Laryngeal Carcinoma: An Overview

Laryngeal Carcinoma: An Overview Ryan Eric Neilan, MS IV For the Dept of Otolaryngology Faculty Advisor: Francis B. Quinn, Jr., MD, FACS The Universit...
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Laryngeal Carcinoma: An Overview Ryan Eric Neilan, MS IV For the Dept of Otolaryngology Faculty Advisor: Francis B. Quinn, Jr., MD, FACS The University of Texas Medical Branch Grand Rounds Presentation July 20, 2007

Overview 11,000 new cases of laryngeal cancer per year in the U.S.  Accounts for 25% of head and neck cancer and 1% of all cancers  One-third of these patients eventually die of their disease  Most prevalent in the 6th and 7th decades of life 

Overview 4:1 male predilection  Downward shift from 15:1 post WWII  Due to increasing public acceptance of female smoking  More prevalent among lower socioeconomic class, in which it is diagnosed at more advanced stages 

Subtypes 

Glottic Cancer: 59%



Supraglottic Cancer: 40%



Subglottic Cancer: 1%



Most subglottic masses are extension from glottic carcinomas

History The first laryngectomy for cancer of the larynx was performed in 1883 by Billroth  Patient was successfully fed by mouth and fitted with an artificial larynx  In 1886 the Crown Prince Frederick of Germany developed hoarseness as he was due to ascend the throne. 



Crown Prince Frederick of Germany

History Was evaluated by Sir Makenzie of London, the inventor of the direct laryngoscope  Frederick’s lesion was biopsied and thought to be cancer  He refused laryngectomy and later died in 1888 

History 

Frederick was succeeded by Kaiser Wilhelm II, who along with Otto von Bismark militarized the German Empire and led them into WW I



Could an Otolaryngologist have prevented WW I?

Risk Factors

Risk Factors Prolonged use of tobacco and excessive EtOH use primary risk factors  The two substances together have a synergistic effect on laryngeal tissues  90% of patients with laryngeal cancer have a history of both 

Risk Factors Human Papilloma Virus 16 &18  Chronic Gastric Reflux  Occupational exposures  Prior history of head and neck irradiation 

Histological Types 85-95% of laryngeal tumors are squamous cell carcinoma  Histologic type linked to tobacco and alcohol abuse  Characterized by epithelial nests surrounded by inflammatory stroma  Keratin Pearls are pathognomonic 

Histological Types Verrucous Carcinoma  Fibrosarcoma  Chondrosarcoma  Minor salivary carcinoma  Adenocarcinoma  Oat cell carcinoma  Giant cell and Spindle cell carcinoma 

Anatomy

Anatomy

Anatomy

Anatomy

Anatomy

Anatomy

Anatomy

Anatomy

Natural History 

Supraglottic tumors more aggressive: – Direct extension into pre-epiglottic space – Lymph node metastasis – Direct extension into lateral hypopharnyx, glossoepiglottic fold, and tongue base

Natural History Glottic tumors grow slower and tend to metastasize late owing to a paucity of lymphatic drainage  They tend to metastasize after they have invaded adjacent structures with better drainage  Extend superiorly into ventricular walls or inferiorly into subglottic space  Can cause vocal cord fixation 

Natural History True subglottic tumors are uncommon  Glottic spread to the subglottic space is a sign of poor prognosis  Increases chance of bilateral disease and mediastinal extension  Invasion of the subglottic space associated with high incidence of stomal reoccurrence following total laryngectomy (TL) 

Presentation 

Hoarseness – Most common symptom – Small irregularities in the vocal fold result in voice changes – Changes of voice in patients with chronic hoarseness from tobacco and alcohol can be difficult to appreciate

Presentation Patients presenting with hoarseness should undergo an indirect mirror exam and/or flexible laryngoscope evaluation  Malignant lesions can appear as friable, fungating, ulcerative masses or be as subtle as changes in mucosal color  Videostrobe laryngoscopy may be needed to follow up these subtler lesions 

Presentation Good neck exam looking for cervical lymphadenopathy and broadening of the laryngeal prominence is required  The base of the tongue should be palpated for masses as well  Restricted laryngeal crepitus may be a sign of post cricoid or retropharyngeal invasion 

Presentation 

Other symptoms include: – Dysphagia – Hemoptysis – Throat pain – Ear pain – Airway compromise – Aspiration – Neck mass

Work up Biopsy is required for diagnosis  Performed in OR with patient under anesthesia  Other benign possibilities for laryngeal lesions include: Vocal cord nodules or polyps, papillomatosis, granulomas, granular cell neoplasms, sarcoidosis, Wegner’s granulomatosis 

Work up 

Other potential modalities: – Direct laryngoscopy – Bronchoscopy – Esophagoscopy – Chest X-ray – CT or MRI – Liver function tests with or without US – PET ?

