2 The young of animals Grown-up
Sheep, ram, ewe
Fowl, cock, hen
3 Diminutives Big
**paddock - utilitarian (for use with animals)
4 Sounds The rumble of thunder/heavy vehicles
The beat of a drum
The snap of a twig
The pop of a cork being drawn
The rattle of cups/crockery/chains
The click of a latch
The rustle of leaves
A school bell rings
The telephone rings
The screech of brakes
The clatter of horses’ hoofs
An aeroplane engine drones
A church bell tolls/peals
The crack of a whip
Frying sausages sizzle
The hoot of a car
The moan of the wind/the sea
A motorboat chugs
The tinkle of bells
The chime of a clock
The crunch of boots on gravel/gears
The patter of rain/feet
The wail of sirens
The clank of chains
The tick of a clock/chime of a clock
The whine/scream of a jet engine
The creak of hinges
The jingle of coins
The grinding of gears
The creak/slam of a door
The gurgle of a stream
The clink/tinkle of glasses
The babble of a brook
The buzz of conversation
The honk of a horn
The gush of water in pipes
The boom of breakers
Water lapping against the side of a boat
The chug of a tractor
Sounds of animals Bees hum
Calves low (cattle low)
A bull bellows
A cock crows
A cat purrs
A hen cackles / clucks
A bird twitters
A wolf howls
Geese gaggle, hiss
Eagles and hawks scream
Parrots talk, chatter
Seagulls and vultures scream
5 Collective nouns
a row of houses
a crop of vegetables
a bunch of grapes
a team of players
a range of mountains
a bevy of beauties
a set of teeth (tools)
a batch of bread
a staff of servants
a bank of clouds
a hoard of treasure
a circle of friends
a pile of rubbish
a collection of stamps
a roll of bank notes
a battery of guns
a pack of dogs
a chest of tea
a party of men
a gang of workmen
a ream of paper
a school of porpoises
a column of smoke
a squadron of aeroplanes
a troop of monkeys
a brood of chickens
a skein of wool
a rope of pearls
a sheaf of corn
a swarm of locusts
a string of beads
a colony of ants
a cede of badgers
a parliament of owls
a watch of nightingales
a covey of partridges
a sloth of bears
an army of caterpillars
a congregation of plovers
a muster of peacocks
a string of ponies
a drove of cattle
a clowder of cats
a peep of chickens
a nest of rabbits
a litter of puppies
a balding of ducks
a dule of doves
a murder of crows
a pod of seals/whales
a crash of rhinoceroses
a dray of squirrels
a host of sparrows
a clutch of eggs
a cast of hawks
a husk of hares
a mustering of storks
a gaggle of geese
a drove/stud/of horses
a siege of herons
a brood of hens
a rafter of turkeys
a hover of trout
a bevy of larks
a pod of dolphins
a kindle of kittens
a bundle of sticks
a bale of wool
a bale of turtles
a pack of wolves
a pride of lions
a leap of leopards
a galaxy of stars
a bench of judges
a descent of woodpeckers
a pack of cards
a stack of hay
a batch of cakes
a crate of bananas
a group of people
a class of pupils
a crowd of people
a litter of pups
a tuft of grass
a pocket of oranges
a school of dolphins
a circle of friends
a brace of rabbits (shot)
a canteen of cutlery
a range of mountains
a crop of vegetables
a set of teeth
a cluster of diamonds
a tray of peaches
a hive of bees
a posse of policemen
a grove of orange trees
a set of golf clubs
a convoy of ships
a herd of cattle
a board of directors
a volley of gunshots
a drove of pigs
an audience in a theatre
6 Comparisons as black as coal (ink/ the night)
as brave as a lion
as fat as a pig
as quick as lightning
as red as blood
as soft as butter
as busy as a bee
as cold as ice
as gentle as a lamb (a
as right as rain
as round as a ball
as strong as a lion (a horse/an ox)
as deaf as a doorpost
as dead as a doornail
as green as grass
as safe as houses
as sick as a dog
as drunk as a lord
as faithful as a dog
as slow as a snail
as sour as vinegar
as thin as a rake
as good as gold as stupid as a donkey (an ox) as happy as a king/lark
as loud as thunder
as straight as an arrow as greedy as a pig
as warm as toast as rotten as dirt
as sweet as honey (sugar) as tall as a giant
as pale as death
as heavy as lead
as hungry as a hunter
as tender as a lamb
as tame as a sheep
as old as the hills
as light as a feather
as white as snow (a sheet)
as slippery as an eel
as ugly as sin
as sure as fate
as black as a crow
as pretty as a picture as poor as a church mouse as sly as a fox
as clear as crystal (day)
as swift as a hare
as tough as leather
as cool as a cucumber
as artful as a monkey
as fresh as a daisy
as cheap as dirt
as innocent as a lamb
as obstinate as a mule
as keen as mustard
as playful as a kitten
as hard as nails
as quiet as a mouse
as smooth as glass
as large as life
as proud as a peacock
as dry as dust (bone)
as crisp as a new bank
as bold as brass
as thick as thieves
as deep as a well/the sea
as steady as a rock
as talkative as a parrot
as salt as a herring
as blind as a bat
as sound as a bell
as plain as a pikestaff
as fair as a lily
as easy as winking
as clumsy as an elephant
as lively as a cricket
as mad as a hatter
as wise as Solomon
as safe as a bank
as dirty as a sow
as sharp as a needle
as silly as a sheep/goose
as brown as a berry
as patient as Job
as dull as ditchwater
as crafty as a fox
as meek as a lamb
as brittle as glass
as easy as A B C
as sturdy as an oak
as hot as a furnace
as clean as a new pin
as stiff as a poker
as bitter as gall
as silent as the grave
as alike as two peas in a pod
The following are also handy to know 7RÀWOLNHDJORYH
To act like a lunatic
To sleep like a log
To tremble like a leaf
To cling like ivy
To grow like a weed
To climb like a monkey
To melt like snow
Her cheeks are like roses News spreads like ZLOGÀUH 7RGULQNOLNHDÀVK
To fall like a log
To have eyes like saucers Something shines like a mirror 7RÁRDWOLNHDFRUN
He eats like a horse To read someone like an open book To work like a Trojan
A boat leaks like a sieve To sing like a bird/lark
To run for dear life
Degrees of comparison There are three degrees of comparison. Positive: (relating to one person only) Comparative: (relating to two persons only) Superlative: (relating to more than two persons)
The small naughty girl. The smaller naughtier girl. The smallest naughtiest girl.
