1 Gender Male Female Male Female

1 Gender 6 Male Female Male Female actor actress hunter huntress bachelor spinster husband wife boar sow king queen boy girl lion ...
Author: Camron Reeves
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1 Gender

6

Male

Female

Male

Female

actor

actress

hunter

huntress

bachelor

spinster

husband

wife

boar

sow

king

queen

boy

girl

lion

lioness

bridegroom

bride

male

female

brother

sister

man

woman

buck

doe

master

mistress

bull

cow

mayor

mayoress

bull-elephant

cow-elephant

monk/priest

nun/priestess

cock

hen

Negro

Negress

colt

ÀOO\

nephew

niece

dog

bitch

papa

mama

drake

duck

priest

nun

drone

queen bee

ram

ewe

father

mother

sir

madam

friar

nun

son

daughter

gentleman

lady

stallion

mare

giant

giantess

steer

heifer

grandfather

grandmother

tom-cat

tabby-cat

grandson

granddaughter

uncle

aunt

he-bear

she-bear

waiter

waitress

heir

heiress

widower

widow

hero

heroine

wizard

witch

fox

vixen

tiger

tigress

goose

gander

peacock

peahen

stag

hind

bullock

heifer

billy goat

nanny goat

cob

penn

prince

princess

king

queen

lord

lady

shepherd

shepherdess

ambassador

ambassadress

baron

baroness

emperor

empress

murderer

murderess

Male

Female

Male

Female

Rajah

Ranee

turkey-cock

turkey-hen

sire

dam

sultan

sultana

deer

doe

bestman

bridesmaid

ÀDQFq

ÀDQFqH

earl

countess

duke

duchess

god

goddess

merman

mermaid

sire (horse)

dam (horse)

2 The young of animals Grown-up

Young

Grown-up

Young

Sheep, ram, ewe

Lamb

Dog, bitch

Puppy, pup

Man, woman

Child, baby

Drake, duck

Duckling

Lion

Cub

Owl

Owlet

Bear

Cub

Horse, stallion

Foal, colt

Goat

Kid

Mare

Filly

Cat

Kitten

Fowl, cock, hen

Chicken

Cow

Calf

Pig

Piglet

Bird

Nestling

Goose

Gosling

Turkey

Poult

Eagle

Eaglet

Frog

Tadpole

Buck

Fawn

Donkey

Foal

%XWWHUÁ\

Caterpillar/larva

Eel

Elver

Fish

Fry

Kangaroo

Joey

Swan

Cygnet

Peacock

Pea-chick

Hen

Chicken

Cock

Cockerel

Oyster

Spat

Salmon

Grilse

Whale

Calf

7

3 Diminutives Big

Small

Big

Small

Crown

Coronet

Cigar

Cigarette

Bill

Billet

Aunt

Auntie

Brace

Bracelet

Book

Booklet

Corn

Kernel

Cover

Coverlet

Dear

Dearie/deary/ darling

Grain

Granule

Drop

Droplet

Ice

Icicle

Hill

Hillock

Lad

Laddie

Kitchen

Kitchenette

Leaf

/HDÁHW

Lamb

Lambkin

Maid

Maiden

Lock

Locket

Meteor

Meteorite

Man

Manikin/mannikin

Part

Particle

Park **

Paddock

Ring

Ringlet

Prince

Princeling

Root

Rootlet

River

Rivulet

Scythe

Sickle

Sack

Satchel

Spark

Sparklet

Seed

Seedling

Sphere

Spherule

Speck

Speckle

Stream

Streamlet

Statue

Statuette

Wagon

Wagonette

Throat

Throttle

Isle

Islet

Verse

Versicle, verset

Pan

Pannikin

Lass

Lassie

Village

Hamlet

Bird

Birdie

Dog

Doggy

Lecture

Lecturette

Branch

Twig

Tree

Sapling

**paddock - utilitarian (for use with animals)

8

4 Sounds The rumble of thunder/heavy vehicles

The beat of a drum

The snap of a twig

The pop of a cork being drawn

The rattle of cups/crockery/chains

The click of a latch

The rustle of leaves

Steam hisses

A school bell rings

The telephone rings

The screech of brakes

The clatter of horses’ hoofs

An aeroplane engine drones

A church bell tolls/peals

The crack of a whip

Frying sausages sizzle

The hoot of a car

The moan of the wind/the sea

A motorboat chugs

The tinkle of bells

The chime of a clock

The crunch of boots on gravel/gears

The patter of rain/feet

The wail of sirens

The clank of chains

The tick of a clock/chime of a clock

The whine/scream of a jet engine

The creak of hinges

The jingle of coins

The grinding of gears

The creak/slam of a door

The gurgle of a stream

The clink/tinkle of glasses

The babble of a brook

The buzz of conversation

The crackleRIÀUH

The honk of a horn

The gush of water in pipes

The boom of breakers

Water lapping against the side of a boat

The chug of a tractor

Sounds of animals Bees hum

Lambs bleat

Dogs bark/howl/growl/snarl

Calves low (cattle low)

Kittens mew

A bull bellows

Pigs grunt

Frogs croak

Lions roar

Elephants trumpet

Donkeys bray

Owls hoot

Beetles drone

Snakes hiss

Chickens peep

Sparrows chirp

9

Mice squeak

Turkeys gobble

Monkeys chatter

Horses neigh/whinny

A cock crows

A cat purrs

A hen cackles / clucks

A bird twitters

A wolf howls

Apes gibber

Bears growl

Cows low

Crickets chirp

Deer bell

Ducks quack

Flies buzz

Geese gaggle, hiss

Eagles and hawks scream

Hyenas laugh

Jackals howl

Parrots talk, chatter

Pigeons coo

Ravens croak

Seagulls and vultures scream

5 Collective nouns

10

a row of houses

DERXTXHWRIÁRZHUV

a crop of vegetables

a bunch of grapes

a team of players

a range of mountains

a bevy of beauties

DVZDUPRIÁLHV EHHV

a set of teeth (tools)

a batch of bread

a staff of servants

a bank of clouds

a hoard of treasure

a circle of friends

a pile of rubbish

a collection of stamps

a roll of bank notes

a battery of guns

a pack of dogs

a chest of tea

a party of men

a gang of workmen

a ream of paper

DFDWFKRIÀVK

a school of porpoises

a column of smoke

DVXLWHRIURRPV RIÀFHV

DÁHHWRIFDUV VKLSV

a squadron of aeroplanes

a troop of monkeys

a brood of chickens

a skein of wool

a rope of pearls

a sheaf of corn

a swarm of locusts

a string of beads

a colony of ants

a cede of badgers

a parliament of owls

a watch of nightingales

a covey of partridges

a sloth of bears

DVKRDORIEDVV ÀVK

an army of caterpillars

a congregation of plovers

a muster of peacocks

a string of ponies

a drove of cattle

a clowder of cats

a peep of chickens

a nest of rabbits

a litter of puppies

a balding of ducks

a dule of doves

a murder of crows

a pod of seals/whales

DVFKRRORIÀVK

a crash of rhinoceroses

a dray of squirrels

a host of sparrows

a clutch of eggs

a cast of hawks

a husk of hares

DÁRFNRIVKHHS

DÁLJKWRIVZDOORZV

a mustering of storks

a gaggle of geese

a drove/stud/of horses

a siege of herons

a brood of hens

a rafter of turkeys

a hover of trout

a bevy of larks

a pod of dolphins

a kindle of kittens

a bundle of sticks

a bale of wool

a bale of turtles

a pack of wolves

a pride of lions

a leap of leopards

a galaxy of stars

a bench of judges

a descent of woodpeckers

a pack of cards

a stack of hay

DEULJDGHRIÀUHPHQ

DEORFNRIÁDWV

a batch of cakes

a crate of bananas

a group of people

a class of pupils

a crowd of people

a litter of pups

a tuft of grass

a pocket of oranges

a school of dolphins

a circle of friends

a brace of rabbits (shot)

a canteen of cutlery

a range of mountains

DÁLJKWRIVWDLUV

a crop of vegetables

a set of teeth

a cluster of diamonds

a tray of peaches

a hive of bees

a posse of policemen

DÁRWLOODRIVKLSV

a grove of orange trees

a set of golf clubs

a convoy of ships

a herd of cattle

a board of directors

a volley of gunshots

a drove of pigs

an audience in a theatre

11

6 Comparisons as black as coal (ink/ the night)

as brave as a lion

as fat as a pig

as quick as lightning

as red as blood

as soft as butter

as busy as a bee

as cold as ice

as gentle as a lamb (a

as right as rain

as round as a ball

as strong as a lion (a horse/an ox)

as deaf as a doorpost

as dead as a doornail

as green as grass

as safe as houses

as sick as a dog

as drunk as a lord

as faithful as a dog

DVÀWDVDÀGGOH

DVKRWDVÀUH

as slow as a snail

as sour as vinegar

as thin as a rake

DVÁDWDVDSDQFDNH

as good as gold as stupid as a donkey (an ox) as happy as a king/lark

as loud as thunder

as straight as an arrow as greedy as a pig

12

as warm as toast as rotten as dirt

as sweet as honey (sugar) as tall as a giant

as pale as death

as heavy as lead

as hungry as a hunter

as tender as a lamb

as tame as a sheep

as old as the hills

WRVZLPOLNHDÀVK

as light as a feather

as white as snow (a sheet)

as slippery as an eel

as ugly as sin

as sure as fate

as black as a crow

as pretty as a picture as poor as a church mouse as sly as a fox

as clear as crystal (day)

as swift as a hare

as tough as leather

as cool as a cucumber

as artful as a monkey

as fresh as a daisy

as cheap as dirt

as innocent as a lamb

as obstinate as a mule

as keen as mustard

as playful as a kitten

as hard as nails

as quiet as a mouse

as smooth as glass

as large as life

as proud as a peacock

as dry as dust (bone)

