-BACK TOGETHER. "Do you want to read this to ..." The possibilities are endless. Build the habit of doing a journal entry everyday. Use GHOST-WFüTER AND ASSISTED WRilTNG techniques. Always

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develop DIALOGUE; help in deciding the day's topic; when writing help to edit ideas so that everything is compacted (on a single page) and SHARE. Now before your child does the next entry SHARE-READ previous journal entries or your child's favorite entries. By the way. if you haven't yet started your own journal it may be a good time to start now! Remember S R I ! ! When you start your child on journal writing early on, your child will almost naturaily flow into independent writing and will continue to share some of the precious and special moments of growing up (we share family photographs unselfconsciously, dont we. so why not journal moments that have captured persona1 or shared experiences?). It is profoundly difficult to start this process when your child is in hisher teens. Fortunately. in many of today's pnmary classrooms, journal writing is a daily activity. S#8B:

ONCE W O N A TIME AND CREATIVE STORY \rVRITIIVG

You are helping your child with ideas, sequencing, publishing. in other words with the process of writing. S#9 complements this. There is a sequence to be obeyed in which you c m combine (IL). (DI). and (QF). (EF) and (CF). Start by choosing a suitable TOPIC (your CHILD's topic or the topic provided by your child's teacher). The deciding of a topic to \\-rite on is critical: very ofien children who struggle with written language choose arnbitious topics (very much like a stniggling reader choosing books that are way above their reading level). As you know your child's interests, strengths and weaknesses (needs) you can help your child gain a FAIR START. At this PRE-WRITING stage you evaluate with your child the PROS and CONS of choosing this or that topic: it is a practice that al1 writers eventually l e m so you are helping your child with the process! Now once the topic has k e n chosen help your child to decide on an APPROACH. that is, what kind of writing and organization is needed to make the writing effort worthwhiie (that is READABLE. INFORMATIVE and INTERESTING or. the R double 1 formula). Use (IL) approach. Jot down ideas. Remember these are PRE-WRITING IDEAS or CONFERENCING. Review jot-notes. NEXT STEP: ask your child to teIl the story orally (this is a pre-writing activity which sets the stage. the content, the action and the sequences as well as the kind of vocabulary required). Later on your child will intemalize the oral account. Make jot notes dong the way. Now have your child READ-BACK the notes. Make adjustments to setting. action and sequence if required (your child has to do this before he/she WRITES). Now your child takes these ideas and carefully and thoughtfùlly WRITES THE STORY. When done. READ-BACK. CONFER (IL). EDIT, RE-WRITE. PUBLISH. Remember only do this WHEN IT IS NEEDED. 1 have personally found that once children have mastered the process they never forget to use it in their w-iting activities: but they need the TIME to do it WELL. So. DON'T RUSH THE WRITING! !

S#8C: DO IT MY WAY Doing it my way is not a Song but a strategy to help your child's thinking within the context of writing. Often, children are literally STüCK not knowing how to address the

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topic. what to Say and how to Say it. Sometimes the topics and directions teachers give children are far too open-ended and vague that children feel insecure and stymied. Ofien. some chiIdren just do not have the experience or the confidence to want to take risks. Why is it that we think that asking a child to write about hisher new outfit is any easier than asking a child to get up and do an oral presentation on the same subject? Well doing it my way is really establishing MODELS of written RESPONSES to a variety of topics that schools cornrnonly present students with, fkom short journai entries, to letter writing. poetry and research papers. In this strategy your child-is actually GIVEN or told WHAT TO WRITE so that the style of expression (syntax) and the content provide a MODEL for your child to ernulate. In other words. your child has to have something TO GO BY. Sometimes children need to know how other people Say or write things (that is one reason why we encourage them to read a range of literature). We ail leam fiom others. Where and how you start depends on your child's age, writing ability and the writing task set by your child's teacher and c m range fiom having your child actually wrîte what you DICTATE or READ ALOUD. The sources of what you dictate or read aloud could come fiom your own ideas. e-g.. "Today 1 am going to help you write complete sentences. You wili start each sentence with a capital letter and end with the appropnate punctuation and than you are going to read back what you have read. AAerwards you will be asked to write two complete sentences of your own." Or. "As you need practice with letter writing. 1 am going to share four different letters with you. We'll read them together. discuss the ways we write different letters and then I'm going to ask -ou to write a specific letter on your own." Or, "I'm going to dictate a short paragraph about pets. You will write as 1 dictate and then you will read back and then we'll discuss your spelling and punctuation. When that is done I'm going to ask you to write a short paragraph in much the same way on your favorite pet." Always end with, now try doing one of your own (witing), or. if the task demands lots of writing. e-g., a biography. simply expose your child by reading to him/her aspects of a selected biography or an abbreviated one. discuss the STYLE and content and then ask your child to orally to a biography about a well-known person. that is. himselfierself. In these contexts you will also have to make a judgement cal1 whether to provide your chiId with KEY WORDS or PHRASES to help with spelIing. The provision of both particularly in the writing of short pieces will give your child a comfort zone which is consistent with pre-writing activities organized by the classroom teacher. You ~ 1 1 notice 1 that the principle method used in this context is (DI) with opportunities for (IL) and (DL). S#9:

WORDS WE NEED AND WORDS W E USE

This strategy ties in very well with S#8B and S#8C at the PRE-WRITING and EDITING stages of writing. The focus is upon helping your child find suitable WORDS, PHRASES even SENTENCES to effectively convey thoughts in print. Use (IL), (QF). (EF). This is also a great opportunity for presenting the correct spelling of needed words (Personal Words) which c m be stored for later use or for matching games. The VOCABULARIES have to tie in with the TOPIC or THEME. When these vocabularies are stored in this way, they

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can be easily retrieved for subsequent writings, they provide a Eramework for assisting in the memonzation process and they also add to your child's SPOKEN VOCABULARY. A suitable dictionary and encyclopedia are excellent resources as checking devices and you should encourage your child to use them. Later on as your child begins to do RESPONSE or RESEARCH writing you are going to need them yourself! Remember once the writing is done. READ BACK for MEANING and APPROPRIATENESS then EDIT, PUBLISH. S# 10: DIRECTED WRITING MODEL

The Pre-Writing, First-Dra Edit. Second-Dr& Review and then Publish is based on the Direct Instruction (DI) method. In this context we are teaching the child to go through severa! procedures or stages in publishing his/her writing. Within this process however. you as a parent will use the Interactive Leaming (IL) rnethod to assist your child in producing effective writing whether it's a NARRATIVE, short RESEARCH paper, ARTICLE. etc. The procedures described in S#8 and S#9 are pan of this process. You as a parent have to establish the mode1 (process) with your child. and show how the process helps with writing particularly in a PARTNERSHIP context, and how it helps to steer productive independent witing in emphasizing adequate preparation, sequence of steps. reflection adjustrnent and publishing.

ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES The following involves writing in highly specialized areas. S# 11 : RESPONSE WRITING

This is focused writing as the child is caiied upon to do written insights such as comments. analyses and judgements about literary or nonliterary experiences. Your role as a parent is to PARTICIPATE (QF).(EF), when required, to GUIDE when needed (EF). (CF). and to be an appreciative AUDIENCE. Your help could be enlisted at any one or al1 of the STAGES in SR10 so knowing what to do at any specific point requires that you fully understand the DIRECT WRITMG MODEL. You may fa11 back on specific strategies in S#8 and S#9. Whatever you do, DO NOT WRITE FOR YOUR CHILD ... enrich hisher ideas yes. but do not impose your own. It is not your response that is being evaluated by the teacher. Develop the habit, if you have not yet already done so. of reading your child's finished work your child consents to this interaction. S#12: RESEARCH W T I N G

Obtain the necessary materials and information fiom your child's teacher such as EXACT research TOPIC, REFERENCES, GUIDELINES and EXPECTATIONS, EVALUATION, DATE due, etc. Your next responsibility is to help your child select a topic

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that is well wïthin hisher reach (IL). (QF), (EF). Help MAP out reasons for wanting to engage in the research topic, what is hoped to be learned. and how it is to be presented. These ideas have to be written d o m by your child. Next, decide what reading is to be done. Book(s) have to be borrowed fiom the library. Develop a TIME-LINE for writing. Once this scheme is done your responsibility is to monitor progress and to be a RESOURCE whenever your child needs you to be. For example. you may be called upon to help clarifq. a point in the reaciing, or help plan the presentation format of the written paper. eg.. what should be included in the Introduction. etc. Again. don? impose your style: FACILITATE the development and the emergence of your child's own unique preference. But always be the LISTENER and the READER. Itls never too Iate to start. Remember every effort is worth PRAISE (youlre not being asked to evaluate; that's the teacher's job). S#13 : PORTFOLIO A PORTFOLIO IS A COLLECTION of persona1 memorabilia. A writing portfolio is

a collection of preferred personal writings. Sometimes because of limited space only the most memorable writings are kept. You should introduce your chiid to portfolio writing as soon as possible. You need to STORE the writing and you need to have your child decide which witings should be saved and which writings should be discarded. The (LO) inherent in this process is to have your child develop a sense of value and a cntical appreciation. 1 know of parents however. who have encouraged their children to store al1 the writings in a welldecorated BOX with a lid. These parents have also collaborated w-ith their children in classiQing their witings according to GENRE. e g . POETRY. LETTERS or THEMES. Such storage and classification help the child to develop an organized mind and habit and an awareness that you c m express many persona1 things in writing and in different nays. Thrre is also another important benefit to portfolio writing (storing): it conveys the distincr message that writing is an extension of the self and worthy of preservation. It is a veritablc history of the self akin to a photo album. Finally. a portfolio of writing is a good source of reading materials. The strategy of helping your chiId to keep a portfolio of writing not only encourages more writing (we like to see ourselves GROW) but also more READiNG.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

7. TUTORING SPELLLNG

1.

YOUR CHILD'S IMMEDiATE NEEDS

Your child's imrnediate needs are the words he/she is using fairly regularly in current classroom writing (PERSONAL HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS) but is not achieving much success at spelling them correctly. So, what you have to do is ASK your child's teacher to IDENTIFY those words and you will have a list of your child's most needed words.

A CURRENT LIST OF YOUR CHILD'S MOST NEEDED WORDS Together with your child. PRINT the CORRECT SPELLING of each \vord on 3 LARGE SHEET of BLANK PAPER (CHART PAPER). Use MARKERS or CRAYONS to HIGHLIGI-IT the PROBLEM SEGMENT in EACH WORD for your child to focus on.

2.

YOUR CHILD'S RE-OCCWRRING NEEDS

For this you will need a "REPUTABLE" LIST OF WORDS that are fairly accuratci>GRADED. These words would be HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS. A most suitabic INVENTORY of such words can be found in SITTON'S SPELLING PROGRAM. We havc copied the appropriate sections for you.

3.

YOUR CHlLD WILL ALSO DEVELOP A PERSONALIZED SPELLING INVENTORY USING Ai!

EXERCISE BOOK FOR STORMG USABLE PROBLEhd WORDS.

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James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SPELLING Adequate hearing and vision Adequate reading experiences Adequate memory Knowledge/rnastery of the alphabet Knowledge of sound-symbol relationships

WRITE, WRITE. W T E Developing a SPELLMG PLAN Appropriate learning mategies

WAYS TO ASSESS SPELLING WUTE the word SAY the spelling

IDENTIFY the correct spelling. e-p.. write/right. in a sentence. COMPLETE the word. e-g., "w- -ch one is it?" REARRANGE lettee to form a word.. e-g.. thete (teeth) or cholso (school). in a sentence ("1 am going to - - - today.").

_

CORRECT the word not spelled correctly in a sentence, e.g.. "Sally jumpd over the fence."

Parents as Tutors Prograrn (FTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE SPELLING SKILLS: OPERATIONAL AREAS STRATEGIES

OPERATIONAL AREAS ffl

ff2

#3

fC4

#5

#6

#7

#8

+9

$10

1. Pre-Spelling

2. Invented Spelling 3. Conventional Spelling 3. Spelling Problems

STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE SPELLING SKILLS ,ategy 3 1 :

R a d , Read, Read Principle

Strategy $3:

Knowing the Letters of the Alphabet by Name

Strategy $3:

Copying. Tracing. Reproducing Shapes of Lower-Case and Upper-Case Letters

Strategy ff4:

Sounding It Out (Individual Consonant Sounds. Blends. Digraphs. and Short Vowels)

Strategy $5:

Risk-Taking with First and Last Letters (Toward "Invented Spelling")

Strategy $6:

Watch Me Spell!