Degrees of comparison are formed in the following ways. 2QHV\OODEOHDGMHFWLYHVDQGPRVWWZRV\OODEOHDGMHFWLYHVVLPSO\DGGWKHVXIÀ[HV -er and -est short slow narrow
shorter slower narrower
shortest slowest narrowest 13
:RUGVZLWKWZRV\OODEOHVZLWKWKHVWUHVVRQWKHÀUVWV\OODEOHDQGZRUGVZLWK more than two syllables, simply add the words more or most before the adjective. hopeful beautiful attractive
more hopeful more beautiful more attractive
most hopeful most beautiful most attractive
3. Adjectives of two syllables ending with -ful and -re usually take more and most. doubtful more doubtful most doubtful obscure more obscure most obscure 4. Adjectives with two syllables ending in -er and -y or -ly usually take -er and -est. clever pretty silly
cleverer prettier sillier
cleverest prettiest silliest
([FHSWLRQVWRUXOHZRUGVZLWKWZRV\OODEOHVZKHUHWKHÀUVWV\OODEOHLVVWUHVVHG quiet pleasant common narrow
quieter pleasanter commoner narrower
quietest pleasantest commonest narrowest
6. Irregular degrees of comparison. good well bad little near near much many far far late late old
better better worse less nearer nearer more more farther further later latter elder
best best worst least nearest next most most farthest furthest latest last eldest
a. Lesser is an archaic form that is used in only a few phrases. To choose the lesser of two evils. 7KHOHVVHUÁDPLQJR b. Nearest refers to distance, the word next refers to order. Where is the nearest town? The next town is Standerton. 14
c. Farther generally refers to distance. Further can be used in the same context but it usually has the specialised meaning of additional. I cannot run any farther. I’ll give you further details tomorrow. I’ll need further assistance with these forms. d. Latter means the second of two persons or objects and is the opposite of former. He studied French and German, the latter extensively. Latest has the meaning of the most recent. The latest best-seller.
/DVWFDQEHXVHGLQWZRZD\VLWFDQPHDQÀQDORULWFDQKDYHWKHPHDQLQJRI the previous. He came last. Last night I ....
e. The words elder and eldest are only used to describe people and then only for members of the same family. They are often used attributively. My elder sister is two years older than I. Peter is my eldest brother. The words older and oldest are used for people and objects. Susie is older than Mary. This is the oldest church in Bethal. f. The words outer and outmost indicate the position from a central point. The satellite is in orbit in outer space. Cannibals were seen on the outmost islands of the South Seas.
The words utter and utmost are historically derived from “out”, but their modern day meaning has completely changed. He looked at the teacher with utter disbelief. ,·OOGRP\XWPRVWWRÀQGWKHPLVVLQJNH\V
7. Some adjectives cannot be compared at all! Dead, perfect, unique, matchless, full, empty, square, round, circular, triangular, ZRRGHQGDLO\PRQWKO\\HDUO\PLGGOHDOOÀUVWODVWQR
Degrees of comparison
7 Containers a tin of jam
a basket of fruit
a pocket of oranges
a plate of soup
a bottle of medicine
a cup of tea
a bucket of water
a packet of candles
a tube of toothpaste
a glass of lemonade
a pail of milk
a box of matches
a mug of coffee
a jug of milk
a drum of oil
a bag of mealies
a glass of milk
We call people who live in... Japan ......................
South Africa ..........
Cape Town ............
