Week 3. Types of tests and assessments

Week 3 Types of tests and assessments Task 1 Why do we test our Learners? •  The question ‘Why do we test our learners?” may look very simple and ob...
Author: Erick Warren
0 downloads 2 Views 2MB Size
Week 3 Types of tests and assessments

Task 1 Why do we test our Learners? •  The question ‘Why do we test our learners?” may look very simple and obvious. But think about it carefully and you may find that there are several different answers. Begin by making some notes yourself and then discuss your thoughts about the question with other people in your group. Prepare a group response.

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

2

Pre-test 3 •  Why do we test? •  Purpose of tests? •  Types of assessments? •  Types of measurements? •  Types of language tests?

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

3

Why test? • 

Heaton’s (1990, Classroom testing) reasons for testing (p.9-22) –  –  –  –  –  –  – 

Dr Lee

Finding out about progress Encouraging students Finding out about learning difficulties Finding out about achievement Placing students Selecting students Finding out about proficiency TE30503 LTA Week 2

4

Why test?

•  •  •  •  • 

Henning, Grant’s (1987, A guide to Language Testing) Purposes of Language Tests. (p.1 – 4) Diagnosis and feedback Screening and selection Placement Providing Research Criteria Assessment of Attitudes and Sociopsychological Differences

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

5

A. Types of tests •  Just as there are many purposes for which language tests are developed, so there are many types of language tests. •  Some types of tests serve a variety of purposes while others are more restricted in their applicability. •  There is some confusion regarding the terminology used to denote the different types of language tests in use. •  Most test specialists, however, agree on the following broad divisions: achievement tests, proficiency tests, aptitude tests, diagnostic tests and placement tests •  Try to define the differences among them.

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

6

Types of tests 1. Progress Test •  Purpose - to find out how well the students have mastered the language areas and skills which have just been taught. Looks back at what students have achieved. 2. Achievement Test •  Like progress test but it is usually designed to cover a longer period of learning than a progress test. It is usually given at the end of the school year/the course. Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

7

Types of tests 3. Diagnostic Test •  The purpose is to help check students’ progress for specific weaknesses and problems they may have encountered. •  Just as it is necessary for doctors to diagnose an illness in order to cure their patients, so teachers must diagnose problems in order to teach effectively. 4. Placement Test •  Enables teachers to sort students into groups according to their language ability at the beginning of the course. •  Looks forward to the language demands which will be made on students during the course. Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

8

Types of tests 5. Proficiency Test •  Used to measure how suitable candidates will be for performing a certain task or follow a specific course. •  The test looks forward to the actual ways in which candidates will use English in the future. •  Unlike achievement test, a proficiency test is not concerned with comparing the degree of success someone may have in doing something. 6. Aptitude test •  Used to predict the success or failure of students prospective in a language-learning programme. Usually used as a screening instrument in langange testing

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

9

B. Formative vs Summative Assessment Think of the differences •  What? •  When? •  Which type of tests are usually used in Formative and Summative assessment?

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

10

Formative Assessment •  Is used to monitor learning progress during instruction. •  purpose - to provide continuous feedback to both student and teacher concerning learning successes and failures. •  Feedback to students provides reinforcement of successful learning and identifies the specific learning errors that are in need of correction. •  Feedback to the teacher provides information for modifying instruction and for prescribing group and individual work. Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

11

Summative Assessment •  typically comes at the end of a course (or unit) of instruction. •  Designed to determine the extent to which the instructional goals have been achieved •  Is used primarily for assigning course grades /for certifying student mastery of the intended learning outcomes.

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

12

C. Norm-referenced vs. CriterionReferenced Measurement •  Can you tell the differences between them? •  How the results of tests and other assessment procedures are interpreted also provides a method of classifying tests.

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

13

Norm-referenced vs CriterionReferenced Measurement •  There are two basic ways of interpreting student performance. •  Norm-referenced interpretation describes the performance in terms of the relative position held in some known group. •  Criterion-referenced interpretation describes the specific performance that was demonstrated.

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

14

NRT VS CRT •  Norm-referenced Test •  A test designed to provide a measure of performance that is interpretable in terms of an individual’s relative standing in some known group. (e.g. typed better than 90 percent of the class members) •  Criterion-Referenced Test •  A test designed to provide a measure of performance that is interpretable in terms of a clearly defined and detailed domain of learning tasks. (e.g. typed 40 words per minute without error) •  Read the notes on - The Great Divide -- NRTs and CRTs Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

15

CRT VS NRT •  These two types of tests are best viewed as the ends of a continuum, rather than as a clear-cut dichotomy. As shown in the following continuum, the CRT emphasizes description of performance and the NRT emphasizes discrimination among individuals. CRT

COMBINED TESTS

Description of performance

Dual Interpretation

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

NRT

Discrimination among individuals

16

Other types of Tests • 

Just as there are many purposes for which language tests are developed, so there are many types of language tests. 1.  2.  3.  4. 

