Origin Myths Argumentative Module

Origin Myths Argumentative Module Module Title Module description (overview): Template task (include number, type, level): Teaching task: Since the b...
Author: Marvin Patrick
7 downloads 0 Views 357KB Size
Origin Myths Argumentative Module Module Title Module description (overview): Template task (include number, type, level): Teaching task:

Since the beginning of time people have always sought to explain the “unexplainable.” Humans have a need and an innate drive to order their world and to give meaning to the creation of life and the world. This unit encompasses a study of Native-American tales, myths, values, and world views. Task 2: [Insert question] After reading ________ (literature or informational texts), write a/an ________ (essay or substitute) that addresses the question and support your position withevidence from the text(s). L2 Be sure to acknowledge competingviews. L3 Give examples from past or current events or issues to illustrate and clarify your position. (Argumentation/Analysis) After reading the information and literature provided in class, write an argumentative essay that analyzes the world view and values found in a selected piece of mythology. Support your argument with evidence from the text(s).

Grade(s)/Level:

11th

Discipline: (e.g., ELA, science, history, other?)

ELA

Course:

English III

Author(s):

Jo Anna Singer, Jesse Allred, Mary Keith, Dina Honeycutt, Joel Hutchinson

Contact Information:

[email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

1

Section 1: What Task? TEACHING TASK Background to share with students: Teaching task:

Since the beginning of time people have always sought to explain the “unexplainable.” Humans have a need and an innate drive to order their world and to give meaning to the creation of life and the world. This unit encompasses a study of Native-American tales, myths, values, and world views.

Reading texts:

Walam Olum www.sacred-texts.com/nam/walam/wa01.htm World on a Turtle’s Back Navajo and Hopi Creation Myths Genesis I-111 Darwin-Descent of Man www.artsmia.org/world-myths/artbyculture/nativeamerican.html www.godchecker.com/pantheon/native_american-mythology.php www.americanfolklore.net/folklore/native-american-myths youtube- Native American Creation Myths.mov

Extension (optional: could be a speech, PPT, creative project):

After reading the information and literature provided in class, write an argumentative essay that analyzes the world view and values found in a selected piece of mythology. Support your argument with evidence from the text(s).

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

2

COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS READING STANDARDS FOR ARGUMENTATION “Built-in” Reading Standards “When Appropriate” Reading Standards (applicable in black) 1- Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the test.

3- Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

2- Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

5- Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

4- Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

6- Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

10- Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

7- Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. 8- Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9- Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

WRITING STANDARDS FOR ARGUMENTATION “Built-in” Writing Standards “When Appropriate” Writing Standards (applicable in black) 1- Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

2- Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

4- Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

3- Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

5- Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

6- Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

9- Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

7- Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

10- Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audience.

8- Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

3

CONTENT  STANDARDS  FROM  STATE  OR  DISTRICT   Standards source: NUMBER

CONTENT STANDARDS

 

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

4

Section 2: What Skills? SKILL

DEFINITION

SKILLS CLUSTER 1: PREPARING FOR THE TASK 1. Task Engagement

Ability to connect the task and new content to existing knowledge, skills, experiences, interests, and concerns.

2. Task analysis

Ability to understand and explain the task’s prompt and rubric.

SKILLS CLUSTER 2: READING PROCESS 1. Active Reading

Ability to identify the central point and main supporting elements of a text.

2. Essential Vocabulary

Ability to apply strategies for developing an understanding of text(s) by locating words and phrases that identify key concepts and facts, or information.

3. Note-Taking

Ability to read purposefully and select relevant information; to summarize and/or paraphrase.

SKILLS CLUSTER 3: TRANSITION TO WRITING 1. Bridging Conversation

Ability to begin linking reading results to writing task.

SKILLS CLUSTER 4: WRITING PROCESS Ability to establish a controlling idea and consolidate information 1. Controlling Idea relevant to task. 2. Planning

Ability to develop a line of thought and text structure appropriate to an information/explanation task.

3. Development

Ability to construct an initial draft with an emerging line of thought and structure.

4. Revision

Ability to refine text, including line of thought, language usage, and tone as appropriate to audience and purpose.

5. Editing

Ability to proofread and format a piece to make it more effective.

6. Completion

Ability to submit final piece that meets expectations.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

5

Section 3: What Instruction? Pacing

Mini-Task: Product and Prompt SKILLS CLUSTER 1: PREPARING FOR THE TASK Day 1

Skill and Definition

1. Task Engagement Ability to connect the task and new content to existing knowledge, skills, experiences, interests, and concerns.

Day 1

2. Task Analysis Ability to understand and explain the task’s prompt and rubric.

Scoring (meets expectations)

Students will discuss and define a myth by using either Cornell Notes, teacher-generated notes, or a KWL.

Students will receive credit for completing notes and participating in discussion.

Class discussion about the prompt and rubric; highlight key features of both.

Quick write as an exit slip on their understanding of the prompt.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

Instructional Strategies

Scaffolding on student’s prior knowledge.

Students will highlight key features and expectations of the writing prompt. They will provide an exit slip defining the task in their own words/understanding.