Berlin ....................... Berliners
8 Nouns Names of people A person who lives next door to you is your
A man who carries luggage on a station is a
A man who mends shoes is a
A lady who serves you in a cafe/restaurant is a
A person in charge of a library is a
A person who sells cloth and dress materials is a
A person who writes books is an
A man who serves on a ship is a
A person who takes photographs is a
A man who uses a plough is called a
A man who serves people at a table is called a
A man who uses handcuffs is called a
One who cares for the sick is a
One who steals is a
One who works for someone in the house is a
One who has a shop is a
One who buys things in a shop is a
One who delivers milk is a
One who works in a garden is a
One who is sent to convert the heathen is a
One who breaks into a house to steal is a
One who is ill in hospital is a
One who is received at another’s house is a
The head of a hospital is a
One who repairs cars is a
One who works with wood is a
One who works with water-pipes is a
People who work together as a staff is a
A person in a wheelchair is
A person who crosses a street is a
The head of a school is a
A person who makes clothes is a
A person who looks after prisoners in jail is a
A person who directs a ship or aeroplane is a
A person who watches a game of rugby is a
One who goes on foot is a
People who attend a church service are the
A person who writes poetry is a
A man who builds ships is a
Names of places
Where dogs are kept
Where fruit trees are grown
Where religious services are held
Where convicts are kept in cells
Where books may be borrowed
Where the dead are buried
In which pigs are kept
Where grapes are grown
In which fowls are kept
Where ships are docked
In which bees are kept
In which a springhare lives
In which horses are kept
Where motor-cars are kept
Where fruit and vegetables are sold
Where sick people are looked after
Where money is kept
Where stamps may be bought
Where an artist paints
Where children are taught
Where dishes are washed up
Where sheep and cattle are sold
Where things are manufactured
Where stuffed animals may be seen
A place where one can overnight
A place to enjoy a meal
Where cows are milked
Where calves sleep at night
Where calves are kept during the day
Where fodder is kept
Shed / barn
Where only boots, shoes are sold
Where butter and cheese are made
Where bread and cake are made
Where mealies, wheat is ground
Where meat is sold
Where wild animals are kept in cages
Where bricks are made
Where cases are heard by the magistrate
Where plants are bought
Where orphans live together
Where old people dwell together
Old age home
Where birds are kept
A badger’s home
An eagle’s home
9 One word for...
Cups, plates, saucers
Knives, forks, spoons, teaspoons
Sheets, pillows, pillow cases, blankets
Carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage
Apples, oranges, lemons, mangoes
Materials, lace, cotton
Diamonds, gold, earrings, bangles
Pins, needles, cotton
Jerseys, dresses, suits
A tennis frock, rugby clothes
Grasshoppers, ants, beetles, bees
Buffaloes, lions, kudu, impala
Snakes, lizard, tortoises, crocodile
Horses, donkeys, cattle, sheep
Rabbits, mice, hamsters
Tables, chairs, beds
Chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys
Oranges, mandarin, pomelos
Mangoes, paw-paws, pineapples, bananas
Spades, rake, hosepipe
Paper, pens, books, cards
10 Opposites Absent
Refuse / Decline
Dear / Expensive
Untidy / Slovenly
Young / New
Noisy / Loud
Green / Unripe
Pretty / Beautiful
11 Idiomatic expressions 1. His bark is worse than his bite - A person who threatens, but seldom does something. 2. To bear a grudge - Not to forgive someone for something. 3. Between you and me and the gate-post - To tell something in secrecy. 4. A bird’s-eye view - An overall view, taking in a lot of scenery / facts. 5. In black and white - It must be written down. 6. To make one’s blood boil - To get angry. 7. To rack your brains - To think very hard. 8. To build castles in the air - To imagine plans which seldom come true. 9. A wild goose chase - Plans which have no possibility of success. 24
10. $VWKHFURZÁLHV - A straight line through the air. 11. To look daggers - To show your annoyance (cross). 12. To have an eye on - To desire something / to watch a person. 13. 7RKDYHDÀQJHULQWKHSLH - To take part in something, usually in schemes. 14. To turn green with envy - To be jealous of someone / something. 15. To look down upon - To despise something / someone. 16. To hit the nail on the head - To say exactly the right thing / To show insight. 17. To turn over a new leaf - To try to live a better life, do things better. 18. In a nutshell - To say something in a few words / in brief. 19. Smell a rat - To be suspicious. 20. Know the ropes - To know things well. 21. Through thick and thin - Regardless. 22. On the tip of one’s tongue7RIDLOWRÀQGWKHZRUGRQHWKLQNVRQHUHPHPEHUV 23. To blow one’s own trumpet - To brag / To boast. 24. To rub up the wrong way - To irritate someone / To annoy someone. 25. To have words with someone - To quarrel with someone. 26. To carry weight7RKDYHLQÁXHQFH 27. To lose one’s head - To panic. 28. On the warpath - To look for trouble / To look for confrontation. 29. To beat about the bush - Doesn’t / Can’t come to a point. 30. To hit below the belt - An unfair strike. 31. %LUGVRIDIHDWKHUÁRFNWRJHWKHU - Persons of the same character and taste usually keep company. 32. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched'RQ·WEHRYHUFRQÀGHQWDQG assume success before you know the outcome of a venture. 33. A stitch in time saves nine - Repair things at once, it saves time. 25
34. Where there’s a will there’s a way - If one is determined to succeed, one will DOZD\VÀQGDZD\WRGRVR 35. Better late than never - It’s better to do something late than not to do it at all. 36. It never rains but it pours - Misfortunes come in numbers. 37. A friend in need is a friend indeed$IULHQGLQGLIÀFXOWWLPHVLVDUHDOIULHQG 38. You can take a horse to the water, but you can’t make it drink - You can give someone opportunities, but you can’t make them take advantage of them. 39. Once bitten, twice shy - A person who has been disappointed or harmed once by somebody won’t trust that person again. 40. The early bird catches the worm7KHSHUVRQZKRFRPHVÀUVWJHWVWKHEHVW 41. More haste, less speed - If you are in a hurry, you don’t do things properly. 42. Like father, like son - A child often resembles his parent’s ways in character or doings. 43. To be above-board - To be honest. 44. To bite off more than you can chew - To take on more responsibilities than you really can handle. 45. To make old bones - To become older. 46. To buy a pig in a poke - To buy something that really has no value at all. 47. To give the cold shoulder - To ignore someone. 48. To ride for a fall - Looking for trouble. 49. To keep a stiff upper lip - To remain calm and composed in the face of problems or danger. 50. That’s where the shoe pinches - That’s where the trouble is. 51. To sell for a song - To sell something worth a lot, for almost nothing (cheaply). 52. A chip of the old block - To have the same characteristics as one’s parents.
12 Singular and plural Rules for forming the plural 1. The most common way of forming the plural is to add –s, or –es to the singular, e.g. week – weeks; vine – vines; brush – brushes. 2. Change –f or –fe into –ves, eg. wife – wives; thief - thieves. ([FHSWLRQVDUHWKHIROORZLQJZRUGVZKHUH\RXRQO\DGG²VWRWKHÀQDO²I e.g. roof – roofs; chief – chiefs; cuff – cuffs; belief – beliefs; dwarf – dwarfs; grief - griefs; brief – briefs; cliff – cliffs; reef – reefs; gulf – gulfs; puff – puffs; handkerchief – handkerchiefs. 4. Add –s only to some nouns ending in –oo and –o, e.g. piano – pianos; radio radios, zoo - zoos, bamboo - bamboos. 5. But add –es to these nouns, e.g. potato – potatoes; hero – heroes; hobo – hoboes; mosquito – mosquitoes; tomato – tomatoes, cargo - cargoes, echo - echoes. 6. Add –s to some nouns ending in –ay, -ey, –oy, e.g. joy –joys; key – keys; play – plays. &KDQJHWKH²\LQWR²LHVLQWKHVHÁ\²ÁLHVMHOO\²MHOOLHVFRXQWU\FRXQWULHV 8. Irregular plurals, some changing the vowel, e.g. mouse – mice; ox – oxen; goose – geese; child – children; tooth - teeth, louse - lice. 9. Few nouns have the same form for singular and plural, e.g. buck – buck; sheep – sheep; quail – quail; salmon – salmon; deer – deer; gross – gross; ÀVK²ÀVKVZLQH²VZLQHFDWWOHSLQFHUVWURXVHUVMHDQV 10. Some nouns have no singular form, e.g. scissors, pliers, trousers, pants, spectacles, news, measles and mumps. 11. Some nouns have no plural form, e.g. gold, furniture, fruit, luggage, game (wild animals) , stock (sheep, cattle), information, advice, knowledge, ignorance, nonsense, education, progress, wealth, poverty, luck, childhood, music, poetry, biology, photography, economics, safety, violence, laughter, anger. 12. These can take a -s or change to -ves: hoof - hoofs - hooves; scarf - scarfs scarves; wharf - wharfs - wharves.
Alcoholics Anonymous / Automobile Association
Before noon (Latin - ante meridiem)
Anno Domini (in the year of our Lord)
Ad libitum (at pleasure)
Automatic teller machine
Cash on delivery
And others; and the rest (Latin - et cetera)
That is (Latin - id est)
Member of Parliament; Military Police
Pay as you earn
After noon (Latin - post meridiem)
South Africa; Salvation Army
South African Police Service
United States of America
Value Added Tax
Very important person
14 Words that are easily confused Borrow and lend (When you borrow, you receive; when you lend, you give) e.g. I am not going to lend you my pen. (lend to) I want to borrow a book from you. (borrow from someone) Can and may (can means to be able) e.g. Teacher, may I please leave the room? I can open the door. Teach and learn (The teacher teaches the children, but they learn) e.g. What are you going to teach us today? I shall have to learn harder this year. Lie and lay /LHWROLHÁDWRQDEHGOLHOD\ODLQ Lie - to tell a lie (lie - lied - lied) Lay - lay the table (laid - laid) Lay - chickens lay eggs (laid - laid) Much and many (Many = countable) e.g. many children; much time; much money; many books; much sugar Few and little (Few = countable) e.g. a few children; a little time 31
a few people; a little happiness Between and among (Between is used for 2 only) e.g. Mother divided the sweets between my brother and me. We divided all the fruit among us. Their and there Their: The boys are enjoying their game. There: There are seven girls in the team. In, into and to 1. The car ran into a telephone pole. 2. I live in Kroonstad. :HUDQWRWKH3RVW2IÀFHWRSRVWWKHOHWWHUV :H UDQ WR WKH 3RVW 2IÀFH WR SRVW WKH OHWWHUV Quite and quiet 1. Keep quiet please! 2. He is quite well again after his illness. Live and stay (Live is permanent; stay is temporary) e.g. I live in Krugersdorp. I am staying in Durban for the holidays. Rise and raise (Rise means to move upwards; raise means to lift up something) e.g. The smoke rises in the air. John raised his head. Fewer and less (Fewer is less in number; less is less in quantity) e.g. We have fewer cattle than they. He had less money than I. Older and elder (Elder applies to relations only and is always used before the noun.) e.g. Mary is older than Agnes. My elder sister is in grade eight. Passed and past (Passed is always a verb; past is not a verb) e.g. The holidays passed quickly. 32
We walked past the church. Farther and further )DUWKHUPHDQVPRUHGLVWDQWIXUWKHUPHDQVDGGLWLRQDORUUHIHUVWRÀJXUDWLYH distance) e.g. John ran much farther than I did. I need further information.