Strategy $7:

Your Child's Own Words and Personal Spelling Plan

Strategy $8:

Other People's Words and How to Learn Them

Strategy fC9:

If Al1 Else Fails.. .

Strategy # 10:

Don't Leave Home Without It (the Survival Word Bank)

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE SPELLING SKILLS

STRATEGIES

OPERATIONAL AREAS $1

#S

#3

1. Pre-Spelling

S1

S2

S3

2. Invented Spelling

S1

S4

S5

S6

3. Conventional Spelling

S1

S7

S8

SI0

3. Spelling Problems

S1

S4

SS

S6

#4

fi5

6

$7

#8

S7

S8

S9

SI0

+9

#10

STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE SPELLING SKILLS IN DETAIL "The recall of al1 the letters in a word in their proper sequence." James Hendrikse S# 1 :

READ, READ, READ PRINCIPLE Daily reading (much of it to someone)

S#2:

KNOWING THE LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET BY NAME

Use "Discovery Board" with lower-case leners. Separate lower- and upper-case leners on flash cards and quiz. Learn alphabet Song devices. Saying the alphabet. S#3:

COPYING, TRACING, REPRODUCING SHAPES OF LOWER-CASE AND UPPER-CASE LETTERS

Ask to write each letter. "problem" ietters only.

Say them one at a time.

Eventually concentrate on

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S#4:

James Hendrikse, Progarn Coordinator

SOUNDING IT OUT (INDMDUAL CONSONANT SOUNDS, BLENDS, DIGRAPHS, AND SHORT VOWELS)

The letter "A" ("ay") says "A". .. Help build letter/sound/picture book. e.g. "b" is for " ball." w i t e "bail" under the picture. "ch" is for "cheese". ..

S#5:

RISK-TAKING WTfI FIRST AND LAST LETI'ERS (TOWARD."INVENTED SPELLING")

"Take a Guess" rule in) ... then next word

... Wnte first letter (space) then last then guess the

middle (fil1

Parent as mode1 writes short note. Child watches as you say each word and then write it letter by letter carefully, f d l y saying whole word then pointing and moving your finger Say the word slowly again. S#7:

YOUR CHILD'S OWN WORDS AND PERSONAL SPELLLNG PLAN

Take three samples of your child's writing. With your child identi- and underline the words regularly and fiequently misspelled. Clearly write or print these words with their correct spelling down the page. Child reads and makes comparisons. Child prints most frequently used "persona1 words" on a bookmark. These words can be referred to when writing. Meanwhile child prints words in "My Own Spelling Book" (alphabetized pages) to which similar high-frequency personal words are "banked." Daily review groups of ten (READ. COVER SPELL) until only most persistent words need to be reviewed (narro\ving it down). Responsibility for locating words with their correct spellings now rests with the child.

SM:

OTHER PEOPLE'S WORDS AND HOW TO LEARN THEM

Sinon's graded word lists, Dolch Words, Class Words. Theme or subject-area words are to be approached in a constructive, nonpunitive way. Compile a list of words to be reviewed. Have child read them aloud. Conference for meaning and patterns. Do "Quick Sort" (QS) and isolate problem words. Bank problem words and construct bookmark(s). Review words on a daily basis. However, responsibility rests with child to b o \ v where to locate them for accwate use in writing.

REVIEW: (RCCTC) (READ COPY COVER TEST CHECK)

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S#9:

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

II;ALL ELSE FAILS...

Some spelling difficulties suggest really serious specific learning disabilities requiring special mechanisms for both accurate recall (learning) and special strategies for locating sources for accurate use in writing. The latter may be the "best thing" for certain individuais ("where the words are") (i)

pnnt individual letters of alphabet on 3 cm square cards. Make three sets. Read word. Place letters to correspond wiîh letters in word. Scrarnble. Conceal word. Child tries to place letters in proper sequence,

(ii)

"fade the word," e-g.. rnuffler mufile-

muffletc. (iii) S#10:

"building block approach"

DON'T LEAVE HOME WITHOUT IT (THE S U R W A L WORD BANK) Bookmarks. persona1 spelling notebook for "on the buses."

THE 100 HIGH-FREQUENCY WRITING WORDS a about afier all

an and are as at be been but by called can could did

in into is it i ts just know like little long made rnake many

some than that the their them then there these t hey this time

"'=Y

two

more most mY

use vev

tO UP

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do down each

fmd first for fiom

had has have he her him his how 1

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

no no t now of on one only or other out over people said see she so

was water way we were what when where which who will with words would YOU

your

if

THE FlRST 100 the. of. and. a to. in, is. you. that. it. he, for. was. on. are. as. with. his. they. at. be. this. from, 1. have, or. by. one. had. not. but. what. dl. were, when. we. there. can. an.

your. which. their, said. if. do. will. each. about. how. up. out. them. then. she. many. some. so. these. would. other. into. has, more, her. two, iike. him, see. time, could. no. rnake. than. first. been, its. who. now. people. my. made. over. did. down, only. Xvay. find. use. may. water. long. little. very. afier, words. called. just. where. most. know

THE SECOND 100 get. through. back, much, go, good. new, write. Our, me,

man. too. any. day, same. right. look. think. also, around, another. came. corne. work, three. must. because. does, part.

even. place. well, such. here, take. why, help, put. different. away. again, off. went. old. number. great. tell, men, Say. small, every, found. still, between. narne. should. home. big. i v e . air. line, set, own. under, read. last. never. us. lefi. end. dong. while. [email protected], Sound. below. saw, something, thought, both, few, those, always. show. large, ofien. together. asked? house, don't, world, going, want. school, important. until. fom, food. keep, children

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

TKE THIRD 100 feet. land. side. without. boy. once, anùnals. life. enough took, four. head. above. kind. began. almost, live, page, got. earth, need, far. hand. hi&, year. mother. li&t country, father. let. Nght. picture. king, study, second. soon, story, since. white. ever. paper. hard. near. sentence. better. best, across, during, today, however. sure. knew. it's. try. told. Young. Sun. thing. whole, hear. example, heard. several, change. answer. room. sea. against. top. mrned. leam. point. city, play, toward. five, himself. usually. money. seen. didn't. car, moming, I'm, body, upon, family, later, turn, move. face. door. cut, done. croup. true. half. red. fish, plants

