REFLECTIVE APPROACHES TO EUROPEAN GOVERNANCE Reflective Approaches to European Governance Edited by Knud Erik J0rgensen Department of Political Sci...
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Reflective Approaches to European Governance Edited by

Knud Erik J0rgensen Department of Political Science University ofAarhus

palgrave macmillan

First published in Great Britain 1997 by


Houndmills. Basingstoke. Hampshire RG21 6XS and London Companies and representatives throughout the world A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 978-1-349-25471-2 ISBN 978-1-349-25469-9 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-1-349-25469-9 First published in the United States of America 1997 by


Scholarly and Reference Division. 175 Fifth Avenue. New York. N.Y. 10010 ISBN 978-0-312-17257-2

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Reflective approaches to European governance f edited by Knud Erik JfIlrgensen. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-312-17257-2 (cloth) I. European federation. 2. European Union. I. J fIlrgensen. Knud Erik. JN15.R363 1997 321 '.04'094---{lc2 I 96-46622 CIP Selection. editorial matter. and Chapters I and 10 © Knud Erik JfIlrgensen 1997 Chapters 2-9 and 11-12 © Macmillan Press Lld 1997 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1997 All rights reserved. No reproduction. copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced. copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright. Designs and Patents Act 1988. or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. 90 Tottenham Court Road. London W I P 9HE. Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright. Designs and Patents Act 1988. This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. Logging, pulping and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. 10 06

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Contents Preface


Notes on the Contributors


1 Introduction: Approaching European Governance Knud Erik JfJrgensen




2 Rediscovering Institutions: A Reflectivist Critique of Rational Insijtutionalism Marlene Wind



3 Conceptualizing European Governance Markus Jachtenfuchs 4 Reconstructing European Space: From Territorial Politics to Multilevel Governance Thomas Christiansen 5 The Temporality of European Governance Magnus Ekengren 6 The Creation of European Supranational Institutions Richard T. Griffiths



51 69




PART m DOMESTIC-EUROPEAN LINKAGES 7 British Discourses on Europe: Sovereignty of Parliament, Instrumentality and the Non-Mythical Europe Henrik Larsen 8 The French Garden Is No Longer What It Used To Ulla Holm 9 Nordic Ideas and Realities. Dynamics and Images Nordic Cooperation Johnny Laursen

109 128


PART IV EXTERNAL RELATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 10 PoCo: The Diplomatic Republic of Europe Knud Erik J~rgensen


11 The Impact of Political Cooperation Ben Tonra


PART V EPll.OGUE 12 Epilogue: New Bottles for New Wine Janne Haaland Matlary






Preface My objective in bringing this book's essays together has been threefold. It is critical in the sense that I share, with the contributors, an uneasiness with rationalistic approaches in current theorizing on international relations and European integration. While the degree of uneasiness clearly varies among the contributors I think it is possible to identify a common thread of theoretical pragmatism in the essays. The reader will hence not find a complete denigration of rationalistic approaches. They might explain something in some cases, possess some theoretical advantages, and sometimes provide a helpful 'mirror' for the reflective scholar. Yet rationalistic approaches are not, strong micro foundations notwithstanding, the 'best choice' for all types of inquiry, and particularly not for inquiries about European governance. Rationalistic approaches are characterized by too many weaknesses, too many blind spots, and too many instances where questions are not answerable in the preferred analytical mode. The book's critical objective is, in other words, to point out such limitations and weaknesses. The book is not, however, only critical. It is also, and primarily, constructive. It is theoretically constructive in the sense that the book presents a number of theoretical approaches which are novel in both International Relations and European Studies. The book is intended as a contribution toward the translation of a metatheoretical stance into new conceptualizations and eventually into theoretical innovation. Such a theoretical endeavor can, of course, also be seen as critical - that is, as a critique of predominant tendencies to descriptivism, legal-institutionalism and other forms of traditionalism found particularly in European academia. Finally, the book is empirically constructive in the sense that the theories presented are applied in descriptions of some of the past and present key features of European governance. These theoretically informed, empirical studies contribute valuable knowledge about a unique set of international governance structures. Because of the scope, depth and duration of the phenomenon under investigation the book cannot cover everything. Thus, while the book is the end-product of a fairly long process I hope it will become the starting point for other scholars who may find the approaches presented here useful for their research on similar topics.