15 Apostrophe Note: The apostrophe is used for indicating possession (see 1 and 2 below) and for contraction ( see 3 below). 1. We usually add a S and put the apostrophe before the S e.g. Mary’s shoes the baby’s arm the cow’s tail the cupboard’s shelf. 2. When the noun is plural and ends in S, we put the apostrophe after the S e.g. the cows’ tails the babies’ clothes the cupboards’ shelves 3. An apostrophe is used to take place of letters that have been left out - contraction. e.g. do not - don’t does not - doesn’t did not - didn’t you are - you’re he is - he’s we have - we’ve where is - where’s will not - won’t I am - I’m should not - shouldn’t Note: The apostrophe s (‘s) is not used to form the plural in English except in the alphabet and numerals e.g. A’s, P’s, Q’s and two’s, three’s, ten’s
16 Parts of speech Nouns A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing or quality. e.g. dentist, teacher - person buck, goose - animal park, Durban - place 33
rainbow, pencil - thing (common noun) honesty, curiosity - quality (abstract noun)
Four main classes • Common nouns - names given to ordinary, everyday people, places and things, e.g. woman, doctor, king, town • Proper nouns - names of particular people, places and things. Most begin with capital letters, e.g. Albert, John, Durban, Cape Town • Collective nouns - names of groups of people, places and things of the same kind • Abstract nouns - names of qualities, feelings and actions which we cannot actually see, hear, taste, touch or smell, e.g. kindness, sorrow, joy
17 Adjectives • Add colour and interest to sentences by describing, or giving more information about nouns. • One can form adjectives from nouns, e.g. athlete - athletic; drama - dramatic; RIÀFHRIÀFLDO
Comparison of adjectives • There are three degrees of comparison a. positive degree: refers to one thing b. comparative degree: compares two things c. superlative degree: describes the best or the most • Most adjectives of one or two syllables form the comparative and superlative degrees by adding -er and -est E.g.
• Other adjectives have to change to form the comparative and superlative degrees E.g.
good little many
better less more
best least most
• Some adjectives cannot be compared E.g.
dead, perfect, alive, married
• Longer adjectives form their comparative and superlative degrees with the help of more and most E.g.
more interesting more painful
most interesting most painful
The position of adjectives Adjectives may be used in one of two ways, attributively and predicatively. Attributively +HUHWKHDGMHFWLYHLVXVHGLQIURQWRIWKHQRXQWKDWLWGHVFULEHVRUTXDOLÀHV $EHDXWLIXOÁRZHU
Predicatively Here the adjective is placed some way away from the noun. It directly follows the verb. Predicative adjectives are normally adjectives of quality. Adjectives are also used predicatively after the verbs - be, become, seem, appear, feel, get, grow, keep, look, make, smell, sound, taste, turn The lily is beautiful. Tom became rich. Peter felt cold. He looked calm.
The dog is barking. Susan seems happy. He grew impatient.
Some adjectives change their meaning when they are moved from attributive to predicative A small farmer. The farmer is small.
(He has a small farm) (He is a small man physically)
The adjectives chief, main, principal, sheer, utter are used before the noun His chief concern was the safety of the children. The main reason was ..... The principal point of his argument was .... It was sheer madness to .... He spoke utter rubbish. Most adjectives can be used both attributively and predicatively:
a. The following adjectives can be used only predicatively:
b. The following adjectives can only be used attributively former, latter, inner, outer c. Adjectives are used predicatively when used in a phrase that expresses measurement The Crocodile River is two hundred kilometres long. A building is ten storeys high. d. Adjectives are used predicatively when more than one are used with the noun The mongrel was thin and mangy. The judge was both witty and wise. e. Adjectives are used predicatively when they are followed by a prepositional phrase We shared the sweets evenly amongst the four of us. I ran quickly across the road. Adjectives may be used in three different ways a. One word: The young farmer. The empty house. b. A phrase: The farmer with the beard is my brother. c. A clause: The farmer, who is standing over there, is my brother. Remember a phrase is a description of something that does not contain a verb; a clause on the other hand always has a verb. Adjectives can be formed in many ways a. They can be formed by nouns: A stone wall bordered the house. A leather belt is better. A crime reporter. b. They can be formed from verbs by making use of the participle (third column): There were a lot of broken windows. (break) The tired baby fell asleep. (tire) F $GMHFWLYHVFDQEHIRUPHGIURPQRXQVDVZHOODVYHUEVE\DGGLQJVXIÀ[HV
storm - stormy; cloud - cloudy; health - healthy
friend - friendly; father - fatherly
harm - harmful; hope - hopeful; hurt - hurtful
harm - harmless; hope - hopeless; use - useless
gold - golden; wood -wooden
danger - dangerous; fame - famous; fury - furious
comfort - comfortable; honour - honourable
terror - terrible; horror - horrible
trouble - troublesome; quarrel - quarrelsome
atom - atomic; Iceland - Icelandic
talent - talented; hate - hated; tire - tired
child - childlike; god - godlike
brute - brutal; accident - accidental
fact - factual, habit - habitual
republic - republican; America - American
Shakespeare - Shakespearian
prophet - prophetically; economic - economical
child - childish; Jew - Jewish
instant - instantaneous; plenty - plenteous
rest - restive; correct - corrective; talk - talkative
love - loving; hate - hating; tire - tiring
d. The formation of the negatives of adjectives: these are formed by adding either SUHÀ[HVRUVXIÀ[HV un-
unhappy, unavailable, unfortunate
inaccurate, incapable, inescapable
impossible, immature, improbable
irregular, irresponsible, irresolute
illegal, illegitimate, illegible
disobey, dishonest, disrespectful
hopeless, homeless, useless
Difference between possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns Possessive adjectives are always followed by a noun, e.g. This is my book Possessive pronouns are used instead of the noun, e.g. The book is mine 37
18 Verbs Verbs have two main functions in sentences * They express actions * They express a state of BEING or existence - I am afraid; It is a ball They are doing, being and having words e.g. The dog barked. It was raining. They were having their breakfast. (A verb can be one word or it can be more than one word.) Regular verbs: The past tense and past participle of REGULAR VERBS are formed by adding -ed, eg. wash - washed; laugh - laughed Irregular verbs: Change in the past tense and past participle, eg. go - went gone; eat - ate - eaten ,QÀQLWLYHIRUPRIWKHYHUE Doing/to do
The tense of the verb tells us when the action it expresses takes place. Three main tenses A. Present tense I study the stars with my telescope (action takes place regularly) I go to school B. Past tense I studied the stars with my telescope (action is now completed) C. Future tense I shall study the stars with my telescope tonight (action has not yet taken place) Each of these tenses has a simple, continuous and perfect form:
I am riding
I have ridden
I was riding
I had ridden
I shall ride
I shall be riding
I shall have ridden
Auxiliary verbs Help a verb to form a new tense. Some commonly used auxiliary verbs are: be, is, am, are, was, were, will, shall, would, should, could, has, had, can, may, might and must.