as crisp as a new bank

as bold as brass

as thick as thieves

as deep as a well/the sea

as steady as a rock

as talkative as a parrot

as salt as a herring

as blind as a bat

as sound as a bell

as plain as a pikestaff

as fair as a lily

as easy as winking

as clumsy as an elephant

as lively as a cricket

as mad as a hatter

as wise as Solomon

DVÀHUFHDVDWLJHU

as safe as a bank

as dirty as a sow

as sharp as a needle

as silly as a sheep/goose

as brown as a berry

as patient as Job

as dull as ditchwater

as crafty as a fox

as meek as a lamb

as brittle as glass

as easy as A B C

as sturdy as an oak

as hot as a furnace

as clean as a new pin

as stiff as a poker

as bitter as gall

as silent as the grave

as alike as two peas in a pod

The following are also handy to know 7RÀWOLNHDJORYH

To act like a lunatic

7RVZLPOLNHDÀVK

To sleep like a log

To tremble like a leaf

To cling like ivy

To grow like a weed

To climb like a monkey

To melt like snow

Her cheeks are like roses News spreads like ZLOGÀUH 7RGULQNOLNHDÀVK

To fall like a log

To have eyes like saucers Something shines like a mirror 7RÁRDWOLNHDFRUN

He eats like a horse To read someone like an open book To work like a Trojan

A boat leaks like a sieve To sing like a bird/lark

To run for dear life

Degrees of comparison There are three degrees of comparison. Positive: (relating to one person only) Comparative: (relating to two persons only) Superlative: (relating to more than two persons)

The small naughty girl. The smaller naughtier girl. The smallest naughtiest girl.

Degrees of comparison are formed in the following ways.  2QHV\OODEOHDGMHFWLYHVDQGPRVWWZRV\OODEOHDGMHFWLYHVVLPSO\DGGWKHVXIÀ[HV -er and -est short slow narrow

shorter slower narrower

shortest slowest narrowest 13

 :RUGVZLWKWZRV\OODEOHVZLWKWKHVWUHVVRQWKHÀUVWV\OODEOHDQGZRUGVZLWK more than two syllables, simply add the words more or most before the adjective. hopeful beautiful attractive

more hopeful more beautiful more attractive

most hopeful most beautiful most attractive

3. Adjectives of two syllables ending with -ful and -re usually take more and most. doubtful more doubtful most doubtful obscure more obscure most obscure 4. Adjectives with two syllables ending in -er and -y or -ly usually take -er and -est. clever pretty silly

cleverer prettier sillier

cleverest prettiest silliest

 ([FHSWLRQVWRUXOH ZRUGVZLWKWZRV\OODEOHVZKHUHWKHÀUVWV\OODEOHLVVWUHVVHG  quiet pleasant common narrow

quieter pleasanter commoner narrower

quietest pleasantest commonest narrowest

6. Irregular degrees of comparison. good well bad little near near much many far far late late old

better better worse less nearer nearer more more farther further later latter elder

best best worst least nearest next most most farthest furthest latest last eldest

a. Lesser is an archaic form that is used in only a few phrases. To choose the lesser of two evils.  7KHOHVVHUÁDPLQJR b. Nearest refers to distance, the word next refers to order. Where is the nearest town? The next town is Standerton. 14

c. Farther generally refers to distance. Further can be used in the same context but it usually has the specialised meaning of additional. I cannot run any farther. I’ll give you further details tomorrow. I’ll need further assistance with these forms. d. Latter means the second of two persons or objects and is the opposite of former. He studied French and German, the latter extensively. Latest has the meaning of the most recent. The latest best-seller. 

/DVWFDQEHXVHGLQWZRZD\VLWFDQPHDQÀQDORULWFDQKDYHWKHPHDQLQJRI the previous. He came last. Last night I ....

e. The words elder and eldest are only used to describe people and then only for members of the same family. They are often used attributively. My elder sister is two years older than I. Peter is my eldest brother. The words older and oldest are used for people and objects. Susie is older than Mary. This is the oldest church in Bethal. f. The words outer and outmost indicate the position from a central point. The satellite is in orbit in outer space. Cannibals were seen on the outmost islands of the South Seas.



The words utter and utmost are historically derived from “out”, but their modern day meaning has completely changed. He looked at the teacher with utter disbelief. ,·OOGRP\XWPRVWWRÀQGWKHPLVVLQJNH\V

7. Some adjectives cannot be compared at all! Dead, perfect, unique, matchless, full, empty, square, round, circular, triangular, ZRRGHQGDLO\PRQWKO\\HDUO\PLGGOHDOOÀUVWODVWQR

15

Degrees of comparison

16

Good

Better

Best

Bad

Worse

Worst

Little

Less

Least

Many

More

Most

Much

More

Most

Old

Older/ elder

Oldest/ eldest

Far

Farther/ further

Farthest/ furthest

Thick

Thicker

Thickest

Cold

Colder

Coldest

New

Newer

Newest

Young

Younger

Youngest

High

Higher

Highest

Wide

Wider

Widest

Wet

Wetter

Wettest

Tall

Taller

Tallest

Clever

Cleverer

Cleverest

Pretty

Prettier

Prettiest

Easy

Easier

Easiest

Heavy

Heavier

Heaviest

Noisy

Noisier

Noisiest

Happy

Happier

Happiest

Naughty

Naughtier

Naughtiest

Thirsty

Thirstier

Thirstiest

Beautiful

More beautiful

Most beautiful

'LIÀFXOW

0RUHGLIÀFXOW

0RVWGLIÀFXOW

Pleasant

Pleasanter

Pleasantest

Careful

More careful

Most careful

Honest

More honest

Most honest

Careless

More careless

Most careless

Wonderful

More wonderful

Most wonderful

Handsome

More handsome

Most handsome

7 Containers a tin of jam

a basket of fruit

a pocket of oranges

a plate of soup

DYDVHRIÁRZHUV

a bottle of medicine

a cup of tea

a bucket of water

a packet of candles

DÁDVNRIWHD

a tube of toothpaste

a glass of lemonade

a pail of milk

a box of matches

a mug of coffee

a jug of milk

a drum of oil

a bag of mealies

a glass of milk

We call people who live in... Japan ......................

Japanese

Greece ....................

Greeks

France .....................

French

Egypt ......................

Egyptians

Belgium ..................

Belgians

China ......................

Chinese

Siam ........................

Siamese

Norway ..................

Norwegians

Sweden ..................

Swedes

Scotland .................

Scots

Italy ........................

Italian

Germany ................

Germans

South Africa ..........

South Africans

England ..................

English

Israel .......................

Israelis

Canada ...................

Canadians

Russia .....................

Russians

Arabia ....................

Arabs

Europe ....................

Europeans

America .................

Americans

Asia .........................

Asians

Afghanistan ...........

Afghanis

Argentina ...............

Argentinians

Australia ................

Australians

Bolivia ....................

Bolivians

Brazil ......................

Brazilians

Congo .....................

Congolese

Cyprus ...................

Cypriots

Finland ...................

Finns

Iceland ....................

Icelanders

Iran .........................

Iranese

Ireland ....................

Irish

Kenya .....................

Kenyans

Madagascar ...........

Madagascans

Malta ......................

Maltese

Mexico ....................

Mexicans

Monaco ..................

Monacans

Marocco .................

Moroccans

17

18

Mozambique .........

Mozambicans

Namibia .................

Namibians

Nepal ......................

Nepalese

Netherlands ...........

Dutch

Pakistan .................

Pakistanis

Peru ........................

Peruvians

Poland ....................

Poles

Portugal .................

Portuguese

Rwanda ..................

Rwandese

Senegal ...................

Senegalese

Spain .......................

Spaniards

Swaziland ..............

Swazis

Syria .......................

Syrians

Taiwan ...................

Taiwanese

Sudan .....................

Sudanese

Togo .......................

Togolese

Switzerland ...........

Swiss

Vietnam .................

Vietnamese

Turkey ....................

Turks

Zimbabwe .............

Zimbabweans

Zambia ...................

Zambians

Durban ...................

Durbanites

Cape Town ............

Capetonians

Paris ........................

Parisians

Johannesburg ........

Johannesburgers

London ...................

Londoners

Hamburg ...............

Hamburgers

Berlin ....................... Berliners

Eton ........................