-

THE FOURTH 100 living. black. eat. short. United States. run,book. gave, order. open. growid. col& really. table. remember. tree. course. fiont, Arnerican. space, inside, a g a sad. early. 1'11. k m e d . brought. close. nothing. though. ide* before. lived, becarne. add. become. gow. draw. yet. less. wind. behind. cannot. letter. among, able, dog, shown. mean. English. rest. perhaps. certain. six. feel fire. ready. green. yes. built, special. ran. füll. town. complete. oh. person. hot. anything. hold. state. list. stood. hundred. ten. fast. felt. kept. notice. can't. strong. voice. probably, area. horse, matter, stand. box, s t a that's. class. piece. surface. river. cornmon. stop. am. tak. whether. fine

round. dark. past. ball. girl, road. blue. instead, either, held. already. warm. gone. finally, sununer. understand, moon. animal, mind. outside. power. problem. longer, winter. deep. heavy. carefully, follow, beautiful, everyone. leave, everything, game. system, bring. watch. shall, dry. within. floor, ice. ship, themselves, begin fact. third. quite. c w . distance. although, sat, possible. heart, real, simple, snow, min, suddenly. leaves. easy, lay. size, wild, weather, miss, pattern, sky, walked, main, someone, center. field. stay, itseif. boat, question, wide, least, tiny, hour, happened, foot, care, low, else. gold, build. glass, rock. tall. alone, bottom, waik,check, fall, poor, map, fiend, language. job

Parents as Tutors Program (F'TP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

8. TUTORING HOMEWORK ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS) INSTRUCTIONAL MATERUUS GROUP (A) MATERIALS:

These materials must be obtained fiom your child's TEACHER: 1.

TWO copies of the WEEKLY TIME-TABLE.

2.

TWO copies of the special events (class or school) and excursions planned for the IMONTH.

3.

Two copies of TESTS or examinations scheduled for the MONTH.

4.

TWO copies of the WEEKLY HOME-WORK TIME TABLE.

5.

SPECIAL THINGS TO REMEMBER LIST (Le.. your child [email protected] be forgetting to bring suitable gym clothhg).

GROUP (B)MATERIALS: You will have to prepare these materials yourself: 1.

A "REMINDER BOARD" to be placed in your child's BEDROOM or STUDY.

2.

"REWARD STICKERS" (make or purchase).

3.

CERTIFICATE OF ACHIEVEMENT (make or purchase).

4.

HOME-SCHOOL COMMUNICATION "GOODNEWS-BADNEWS BOOK."

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

STRATEGIES TO ASSIST WITH HOMEWORK (ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS): OPERATIONAL AREAS OPERATIONAL AREAS

STRATEGIES #1

fC2

$3

#4

#5

ff6

#7

fC8

+9

+lO

1. Attitude Management 2. Resources Management

3. Time Management 4. Skills Management

5. Strategy Management

STRATEGIES TO ASSIST WTH HOMEWORK (ORGANIZATIONAL SKLLLS) "Homework is a fact of school." James Hendrikse Strategy # 1:

Conference

Strategy #2:

Establish Location and Resources

Strategy #3:

Estabiish Time Schedule

Strategy H:

What Does Your SchooUTeacher Expect?

Strategy ff5:

Let's Get Negative Feelings Out of the Way (So How Can we Help? Work Together?)

Strategy #6:

Specific Homework Assignments (i)

What Do You Have to Do?

(ii)

What Do You Need?

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

(iii) When to be Submitted and in What Form? (iv) What are Your Skills LikeMere Can You Get Help?

Strategy #7:

Now That It's Done

Strateg #8:

Let's Ensure It Gets to the Right Place

Strategy # 10:

Reinforcement

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO ASSIST WITH HOMEWORK

(ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS) OPERATIONAL AREAS

STRATEGIES $1

#2

$3

$3

1 . Attitude Management

S1

S4

S5

S9

2. Resources Management

S1

S2

S3

S9

S10

>. Tirne Management

S1

S3

S4

S6

S9

4. Skills Management

S1

S4

S6

S9

SI0

5. Strategy Management

S1

S6

S7

S8

S9

$5 '

#6

$7

#8

+9

=IO

SI0

SI0

SI0

STRATEGIES TO ASSIST WITH HOMEWORK ORGANIZATIONAL SKZLLS) IN DETAIL S# 1: CONFERENCE Conference means sharing ideas and GETTiNG DOWN TO BUSINESS. This is no[ to be a repnmand session. Involve other significant members of the family if !?ou need to

(use IL). You will need definite knowledge about SCHOOL EXPECTATIONS I N WRITING (if you don't have this you cannot even start). Discuss the "inescapable fact of homework" and in which ways you can help. MAKE JOT-NOTES and INFORM your

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Prograrn Coordinator

child of the need to and the worthwhileness of having regular conferences and PROGRESS REPORTS. Inform your child about a DAILY HOMEWORK BOOK with each page divided to show DATE, HOMEWORK DETAILS* DATE DUE. EVALUATIOK. SIGNATURES. S#2:

ESTABLISH LOCATION AND RESOURCES

This goes back to the "Conditions for Effective Tutoring": refer to appropriate Rs. Refer to list of materials/resources. S#3 : ESTABLISH TIME SCHEDULE

You and your child shouid draw up and POST for al1 to see a time-schedule. Homework must not be rushed and should not clash with other more attractive extracunicular events. You should help your child draw up a "least intrusive" homework plan. The plan may change according to semester demands, new hockey or gymnastics schedule and so on. NEGOTIATE and SETTLE. S#J:

WHAT DOES YOUR SCHOO-ACHER

EXPECT?

I f there appears to be some indication that your child is "hoodwinking" simply contact your child's horneroom teacher and request an interview. Your child should attend this interview and a CONTRACT drawn up between the THREE of you. S#5:

LET'S GET NEGATIVE FEELINGS OUT OF THE WAY

When negative feelings occur afier the conference atternpt to find out WHY (could be that homework is too difficult in which case contact the school). Use (IL) and providc support: do not however support an abandonment of responsibility. Draw your child's attention to the contract made in S # l .