Participles • Verbs can consist of more than one word, e.g. am reporting, will have visited • Reporting AND visited are parts of the verb called PARTICIPLES • Participles are used with auxiliary verbs to form new tenses
Present participles $UHWKDWSDUWRIWKHYHUEZKLFKHQGVLQLQJHJLVÁDVKLQJZHUHUHSRUWLQJ
Past participles Are used with auxiliary verbs such as have, has, had, was and were to form new tenses, e.g. have sighted; were seen; have been seen • Most past participles end in -ed, -d, -en or -n, but others have irregular endings.
19 Adverbs Adverbs add to the meaning of verbs. They tell how, when, where or why the action takes place. e.g. Anne spoke softly (how) slowly; warmly; quickly Soon it will be summer again (when) already; always; often She went into the shop, while I waited outside (where) there; outside; distantly (Adverbs often end with -ly) • They indicate when things happen or actions take place when - Adverb of Time
• They indicate where things happen or actions take place where - Adverb of Place • They indicate how things happen or actions take place how - Adverb of Manner • Adverbs can be formed from adjectives E.g. clever - cleverly; lazy - lazily
20 Pronouns Pronouns allow us to refer to persons/things without naming them over and over. e.g. Peter is twelve years old. - He is twelve years old. Mr. Jones is calling Roger. - Mr. Jones is calling him. It is Sam’s book. - It is his book. A pronoun takes the place of a noun ʕ Pronouns 3URQRXQV have KDYH aD number QXPEHU of RI functions in a sentence • Personal pronouns may replace a noun, which is the subject of a sentence I, you, he, she, it, we AND may replace a noun which is the object of a sentence e.g. me, you, him, her, it, us, them • Possessive pronouns show belonging, and include words like my, mine, yours, his, your, their, theirs, ours, its. There are two ways of saying that something belongs to someone. e.g. This is my new calculator. The new calculator is mine. These are your magazines. These magazines are yours. This is Adam’s bicycle. This bicycle is Adam’s. • 5HÁH[LYHSURQRXQV are words formed with -self, e.g. myself, himself, ourselves, themselves e.g.
I can look after myself. He can look after himself. They can look after themselves.
You can look after yourself. We can look after ourselves.
• Interrogative pronouns is pronouns which ask questions e.g. Who is coming to dinner? What is the matter with Mary?
21 Prepositions • Prepositions introduce phrases 7KH\ 7KH\DUHVLPSOHOLWWOHZRUGVEXWWKH\KDYHDELJLQÁXHQFHRQWKHPHDQLQJRID DUH VLPSOH OLWWOH ZRUGV EXW WKH\ KDYH D ELJ LQÁXHQFH RQ WKH PHDQLQJ RI D sentence • They can establish time relationships e.g. We have not seen him since April • They can establish relationships in place
Common errors in the use of prepositions •
We shared the sweets between the four of us We shared the sweets amongst the four of us
It feels like it’s going to be hot It feels as if it’s going to be hot
Will you come with? Will you come with me?
List of prepositions ON
Supper is on the table.
The prefect is on duty.
I read it in the newspaper.
I arrive at four o’clock.
We are leaving in the morning. The stone was thrown at the window. We travelled by train.
She is afraid of spiders.
He died of a heart attack.
The cup fell off the shelf.
He cleaned the chalk off the board.
The soldiers stood to attention.
I reported the theft to the police.
Do you take sugar with your tea?
I play with my friend.
He is famous for his inventions.
Will you stay for supper?
It is a present from Brian.
The verse comes from the Bible.
The thieves broke into the shop.
We changed into dry clothes.
ACROSS We swam across the river. Victor was named after his AFTER father.
My cousin lives across the street.
I jump over a stone.
The bicycle cost over R2 000
Father went out after supper.
22 Conjunctions Rules for joining sentences by using conjunctions After, when, before, as soon as You may start a sentence with any of the above conjunctions in order to join two sentences. A conjunction sometimes causes a tense change E.g.
They called the police. They waited for two hours. After they had called the police, they waited for two hours.
:KHQWKHVHQWHQFHLVLQWKHSDVWWHQVHGHFLGHZKLFKDFWLRQLVÀUVW7KHÀUVWDFWLRQLV ZULWWHQLQWKHSDVWSHUIHFWWHQVHDQGWKHVHFRQGDFWLRQLQWKHSDVWLQGHÀQLWHWHQVH E.g.
She feels ill. She swallows a diamond. She feels ill because she has swallowed a diamond.
:KHQWKHVHQWHQFHLVLQWKHSUHVHQWWHQVHGHFLGHZKLFKDFWLRQLVÀUVW7KHÀUVWDFWLRQ LVZULWWHQLQWKHSUHVHQWSHUIHFWWHQVHDQGWKHVHFRQGDFWLRQLQWKHSUHVHQWLQGHÀQLWH tense. E.g.
She hides the diamond. The thief takes it. Unless she hides the diamond, the thief will take it.
Using since: If the sentence has only one verb, that verb must be in the perfect tense:
Since Peter’s eye operation he has seen much better.
If the sentence contains two verbs, the verb following directly after since is in the LQGHÀQLWHWHQVH7KHUHPDLQLQJYHUELVZULWWHQLQWKHSHUIHFWWHQVH E.g.
Since last year Peter’s sight has improved a lot. Since it rained, the grass has become very green
Conjunctions like but, because, although, and - join the sentences without changing the tense.
Conjunctions AS (because)
As you will not help me, I shall mend the puncture myself.
You must keep an eye on the ball as you play.
Shall I phone you or will you phone me?
You must hurry or (else) you will be late.
Anne knows more about books than I do.
You will not play in the best team unless you practise hard.
AS SOON AS
I’ll let you know as soon as the mail arrives.
He kept on trying until he managed to do it.
The lift is not working (and) so you will have to use the stairs.
Hold your arm so that I can bandage it.
Jenny sings well, but Pam sings better.
They won the match although it rained.
After the bell had gone, we went home.
You ought not to buy a bike before you have tried it out.
Take care when you turn a corner.
He didn’t tell me where to look for the key.
If you don’t feel well, stay in bed.
He wants to know whether they play rugby or not.
I’m sure that starting early is a good habit.
Can you tell me how many books there are?
Interjections Interjections show surprise. An interjection is used with an exclamation mark, e.g. Wow! She is pretty. AND Ah, how wise!
Articles Articles are words like a, an and the
23 Word building Noun
24 Verb list Present tense
Have/has/had + Past participle
Am, is, are
Have/has/had + Past participle
Have/has/had + Past participle
Past participle have / has / had +
25 Concord of the verb Rules of concord 1. A singular subject takes a singular verb; Plural subjects take plural verbs The boy is here He has a dog I am reading a book The boys are here They have dogs We are reading books 2. And If two or more singular subjects are joined by AND, the verb is plural. The boy and girl are here.
The cat and dog are crossing the bridge.
Exceptions of the rule 2.1
When two singular nouns, connected by the word and, form a single idea or impression, then the verb is singular. Bread and butter is nourishing. Fish and chips Bacon and eggs Brandy and coke
When the words “the” or “a” are found only once in the sentence the subject is singular and so the verb must be singular. A black and white cow is in the stable, BUT The black and the white cow are in the stable. A wife and mother has a lot of work to do. BUT A wife and a mother have a lot of work to do.