Objective vs. Subjective tests Direct vs. Indirect tests Discrete-point vs. Integrative tests Criterion- or Domain-Referenced vs. NormReferenced or Standardized tests 5.  Speed tests vs. power tests

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

17

1. Objective vs Subjective tests •  These types of tests are distinguished on the basis of the manner in which they are scored. •  An objective test is said to be one that may be scored by comparing responses with an established set of acceptable responses or scoring key. •  Conversely a subjective test requires scoring by opinionated judgement, based on insight and expertise, on the part of the scorer. •  Could you identify test items which lend themselves to either objective / subjective testing? Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

18

2. Direct vs. Indirect Tests •  Certain tests, such as ratings of language use in real and uncontrived communication situations, are testing language performance directly •  Whereas other tests, such as multiple-choice recognition tests, are obliquely or indirectly tapping true language performance, and therefore are less valid for measuring language proficiency. •  Many language tests, however, can be viewed as lying somewhere on a continuum from natural-situational to unnatural-contrived. Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

19

3. Discrete-point vs. Integrative Tests •  Another way of slicing the testing pie is to view tests as lying along a continuum from discrete-point to integrative. •  The distinction was originated by John B. Carroll (1961). •  Discrete-point tests, as a variety of diagnostic tests, are designed to measure knowledge and performance in very restricted areas of the TL. •  A test of ability to use correctly the perfect tenses of English verbs or to supply correct prepositions in a cloze passage – termed as discrete-point test. •  Integrative tests, on the other hand, are said to tap a greater variety of language abilities concurrently and have greater value in measuring overall language proficiency. Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

20

3. Discrete-point vs. Integrative tests-2 •  Examples of integrative tests are random cloze, dictation, oral interviews, and oral imitation tasks. •  Carroll’s belief: should use tests that are both discrete (i.e.. measure precise analytical bits of language) and integrative (i.e., measure connected discourse) while maximizing our mix of language skills and testing methods. Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

21

4. Criterion- or Domain-Referenced vs. Norm-Referenced or Standardized tests •  Criterion-referenced tests – are usually devised before instruction is designed. •  Test must match teaching objectives perfectly – thus “teach to the test” would be permissible. •  A criterion or cut-off score is set in advance (usually 80 to 90 percent of the total possible), and those who do not meet the criterion are required to repeat the course. •  SS not evaluated by comparison with the achievement of other SS, but instead their achievement is measured with respect to the degree of their learning or mastery of the pre-specified content domain.

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

22

4. Criterion- or Domain-Referenced vs. Norm-Referenced or Standardized tests 2

•  Norm-referenced or standardized tests – must have been previously administered to a large sample of people from the target population (e.g. > 1000). •  Acceptable standards of achievement can only be determined after the test has been developed and administered. •  Such standards are found by reference to the mean or average score of other students from the same population. Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

23

5. Speed Tests vs Power Tests •  A pure Speed test is one in which items are so easy that every person taking the test might be expected to get every item correct, given enough of time. •  But sufficient time is not provided, so examinees are compared on their speed of performance rather than on knowledge alone. •  Power tests – tests that allow sufficient time for every person to finish, but contain such difficult items that few if any examinees are expected to get every item correct. •  Most tests – somewhere between two extremes – since knowledge rather than speed is the primary focus, but time limits are enforced since weaker SS may take unreasonable periods of time to finish. Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

24

Other Test Categories •  The few salient test categories mentioned in the lecture – by no means exhaustive. •  The following Figure provides a partial visual conceptualization of some types of language tests.

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

25

Dr Lee

Source: Grant, H (1987). Language Testing. Boston, Mass: Heinle & Heinle, pp. 9

26

Post-test 3 •  Why do we test? •  Purpose of tests? •  Types of assessments? •  Types of measurements? •  Types of testing?

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

27

Conclusion 1.  Introduction to basic concepts in LTA 2.  Relationships between teaching, testing, and learning 3.  Types of tests and assessments

Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

28

Tutorial Tasks 2.What Do We Look for in a Good Language Test? •  How can we tell whether a test is a good one or not? •  Follow the same procedure – make your own notes, discuss your ideas with other people in your group, and then prepare a group response. Dr Lee

TE30503 LTA Week 2

29

Suggest Documents