S#6:

SPECIFY HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT

The points listed ( i H i v ) should be HIGHLIGHTED and glued to the inside cover of your child's homework book as a REMINDER. When homework is not entireiy done. or. when it is done unsatisfactorily it is usually due to a break-down in one of these steps. A copy of these reminders should be displayed for YOU to see so that when your child has completed the homework and has checked the steps, he/she then ALWAYS checks "out" with you; simply go through the steps ORALLY. Do not reprimand. sit down and talk (IL) about how both of you can get things done "right."

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

S#7:

NOW THAT IT'S DONE

Now that its done lets have a good look at it!! If something appears "odd" use (EF). (QF). If e v e r y t h g looks GOOD. PRAISE ("Good effort." "WelI organized." " v e p neat" ...always fmd something new to Say.. .be genuine). S#8:

LET'S ENSURE IT GETS TO THE RIGHT PLACE

First. it's got to go in to your cfild's SCHOOL BAG (the NIGHT BEFORE). Then orally check what goes to who. Sometimes with younger children homework is done. it's in the bag but never taken out to be handed in (like gym shorts to be washed!!).

DO not reserve evaluation for "bad times." use it for ALL times! Use (IL). (QF): "So what did your teacher think about yow story?" (you know it's a GOOD story). If there is room for improvement or HELP. PLEASE BE SPECIFIC. NOT: You did not do well on your math homework." RATHER: "Maybe we can do something about your division calculations."

Always a tricky item. What better reinforcement than "Good Effort." or "You are really doing a good job," or, "1 love the way you tried so hard to be neat in your writing." PIease be SPECIFIC and GENUINE. If you're specific you'll find lots more things to praise!

S T U D Y I N G FOR TESTS: SAMPLE GRID

1 ENG. FR. MATH SC. S.S.

Sat.

1

Sun.

1

Mon.

1

Tues.

1

Wed.

1

Thurs.

1

Fri.

1

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

HOMEWORK TIME-TABLE

Mon.

4:OO

Tues.

Wed.

urs.

~iano

Fri . Assigament

ballet

>:O0

Math pp.'s 64 & 65

j:30

dinner

Learn spelling

7:OO

saftbail softbali

words

7:30

s~&dl

6:30

Time

Needed

4:30

6:OO

Date Due

dinner

r

Wednesday

halfhour

Friday

half hour

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

9. TUTORINC STUDY SKILLS INSTRUCTIONAL MATEIUALS GROUP (A) MATERIALS: These materials must be obtained fiom your child's TEACHER. A copy of the printed EXAMINATION OR TEST SCHEDULE for the TERM. This is critical particutarly as your child moves into the upper junior and middle-school grades where they have several specialized teachers. Parent and child must each have a

copy. One copy must be displayed in the HOME as a CONSTANT REMINDER. The NECESSARY RESOURCES such as TEXTBOOKS and PRINTED NOTES supplied by the teachers. "MOCK-EXAM" PAPERS obtained fiom the PRESENT teachers or "MOCKQUESTIONS" drawn up by curent teachers for practice. A copy of the GRADiNG SYSTEM for each subject. This grading-system shouid include "descriptors." that is, short statements that uiform the students what. for exarnple. a "B+" in Social Studies looks like.

GROUP (B)MATERLALS: You will have to prepare these materials yourself in consort with your child: 1.

A STUDY TIME-TABLE (see appropriate section in this MANUAL) for an csamplc.

2.

A PRIORITY LIST of subjects or units of subjects that need to receive special study-

emphasis in tenns of irnrnediate attention and extra time. 3.

A LIST OF RESOURCES to help in effective studying. e-g..

MATHEMATICS

Text Teacher Hand-outs Measuring Instruments Mock-Examination Papers

Parents as Tutors Program (m)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

Study Aids such as "strategy cards" and Mnemonic Devices Glarm Clock Specid Paper, Pencils. etc. Calcdator Resources for each subject m u t be placed in separate neatly labeled containers (boxes). 1.

A TRACKING-SHEET (break-down of each subject into WITS)

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE STUDY SKILLS AND HABITS: OPE"IT0NAL AREAS

STRATEGIES

OPERATIONAL AREAS #1

$2

ff3

#4

#5

fi6

$7

1. Attitude Management

2. Resources Management 3. Time Management 4. S kills Management

5 . Stratew Management

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE STUDY SKILLS AND HABITS "Regularreview of work completed takes a load off studying." James Hendrikse Strategy i!1:

Conference

Sirategy #2:

Establish Location and Resources

Strategy #3 :

Studying for M a t , When ... Tirne-Table

$8

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

Strategy ff3A:

Tme Allocation

Strategy ff4:

Devices to Ease the Load (ongoing) (il (ii) (5) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

h2.Wwiw chapter or unit summations logical jot-notes index car& floppy discs memory-cards portfolio

Strategy g5:

Studying a Text Technique (the "Fumel"Concept)

Strategy ff6:

The Smdy Routine

Strategy #7:

Simuiations

Strategy if8:

Self-Evaluation

A SELECTION OF STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE STUDY SKILLS

AND HABITS

OPEEUTIONAL AREAS

STRATEGIES

#3

#1

ff 2

1 . Attitude Management

SI

S8

2. Resources Management

S2

S4

S8

3. Time Management

S1

S3

S6

S8

3. Skills Management

S1

S5

S6

S7

5. Strategy Management

S5

S7

S8

ff4

#5

S8

#6

#7

33

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

STRATECIES TO IMPROVE STUDY SKILLS AND HABI'IS IN DETAIL S# 1: CONIiERENCE

Read S f f l: Homework (Organizationai Skills). Your child v d l require a Little more "convincing" as studying is viewed by rnany students as "optional" and something to be put off until the night before. It is an excellent habit to get into but you need to sel1 it. Use analogies with sports-proficiencies that to be prepared for the games (examsltests) you have to put in some practice time. Use (IL), (QF). (EF). Use "least intrusive" method once the idea of studying (the need for it) has k e n presented. by drawing up with your child a MINIMUM STUDY PLAN of Say 3 one-half hour sessions per week. Choose Say 2 subjects in which your child is fairly proficient and 1 that requires a lot more effort. After evaiuating progress, attitudes, etc.. it's time to start the study plan in earnest. S#2:

ESTABLISH LOCATION AND RESOURCES

Read "Conditions for Effective Tutoring." pre\.ious pages. S#3:

STUDYING FOR WHAT, WHEN

Consult materials/resourçes list on

... TIME-TABLE

With your child peruse the sarnple time-tables provided and get to work. The timetable must be ENLARGED (Bristol Board) and placed in your childs BEDROOM or WORK-AREA. S#3A: TIME ALLOCATION

Must not clash with homework or favored extramural activities. nor should studying be time-consuming. Remember it's QUALITY STUDYING TIME (good concentrated effort pursuing realistic GOALS) that is sought. One half-hour at the beginning increasing gradually as work begins to make demands. REMEMBER, eventually your chiId is going to have to study almost ALL DAY!! Get into the HABIT. S#4:

DEVICES TO EASE THE LOAD (ONGOING) As the study-load increases so too must we seek ways of "easing the burden." Simple

things like having to find the appropnate notes c m "throw you." The list of devices (i)-(vii) to help ease studying should be organized from the very outset. Introduce one new device at

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

a time and once your child sees the benefits he/she will appreciate the help. Read S#s 7 and 8 in READING SKILLS (JUNIOR) and relevant sections dealing with portfolio witing (WRITING) and rnemory-cards (ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION). S#5 : STUDYING A TEXT TECHNIQUE

"FUNNEL"CONCEPT)

This takes a little tirne to teach but it is worth the effort. Present to your child the option of studying 20 pages of notes for a test or just 1 page: 1 page or just 5 words. Well. that is the "funneln concept, but it does not corne easy. The concept of a funne1 is a fairly accurate description of flow and the COMPACTING of information. Start srnall, like ONE SENTENCE of !O words. The sentence must contain explicit information like "Water-vapor condenses through a cooling process in the upper atmosphere and f a h as rain or snow." First reading should be,

(i)

recall of salient restatement-"What condensation.")

facts Cjot down on paper as question or causes rainhow?" or "rain and snow are caused by

and SECOND READING should confinn this.

(ii)

write down only the KEY WORDS that you don? already know or know to be associated with the question (i). e.g.. water-vapor. condensation.

Now study the QUESTION AND THE KEY WORDS. Go over these in your mind and see whether you c m formulate a stated answer. If a KEY WORD or concept is missing check (i) or the ORIGINAL SENTENCE. Next. (iii)

Write down 1 word or phrase that when you read it will help you to recall the information, e.g., CONDENSATION (RAIWSNOW).

(iv)

Sornetimes a quick drawing will heIp.

Now in studying longer texts the sarne PROCESS must be used. READ FIRST. ESTABLISH LEAD QUESTION, REPHRASE ACCORDING TO LEAD QUESTION (WRITE IT) and write consecutive short statements in response to the lead question and check with text. Write answerk. Then KEY WORDS. then eventually the least nurnber of key words just enough to jog the memory. Each "funnel"of information should be neatly PRINTED on an INDEX CARD. Before storing in BOX give the card a TITLE (could be a question) and number. Write this

faren ts as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

information down in an appropnate FILE. Eventually your child will be able to ARRANGE the cards according to SUBJECT HEADING or ALPHABETICAL ORDER. At a later date REVIEW; remeve card and READ fiom the BOTTOM UP. pausing at each step. S#6:

THE STUDY ROUTINE

The study routine involves looking at the time-table, gathering the required resources. establishing the immediate goal and deciding on an appropriate PROCEDURE to give you the best results. e.g.. Review first? Use jot-notes? Use memory-cards? ... then actually dividing the study-time according to severai sectional headings and content to be covered. Finally EVALUATION: what form o f evaiuation will take place to show how productive the session has been, e.g.? quiz by parent? Write a response to a "MOCK PAPER? Do a response to a question in TEXT BOOK? S#7:

SIMULATIONS

Simulations are "mock" replicas of actual events (usually to prepare one for the REAL EVENT). Depending on the format of the test. a MODEL QUESTION or TASK should be responded to. Usually in BOOK STUDY formats the most appropriate simulations to prepare for the real "thing" is through ORAL COMMUNICATION or WRITTEN COMMUNICATION. Sample questions can be obtained fiom the recornmended TEXTS or previous EXAM PAPERS. Establish EXAM CONDITIONS (time alloned) and location. Finally. decide how the RESPONSE is to be evaluated (Parent. Peer. Refer to TEST. Teacher.. .). Sff8 : SELF-EVALUATION

How do we teach chifdren to SELF-evaluate? Actually we do this every da?. Imagine if we didn't? We'll be constantly having to tell our children what to do.

In teaching children how to self-evaluate we have to provide them with good MODELS of what we expect and the STEPS to follow that will assure them of successfully attaining those expectations. When the OUTCOMES are not satisfactory or "up to standard" (your child attains a very "poor" grade on a math test). then there could bc something wrong with the Expectation. the Process (STUDYMG PROCEDURES) or. the Exam Technique. It is critical to establish the point of BREAKDOWN as your child must not be allowed to experience the same futility again. Evaluate with your child (MODEL) using (IL). Use (QF), (EF) to establish whether the appropriate procedures were adopted in the STUDY PROCESS. By (QF). (EF). establish how your child KNEW that the procedures had WORKED (been effective) prior to the EXAM. This is a critical point as it leads to the information provided by the

Parents as Tutors Program (Pm)

James Hendnkse, Program Coordinator

SIMULATION, what you learned fiom the simulation ("1 know 1 stmggled with the questions dealing with "fractions"), and what your child INDEPENDENTLY did or did not do to foliow up on the information provided by the simulation. e g . . "1 should have reviewed fractions but 1 did not." Your child has to leam to TAKE RESPONSlBILITY for what he/she SEES as a result of hisher studying efforts and act on that intuition.

1 TIME (am)

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

Thurs.

Fri .

Sat.

Sun.

I

EXAM/fEST

DATE

TIME

LOCATlON

BIOLOGY SPANISH I

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

STUDYING FOR TESTS: SAMPLE GRID -

Sat.

Sun.

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

Thurs.

Fri. I

ENG. FR. MATH SC. S.S.

Mon.

1

Tues.

Wed.

Thurs.

Fri.

3:30 4:OO

~iano

Assignment

4:30

Time

Needed

ballet

5 :O0 5:jo 6:00

Date Due

dinner

wer

Qinaer

di=

6:30

softball

7:OO

sotiball

7:30

sofiball

Math pp.'s 64 & 65

Wednesday

half hour

Leam spelling words

Friday

half hour

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

Parents as Tutors Program (PTE')

APPENDIX B-1 TUTORING LOG INSTRUCTIONS Do entries every time you tutor your child. Share the entry pnor to tutoring your child and afier. Use a separate page for each ski11 area.