Etonians

8 Nouns Names of people A person who lives next door to you is your

neighbour

A man who carries luggage on a station is a

porter

A man who mends shoes is a

shoemaker, cobbler

$SHUVRQZKRVHOOVÁRZHUVLVD

ÁRULVW

A lady who serves you in a cafe/restaurant is a

waitress

A person in charge of a library is a

librarian

A person who sells cloth and dress materials is a

draper

A person who writes books is an

author

A man who serves on a ship is a

sailor

A person who takes photographs is a

photographer

A man who uses a plough is called a

farmer/ploughman

A man who serves people at a table is called a

waiter

A man who uses handcuffs is called a

policeman

One who cares for the sick is a

nurse/sister

One who steals is a

thief

One who works for someone in the house is a

servant/domestic helper

2QHZKRHDWVKXPDQÁHVKLVD

cannibal

One who has a shop is a

shopkeeper

One who buys things in a shop is a

customer

One who delivers milk is a

milkman

One who works in a garden is a

gardener

One who is sent to convert the heathen is a

missionary

One who breaks into a house to steal is a

burglar

One who is ill in hospital is a

patient

One who is received at another’s house is a

guest

The head of a hospital is a

matron/superintendent

2QHZKRÁLHVDDHURSODQHLVD

pilot

One who repairs cars is a

mechanic

One who works with wood is a

carpenter

One who works with water-pipes is a

plumber

3HRSOHZKRH[WLQJXLVKÀUHVLQWRZQLVWKH

ÀUHEULJDGH 19

People who work together as a staff is a

personnel

A person in a wheelchair is

disabled

A person who crosses a street is a

pedestrian

The head of a school is a

principal/headmaster

A person who makes clothes is a

tailor/seamstress

A person who looks after prisoners in jail is a

warden

A person who directs a ship or aeroplane is a

navigator/pilot

A person who watches a game of rugby is a

spectator

One who goes on foot is a

pedestrian

People who attend a church service are the

congregation

A person who writes poetry is a

poet

A man who builds ships is a

shipwright

Names of places

20

Where dogs are kept

Kennel

Where fruit trees are grown

Orchard

Where religious services are held

Church

Where convicts are kept in cells

gaol/jail/prison

:KHUHÀOPVDUHVKRZQ

Cinema

Where books may be borrowed

Library

Where the dead are buried

Cemetery

In which pigs are kept

Sty

Where grapes are grown

Vineyard

In which fowls are kept

Run

Where ships are docked

Harbour

In which bees are kept

Hive

In which a springhare lives

Burrow

In which horses are kept

Stable

Where motor-cars are kept

Garage

Where fruit and vegetables are sold

Greengrocer/Market

Where sick people are looked after

Hospital

Where money is kept

Bank

Where stamps may be bought

3RVW2IÀFH

Where an artist paints

Studio

Where children are taught

School

Where dishes are washed up

Scullery

Where sheep and cattle are sold

Stock-fair

Where things are manufactured

Factory

Where stuffed animals may be seen

Museum

A place where one can overnight

Hotel/Motel/Lodge

A place to enjoy a meal

Restaurant

Where cows are milked

Cowshed

Where calves sleep at night

Calf-pen

Where calves are kept during the day

Paddock

Where fodder is kept

Shed / barn

Where only boots, shoes are sold

Shoe-store

Where butter and cheese are made

Dairy

Where bread and cake are made

Bakery

Where mealies, wheat is ground

Mill

Where meat is sold

Butchery

Where wild animals are kept in cages

Zoo

Where bricks are made

%ULFNÀHOGEULFN\DUG

Where cases are heard by the magistrate

Court

Where plants are bought

Nursery

Where orphans live together

Orphanage

Where old people dwell together

Old age home

Where birds are kept

Aviary

A badger’s home

Sett

An eagle’s home

Eyrie

21

9 One word for...

22

Cups, plates, saucers

Crockery

Knives, forks, spoons, teaspoons

Cutlery

Sheets, pillows, pillow cases, blankets

Bedding

Carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage

Vegetables

Apples, oranges, lemons, mangoes

Fruit

Materials, lace, cotton

Drapery

Socks, stockings

Hosiery

Diamonds, gold, earrings, bangles

Jewellery

Pins, needles, cotton

Haberdashery

Jerseys, dresses, suits

Clothing

A tennis frock, rugby clothes

Sportswear

Grasshoppers, ants, beetles, bees

Insects

Buffaloes, lions, kudu, impala

Game

Snakes, lizard, tortoises, crocodile

Reptile

Horses, donkeys, cattle, sheep

Livestock

Rabbits, mice, hamsters

Rodents

Tables, chairs, beds

Furniture

Chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys

Poultry

Oranges, mandarin, pomelos

Citrus fruit

Mangoes, paw-paws, pineapples, bananas

Subtropical fruit

%ULFNVZLQGRZIUDPHVFHPHQWURRÀQJ

Hardware

Spades, rake, hosepipe

Garden equipment

Paper, pens, books, cards

Stationery

10 Opposites Absent

Present

Good

Bad

Accept

Refuse / Decline

Happy

Sad

Alive

Dead

Hard

Soft

Always

Never

Harmful

Harmless

Arrive

Depart

Hate

Love

Asleep

Awake

Heavy

Light

Back

Front

High

Low

Begin

End

Hit

Miss

Better

Worse

Honest

Dishonest

Busy

Idle

Inside

Outside

Buy

Sell

Joy

Sorrow

Calm

Stormy

Kind

Unkind

Careful

Careless

Laugh

Cry

Clean

Dirty

Left

Right

Clever

Stupid

Like

Dislike

Close

Open

Long

Short

Cold

Hot

Loud

Soft

Day

Night

Many

Few

Dear / Expensive

Cheap

Much

Little

Deep

Shallow

Naughty

Good

Dull

Bright

Neat

Untidy / Slovenly

Dwarf

Giant

Often

Seldom

Early

Late

Old

Young / New

Easy

'LIÀFXOW

Open

Shut

Far

Near

Pass

Fail

Fast

Slow

Peace

War

Fat

Thin

Possible

Impossible

Find

Lose

Question

Answer

First

Last

Quick

Slow

Fresh

Stale

Quiet

Noisy / Loud

Friend

Enemy

Raw

Cooked

Friendly

Unfriendly

Rich

Poor

Full

Empty

Right

Wrong 23

Ripe

Green / Unripe

Summer

Winter

Rise

Fall

Sweet

Sour

Rough

Smooth

Thick

Thin

Same

Different

Top

Bottom

Save

Spend

Ugly

Pretty / Beautiful

Sharp

Blunt

Well

Badly

Short

Tall

Wet

Dry

Start

Finish

Wide

Narrow

Straight

Crooked

Wild

Tame

Strong

Weak

Win

Lose

11 Idiomatic expressions 1. His bark is worse than his bite - A person who threatens, but seldom does something. 2. To bear a grudge - Not to forgive someone for something. 3. Between you and me and the gate-post - To tell something in secrecy. 4. A bird’s-eye view - An overall view, taking in a lot of scenery / facts. 5. In black and white - It must be written down. 6. To make one’s blood boil - To get angry. 7. To rack your brains - To think very hard. 8. To build castles in the air - To imagine plans which seldom come true. 9. A wild goose chase - Plans which have no possibility of success. 24

10. $VWKHFURZÁLHV - A straight line through the air. 11. To look daggers - To show your annoyance (cross). 12. To have an eye on - To desire something / to watch a person. 13. 7RKDYHDÀQJHULQWKHSLH - To take part in something, usually in schemes. 14. To turn green with envy - To be jealous of someone / something. 15. To look down upon - To despise something / someone. 16. To hit the nail on the head - To say exactly the right thing / To show insight. 17. To turn over a new leaf - To try to live a better life, do things better. 18. In a nutshell - To say something in a few words / in brief. 19. Smell a rat - To be suspicious. 20. Know the ropes - To know things well. 21. Through thick and thin - Regardless. 22. On the tip of one’s tongue7RIDLOWRÀQGWKHZRUGRQHWKLQNVRQHUHPHPEHUV 23. To blow one’s own trumpet - To brag / To boast. 24. To rub up the wrong way - To irritate someone / To annoy someone. 25. To have words with someone - To quarrel with someone. 26. To carry weight7RKDYHLQÁXHQFH 27. To lose one’s head - To panic. 28. On the warpath - To look for trouble / To look for confrontation. 29. To beat about the bush - Doesn’t / Can’t come to a point. 30. To hit below the belt - An unfair strike. 31. %LUGVRIDIHDWKHUÁRFNWRJHWKHU - Persons of the same character and taste usually keep company. 32. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched'RQ·WEHRYHUFRQÀGHQWDQG assume success before you know the outcome of a venture. 33. A stitch in time saves nine - Repair things at once, it saves time. 25

34. Where there’s a will there’s a way - If one is determined to succeed, one will DOZD\VÀQGDZD\WRGRVR 35. Better late than never - It’s better to do something late than not to do it at all. 36. It never rains but it pours - Misfortunes come in numbers. 37. A friend in need is a friend indeed$IULHQGLQGLIÀFXOWWLPHVLVDUHDOIULHQG 38. You can take a horse to the water, but you can’t make it drink - You can give someone opportunities, but you can’t make them take advantage of them. 39. Once bitten, twice shy - A person who has been disappointed or harmed once by somebody won’t trust that person again. 40. The early bird catches the worm7KHSHUVRQZKRFRPHVÀUVWJHWVWKHEHVW 41. More haste, less speed - If you are in a hurry, you don’t do things properly. 42. Like father, like son - A child often resembles his parent’s ways in character or doings. 43. To be above-board - To be honest. 44. To bite off more than you can chew - To take on more responsibilities than you really can handle. 45. To make old bones - To become older. 46. To buy a pig in a poke - To buy something that really has no value at all. 47. To give the cold shoulder - To ignore someone. 48. To ride for a fall - Looking for trouble. 49. To keep a stiff upper lip - To remain calm and composed in the face of problems or danger. 50. That’s where the shoe pinches - That’s where the trouble is. 51. To sell for a song - To sell something worth a lot, for almost nothing (cheaply). 52. A chip of the old block - To have the same characteristics as one’s parents.

26

12 Singular and plural Rules for forming the plural 1. The most common way of forming the plural is to add –s, or –es to the singular, e.g. week – weeks; vine – vines; brush – brushes. 2. Change –f or –fe into –ves, eg. wife – wives; thief - thieves.  ([FHSWLRQVDUHWKHIROORZLQJZRUGVZKHUH\RXRQO\DGG²VWRWKHÀQDO²I e.g. roof – roofs; chief – chiefs; cuff – cuffs; belief – beliefs; dwarf – dwarfs; grief - griefs; brief – briefs; cliff – cliffs; reef – reefs; gulf – gulfs; puff – puffs; handkerchief – handkerchiefs. 4. Add –s only to some nouns ending in –oo and –o, e.g. piano – pianos; radio radios, zoo - zoos, bamboo - bamboos. 5. But add –es to these nouns, e.g. potato – potatoes; hero – heroes; hobo – hoboes; mosquito – mosquitoes; tomato – tomatoes, cargo - cargoes, echo - echoes. 6. Add –s to some nouns ending in –ay, -ey, –oy, e.g. joy –joys; key – keys; play – plays.  &KDQJHWKH²\LQWR²LHVLQWKHVHÁ\²ÁLHVMHOO\²MHOOLHVFRXQWU\FRXQWULHV 8. Irregular plurals, some changing the vowel, e.g. mouse – mice; ox – oxen; goose – geese; child – children; tooth - teeth, louse - lice. 9. Few nouns have the same form for singular and plural, e.g. buck – buck; sheep – sheep; quail – quail; salmon – salmon; deer – deer; gross – gross;  ÀVK²ÀVKVZLQH²VZLQHFDWWOHSLQFHUVWURXVHUVMHDQV 10. Some nouns have no singular form, e.g. scissors, pliers, trousers, pants, spectacles, news, measles and mumps. 11. Some nouns have no plural form, e.g. gold, furniture, fruit, luggage, game (wild animals) , stock (sheep, cattle), information, advice, knowledge, ignorance, nonsense, education, progress, wealth, poverty, luck, childhood, music, poetry, biology, photography, economics, safety, violence, laughter, anger. 12. These can take a -s or change to -ves: hoof - hoofs - hooves; scarf - scarfs scarves; wharf - wharfs - wharves.