6

Day 2-3

1. Active Reading Ability to identify the central point and main supporting elements of a text.

Day 4

1. Active Reading

Students will read and identify from each origin myth the world view of the culture. They will respond to a teacher generated ACE. • Walum Olum • World on a Turtle’s Back • Navajo and Hopi Creation Myths



Ability to identify the central point and main supporting elements of a text.





Students will participate in an introductory discussion highlighting the academic validity of the use of Genesis 1-11I from state adopted textbook. Students will read and discuss Genesis I11I. Students will write a well-developed paragraph explaining how the Genesis origin myth might influence our culture’s view on nature, women, or knowledge. Select one.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

Students will receive credit for identifying the world view elements that are central to the myths in each culture using an ACE prompt.

Students will read and discuss the origin myths. They will work in small groups to determine the elements central in each myth and individually respond to the ACE prompt.

Students will be assessed for their paragraph using teacher-explained rubric.

Students will annotate text, finding evidence of how our cultural views of nature, women, and knowledge are affected. Teacher will determine a uniform annotation glossary.

7

Day 5

1. Active Reading Ability to identify the central point and main supporting elements of

2. Essential Vocabulary

Students will use close reading techniques to analyze Darwin’s-Descent of Man. • 1st Reading. Students

will circle unfamiliar words and make a contextual guess as to the meaning. Students will generate a vocabulary list on the board and define their contextual understanding of the word. A teacher led discussion will generate actual meanings. • 2nd Reading. Students will annotate the text looking for main idea, support and confusing passages. They will use a standardized form of annotation determined by teacher. A teacher led discussion will clarify and support student understanding. • 3rd Reading. Students will look for evidence to answer the question, How might this scientific text be viewed as an origin myth?



Students will receive credit for their answer to the question: How might this scientific text be viewed as an origin myth?

Vocabulary Enrichment/Think-Pair-Share Annotation Close Reading Small and large group discussion Teacher Modeling

See Day 1 and 5

Ability to apply strategies for developing an understanding of text(s) by locating For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes. words and phrases that identify key concepts and facts, or information.

8

3. Note-Taking



See Day 1and 5

Ability to read purposefully and select relevant information; to summarize and/or paraphrase.

Day 6-7

1. Bridging Conversation Ability to transition from reading or researching to the writing task.

Day 7-8

Controlling Idea Ability to establish a controlling idea and consolidate information relevant to task.

Day 7-9

Planning Ability to develop a line of thought and text structure appropriate to an informational/ explanation task.

Day 7-9

Development Ability to construct an initial draft with an emerging line of thought and structure.

Students will create and illustrate an origin myth. Students will identify a group, along with their values, world view, good and evil, gods, etc.

Students will be assessed on their myth. A class discussion will assess the student’s ability to identify a group and its values in an origin myth.

Using thematic elements of origin myth, supplemented with a handout on writing requirements/process, students will complete an origin myth. Students will present their myths.

Students will select an origin myth and determine the values and world view of the culture from which the myth originated. Students will write a note card demonstrating the controlling idea.

Meets expectations if the controlling idea clearly provides an answer to the main teaching task.

To assist students in writing a strong controlling idea, model for them the elements required on their note cards. Have students write a note card that demonstrates their understanding of the controlling idea.

Students will review the note card with the information needed to complete their essay. Students will create a formal outline or use a graphic organizer and the annotated readings to plan their essays.

Meets expectations if they have created an outline or graphic organizer to plan their essay. Supports the controlling idea by using evidence from text(s) read and the writing process.

Students can use any notes, organizers, or text to begin planning and organizing their essays.

Students will write an initial draft of their essays. Insert and cite textual evidence.

Meets expectations if they have a completed essay that can be edited to contain all components. Their response is supported with textual evidence.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

Share examples of graphic organizers or formal outlining techniques. Teacher will circulate and provide feedback on outlines. Use planning documents to create an initial draft. Teacher will circulate to provide feedback on paragraphs.

9

Day 10

Revision Ability to refine text, including line of thought, language usage, and tone as appropriate to audience and purpose.

Day 10

Editing

Day 11

Ability to proofread and format a piece to make it more effective. Completion

Students will peer edit using common proofreading abbreviations handout provided by the teacher.

Meets expectations if they use teacher and peer feedback to polish and refine the draft.

Students will work in pairs to provide feedback to each other on teacher commentary.

After peer-editing students will refine their essay adhering to structure, mechanics, and proper use of citing textual evidence. See Day 10

Turn in a complete set of drafts, plus a final version of the essay.

Ability to submit final piece that meets expectations.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

Teacher will conference with individual students to provide feedback that balances support for strengths and clarity about areas of improvement.

Meets expectations if the essay fits the “Meets Expectations” category of the rubric for the teaching task.

10

TEACHING TASK RUBRIC (ARGUMENTATION) Scoring Elements Focus

Controlling Idea

Reading/ Research

Development

Not Yet 1 Attempts to address prompt, but lacks focus or is off-task. Attempts to establish a claim, but lacks a clear purpose. (L2) Makes no mention of counter claims. Attempts to reference reading materials to develop response, but lacks connections or relevance to the purpose of the prompt. Attempts to provide details in response to the prompt, but lacks sufficient development or relevance to the purpose of the prompt.

