Why hydrogen and current status

Why hydrogen and current status Den Haag, 25 March 2010 Presented by Jaco Reijerkerk OVERVIEW • • • 2 Need for sustainable transport Hydrogen te...
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Why hydrogen and current status Den Haag, 25 March 2010

Presented by Jaco Reijerkerk

OVERVIEW

• • •

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Need for sustainable transport Hydrogen technology developments Main messages

Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

World final energy consumption

Non-energy use 9% Residential, services and agriculture 36%

International maritime Pipeline 2% 2% Rail 2%

Other 0%

Air 13%

Transport 28%

Road passengers 51%

Road freight 30%

Industry 27%

Total: 8085 Mtoe in 2006 169 Mboe/d

Transport: 2227 Mtoe in 2006 45 Mboe/d IEA World Energy Outlook 2008

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Final energy consumption transport by fuel

• Oil dominant fuel in transport • Transport drives economic growth:

Other 4% Biomass 1%

 Mobility of people  Mobility of goods; trade  Globalization

• Hence …oil fuels economic growth Oil 95%

Transport: 2227 Mtoe in 2006 45 Mboe/d IEA World Energy Outlook 2008

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Car fleet growth

• Cars per 1000 people:    

US Europe China India

~750 - 800 ~450 - 500 ~ 20 - 25 ~ 10 - 15

• Car stock increase from 650 million in 2005 to 1.4 billion in 2030 (IEA WEO 2008)

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Key challenges

• Economic growth/wealth strongly dependant on mobility

• Mobility strongly dependant

on finite primary energy (oil)

• Global increase of energy demand • Rising net energy imports (i.e. EU/NL) • Global and local emissions related to the use of oil products  Climate change

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Relevance CO2 emissions transport

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Four ways to reduce oil consumption and mitigate CO2 emissions from transport



Reduce transport demand / Modal shift



Improve driving behaviour



Improve vehicle efficiency



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Hydrogen vehicles

Use low carbon fuels  diversify

Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Source: Daimler

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

OVERVIEW

• • •

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Need for sustainable transport Hydrogen technology developments Main messages

Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

• HFCVs are electric vehicles  Enable zero emission vehicles (locally)  Offers prospects for CO2 free/lean mobility  Reduces dependence of oil

• Wide range of road vehicles  Passenger cars  Vans  Small trucks  Busses  Specialty vehicles

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

FC-car development: from prototypes …

Consumption kWh/km

Consumption

Honda FCX Source: Honda

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

… to small series Vehicle

Honda

FCX Clarity

Status

2008

Small Series

Propulsion

Fuel Cell Battery Electric Motor

100 kW Li-ion battery 100 kW (torque 256 Nm)

Storage

CGH2

35 MPa (171 l)

Performance

Range Top speed

~430 km 160 km/h (limited)

• 50% increase of output density per volume (67% by mass) compared to previous FCX • 20% increase of fuel economy (indicative fuel use 26 km/l g.e.) • Improved low temperature start-up capability: at -30ºC • Begin of limited retail marketing in summer 2008 in Southern California Source: Honda • For three years lease term: $600 per month including maintenance and insurance 14

Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Source: Daimler AG

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Source: DOE

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Other examples

Sources: Hyundai, Toyota, GM, Volkswagen AG, Ford Motor Company, BMW AG

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Hydrogen refuelling stations

• Hydrogen refuelling technology  Can be integrated in conventional stations  Builds upon many years of experience  Is proven and safe  Is available in US, EU and Asia  Works with any hydrogen source or quality

• Most OEM vehicles require 700 bar  SAE refuelling standards

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Examples Linde H2 Center, Munich: 350bar, LH2

OMV, Stuttgart: 350bar, 700bar

Shell 350bar350bar and LH2 Shell,Tokyo: Washington:

AGIP, Frankfurt: 350bar, 700bar and LH2

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Demonstration projects show: • Fuel Cell cars ready for end customer usage (latest challenge “cold start ability” solved) Clean Energy Partnership (CEP), Berlin • Since 2003

• Production, supply and fueling of hydrogen feasible and scalable

• 40 cars and 14 buses in daily use • 3 fueling stations active in 2010 • > 500.000 km driven & > 5000 fuelings performed

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Important recent developments • Signing of Letter of Understanding for “Development and market introduction of Fuel Cell vehicles “September 8th 2009 • Seven global OEMs covering Japan, Korea, US, France and Germany • Anticipated commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) from 2015 onwards • Fuel Cell vehicles at a few hundred thousand units over life cycle on a worldwide basis • Very first time mutual agreement between OEMs on timing of commercial roll out

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

• Signing of Memorandum of Understanding for “H2 Mobility” September 10th in Berlin • (10) key stakeholders from industry (OEM, oil, utility & industrial gas) and from public (NOW) • Intention to jointly build up hydrogen fueling infrastructure in lead market Germany

(…)

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Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Hydrogen Refuelling Station Concept

• •

Integration in existing refuelling stations as much as possible Basically four options:    



On-site generation Transport gaseous hydrogen by truck Transport liquid hydrogen by truck Transport gaseous hydrogen by pipeline

Considerations:  Footprint, flexibility, capex, opex, capacity, modularity, fuel quality, green/clean-H2, fuel quality, standardisation, car cryo-storage, …

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Our conclusion … Towards a Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure for VEhicles

Hydrogen Refuelling Station Concept

• •

Supply liquid hydrogen to stations At station:  Cryo-storage of liquid hydrogen  Dispensing of gaseous hydrogen into cars at 350 – 700 bar  Pressurisation of hydrogen using cryo-pump  Standard unit allowing for