27

Singular/plural list

28

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

army

armies

dairy

dairies

ass

asses

daisy

daisies

atlas

atlases

dentist

dentists

avocado

avocados

dish

dishes

baby

babies

donkey

donkeys

bamboo

bamboos

dwarf

dwarfs

banjo

banjos

dairy

dairies

bench

benches

daisy

daisies

berry

berries

dentist

dentists

body

bodies

dish

dishes

box

boxes

donkey

donkeys

boy

boys

dress

dresses

branch

branches

dwarf

dwarfs

bridge

bridges

echo

echoes

brooch

brooches

enemy

enemies

brush

brushes

ewe

ewes

buck

buck

family

families

buffalo

buffaloes

ÀVK

ÀVK

bunch

bunches

Á\

ÁLHV

bush

bushes

foot

feet

bus

buses

fruit

fruit

calf

calves

guess

guesses

canary

canaries

game

game

cargo

cargoes

gas

gases

chief

chiefs

glass

glasses

child

children

goose

geese

church

churches

hair

hair

class

classes

half

halves

commando

commandos

handful

handfuls

cook

cooks

handle

handles

country

countries

heathen

heathen

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

hero

heroes

radio

radios

hoof

hoofs/hooves

roof

roofs

horse

horses

rope

ropes

house

houses

scarf

scarfs/scarves

knife

knives

self

selves

lady

ladies

sheaf

sheaves

leaf

leaves

sheep

sheep

life

lives

shelf

shelves

loaf

loaves

sky

skies

louse

lice

solo

solos

man

men

soprano

sopranos

mango

mangoes

story

stories

Mary

Mary’s

table

tables

monkey

monkeys

tax

taxes

mosquito

mosquitoes

thief

thieves

moth

moths

tie

ties

mouse

mice

tomato

tomatoes

mule

mules

tooth

teeth

ox

oxen

toy

toys

page

pages

two

two’s

party

parties

volcano

volcanoes

peach

peaches

watch

watches

photo

photos

weed

weed

piano

pianos

wife

wives

piece

pieces

wish

wishes

pony

ponies

wolf

wolves

potato

potatoes

woman

women

princess

princesses

wool

wool

proof

proofs

zoo

zoos

puff

puffs

puppy

puppies

29

13 Abbreviations

30

adj.

Adjective

AA

Alcoholics Anonymous / Automobile Association

a.m.

Before noon (Latin - ante meridiem)

a/c

Account

ad.

Advertisement

A.D.

Anno Domini (in the year of our Lord)

Adj.

Adjutant

ad lib.

Ad libitum (at pleasure)

Aids

$FTXLUHGLPPXQHGHÀFLHQF\V\QGURPH

ans.

Answer

ATM

Automatic teller machine

Ave.

Avenue

B.C.

Before Christ

Co.

Company

C.O.D.

Cash on delivery

D.I.Y.

Do-it-yourself

Dr.

Doctor

e.g.

For example

etc.

And others; and the rest (Latin - et cetera)

i.e.

That is (Latin - id est)

G.B.

Great Britain

g

Gram

kg

Kilogram

M.P.

Member of Parliament; Military Police

P.A.Y.E.

Pay as you earn

p.m.

After noon (Latin - post meridiem)

P.O.

3RVW2IÀFH

Rd

Road

S.A.

South Africa; Salvation Army

St

Street; saint

Std

Standard

S.A.P.S.

South African Police Service

T.V.

Television

U.S.A.

United States of America

V.A.T.

Value Added Tax

V.I.P.

Very important person

yr., yrs

Year, years

U.K.

United Kingdom

14 Words that are easily confused Borrow and lend (When you borrow, you receive; when you lend, you give) e.g. I am not going to lend you my pen. (lend to) I want to borrow a book from you. (borrow from someone) Can and may (can means to be able) e.g. Teacher, may I please leave the room? I can open the door. Teach and learn (The teacher teaches the children, but they learn) e.g. What are you going to teach us today? I shall have to learn harder this year. Lie and lay /LHWROLHÁDWRQDEHG OLHOD\ODLQ Lie - to tell a lie (lie - lied - lied) Lay - lay the table (laid - laid) Lay - chickens lay eggs (laid - laid) Much and many (Many = countable) e.g. many children; much time; much money; many books; much sugar Few and little (Few = countable) e.g. a few children; a little time 31

a few people; a little happiness Between and among (Between is used for 2 only) e.g. Mother divided the sweets between my brother and me. We divided all the fruit among us. Their and there Their: The boys are enjoying their game. There: There are seven girls in the team. In, into and to 1. The car ran into a telephone pole. 2. I live in Kroonstad.  :HUDQWRWKH3RVW2IÀFHWRSRVWWKHOHWWHUV :H UDQ WR WKH 3RVW 2IÀFH WR SRVW WKH OHWWHUV Quite and quiet 1. Keep quiet please! 2. He is quite well again after his illness. Live and stay (Live is permanent; stay is temporary) e.g. I live in Krugersdorp. I am staying in Durban for the holidays. Rise and raise (Rise means to move upwards; raise means to lift up something) e.g. The smoke rises in the air. John raised his head. Fewer and less (Fewer is less in number; less is less in quantity) e.g. We have fewer cattle than they. He had less money than I. Older and elder (Elder applies to relations only and is always used before the noun.) e.g. Mary is older than Agnes. My elder sister is in grade eight. Passed and past (Passed is always a verb; past is not a verb) e.g. The holidays passed quickly. 32

We walked past the church. Farther and further )DUWKHUPHDQVPRUHGLVWDQWIXUWKHUPHDQVDGGLWLRQDORUUHIHUVWRÀJXUDWLYH distance) e.g. John ran much farther than I did. I need further information.

15 Apostrophe Note: The apostrophe is used for indicating possession (see 1 and 2 below) and for contraction ( see 3 below). 1. We usually add a S and put the apostrophe before the S e.g. Mary’s shoes the baby’s arm the cow’s tail the cupboard’s shelf. 2. When the noun is plural and ends in S, we put the apostrophe after the S e.g. the cows’ tails the babies’ clothes the cupboards’ shelves 3. An apostrophe is used to take place of letters that have been left out - contraction. e.g. do not - don’t does not - doesn’t did not - didn’t you are - you’re he is - he’s we have - we’ve where is - where’s will not - won’t I am - I’m should not - shouldn’t Note: The apostrophe s (‘s) is not used to form the plural in English except in the alphabet and numerals e.g. A’s, P’s, Q’s and two’s, three’s, ten’s

16 Parts of speech Nouns A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing or quality. e.g. dentist, teacher - person buck, goose - animal park, Durban - place 33

rainbow, pencil - thing (common noun) honesty, curiosity - quality (abstract noun)

Four main classes • Common nouns - names given to ordinary, everyday people, places and things, e.g. woman, doctor, king, town • Proper nouns - names of particular people, places and things. Most begin with capital letters, e.g. Albert, John, Durban, Cape Town • Collective nouns - names of groups of people, places and things of the same kind • Abstract nouns - names of qualities, feelings and actions which we cannot actually see, hear, taste, touch or smell, e.g. kindness, sorrow, joy

17 Adjectives • Add colour and interest to sentences by describing, or giving more information about nouns. • One can form adjectives from nouns, e.g. athlete - athletic; drama - dramatic; RIÀFHRIÀFLDO

Comparison of adjectives • There are three degrees of comparison a. positive degree: refers to one thing b. comparative degree: compares two things c. superlative degree: describes the best or the most • Most adjectives of one or two syllables form the comparative and superlative degrees by adding -er and -est E.g.

fast funny

faster funnier

fastest funniest

• Other adjectives have to change to form the comparative and superlative degrees E.g.

34

good little many

better less more

best least most

• Some adjectives cannot be compared E.g.

dead, perfect, alive, married

• Longer adjectives form their comparative and superlative degrees with the help of more and most E.g.

interesting painful

more interesting more painful

most interesting most painful

The position of adjectives Adjectives may be used in one of two ways, attributively and predicatively. Attributively +HUHWKHDGMHFWLYHLVXVHGLQIURQWRIWKHQRXQWKDWLWGHVFULEHVRUTXDOLÀHV $EHDXWLIXOÁRZHU 

$EDUNLQJGRJ



$KHDOWK\ER\

Predicatively Here the adjective is placed some way away from the noun. It directly follows the verb. Predicative adjectives are normally adjectives of quality. Adjectives are also used predicatively after the verbs - be, become, seem, appear, feel, get, grow, keep, look, make, smell, sound, taste, turn The lily is beautiful. Tom became rich. Peter felt cold. He looked calm.

The dog is barking. Susan seems happy. He grew impatient.

Some adjectives change their meaning when they are moved from attributive to predicative A small farmer. The farmer is small.