The major part of the book evolved out of two workshops. Some of the chapters were presented as papers to an ECPR workshop in Madrid in April 1994. Other chapters were presented at a workshop in Florence on 'European multilateralism' in May 1994. I wish to thank all the participants in the two workshops for many useful comments. Further chapters were kindly contributed at a later stage. A number of institutions have made this book possible in a variety of ways. In 1993-94 I was a Jean Monnet Fellow at the European University Institute (EUI) in Florence, Italy. This unique institution provided me a thought-provoking environment, for which I am most grateful. I would also like to acknowledge and thank the generous financial support of the Danish Institute of International Affairs and the Robert Schuman Centre at the EUI. The Florence workshop could not have been organized without their support. I owe special thanks to Walter Carlsnaes, Richard T. Griffiths, Stefano Guzzini, Anna Leander, Yves Meny, Roger Morgan, and John G. Ruggie. Special thanks also go to the EUI Working Group on International Relations which was very active as a collective actor throughout the workshop proce88. I am grateful for support of the Department of Political Science and the Research Foundation at the University of Aarhus during the project. During the last hectic preparations I was a visiting scholar at the Canadian Institute of International Affairs and the Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto. Both institutions gave me a most helpful welcome, which ensured that the final hectic activity did not devolve into chaos. Finally, I gratefully acknowledge the research assistance ofLouise Andersen and Korina Miller who both have contributed with many helpful suggestions, and the assistance of Anne-Grethe Gammelgaard who prepared the manuscript.

KEJ Aarhusfl'oronto, March 1996

Notes on the Contributors Thomas Christiansen has been a Research Fellow at the University of Essex and will be Lecturer in European Studies in the Deparbnent ofInternational Politics at the University of Wales in Aberystwyth. He is completing a doctoral thesis at the European University Institute in Florence. Previous publications include work on questions of democratic accountability and sovereignty in the EU, on transnational region-building in Europe and on the European Commission. Magnus Ekengren is a Research Associate at the Swedish Institute ofInternational Affairs and a Ph.D. candidate at the Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, writing a thesis on the temporality of the European Union.

Richard T. Griffiths is Professor of Economic and Social History at the University of Leiden. From 1987-1995 he was Professor of Contemporary History at the European University Institute in Florence where he directed its permanent research project on the history of European integration. Before that he held posts at the Free University, Amsterdam and at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. Ulla Holm. is a research fellow at the Centre for Peace and Conflict Research in Copenhagen. She holds a MA in French and Danish. She has published Det transke Europa (Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag 1993), and contributed to Wmver, Holm, Larsen (forthcoming) The Franco-German Concept ofState, Nation and European Union. Markus Jachtenfuchs is a research fellow at the Mannheim Centre for European Social Research. He is the co-editor of Europiiische Integration (Opladen: Leske + Budrich, 1995) and the author of Policy-Making as a Learning Process. The European Union and the Greenhouse Effect (London: Avebury, 1996). His research interests are European integration, the problems and prospects of governance, and international relations theory.



Notes on the Contributors

Knud Erik J_rgensen is an assistant professor at the Department of Political Science, University of Aarhus. He was a Jean Monnet Fellow at the European University Institute (Florence) in 1993-94. He is the author of Det udenrigspolitiske samarbejde i Den Europl£iske Union (Aarhus: Systime 1996), and has published articles in Cooperation and Conflict, Journal of Common Market Studies and Politica. Henrik Larsen is a diplomat in the Danish Foreign Ministry. He was awarded a Ph.D. in international relations from the London School of Economics in 1993. He is the author of Discourse Analysis and Foreign Policy, London: Routledge, forthcoming 1997). Johnny Laursen, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in 20th Century European History, Department of Development and Planning, University of Aalborg. He has written on European interwar history, Nordic cooperation, European politics, and contemporary Danish history. Janne Haaland Matlary, D.Phil. is a senior researcher for European politics and institutional change in the EU at ARENA (Advanced Research on the Europeanisation of the Nation-State) at Oslo University. She has written extensively on European energy and environmental policy ("Energy Policy in the EU", forthcoming in Macmillan's European Union series, 1996), and is currently working on the IGC and modes of integration and their effect on the nationstate. She also has a strong interest in philosophy of science and political theory. Ben Tonra is a Lecturer in the Department of Political Science, Trinity College Dublin. His main research and publication interest is in the field of European foreign and security policy. He also lectures at the Centre for European Economic and Public Affairs (CEEPA) at University College Dublin and at the Irish School of Ecumenics' Centre for Peace Studies. Ben holds a position as Adjunct Fellow in International Politics with the Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington D:C. Marlene Wind holds an MA in Political Science and is currently finishing her Ph.D. at the European University Institute in Florence, employing a constructivist approach to the study of European integration. She has published articles on European identity-construction,

Notes on the Contributors


integration theory and constructivism, inter alia, 'The Rules of Anarchy: N.G Onuf, in Wrever and Neumann, (eds), The Future ofInternational Relations: Masters in the Making? (London & New York: Routledge 1996).