3. Both ... and ... When two or more singular subjects are joined by the words “both … and” then the verb is plural. Both the cow and her calf are in the stable. 4. Or, either or, neither nor Singular subjects that are joined by the words or, either or and neither nor, take a singular verb. Anne or Susan is in the class.
The horse or the cow is in the road.
However: According to the Rule of Proximity when one subject is singular and the other plural the verb will agree with the subject nearest to it. (Subject on the right.) Either the cow or the very small calves are in the stable. BUT 49
Either the calves or the cow is in the stable. Neither Peter nor his cousins are here. BUT Neither the teachers nor the principal is here. 5. Not only ... but also ... The rule of Proximity also applies to the words not only … but also … Not only the cat but also the dog is in the kennel. Not only the cat but also the kittens are in the basket. Not only the kittens but also the cat is in the basket. 6. With, together with, as well as The verb must agree with the subject that is found before the prepositions with, Together with and as well as, be it singular or plural. (to the left) The cat, with the dog, is sitting on the porch. BUT The cats, with the dog, are sitting on the porch. The kittens, together with the cat, are here. BUT The cat, together with the kittens, is here. The donkey, as well as horses, is in the camp. BUT The horses, as well as the donkey, are in the camp. 7. Each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing, none, anybody, anyone, anything ... These pronouns all take a singular verb. Every child is here. No one knows… Anybody is allowed…
Nobody is left out. Each is to receive an apple Everything is ready…
8. Subjects which are plural in form, but singular in meaning, are ruled by a singular verb The news is good. Mathematics is easy. Measles is a contagious disease. Politics is a dirty game. 9. Nouns with a singular meaning (tools, clothing, etc., which consist of objects that are formed by two parts) are ruled by a plural verb Spectacles are trousers are pliers are Tweezers are pyjamas are tongs are 10. A pair of ... is ruled by the singular verb A pair of shoes is on display. A pair of scissors is on the table.
11. Collective nouns If all the people or animals or the things in the group do the same thing at the
same time in the same place, the name of the group is followed by a singular verb. (Collective Nouns) The crew has come to work. The herd is grazing.
A swarm of bees is outside. A family is visiting here.
12. Quantity This tells you how much of things there is, or else that a thing is uncountable: Much, a little, little, less. These all take a singular verb. Sugar is Much work is done.
There is so little to say. Less is better.
Money is spent.
13. Number This tells you how many of a thing there are. Countable things: Many, a few, few. These are all ruled by a plural verb. Guests are expected. Many sweets are eaten.
Few of my friends are here. Very few children like violence.
14. The nouns people, police, public, cattle and clergy are always ruled by a plural verb The police are here The public are the best judges. The cattle are in the kraal. The clergy are in a meeting. 15. A number of This is always followed by a plural verb A number of children were caught smoking. A number of books are gone.
16. The number of This is followed by a singular verb. The number of pupils has increased. The number of accidents on this road is still far too high. 17. One of This plus a plural noun takes a plural verb. She is one of those girls who are always late. He is one of those children that don’t know how to behave.
18. The only one This is ruled by a singular verb 51
He is the only one in the class who has passed. She is the only one of the girls who has a car. 19. A fraction followed by a plural noun takes a plural verb Two-thirds of the children are here. +DOIRIWKHELVFXLWVDUHÀQLVKHG 20. A fraction followed by a singular noun takes a singular verb Two-thirds of the class is studying. Half of the cake is eaten. 21. Numerals ,IDSOXUDOVHHPVWRIRUPWKHLGHDRIDÀ[HGVXPRUPDVVWKHQWKHYHUELVVLQJXODU Fifty cents is too much for this sweet. Five from seven leaves two. Two hundred kilometres is a long way to walk. 22. Many a person This is also followed by a singular verb. Many a person has found to his cost that prevention is better than cure. • Words such as EVERYTHING, ANYBODY, ANYTHING, EACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHER, NOBODY, EVERYBODY, EVERYONE, SOMEONE take a SINGULAR VERB E.g. Everyone has take part in the competition. Nobody wants to take part in the competition. • Either ... or/Neither ... nor - The NOUN closer to the VERB determines whether it will be a SINGULAR or a PLURAL verb E.g. Neither Sue nor the boys want to go. Neither the girls, nor Peter wants to go. • As well as/together with/like/including/with - Look at the FIRST NOUN E.g.
Hugh, as well as his parents, is a smoker. The pupils, including their teacher, have started a music group.
• Collective nouns Trousers, spectacles are ...... A pair of spectacles is ....... The class is excited (as one group) The class are all excited (different individuals in one class) • He, she, it .... SINGULAR form of the verb • They, we, you ..... PLURAL form of the verb 52
26 Tenses Present, past and future simple tenses We use the simple tenses when • something is always true, e.g. My father is a dentist • something is done regularly or when something is a habit, e.g. I visit my aunt every week Present
I listen You listen He/She/It listens We listen You listen They listen
I listened You listened He/She listened We listened You listened They listened
I shall/will listen You will listen He/She will listen We shall/will listen You will listen They will listen
Possible time words
Usually, never, every day/week/ month, regularly, often, once a week/month/ year
Yesterday last night/week/ year/ month
Tomorrow, In the future, Next week/ month/ year
The tense is formed by using
Present tense verb (The concord of the verb is important)
Paste tense verb
Form of the simple tenses
Present, past and future perfect tenses Present Form of the perfect tenses
Up to now she has She improved after read seven books he had reprimanded about sport stars. her. After she had 6KHKDVMXVWÀQLVKHG seen a movie, she ate her work. supper.
When to use this tense
For completed actions in the present
When you want to go back to an earlier time when you are already talking about the past
Possible time words
After/when/as soon as/up to now/just/ already/since/for/ by/ now/ before
After/when/as soon, previous/just/ already/ not yet/ ever/never, before/ always
Future By this time tomorrow, we will KDYHÀQLVKHGWKH work. To talk about events that will have been completed by a certain time in the future. By sunset/by 09:00/ by then/at this time tomorrow/ when the bell rings 53
The tense is formed by using
has/have + past participle
had + past participle
shall/will + have + past participle
Present, past and future continuous tenses We use the continuous tense to • express actions that are/were actually happening or • progressing at a certain time, even actions that will take place in the future Present
I am reading You are reading He/She is reading We are reading You are reading They are reading
I was reading You were reading He/She was reading We were reading You were reading They were reading
I shall/will be reading You will be reading He/She will be reading We shall/will be reading You will be reading They will be reading
Possible time words
At this moment; Again While/When
At that moment When/While Five years ago at a VSHFLÀFWLPH
At a certain time/ Tomorrow at two
The tense is formed by using
Am/is/are + verb + -ing
Was/were + verb + -ing
Will/shall be + verb + -ing
Form of the continuous tenses
Present, past and future perfect continuous tenses Present Form of the perfect continuouse tenses
He has been walking for hours. They have been walking for hours now.
He had been walking for hours that morning
By this time tomorrow he will have been walking for hours. By this time tomorrow we shall have been walking for hours.