(He has a small farm) (He is a small man physically)

The adjectives chief, main, principal, sheer, utter are used before the noun His chief concern was the safety of the children. The main reason was ..... The principal point of his argument was .... It was sheer madness to .... He spoke utter rubbish. Most adjectives can be used both attributively and predicatively:

35

a. The following adjectives can be used only predicatively: 

DVOHHSDIUDLGDZDNHDORQHDZDUHDOLYHDÁRDWDVKDPHGFRQWHQWH[HPSWDQG unable

b. The following adjectives can only be used attributively former, latter, inner, outer c. Adjectives are used predicatively when used in a phrase that expresses measurement The Crocodile River is two hundred kilometres long. A building is ten storeys high. d. Adjectives are used predicatively when more than one are used with the noun The mongrel was thin and mangy. The judge was both witty and wise. e. Adjectives are used predicatively when they are followed by a prepositional phrase We shared the sweets evenly amongst the four of us. I ran quickly across the road. Adjectives may be used in three different ways a. One word: The young farmer. The empty house. b. A phrase: The farmer with the beard is my brother. c. A clause: The farmer, who is standing over there, is my brother. Remember a phrase is a description of something that does not contain a verb; a clause on the other hand always has a verb. Adjectives can be formed in many ways a. They can be formed by nouns: A stone wall bordered the house. A leather belt is better. A crime reporter. b. They can be formed from verbs by making use of the participle (third column): There were a lot of broken windows. (break) The tired baby fell asleep. (tire) F $GMHFWLYHVFDQEHIRUPHGIURPQRXQVDVZHOODVYHUEVE\DGGLQJVXIÀ[HV

36

-y

storm - stormy; cloud - cloudy; health - healthy

-ly

friend - friendly; father - fatherly

-ful

harm - harmful; hope - hopeful; hurt - hurtful

-less

harm - harmless; hope - hopeless; use - useless

-en

gold - golden; wood -wooden

-ous

danger - dangerous; fame - famous; fury - furious

-able

comfort - comfortable; honour - honourable

-ible

terror - terrible; horror - horrible

-some

trouble - troublesome; quarrel - quarrelsome

-ic

atom - atomic; Iceland - Icelandic

-ed

talent - talented; hate - hated; tire - tired

-like

child - childlike; god - godlike

-al

brute - brutal; accident - accidental

-ual

fact - factual, habit - habitual

-an

republic - republican; America - American

-ian

Shakespeare - Shakespearian

-ical

prophet - prophetically; economic - economical

-ish

child - childish; Jew - Jewish

-eous

instant - instantaneous; plenty - plenteous

-ive

rest - restive; correct - corrective; talk - talkative

-ing

love - loving; hate - hating; tire - tiring

d. The formation of the negatives of adjectives: these are formed by adding either SUHÀ[HVRUVXIÀ[HV un-

unhappy, unavailable, unfortunate

in-

inaccurate, incapable, inescapable

im-

impossible, immature, improbable

ir-

irregular, irresponsible, irresolute

il-

illegal, illegitimate, illegible

dis-

disobey, dishonest, disrespectful

-less

hopeless, homeless, useless

Difference between possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns Possessive adjectives are always followed by a noun, e.g. This is my book Possessive pronouns are used instead of the noun, e.g. The book is mine 37

18 Verbs Verbs have two main functions in sentences * They express actions * They express a state of BEING or existence - I am afraid; It is a ball They are doing, being and having words e.g. The dog barked. It was raining. They were having their breakfast. (A verb can be one word or it can be more than one word.) Regular verbs: The past tense and past participle of REGULAR VERBS are formed by adding -ed, eg. wash - washed; laugh - laughed Irregular verbs: Change in the past tense and past participle, eg. go - went gone; eat - ate - eaten ,QÀQLWLYHIRUPRIWKHYHUE Doing/to do

Singing/to sing

The tense of the verb tells us when the action it expresses takes place. Three main tenses A. Present tense I study the stars with my telescope (action takes place regularly) I go to school B. Past tense I studied the stars with my telescope (action is now completed) C. Future tense I shall study the stars with my telescope tonight (action has not yet taken place) Each of these tenses has a simple, continuous and perfect form:

Present

38

Simple

Continuous

Perfect

I ride

I am riding

I have ridden

I rode

I was riding

I had ridden

I shall ride

I shall be riding

I shall have ridden

Past Future

Auxiliary verbs Help a verb to form a new tense. Some commonly used auxiliary verbs are: be, is, am, are, was, were, will, shall, would, should, could, has, had, can, may, might and must.

Participles • Verbs can consist of more than one word, e.g. am reporting, will have visited • Reporting AND visited are parts of the verb called PARTICIPLES • Participles are used with auxiliary verbs to form new tenses

Present participles $UHWKDWSDUWRIWKHYHUEZKLFKHQGVLQLQJHJLVÁDVKLQJZHUHUHSRUWLQJ

Past participles Are used with auxiliary verbs such as have, has, had, was and were to form new tenses, e.g. have sighted; were seen; have been seen • Most past participles end in -ed, -d, -en or -n, but others have irregular endings.

19 Adverbs Adverbs add to the meaning of verbs. They tell how, when, where or why the action takes place. e.g. Anne spoke softly (how) slowly; warmly; quickly Soon it will be summer again (when) already; always; often She went into the shop, while I waited outside (where) there; outside; distantly (Adverbs often end with -ly) • They indicate when things happen or actions take place when - Adverb of Time

39

• They indicate where things happen or actions take place where - Adverb of Place • They indicate how things happen or actions take place how - Adverb of Manner • Adverbs can be formed from adjectives E.g. clever - cleverly; lazy - lazily

20 Pronouns Pronouns allow us to refer to persons/things without naming them over and over. e.g. Peter is twelve years old. - He is twelve years old. Mr. Jones is calling Roger. - Mr. Jones is calling him. It is Sam’s book. - It is his book. A pronoun takes the place of a noun ʕ Pronouns 3URQRXQV have KDYH aD number QXPEHU of RI functions in a sentence • Personal pronouns may replace a noun, which is the subject of a sentence I, you, he, she, it, we AND may replace a noun which is the object of a sentence e.g. me, you, him, her, it, us, them • Possessive pronouns show belonging, and include words like my, mine, yours, his, your, their, theirs, ours, its. There are two ways of saying that something belongs to someone. e.g. This is my new calculator. The new calculator is mine. These are your magazines. These magazines are yours. This is Adam’s bicycle. This bicycle is Adam’s. • 5HÁH[LYHSURQRXQV are words formed with -self, e.g. myself, himself, ourselves, themselves e.g.

I can look after myself. He can look after himself. They can look after themselves.

You can look after yourself. We can look after ourselves.

• Interrogative pronouns is pronouns which ask questions e.g. Who is coming to dinner? What is the matter with Mary?

40

21 Prepositions • Prepositions introduce phrases ‡ 7KH\ 7KH\DUHVLPSOHOLWWOHZRUGVEXWWKH\KDYHDELJLQÁXHQFHRQWKHPHDQLQJRID DUH VLPSOH OLWWOH ZRUGV EXW WKH\ KDYH D ELJ LQÁXHQFH RQ WKH PHDQLQJ RI D sentence • They can establish time relationships e.g. We have not seen him since April • They can establish relationships in place

Common errors in the use of prepositions •

We shared the sweets between the four of us We shared the sweets amongst the four of us

X 9



It feels like it’s going to be hot It feels as if it’s going to be hot

X 9



Will you come with? Will you come with me?

X 9

List of prepositions ON

Supper is on the table.

The prefect is on duty.

IN

I read it in the newspaper.

AT

I arrive at four o’clock.

BY

:HVDWE\WKHÀUH

We are leaving in the morning. The stone was thrown at the window. We travelled by train.

OF

She is afraid of spiders.

He died of a heart attack.

OFF

The cup fell off the shelf.

He cleaned the chalk off the board.

TO

The soldiers stood to attention.

I reported the theft to the police.

WITH

Do you take sugar with your tea?

I play with my friend.

FOR

He is famous for his inventions.

Will you stay for supper?

FROM

It is a present from Brian.

The verse comes from the Bible.

INTO

The thieves broke into the shop.

We changed into dry clothes.

ACROSS We swam across the river. Victor was named after his AFTER father.

My cousin lives across the street.

OVER

I jump over a stone.

The bicycle cost over R2 000

Father went out after supper.

41

22 Conjunctions Rules for joining sentences by using conjunctions After, when, before, as soon as You may start a sentence with any of the above conjunctions in order to join two sentences. A conjunction sometimes causes a tense change E.g.

They called the police. They waited for two hours. After they had called the police, they waited for two hours.

:KHQWKHVHQWHQFHLVLQWKHSDVWWHQVHGHFLGHZKLFKDFWLRQLVÀUVW7KHÀUVWDFWLRQLV ZULWWHQLQWKHSDVWSHUIHFWWHQVHDQGWKHVHFRQGDFWLRQLQWKHSDVWLQGHÀQLWHWHQVH E.g.

She feels ill. She swallows a diamond. She feels ill because she has swallowed a diamond.

:KHQWKHVHQWHQFHLVLQWKHSUHVHQWWHQVHGHFLGHZKLFKDFWLRQLVÀUVW7KHÀUVWDFWLRQ LVZULWWHQLQWKHSUHVHQWSHUIHFWWHQVHDQGWKHVHFRQGDFWLRQLQWKHSUHVHQWLQGHÀQLWH tense. E.g.

She hides the diamond. The thief takes it. Unless she hides the diamond, the thief will take it.

Using since: If the sentence has only one verb, that verb must be in the perfect tense:

E.g.

Since Peter’s eye operation he has seen much better.

If the sentence contains two verbs, the verb following directly after since is in the LQGHÀQLWHWHQVH7KHUHPDLQLQJYHUELVZULWWHQLQWKHSHUIHFWWHQVH E.g.