CHILD'S NAME:

SKILL AREA:

1 DATE 1

-

ACTIVITY/GOAL(S)

STR. #

METHOD

1

EVAL.

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

SAY BASIC SIGHT WORDS PART 1

a

you

and

yellow

away

where

big

we

blue

UP

can

two

come

tO

down

find

three

for

the

funny

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see

help

said

here

nui

I

red

in

play

is

one

it

one

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not

little

m?'

little

me

look

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YOU

and

yellow

away

where

big

we

biue

cm

UP

come

two

down

to

find

three

for

the

funny

go

see

help

said

here

said

here

Tul

1

in

red

is

P lay

it

one

jump

not

little

my

look

me

a

Y ou

and

yellow

big

where

blue

we

can

UP

corne

two

down

to

find

three

for

funny

C

CO

the

help

see

here

said

1

rCUl

in

red

is

play

is

one

it

one

jump

not

linle

100k

me

my

a

y ou

and

yellow

away

where

big

we

blue

we

can

UP

come

two

down

three

find

the

for

see

funny

said

go

nui

help

red

here

play

Parents as Tutors Program (FP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

SAY BASIC SIGHT WORDS

al1

brown

like

please

under

white

am

came

now

she

are

get

this

SO

was

Yes

be

=Y

what

at

but

Our

there

with

do

soon

who

ate

did

four

btack

eat

he

too

want

eood

no

ran

pretty

saw

out

into

must

on

will

have

well

ride

that

they

\vent

au

but

wi th

do

Yes

now

brown

wen t

under

am

pretty

white

at

into

saw

well

black

did

ate

please

what

Say

came

be

ran

will

SO

on

four

get

there

kvas

are

eat

who

she

good

must

that

want

he

no

Our

ride

they

have

out

soon

this

like

too

please

under

white

am

carne

now

she

are

Parents as Tutors Program (P'I'P)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

GRADE 1 SAY BASIC SIGHT WORDS

afier

round

when

ask

know

of

were

j ust

Put

then

again

walk

open

by

them

may

fiom

any

take

old

as

every

his

once

some

her

an

had

stop

Iive

C

cive

has

thank

could

fly

hi

over

think

how

&'ter

round

when

ask

know

of

were

j ust

Put

then

again

walk

open

by

them

may

£kom

any

take

old

as

every

his

once

some

her

an

had

stop

live

t

oive

has

thank

couid

fly

[email protected]

him

over

think

how

afier

round

when

ask

know

of

were

j ust

Put

then

again

wal k

open

by

them

rnay

fiom

any

take

O

as

every

his

once

some

her

an

had

stop

Iive

id

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Prograrn Coordinator

GRADE 2 SAY BASIC SIGHT WORDS

t'Our

made

off

always cold

don?

fast

been

its

their

US

work

wash

call

both

P==n

right

sing

around

sleep

W ~ Y

because @=s

five

buy

before

or

these

use

best

found

read

first

sit

toll

upon

wish

pull

gave

does

those

which

your

made

off

always

cold

Pen

right

would

sing

around

donlt

fast

been

i ts

sleep

why

because

goes "

five

buy

the ir

US

work

before

or

these

use

best

found

read

wash

call

first

sit

toll

upon

wish

pu11

C

gave

does

both

those

which

VOUf

made

off

alway s

cold

+green

right

would

sing

around

dont

fast

been

i ts

sleep

why

because

goes

five

buy

their

US

work

be fore

would

Parents as Tutors Program (FIT)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

GRADE 3 SAY BASIC SIGHT WORDS

about

hurt

start

together

warm

draw

better

light

seven

ten

bring

got

if

show

own

cut

hot

la*

try

pick

done

far

only

s

full

eight

clean

keep

c w

fall

drink

hold

F"'

long

today

six

myseif kind

shall

never

much

about

hurt

start

together

warm

draw

better

light

seven

ten

bring

got

if

show

own

cut

hot

[email protected]

try

pick

done

far

only

mail

fiil1

eight

clean

keep

C

fa11

dnnk

hold

w'w

10%

today

six

myself kind

never

much

about

hurt

start

together

warm

draw

better

light

seven

ten

bnng

P t

if

show

own

cut

hot

[email protected]

t ry

pick

done

far

only

mal1

fidl

eight

dean

keep

d

W

shall

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

Parents as Tutors Prograrn (FI?)

GRADE 4

GOOD WORDS TO KNOW

camouflage

acrobat

alligator

behhd

business

carefully

character

duty

dangerous

difficult

everyone

enercq

fantastic

future

features

fetish

gorgmus

cimntic

huge

h w w

horde

jac kals

Jenisalem

knowledge

kinship

knighthood

lantems

leopard

muscles

mussels

museum

my stery

nobody

noisy

nonsense

opportunity

olive oil

pleasure

postpone

permanent

questions

questionable

quotation

remember

raspberry

renovate

Saturn

several

squirrels

scribble

troublesome

toothache

terrible

thunderous

usefiil

untidy

universe

vaseline

victorious

weapon

whisper

wonderfiil

yesterday

zero

zeppelin

Y

1

(66 Words)

Parents as Tutors Prograrn (WP)

James Hendrikse. Program Coordinator

GRADE 5

GOOD WORDS TO KNOW

alphabet

accident

albatross

blanket

Brontosaurus

bristles

carefiilly

chameleon

crystallize

characteristics

courtroom

dutifùl

dragonlike

dernolition

dexterity

earthiings

endearing

emergency

friendIiness

fidelity

formidable

feudal

greatness

ghostlike

+

gratuit?

humungus

hospital

harpsichord

humidity

interestingly

important

impossible

ideas

jamboree

j unglelike

jostle

have

knowledgeable

kemels

limpid

licorice

measles

mernorable

mysterious

Mercury

monstrous

mannalade

nevertheless

necessary

neither

opportunities

occidental

occurrence

omniscient

omnivorous

orphan

permanently

permission

psychological

spectra

spiral

tumultuous

tumor

thoughtful

threshold

tors0

unicorn

unforgettable

unfortunate

ventilation

wholesome

yokel

Yuletide

yardstick

(77 Words)

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

GRADE 6

GOOD WORDS TO KNOW

accidental

ambidextrous

alphabetical

amazonian

Amageddon

aristocratie

benefit

bornbardment

blundeniig

bravado

bountiful

beacon

catastrophe

climactic

climate

chivalry

chronology

chronicle

cemetery

demonstrate

descend

descendent

description

dischase

determination

despondent

digestible

diagonally

dialogue

evacuate

evaporate

evolution

exhavagant

featherlike

formidable

fiberglass

fifteenth

garlic

governent

heartache

head-phone

histamine

historical

hy sterical

hippopotamus

hypocrite

homicide

inhabitants

inhibit

inhibitions

initiaIs

initiate

ingratitude

invincible

indelibie

j uicy

j ealous

jubilant

kimono

laboraton.