For actions that started some time ago and are still continuing at the moment.
For actions that started some time earlier and were still continuing at a time in the past.
Possible time words
all morning/all day, for hours/ now/ already
all day/all morning/ since early that morning/for hours/ already
by this time next week/by eight o’clock tomorrow
The tense is formed by using
has/have + been + verb + -ing
had + been + verb + -ing
shall/will + have + been + verb + -ing
When to use this tense
For actions that will start some time in the future and will still be continuing at a certain time in the future.
Questions and tags When you ask a question, you can ʕ use XVH the WKH verb YHUE in LQ the WKH sentence VHQWHQFH to WR ask DVN the WKH question TXHVWLRQ ʕ use XVH “help” ´KHOSµ words ZRUGV (auxiliary DX[LOLDU\ verbs) YHUEV like OLNH DO, '2 DOES, '2(6 WILL, :,// DID ',' + THE 7+( 9(5% VERB ʕ start VWDUW with ZLWK IS, ,6 ARE, $5( WAS, :$6 WERE :(5( ʕ use XVH aD question TXHVWLRQ word, ZRUG like OLNH WHO?, :+2" WHAT?, :+$7" :+(5(" WHERE?, +2:" HOW?, :+(1" WHEN? ʕ make PDNH aD statement VWDWHPHQW and DQG use XVH aD tag WDJ so VR that WKDW the WKH whole ZKROH sentence VHQWHQFH appears DSSHDUV like OLNH aD question TXHVWLRQ Examples Who were with you? Does your father know that you did so well? Will you be able to go with me? Are you joking? Using tags We always eat take-aways on Saturdays, don’t we? We don’t always eat take-aways on Saturdays, do we? Remember The tense is the same in the statement and in the tag. If the statement is positive, the tag is negative. If the statement is negative, the tag is positive.
27 Active and passive voice If a sentence is in the active voice, the subject is doing the action, e.g. the dog chases the cat. If a sentence is in the passive voice, the object is doing the action, e.g. The cat is chased by the dog.
Rules for changing active into passive voice • Underline Underli the verb of the sentence • Decide which tense it is. • Find the objectRIWKHVHQWHQFHÀQGWKHREMHFWE\XVLQJWKHVXEMHFWDQGWKHYHUE and ask the question, what? e.g. The dog chases what? Answer: The cat) • Start the sentence with the object
Active and passive voice Present
Karen sings a song. A song is sung by Karen. Formed by adding is/are + past participle of verb
Karen sang a song. A song was sung by Karen.
Karen will sing a song. A song will be sung by Karen
Formed by adding was/were + past participle of verb
Will + be + past participle
Present Continuous Tense
Past Continuous Tense
Future Continuous Tense
Karen is singing a song.
Karen was singing a song.
Karen will be singing a song.
A song is being sung by Karen.
A song was being sung by Karen.
Formed by am/is/are + being + past participle
Formed by was/were + being + past participle
Present Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Future Perfect Tense
Karen has sung a song.
Karen had sung a song.
Karen will have sung a song.
A song has been sung by Karen.
A song had been sung by Karen.
Formed by has/have + been + past participle
Formed by has/have + been + past participle
A song will being sung by Karen. Formed by shall/will + being + past participle
A song will have been sung by Karen. Formed by will + have + been + past participle
28 Direct and indirect speech Reported speech When something is written into reported (indirect) speech, there are certain changes that take place. • No inverted commas (“...”) are used in reported speech • If the introductory verb is in the PRESENT TENSE, (eg. He says/asks/tells) then only the PRONOUNS in the sentence need to be changed (i.e. I/you becomes he/ she; We/you becomes they) E.g. Peter: “I feel wonderful today.” becomes Peter says that he feels wonderful today • If the introductory verb is in the PAST TENSE (eg. He said/asked/stated) then the following changes must also be made: a. The verb (action or doing-word) has to move one step back in the past: is ..................................................................................................................................was are .............................................................................................................................were look ........................................................................................................................looked must .......................................................................................................................had to will .........................................................................................................................would was/were .........................................................................................................had been liked ..................................................................................................................had liked b. Words that indicate time and place also move, one step “further” away: Today ........................................that day
Yesterday....................the previous day
Tomorrow ..................the following day
Examples Richard: “I went to the movies yesterday.” Richard said that he had gone to the movies the previous day. c. The inverted commas fall away d. Start with: He said that/He asks if
More examples Direct speech
“I am wet.”
He/she says that he/she is wet. He/she said that he/she was wet. He says that I am wet. / He says you are wet.
“You are wet.”
He said that I was wet. / He said you were wet. He said that we were wet. “The plane is already over the sea.”
“I don’t really mean this.”
He says the plane is already over the sea. He said the plane was already over the sea. She says she doesn’t really mean this. She said she didn’t really mean that.
“Alex was in trouble.”
He says Alex was in trouble. He said Alex had been in trouble.
29 Figures of speech
The repetition of consonants in a line or verse
The big brown beast.
The repetition of vowel sounds in a line or verse
The fat cat sat there.
A comparison of two things in which the word like, so, or as is used
“My love is like a red red rose that’s newly sprung in June.”
$QLPDJHLVLGHQWLÀHGZLWKDQRWKHU because of a kind of similarity to the writer. Two images are directly compared, without using the word like, so, or as.
“It is the east and Juliet is the sun.” - Shakespeare
Sounds are imitated for effect
The tip tap of rain on the roof.
An object or animal is attributed human characteristics
The sun smiled at us and the wind whispered sweet sounds in our ears.
The actual meaning of the words is different than that which is stated
When your friend hasn’t done his part of your mutual assignment, you say: “Great, this is just what I need to keep me busy during the weekend!”
$IRUPRIZLW,WVLJQLÀHVDUHPDUN that is the opposite to what it appears to mean.
“You did a great job,” she said to him after examining the paint that was peeling off her car.
Homonyms - are words which are spelt the same but have different meanings, e.g. He came second in the race. Every second there is a car accident. Homophones - are words which sound alike but are spelt differently, e.g. threw through Jargon - is the name we give to special words, terms and expressions used by a profession, trade or exclusive group. People who do not operate in these specialised ÀHOGVZLOORIWHQÀQGLWGLIÀFXOWWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHWHUPLQRORJ\ Neologisms - when new things are discovered or invented, we need to make up new words to name them. These new words are called neologisms. AcronymsDUHIRUPHGE\WDNLQJWKHÀUVWOHWWHUVRIDQXPEHURIZRUGVDQGFUHDWLQJ a new and shorter word with them. Letters are not followed by full stops, eg: Famsa - Family and Marriage Society of South Africa
Writing • Story - introduction, development, conclusion (surprising or unusual) • Mini-stories - all the ingredients of a longer story - introduction, development, conclusion, but it is told in exactly ÀIW\ZRUGV • Paragraphing • Functional writing - it is - instructions, directions and explanations • Essays
Writing poems •
Free verse - no rhyming words are necessary and the length of the lines can be varied to emphasize ideas or create a mood.