42

Since last year Peter’s sight has improved a lot. Since it rained, the grass has become very green

Conjunctions like but, because, although, and - join the sentences without changing the tense.

Conjunctions AS (because)

As you will not help me, I shall mend the puncture myself.

AS (when)

You must keep an eye on the ball as you play.

OR

Shall I phone you or will you phone me?

OR (else)

You must hurry or (else) you will be late.

THAN

Anne knows more about books than I do.

UNLESS

You will not play in the best team unless you practise hard.

AS SOON AS

I’ll let you know as soon as the mail arrives.

UNTIL

He kept on trying until he managed to do it.

AND (so)

The lift is not working (and) so you will have to use the stairs.

SO THAT

Hold your arm so that I can bandage it.

BUT

Jenny sings well, but Pam sings better.

ALTHOUGH

They won the match although it rained.

AFTER

After the bell had gone, we went home.

BEFORE

You ought not to buy a bike before you have tried it out.

WHEN

Take care when you turn a corner.

WHERE

He didn’t tell me where to look for the key.

IF

If you don’t feel well, stay in bed.

WHETHER

He wants to know whether they play rugby or not.

THAT

I’m sure that starting early is a good habit.

HOW MANY

Can you tell me how many books there are?

Interjections Interjections show surprise. An interjection is used with an exclamation mark, e.g. Wow! She is pretty. AND Ah, how wise!

Articles Articles are words like a, an and the

43

23 Word building Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

beauty

beautify

beautiful

beautifully

softness

soften

soft

softly

length

lengthen

long

lengthily

haste

hasten

hasty

hastily

cleanliness

cleanse

clean

cleanly

brightness

brighten

bright

brightly

sweetness

sweeten

sweet

sweetly

thirst

thirst

thirsty

thirstily

joy

enjoy

joyful

joyfully

width

widen

wide

widely

height

heighten

high

highly

loss

lose

lost

loosely

fat

fatten

fat

fatty

true

truly

truth beggar

beg

beggarly

beggarly

death

die

dead

deathly

strength

strengthen

strong

strongly

happy

happily

happiness largeness

enlarge

large

largely

simplicity

simplify

simple

simply

lucky

luckily

luck

44

movement

move

movable

movable

liar/lie

lie

lying

lying

ease

ease

easy

easily

riches

enrich

rich

richly

danger

endanger

dangerous

dangerously

usage

use

useful

usefully

poison

poison

poisonous

poisonously

blood

bleed

bloody

bloodily

breadth

broaden

broad

broadly

darkness

darken

dark

darkly

distance

outdistance

distant

distantly

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

fright

frighten

frightened

frightened

friendship

befriend

friendly

friendly

warmth

warm

warm

warmly

food

feed

foodless

foodless

freedom

free

free

freely

fatness

fatten

fattish

fattish

life

live

lively

lively

laughter

laugh

laughable

laughably

madness

madden

mad

madly

prison

imprison

imprisoned

imprisoned

pleasure

please

pleasant

pleasantly

redness

redden

reddish

redly

washing

wash

washable

washable

weakness

weaken

weak

weakly

24 Verb list Present tense

Past tense

Have/has/had + Past participle

Am, is, are

Was, were

Been

Beat(s)

Beat

Beaten

Become(s)

Became

Become

Begin(s)

Began

Begun

Bend(s)

Bent

Bent

Bite(s)

Bit

Bitten

Bleed(s)

Bled

Bled 45

46

Present tense

Past tense

Have/has/had + Past participle

Break(s)

Broke

Broken

Bring(s)

Brought

Brought

Build(s)

Built

Built

Burn(s)

Burnt

Burnt

Burst(s)

Burst

Burst

Buy(s)

Bought

Bought

Catch/catches

Caught

Caught

Choose(s)

Chose

Chosen

Come(s)

Came

Come

Cling(s)

Clung

Clung

Cost(s)

Cost

Cost

Creep(s)

Crept

Crept

Cut(s)

Cut

Cut

Dig(s)

Dug

Dug

Do/does

Did

Done

Draw(s)

Drew

Drawn

Dream(s)

Dreamt

Dreamt (dreamed)

Drink(s)

Drank

Drunk

Drive(s)

Drove

Driven

Eat(s)

Ate

Eaten

Fall(s)

Fell

Fallen

Feed(s)

Fed

Fed

Feel(s)

Felt

Felt

Fight(s)

Fought

Fought

Find(s)

Found

Found

)O\ÁLHV

Flew

Flown

Forget(s)

Forgot

Forgotten

Freeze(s)

Froze

Frozen

Get(s)

Got

Got

Give(s)

Gave

Given

Go/goes

Went

Gone

Grow(s)

Grew

Grown

Present tense

Past tense

Have/has/had + Past participle

Hang(s)

Hung(hanged)

Hung (hanged)

Hear(s)

Heard

Heard

Hide(s)

Hid

Hidden

Hit(s)

Hit

Hit

Hold(s)

Held

Held

Hurt(s)

Hurt

Hurt

Keep(s)

Kept

Kept

Kneel(s)

Knelt

Knelt

Know(s)

Knew

Known

Lay(s)

Laid

Laid

Lie(s)

Lay

Lain

Lie(s)

Lied

Lied

Lead(s)

Led

Led

Leave(s)

Left

Left

Light(s)

Lit (lighted)

Lit (lighted)

Lose(s)

Lost

Lost

Make(s)

Made

Made

Mean(s)

Meant

Meant

Meet(s)

Met

Met

Mow(s)

Mowed

Mown

Pay(s)

Paid

Paid

Put(s)

Put

Put

Read(s)

Read

Read

Ride(s)

Rode

Ridden

Ring(s)

Rang

Rung

Rise(s)

Rose

Risen

Run(s)

Ran

Run

Say(s)

Said

Said

See(s)

Saw

Seen

Sell(s)

Sold

Sold

Send(s)

Sent

Sent

Shake(s)

Shook

Shaken

Shine(s)

Shone

Shone 47

48

Present tense

Past tense

Past participle have / has / had +

Show(s)

Showed

Shown

Shut(s)

Shut

Shut

Sing(s)

Sang

Sung

Sit(s)

Sat

Sat

Sleep(s)

Slept

Slept

Smell(s)

Smelt (smelled)

Smelt (smelled)

Sow(s)

Sowed

Sown

Speak(s)

Spoke

Spoken

Spell(s)

Spelt (spelled)

Spelt (spelled)

Spend(s)

Spent

Spent

Spread(s)

Spread

Spread

Stand(s)

Stood

Stood

Steal(s)

Stole

Stolen

Sting(s)

Stung

Stung

Swear(s)

Swore

Sworn

Sweep(s)

Swept

Swept

Swim(s)

Swam

Swum

Take(s)

Took

Taken

Teach/teaches

Taught

Taught

Tear(s)

Tore

Torn

Tell(s)

Told

Told

Think(s)

Thought

Thought

Throw(s)

Threw

Thrown

Wear(s)

Wore

Worn

Win(s)

Won

Won

Write(s)

Wrote

Written

Blow (s)

Blew

Blown

25 Concord of the verb Rules of concord 1. A singular subject takes a singular verb; Plural subjects take plural verbs The boy is here He has a dog I am reading a book The boys are here They have dogs We are reading books 2. And If two or more singular subjects are joined by AND, the verb is plural. The boy and girl are here.

The cat and dog are crossing the bridge.

Exceptions of the rule 2.1

When two singular nouns, connected by the word and, form a single idea or impression, then the verb is singular. Bread and butter is nourishing. Fish and chips Bacon and eggs Brandy and coke

2.2

When the words “the” or “a” are found only once in the sentence the subject is singular and so the verb must be singular. A black and white cow is in the stable, BUT The black and the white cow are in the stable. A wife and mother has a lot of work to do. BUT A wife and a mother have a lot of work to do.

3. Both ... and ... When two or more singular subjects are joined by the words “both … and” then the verb is plural. Both the cow and her calf are in the stable. 4. Or, either or, neither nor Singular subjects that are joined by the words or, either or and neither nor, take a singular verb. Anne or Susan is in the class.

The horse or the cow is in the road.

However: According to the Rule of Proximity when one subject is singular and the other plural the verb will agree with the subject nearest to it. (Subject on the right.) Either the cow or the very small calves are in the stable. BUT 49

Either the calves or the cow is in the stable. Neither Peter nor his cousins are here. BUT Neither the teachers nor the principal is here. 5. Not only ... but also ... The rule of Proximity also applies to the words not only … but also … Not only the cat but also the dog is in the kennel. Not only the cat but also the kittens are in the basket. Not only the kittens but also the cat is in the basket. 6. With, together with, as well as The verb must agree with the subject that is found before the prepositions with, Together with and as well as, be it singular or plural. (to the left) The cat, with the dog, is sitting on the porch. BUT The cats, with the dog, are sitting on the porch. The kittens, together with the cat, are here. BUT The cat, together with the kittens, is here. The donkey, as well as horses, is in the camp. BUT The horses, as well as the donkey, are in the camp. 7. Each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing, none, anybody, anyone, anything ... These pronouns all take a singular verb. Every child is here. No one knows… Anybody is allowed…

Nobody is left out. Each is to receive an apple Everything is ready…

8. Subjects which are plural in form, but singular in meaning, are ruled by a singular verb The news is good. Mathematics is easy. Measles is a contagious disease. Politics is a dirty game. 9. Nouns with a singular meaning (tools, clothing, etc., which consist of objects that are formed by two parts) are ruled by a plural verb Spectacles are trousers are pliers are Tweezers are pyjamas are tongs are 10. A pair of ... is ruled by the singular verb A pair of shoes is on display. A pair of scissors is on the table.