Staging- Primary Tumor (T) TX

Minimum requirements to assess primary tumor cannot be met

T0

No evidence of primary tumor

Tis

Carcinoma in situ

Staging- Supraglottis T1

Tumor limited to one subsite of supraglottis with normal vocal cord mobility

T2

Tumor involves mucosa of more than one adjacent subsite of supraglottis or glottis, or region outside the supraglottis (e.g. mucosa of base of the tongue, vallecula, medial wall of piriform sinus) without fixation

T3

Tumor limited to larynx with vocal cord fixation and or invades any of the following: postcricoid area, preepiglottic tissue, paraglottic space, and/or minor thyroid cartilage erosion (e.g. inner cortex)

T4a

Tumor invades through the thyroid cartilage and/or invades tissue beyond the larynx (e.g. trachea, soft tissues of neck including deep extrinsic muscles of the tongue, strap muscles, thyroid, or esophagus)

T4b Tumor invades prevertebral space, encases carotid artery, or invades mediastinal structures

Staging- Glottis T1

Tumor limited to the vocal cord (s) (may involve anterior or posterior commissure) with normal mobilty

T1a

Tumor limited to one vocal cord

T1b

Tumor involves both vocal cords

T2

Tumor extends to supraglottis and/or subglottis, and/or with impaired vocal cord mobility

T3

Tumor limited to the larynx with vocal cord fixation and/or invades paraglottic space, and/or minor thyroid cartilage erosion (e.g. inner cortex)

T4a

Tumor invades through the thyroid cartilage, and/or invades tissues beyond the larynx (e.g. trachea, soft tissues of the neck including deep extrinsic muscles of the tongue, strap muscles, thyroid, or esophagus

T4b

Tumor invades prevertebral space, encases carotid artery, or invades mediastinal structures

Staging- Subglottis T1

Tumor limited to the subglottis

T2

Tumor extends to vocal cord (s) with normal or impaired mobility

T3

Tumor limited the larynx with vocal cord fixation

T4a

Tumor invades cricoid or thyroid cartilage and/or invades tissues beyond larynx (e.g. trachea, soft tissues of the neck including deep extrinsic muscles of the tongue, strap muscles, thyroid, or esophagus)

T4b

Tumor invades prevertebral space, encases carotid artery, or invades mediastinal structures

Staging- Nodes N0

No cervical lymph nodes positive

N1

Single ipsilateral lymph node ≤ 3cm

N2a

Single ipsilateral node > 3cm and ≤6cm

N2b

Multiple ipsilateral lymph nodes, each ≤ 6cm Bilateral or contralateral lymph nodes, each ≤6cm Single or multiple lymph nodes > 6cm

N2c N3

Staging- Metastasis M0

No distant metastases

M1

Distant metastases present

Stage Groupings 0 I II III IVA IVB IVC

Tis T1 T2 T3 T1-3 T4a T1-4a T4b Any T Any T

N0 N0 N0 N0 N1 N0-2 N2 Any N N3 Any N

M0 M0 M0 M0 M0 M0 M0 M0 M0 M1

Treatment Premalignant lesions or Carcinoma in situ can be treated by surgical stripping of the entire lesion  CO2 laser can be used to accomplish this but makes accurate review of margins difficult 

Treatment Early stage (T1 and T2) can be treated with radiotherapy or surgery alone, both offer the 85-95% cure rate.  Surgery has a shorter treatment period, saves radiation for recurrence, but may have worse voice outcomes  Radiotherapy is given for 6-7 weeks, avoids surgical risks but has own complications 

Treatment 

XRT complications include: – Mucositis – Odynophagia – Laryngeal edema – Xerostomia – Stricture and fibrosis – Radionecrosis – Hypothyroidism

Treatment Advanced stage lesions often receive surgery with adjuvant radiation  Most T3 and T4 lesions require a total laryngectomy  Some small T3 and lesser sized tumors can be treated with partial larygectomy 

Treatment 



Adjuvant radiation is started within 6 weeks of surgery and with once daily protocols lasts 6-7 weeks Indications for post-op radiation include: T4 primary, bone/cartilage invasion, extension into neck soft tissue, perineural invasion, vascular invasion, multiple positive nodes, nodal extracapsular extension, margins50% No tongue base disease past circumvallate papillae Apex of pyriform sinus not invloved

Supracricoid Laryngectomy 

 

Resection of true vocal cords, supraglottis, thyroid cartilage Leave arytenoids and cricoid ring intact Half of patients remain dependent on tracheostomy

Total Larygectomy 

Indications: – T3 or T4 unfit for partial – Extensive involvement of thyroid and cricoid cartilages – Invasion of neck soft tissues – Tongue base involvement beyond circumvallate papillae

Total Laryngectomy

Total Laryngectomy

Total Laryngectomy

Total Laryngectomy

Voice Rehabilitation 

Tracheostomal prosthesis



Electrolarynx



Pure esophageal speech

Complications Inaccurate staging  Infection  Voice alterations  Swallowing difficulties  Loss of taste and smell  Fistula  Tracheostomy dependence  Injury to cranial nerves: VII, IX, X, XI, XII  Stroke or carotid “blowout”  Hypothyroidism  Radiation induced fibrosis 

Prognosis 5 year survival Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV 

>95% 85-90% 70-80% 50-60%

After initial treatment patients are followed at 46 week intervals. After first year decreases to every 2 months. Third and fourth year every three months, with annual visits after that

Prognosis Patients considered cured after being disease free for five years  Most laryngeal cancers reoccur in the first two years  Despite advances in detection and treatment options the five year survival has not improved much over the last thirty years 

References         

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