Syllable poems - is a form of writing in which each line has to consist of a certain 59
number of syllables, e.g. * Haiku - this form of verse comes from Japan and is used to compose delicate, rather sensitive word pictures about subjects taken from nature (could be ZULWWHQRQDQ\VXEMHFW $KDLNXFRQVLVWVRIWKUHHOLQHV7KHÀUVWOLQHKDVÀYH V\OODEOHVWKHVHFRQGVHYHQDQGWKHWKLUGÀYHPDNLQJDWRWDORIVHYHQWHHQLQ all. With a shriek of rage, Twisting in pent-up fury; Comes the tornado Note: in a syllable poem, it is the number of syllables to the line which is important, not the number of words. •
Word cinquains * A cinquainLVDSRHPFRQVLVWLQJRIÀYHOLQHV * A word cinquain is written to the following pattern: Line 1: names the subject in one word /LQHGHÀQHVRUGHVFULEHVWKHVXEMHFWLQWZRZRUGV Line 3: expresses action in three words Line 4: expresses a personal opinion, or attitude, in four words /LQHJLYHVDV\QRQ\PIRUWKHVXEMHFWRUVXPVXSWKHÀUVW four lines, in one word
• Rhyming poems - Rhyming poems usually have a certain rhythm or tune. This is called metre. • Parodies - are amusing imitations of someone else’s work, like trying to imitate the rhyming pattern and metre of a well-known poem. • Nonsense poems - Limericks are amusing verses which all have the same rhyming pattern and rhythm.
30 Punctuation Punctuation marks make the written text easier to read and understand. Without punctuation, writing would not make sense.
Capital letters 1.
Sentences always start with capital letters. e.g. We bought popcorn because we liked it.
2. Proper nouns need capital letters. e.g. We visited Mexico. 7LWOHVRIERRNVÀOPVRUSOD\VDUHZULWWHQLQFDSLWDOOHWWHUV e.g. THE GENTLE DOLPHIN. ,IKRZHYHUWKHWLWOHLVXQGHUOLQHGRULQLQYHUWHGFRPPDVRQO\WKHÀUVWOHWWHURI WKHÀUVWZRUGDQGDQ\SURSHUQRXQVZLOOEHLQFDSLWDOOHWWHUV e.g. “The gentle dolphin” or My friend Flicka
Full stops 1. A full stop indicates the end of a sentence. e.g. Remember to lock the door. 2. Full stops are found after certain abbreviations. e.g. Prof. abbr. e.g.
Commas 1. We use commas to separate words or phrases in a list: e.g. We bought books, pens, pencils and erasers for the new school year. 2. Commas indicate where one phrase or clause ends and another begins: e.g. Piet van der Merwe won his tennis match, to the delight of the spectators. 3. Additional information may be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas: e.g. Mr Jenkins, the Principal, addressed the pupils and parents. 4. We place commas before and after words such as however and nevertheless: e.g. She was, however, late for the appointment and this caused her to miss the interview. 5. Introductory words or phrases are separated from the rest of the sentence with a comma: e.g. Once again, I was ignored by the panel of judges.
* Avoid using a comma between two main clauses. Rather use a full stop, semi-colon or a conjunction. * e.g. A census was taken, the government needed statistics. X * A census was taken. The government needed statistics. 9
Semi-colons (;) 1. The semi-colon is a long pause that balances two equally important, related or parallel ideas HJ6KHZHQWE\WUDLQVKHZRXOGUDWKHUKDYHÁRZQ 2. It also indicates opposite ideas (antithesis) e.g. In summer she swims; in winter she skates. 3. It joins two main clauses where there is no conjunction e.g. She worked hard for the examinations; she had nothing to fear. 4. A semi-colon may often be replaced by a full stop or by the conjunctions and, but, so, for and although e.g. She worked hard for the examinations so she had nothing to fear.
Colons (: ) 1. The colon indicates that a list, an explanation or an idea is following e.g. I need to buy the following items: lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers and carrots. 2. It introduces a quotation e.g. J.F. Kennedy’s famous words are: “Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.” 3. In script writing (dialogue), a colon follows the speaker e.g. Mrs. Brown: Are you going to the meeting? &DWK\,I,ÀQGDIULHQG
Question marks 1. Question marks occur at the end of a question. e.g. Who took up the collection? 2. Rhetorical questions end in question marks. e.g. Why do we need an education?
Exclamation marks 1. Exclamation marks follow exclamations or interjections (interruptions). e.g. Ouch! I am scared! 62
2. They are used to accentuate and strengthen the tone of a statement. e.g. The lieutenant yelled, ‘Attention!’ 3. They are used after sentences, phrases or words containing emotions such as anger, fear, happiness, anxiety, shock and misery. HJ´,·PSHWULÀHGµZKLVSHUHGWKHIULJKWHQHGFKLOG Note: Both the question mark and the exclamation mark contain a full stop, so you do not need another full stop at the end of the sentence when either of these is used.
Quotation marks (inverted commas) (‘ ’) or (“ “) 1. Quotation marks are used to indicate direct speech. e.g. Mr Thompson said, “There will be no homework over weekends.” 2. Quotation marks are used to quote (repeat) someone else’s words. e.g. Martin Luther King said, “I have a dream!” 3. Quotation marks are used to ‘excuse’ oneself for using slang or foreign words. e.g. Our new station wagon is used for ‘schlepping’ the soccer team around. 4. Quotation marks indicate metaphoric usage. e.g. I am the ‘baby’ of the family. * All punctuation must fall within the inverted commas.
Hyphen $K\SKHQOLQNVSUHÀ[HVWRZRUGVRUOLQNVWZRZRUGVLQRUGHUWRIRUPFRPSRXQG words. e.g. anti-dandruff shampoo, pre-school, well-deserved, life-threatening 2. It helps to differentiate meanings. e.g. She had to re-make the garment. The remake of this dress is a success. ,QRUGHUWRIDFLOLWDWHVSHOOLQJDQGSURQXQFLDWLRQDK\SKHQLVLQVHUWHGLIDSUHÀ[ HQGVLQDYRZHODQGWKHZRUGMRLQHGWRWKHSUHÀ[EHJLQVZLWKWKHVDPHYRZHO e.g. co-opt re-examine no-one 4. Words that cannot be completed on one line are linked to the next line with a hyphen * The hyphen may only be used at the end of a syllable.
Dash * The dash line is slightly longer than the hyphen line.(—) 1. A dash serves a similar purpose to a comma, colon or a semi-colon. It separates parts of a sentence and forces us to pause. e.g. We had to make an exit — time was running out. 2. In order to give additional information, the dash can be used in the same way as commas or brackets. e.g. next week we are going to Port Elizabeth — the Windy City. 3. It separates a comment or afterthought from the rest of the sentence. e.g. I checked and there was no-one there — or so I thought! 4. It creates a dramatic pause, leading to a climax or anti-climax. e.g. I ran to the window; I looked out and saw — the cat!
Ellipsis (… ) 1. The three ellipsis dots indicate that a sentence is incomplete or that something has been omitted. e.g. He walked to the edge of the cliff and … (To be continued …) 2. We can usually guess the meaning from the context of the sentence. e.g. You had better tidy your room or else …