50

11. Collective nouns If all the people or animals or the things in the group do the same thing at the

same time in the same place, the name of the group is followed by a singular verb. (Collective Nouns) The crew has come to work. The herd is grazing.

A swarm of bees is outside. A family is visiting here.

12. Quantity This tells you how much of things there is, or else that a thing is uncountable: Much, a little, little, less. These all take a singular verb. Sugar is Much work is done.

There is so little to say. Less is better.

Money is spent.

13. Number This tells you how many of a thing there are. Countable things: Many, a few, few. These are all ruled by a plural verb. Guests are expected. Many sweets are eaten.

Few of my friends are here. Very few children like violence.

14. The nouns people, police, public, cattle and clergy are always ruled by a plural verb The police are here The public are the best judges. The cattle are in the kraal. The clergy are in a meeting. 15. A number of This is always followed by a plural verb A number of children were caught smoking. A number of books are gone.

16. The number of This is followed by a singular verb. The number of pupils has increased. The number of accidents on this road is still far too high. 17. One of This plus a plural noun takes a plural verb. She is one of those girls who are always late. He is one of those children that don’t know how to behave.

18. The only one This is ruled by a singular verb 51

He is the only one in the class who has passed. She is the only one of the girls who has a car. 19. A fraction followed by a plural noun takes a plural verb Two-thirds of the children are here.  +DOIRIWKHELVFXLWVDUHÀQLVKHG 20. A fraction followed by a singular noun takes a singular verb Two-thirds of the class is studying. Half of the cake is eaten. 21. Numerals  ,IDSOXUDOVHHPVWRIRUPWKHLGHDRIDÀ[HGVXPRUPDVVWKHQWKHYHUELVVLQJXODU Fifty cents is too much for this sweet. Five from seven leaves two. Two hundred kilometres is a long way to walk. 22. Many a person This is also followed by a singular verb. Many a person has found to his cost that prevention is better than cure. • Words such as EVERYTHING, ANYBODY, ANYTHING, EACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHER, NOBODY, EVERYBODY, EVERYONE, SOMEONE take a SINGULAR VERB E.g. Everyone has take part in the competition. Nobody wants to take part in the competition. • Either ... or/Neither ... nor - The NOUN closer to the VERB determines whether it will be a SINGULAR or a PLURAL verb E.g. Neither Sue nor the boys want to go. Neither the girls, nor Peter wants to go. • As well as/together with/like/including/with - Look at the FIRST NOUN E.g.

Hugh, as well as his parents, is a smoker. The pupils, including their teacher, have started a music group.

• Collective nouns Trousers, spectacles are ...... A pair of spectacles is ....... The class is excited (as one group) The class are all excited (different individuals in one class) • He, she, it .... SINGULAR form of the verb • They, we, you ..... PLURAL form of the verb 52

26 Tenses Present, past and future simple tenses We use the simple tenses when • something is always true, e.g. My father is a dentist • something is done regularly or when something is a habit, e.g. I visit my aunt every week Present

Past

Future

I listen You listen He/She/It listens We listen You listen They listen

I listened You listened He/She listened We listened You listened They listened

I shall/will listen You will listen He/She will listen We shall/will listen You will listen They will listen

Possible time words

Usually, never, every day/week/ month, regularly, often, once a week/month/ year

Yesterday last night/week/ year/ month

Tomorrow, In the future, Next week/ month/ year

The tense is formed by using

Present tense verb (The concord of the verb is important)

Paste tense verb

:LOOLQÀQLWLYH

Form of the simple tenses

Present, past and future perfect tenses Present Form of the perfect tenses

Past

Up to now she has She improved after read seven books he had reprimanded about sport stars. her. After she had 6KHKDVMXVWÀQLVKHG seen a movie, she ate her work. supper.

When to use this tense

For completed actions in the present

When you want to go back to an earlier time when you are already talking about the past

Possible time words

After/when/as soon as/up to now/just/ already/since/for/ by/ now/ before

After/when/as soon, previous/just/ already/ not yet/ ever/never, before/ always

Future By this time tomorrow, we will KDYHÀQLVKHGWKH work. To talk about events that will have been completed by a certain time in the future. By sunset/by 09:00/ by then/at this time tomorrow/ when the bell rings 53

The tense is formed by using

has/have + past participle

had + past participle

shall/will + have + past participle

Present, past and future continuous tenses We use the continuous tense to • express actions that are/were actually happening or • progressing at a certain time, even actions that will take place in the future Present

Past

Future

I am reading You are reading He/She is reading We are reading You are reading They are reading

I was reading You were reading He/She was reading We were reading You were reading They were reading

I shall/will be reading You will be reading He/She will be reading We shall/will be reading You will be reading They will be reading

Possible time words

At this moment; Again While/When

At that moment When/While Five years ago at a VSHFLÀFWLPH

At a certain time/ Tomorrow at two

The tense is formed by using

Am/is/are + verb + -ing

Was/were + verb + -ing

Will/shall be + verb + -ing

Form of the continuous tenses

Present, past and future perfect continuous tenses Present Form of the perfect continuouse tenses

54

He has been walking for hours. They have been walking for hours now.

Past

Future

He had been walking for hours that morning

By this time tomorrow he will have been walking for hours. By this time tomorrow we shall have been walking for hours.

For actions that started some time ago and are still continuing at the moment.

For actions that started some time earlier and were still continuing at a time in the past.

Possible time words

all morning/all day, for hours/ now/ already

all day/all morning/ since early that morning/for hours/ already

by this time next week/by eight o’clock tomorrow

The tense is formed by using

has/have + been + verb + -ing

had + been + verb + -ing

shall/will + have + been + verb + -ing

When to use this tense

For actions that will start some time in the future and will still be continuing at a certain time in the future.

Questions and tags When you ask a question, you can ʕ use XVH the WKH verb YHUE in LQ the WKH sentence VHQWHQFH to WR ask DVN the WKH question TXHVWLRQ ʕ use XVH “help” ´KHOSµ words ZRUGV (auxiliary DX[LOLDU\ verbs) YHUEV like OLNH DO, '2 DOES, '2(6 WILL, :,// DID ',' +  THE 7+( 9(5% VERB ʕ start VWDUW with ZLWK IS, ,6 ARE, $5( WAS, :$6 WERE :(5( ʕ use XVH aD question TXHVWLRQ word, ZRUG like OLNH WHO?, :+2" WHAT?, :+$7" :+(5(" WHERE?, +2:" HOW?, :+(1" WHEN? ʕ make PDNH aD statement VWDWHPHQW and DQG use XVH aD tag WDJ so VR that WKDW the WKH whole ZKROH sentence VHQWHQFH appears DSSHDUV like OLNH aD question TXHVWLRQ Examples Who were with you? Does your father know that you did so well? Will you be able to go with me? Are you joking? Using tags We always eat take-aways on Saturdays, don’t we? We don’t always eat take-aways on Saturdays, do we? Remember The tense is the same in the statement and in the tag. If the statement is positive, the tag is negative. If the statement is negative, the tag is positive.

55

27 Active and passive voice If a sentence is in the active voice, the subject is doing the action, e.g. the dog chases the cat. If a sentence is in the passive voice, the object is doing the action, e.g. The cat is chased by the dog.

Rules for changing active into passive voice • Underline Underli the verb of the sentence • Decide which tense it is. • Find the objectRIWKHVHQWHQFH ÀQGWKHREMHFWE\XVLQJWKHVXEMHFWDQGWKHYHUE and ask the question, what? e.g. The dog chases what? Answer: The cat) • Start the sentence with the object

Active and passive voice Present

Past

Future

3UHVHQW,QGHÀQLWH7HQVH

3DVW,QGHÀQLWH7HQVH

)XWXUH,QGHÀQLWH7HQVH

Karen sings a song. A song is sung by Karen. Formed by adding is/are + past participle of verb

56

Karen sang a song. A song was sung by Karen.

Karen will sing a song. A song will be sung by Karen

Formed by adding was/were + past participle of verb

Will + be + past participle

Present Continuous Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Future Continuous Tense

Karen is singing a song.

Karen was singing a song.

Karen will be singing a song.

A song is being sung by Karen.

A song was being sung by Karen.

Formed by am/is/are + being + past participle

Formed by was/were + being + past participle

Present Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Future Perfect Tense

Karen has sung a song.

Karen had sung a song.

Karen will have sung a song.

A song has been sung by Karen.

A song had been sung by Karen.

Formed by has/have + been + past participle

Formed by has/have + been + past participle

A song will being sung by Karen. Formed by shall/will + being + past participle

A song will have been sung by Karen. Formed by will + have + been + past participle

28 Direct and indirect speech Reported speech When something is written into reported (indirect) speech, there are certain changes that take place. • No inverted commas (“...”) are used in reported speech • If the introductory verb is in the PRESENT TENSE, (eg. He says/asks/tells) then only the PRONOUNS in the sentence need to be changed (i.e. I/you becomes he/ she; We/you becomes they) E.g. Peter: “I feel wonderful today.” becomes Peter says that he feels wonderful today • If the introductory verb is in the PAST TENSE (eg. He said/asked/stated) then the following changes must also be made: a. The verb (action or doing-word) has to move one step back in the past: is ..................................................................................................................................was are .............................................................................................................................were look ........................................................................................................................looked must .......................................................................................................................had to will .........................................................................................................................would was/were .........................................................................................................had been liked ..................................................................................................................had liked b. Words that indicate time and place also move, one step “further” away: Today ........................................that day

now .......................................then

Yesterday....................the previous day

here .......................................there

Tomorrow ..................the following day

this/these......................that/those

Examples Richard: “I went to the movies yesterday.” Richard said that he had gone to the movies the previous day. c. The inverted commas fall away d. Start with: He said that/He asks if

57

More examples Direct speech

Indirect speech

“I am wet.”

He/she says that he/she is wet. He/she said that he/she was wet. He says that I am wet. / He says you are wet.