[email protected]

molasses

moccasin

nightmare

newsn'ort h y

obstacle

oceanography

occurrence

parliament

paral lel

practical

quarrelsome

redundant

retumable

reduction

scenery

scientific

sessional

tambourine

traject O ri.

umbrage

vertigo

wavelength

(89 words)

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

PHONICS ASSESMENT

Here's how to find out whether your child knows the sounds of individual letters and the sounds of letter combinations and can apply them in decoding "NONE-SENSE" WORDS (read Strategy #! 1 in PHONICS).

METHOD: Make multiple copies for future use. Place one copy for your child to READ ALOUD. Use the second copy for checking. Date each TRIAL.

"NONE-SENSE" WORD LIST CONSONANTS AND SHORT VOWELS

taz

sep

roP

lij

wum

BLENDS AND SHORT VOWELS blop

stek

smid

prun

flad

swol

strif

spluf

cish

vuch

joth

CONSONANT DIGRAPHS AND SHORT VOWELS chif

shum

quog

thaj

Iish

DOUBLE VOWELS coof

leet

tai b

voam

reaj

VOWEL DIGRAPHS

haut

spoyd

foit

meaud

LETTER CLUSTERS guTION

paTURE

catABLE

baRiOUS

dePEAR

suntul

shimteg

jopital

ziteral

eosURE

C

SYLLABICATION ampiî

sutamhimable

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

PRECISION TEACHING (-TIC) SAMPLE PAGE

READ:

"Fasterthan a Silver Bullet" (Strategy #7: ANTHMETIC)

INSTRUCTIONS:

Arrange tasks in MULTIPLES of TEN. Make Copies.

Task:

ADDING SINGLE NUMBERS (Start with 10 or 20)

For line 3 you may simply repeat line 1. Do line-shifts if it helps you Save time. Readyprepared sheets are available from your PTP instructors.

Parents as Tutors Program (PW)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

HOW TO CONSTRUCT DISCOVERY BOARDS TO ENHANCE DISCOVERY LEARNING

MATERI.4LS:

Bristol Board. Felt Pens, Markers, Scissors, Envelopes

You will use BOTH SIDES o f the DISCOVERY BOARD. One side is for MATCHING the other for SOLVING PROBLEMS.

Section of Discovery Board Side 1

Cards: Sarne size as spaces Task: L e m i n g to Identie Letter (Upper Case) of Alphabet by SIGHT and by name.

Match and Name (ii) Place Sequentially (Parent Checks)

Sequence: (i)

Parents as Tutors Program (PTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

SELF-APPRAISAL OF TUTORING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FORM #1: MID-SESSION APPRNSAL The purpose of this form is to help you track your own development yith respect to your learning of new knowledge and skills in tutoring as a consequence of the training and the tutorhg experience yoi? are undergoing. This idormarion wiU also help us to provide additional support in the area(s) you need to develop. Please keep a copy for your records as you wilI want to compare your present status with a later one (Form #2). Please use the RATJNG SCALE by circling the appropriate number for each statement. 1 ...NO

2...SATISFACTORY

3...GOOD

Knowledge of how to organize a tutoring program in my home Knowledge of where to locate instructionai materials such as reading texts. math texts, word lists. Knowledge of the DISCOVERY LEARNING METHOD and how to use it. Knowledge of the DIRECT INSTRUCTION METHOD and how to use it. Knowledge of the INTERACTIVE LEARNING METHOD and how to use it. Knowledge of where to Iocate the iNSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES for the ski11 you are tutoring. Knowledge of how to LOCATE child's LEARNING STATUS in the skiil you are tutoring. Knowledge of where to find the APPROPRIATE PREARRANGED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES to match your child's LEARNING PROFILE b o w l e d g e of how to set LEARNNG OBJECTIVES for your child. Knowledge of the SEQUENCE OF STEPS to be followed in implementing an INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. Knowledge of how to EVALUATE your child's progress. You are CONFIDENT IN YOUR TUTORNG SKILLS.

4...EXCELLENT

Parents as Tutors Program (FTP)

James Hendrikse, Program Coordinator

SELF-APPRAISAL OF 'IWTORING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS

FORM #2: END OF SESSION APPRAISAL The purpose of this form is to help you track your growth in each of the nvelve areas since completing the rnid-session questionnaire. The information should help you plan future initiatives and we would like to assin you in developing a persona1 growth plan in extramural tutoring. Please use the RATING SCALE by circiing the appropriate number for each statement. 1 ...NO

2.. .SATISFACTORY

3.. .GOOD

Knowledge of how to organize a tutoring program in my home Knowledge of where to locate instructional materials such as reading texts. math texts, word lists. Ehowledge of the DISCOVERY LEARNTNG METHOD and how to use itKnowledge of the DIRECT INSTRUCTION METHOD and how to use it. Knowledge of the INTERACTIVE LEARNING METHOD and how to use it. Knowledge of where to locate the INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES for the ski11 you are tutoring. Knowledge of how to LOCATE child's LEARNiNG STATUS in the ski11 you are tutoring. Knowledge of where to find the APPROPRIATE PRE-4RRANGED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES to match your child's LEARNING PROFILE Knowledge of how to set LEARNING OBJECTIVES for your child. Knowledge of the SEQUENCE OF STEPS to be followed in implementing an NSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. Knowledge of how to EVALUATE your child's progress. You are CONFIDENT IN YOUR TUTORMG SKILLS.

4.. .EXCELLENT

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