“You are wet.”

He said that I was wet. / He said you were wet. He said that we were wet. “The plane is already over the sea.”

“I don’t really mean this.”

He says the plane is already over the sea. He said the plane was already over the sea. She says she doesn’t really mean this. She said she didn’t really mean that.

“Alex was in trouble.”

He says Alex was in trouble. He said Alex had been in trouble.

29 Figures of speech

58

Term

Description

Example

Alliteration

The repetition of consonants in a line or verse

The big brown beast.

Assonance

The repetition of vowel sounds in a line or verse

The fat cat sat there.

Simile

A comparison of two things in which the word like, so, or as is used

“My love is like a red red rose that’s newly sprung in June.”

Metaphor

$QLPDJHLVLGHQWLÀHGZLWKDQRWKHU because of a kind of similarity to the writer. Two images are directly compared, without using the word like, so, or as.

“It is the east and Juliet is the sun.” - Shakespeare

Onomatopoeia

Sounds are imitated for effect

The tip tap of rain on the roof.

An object or animal is attributed human characteristics

The sun smiled at us and the wind whispered sweet sounds in our ears.

Irony

The actual meaning of the words is different than that which is stated

When your friend hasn’t done his part of your mutual assignment, you say: “Great, this is just what I need to keep me busy during the weekend!”

Sarcasm

$IRUPRIZLW,WVLJQLÀHVDUHPDUN that is the opposite to what it appears to mean.

“You did a great job,” she said to him after examining the paint that was peeling off her car.

3HUVRQLÀFDWLRQ

Homonyms - are words which are spelt the same but have different meanings, e.g. He came second in the race. Every second there is a car accident. Homophones - are words which sound alike but are spelt differently, e.g. threw through Jargon - is the name we give to special words, terms and expressions used by a profession, trade or exclusive group. People who do not operate in these specialised ÀHOGVZLOORIWHQÀQGLWGLIÀFXOWWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHWHUPLQRORJ\ Neologisms - when new things are discovered or invented, we need to make up new words to name them. These new words are called neologisms. AcronymsDUHIRUPHGE\WDNLQJWKHÀUVWOHWWHUVRIDQXPEHURIZRUGVDQGFUHDWLQJ a new and shorter word with them. Letters are not followed by full stops, eg: Famsa - Family and Marriage Society of South Africa

Writing • Story - introduction, development, conclusion (surprising or unusual) • Mini-stories - all the ingredients of a longer story - introduction, development, conclusion, but it is told in exactly ÀIW\ZRUGV • Paragraphing • Functional writing - it is - instructions, directions and explanations • Essays

Writing poems •

Free verse - no rhyming words are necessary and the length of the lines can be varied to emphasize ideas or create a mood.



Syllable poems - is a form of writing in which each line has to consist of a certain 59

number of syllables, e.g. * Haiku - this form of verse comes from Japan and is used to compose delicate, rather sensitive word pictures about subjects taken from nature (could be  ZULWWHQRQDQ\VXEMHFW $KDLNXFRQVLVWVRIWKUHHOLQHV7KHÀUVWOLQHKDVÀYH  V\OODEOHVWKHVHFRQGVHYHQDQGWKHWKLUGÀYHPDNLQJDWRWDORIVHYHQWHHQLQ all. With a shriek of rage, Twisting in pent-up fury; Comes the tornado Note: in a syllable poem, it is the number of syllables to the line which is important, not the number of words. •

Word cinquains * A cinquainLVDSRHPFRQVLVWLQJRIÀYHOLQHV * A word cinquain is written to the following pattern: Line 1: names the subject in one word /LQHGHÀQHVRUGHVFULEHVWKHVXEMHFWLQWZRZRUGV Line 3: expresses action in three words Line 4: expresses a personal opinion, or attitude, in four words /LQHJLYHVDV\QRQ\PIRUWKHVXEMHFWRUVXPVXSWKHÀUVW four lines, in one word

• Rhyming poems - Rhyming poems usually have a certain rhythm or tune. This is called metre. • Parodies - are amusing imitations of someone else’s work, like trying to imitate the rhyming pattern and metre of a well-known poem. • Nonsense poems - Limericks are amusing verses which all have the same rhyming pattern and rhythm.

60

30 Punctuation Punctuation marks make the written text easier to read and understand. Without punctuation, writing would not make sense.

Capital letters 1.

Sentences always start with capital letters. e.g. We bought popcorn because we liked it.

2. Proper nouns need capital letters. e.g. We visited Mexico.  7LWOHVRIERRNVÀOPVRUSOD\VDUHZULWWHQLQFDSLWDOOHWWHUV e.g. THE GENTLE DOLPHIN.  ,IKRZHYHUWKHWLWOHLVXQGHUOLQHGRULQLQYHUWHGFRPPDVRQO\WKHÀUVWOHWWHURI  WKHÀUVWZRUGDQGDQ\SURSHUQRXQVZLOOEHLQFDSLWDOOHWWHUV e.g. “The gentle dolphin” or My friend Flicka

Full stops 1. A full stop indicates the end of a sentence. e.g. Remember to lock the door. 2. Full stops are found after certain abbreviations. e.g. Prof. abbr. e.g.

Commas 1. We use commas to separate words or phrases in a list: e.g. We bought books, pens, pencils and erasers for the new school year. 2. Commas indicate where one phrase or clause ends and another begins: e.g. Piet van der Merwe won his tennis match, to the delight of the spectators. 3. Additional information may be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas: e.g. Mr Jenkins, the Principal, addressed the pupils and parents. 4. We place commas before and after words such as however and nevertheless: e.g. She was, however, late for the appointment and this caused her to miss the interview. 5. Introductory words or phrases are separated from the rest of the sentence with a comma: e.g. Once again, I was ignored by the panel of judges.

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* Avoid using a comma between two main clauses. Rather use a full stop, semi-colon or a conjunction. * e.g. A census was taken, the government needed statistics. X * A census was taken. The government needed statistics. 9

Semi-colons (;) 1. The semi-colon is a long pause that balances two equally important, related or parallel ideas HJ6KHZHQWE\WUDLQVKHZRXOGUDWKHUKDYHÁRZQ 2. It also indicates opposite ideas (antithesis) e.g. In summer she swims; in winter she skates. 3. It joins two main clauses where there is no conjunction e.g. She worked hard for the examinations; she had nothing to fear. 4. A semi-colon may often be replaced by a full stop or by the conjunctions and, but, so, for and although e.g. She worked hard for the examinations so she had nothing to fear.

Colons (: ) 1. The colon indicates that a list, an explanation or an idea is following e.g. I need to buy the following items: lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers and carrots. 2. It introduces a quotation e.g. J.F. Kennedy’s famous words are: “Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.” 3. In script writing (dialogue), a colon follows the speaker e.g. Mrs. Brown: Are you going to the meeting? &DWK\,I,ÀQGDIULHQG

Question marks 1. Question marks occur at the end of a question. e.g. Who took up the collection? 2. Rhetorical questions end in question marks. e.g. Why do we need an education?

Exclamation marks 1. Exclamation marks follow exclamations or interjections (interruptions). e.g. Ouch! I am scared! 62

2. They are used to accentuate and strengthen the tone of a statement. e.g. The lieutenant yelled, ‘Attention!’ 3. They are used after sentences, phrases or words containing emotions such as anger, fear, happiness, anxiety, shock and misery. HJ´,·PSHWULÀHGµZKLVSHUHGWKHIULJKWHQHGFKLOG Note: Both the question mark and the exclamation mark contain a full stop, so you do not need another full stop at the end of the sentence when either of these is used.

Quotation marks (inverted commas) (‘ ’) or (“ “) 1. Quotation marks are used to indicate direct speech. e.g. Mr Thompson said, “There will be no homework over weekends.” 2. Quotation marks are used to quote (repeat) someone else’s words. e.g. Martin Luther King said, “I have a dream!” 3. Quotation marks are used to ‘excuse’ oneself for using slang or foreign words. e.g. Our new station wagon is used for ‘schlepping’ the soccer team around. 4. Quotation marks indicate metaphoric usage. e.g. I am the ‘baby’ of the family. * All punctuation must fall within the inverted commas.

Hyphen $K\SKHQOLQNVSUHÀ[HVWRZRUGVRUOLQNVWZRZRUGVLQRUGHUWRIRUPFRPSRXQG words. e.g. anti-dandruff shampoo, pre-school, well-deserved, life-threatening 2. It helps to differentiate meanings. e.g. She had to re-make the garment. The remake of this dress is a success. ,QRUGHUWRIDFLOLWDWHVSHOOLQJDQGSURQXQFLDWLRQDK\SKHQLVLQVHUWHGLIDSUHÀ[ HQGVLQDYRZHODQGWKHZRUGMRLQHGWRWKHSUHÀ[EHJLQVZLWKWKHVDPHYRZHO e.g. co-opt re-examine no-one 4. Words that cannot be completed on one line are linked to the next line with a hyphen * The hyphen may only be used at the end of a syllable.

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Dash * The dash line is slightly longer than the hyphen line.(—) 1. A dash serves a similar purpose to a comma, colon or a semi-colon. It separates parts of a sentence and forces us to pause. e.g. We had to make an exit — time was running out. 2. In order to give additional information, the dash can be used in the same way as commas or brackets. e.g. next week we are going to Port Elizabeth — the Windy City. 3. It separates a comment or afterthought from the rest of the sentence. e.g. I checked and there was no-one there — or so I thought! 4. It creates a dramatic pause, leading to a climax or anti-climax. e.g. I ran to the window; I looked out and saw — the cat!

Ellipsis (… ) 1. The three ellipsis dots indicate that a sentence is incomplete or that something has been omitted. e.g. He walked to the edge of the cliff and … (To be continued …) 2. We can usually guess the meaning from the context of the sentence. e.g. You had better tidy your room or else …

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