1.5

Approaches Expectations 2 Addresses prompt appropriately and establishes a position, but focus is uneven. Establishes a claim. (L2) Makes note of counter claims. Presents information from reading materials relevant to the purpose of the prompt with minor lapses in accuracy or completeness. Presents appropriate details to support and develop the focus, controlling idea, or claim, with minor lapses in the reasoning, examples, or explanations

2.5

Meets Expectations 3 Addresses prompt appropriately and maintains a clear, steady focus. Provides a generally convincing position.

Advanced 4 Addresses all aspects of prompt appropriately with a consistently strong focus and convincing position.

Establishes a credible claim. (L2) Develops claim and counter claims fairly.

Establishes and maintains a substantive and credible claim or proposal. (L2) Develops claims and counter claims fairly and thoroughly.

Accurately presents details from reading materials relevant to the purpose of the prompt to develop argument or claim.

Accurately and effectively presents important details from reading materials to develop argument or claim.

Presents appropriate and sufficient details to support and develop the focus, controlling idea, or claim.

Presents thorough and detailed information to effectively support and develop the focus, controlling idea, or claim.

Organization

Attempts to organize ideas, but lacks control of structure.

Uses an appropriate organizational structure for development of reasoning and logic, with minor lapses in structure and/or coherence.

Conventions

Attempts to demonstrate standard English conventions, but lacks cohesion and control of grammar, usage, and mechanics. Sources are used without citation.

Demonstrates an uneven command of standard English conventions and cohesion. Uses language and tone with some inaccurate, inappropriate, or uneven features. Inconsistently cites sources.

Demonstrates a command of standard English conventions and cohesion, with few errors. Response includes language and tone appropriate to the audience, purpose, and specific requirements of the prompt. Cites sources using appropriate format with only minor errors.

Content Understanding

Attempts to include disciplinary content in argument, but understanding of content is weak; content is irrelevant, inappropriate, or inaccurate.

Briefly notes disciplinary content relevant to the prompt; shows basic or uneven understanding of content; minor errors in explanation.

Accurately presents disciplinary content relevant to the prompt with sufficient explanations that demonstrate understanding.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

3.5

Maintains an appropriate organizational structure to address specific requirements of the prompt. Structure reveals the reasoning and logic of the argument.

Maintains an organizational structure that intentionally and effectively enhances the presentation of information as required by the specific prompt. Structure enhances development of the reasoning and logic of the argument. Demonstrates and maintains a welldeveloped command of standard English conventions and cohesion, with few errors. Response includes language and tone consistently appropriate to the audience, purpose, and specific requirements of the prompt. Consistently cites sources using appropriate format. Integrates relevant and accurate disciplinary content with thorough explanations that demonstrate in-depth understanding.

11

Feedback Sheet

Student _______________________________________ Date _______________________________________ Element

Score

Notes

Focus

Controlling Idea

Reading/ Research

Development

Organization

Conventions

Content Understanding Total Average Overall Performance Level For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

12

MATERIALS, REFERENCES AND SUPPORTS (ADD BELOW) FOR TEACHERS

FOR STUDENTS

ACE Guidelines ACE Outline Editing Remarks Template Darwin Excerpt from The Descent of Man Genesis 1-111 from World Literature textbook

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

13

Common Proofreading Symbols Symbol

Meaning

Example

insert a comma apostrophe or single quotation mark insert something use double quotation marks use a period here delete transpose elements close up this space a space needed here begin new paragraph no paragraph

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

14

Common  Proofreading  Abbreviations   (The abbreviation would appear in the margin, probably with a line or arrow pointing to the offending element.)

Abbreviation Meaning

Example

Ab

a faulty abbreviation

She had earned a Phd along with her M.D.

Agr

agreement problem: subject/verb or pronoun/antecedent

The piano as well as the guitar need tuning. The student lost their book.

Awk

awkward expression or construction

The storm had the effect of causing millions of dollars in damage.

Cap

faulty capitalization

We spent the Fall in Southern spain.

CS

comma splice

Raoul tried his best, this time that wasn't good enough

DICT

faulty diction

Due to the fact that we were wondering as to whether it would rain, we stayed home.

Dgl

dangling construction

Working harder than ever, this job proved to be too much for him to handle.

- ed

problem with final -ed

Last summer he walk all the way to Birmingham.

Frag

fragment

Depending on the amount of snow we get this winter and whether the towns buy new trucks.

||

problem in parallel form

My income is bigger than my wife.

P/A

pronoun/antecedent agreement

A student in accounting would be wise to see their advisor this month.

Pron

problem with pronoun

My aunt and my mother have wrecked her car The committee has lost their chance to change things.

See also P/A and S/V

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

15

You'll have to do this on one's own time.

Rep

unnecessary repetition

The car was blue in color.

R-O

run-on sentence

Raoul tried his best this time that wasn't good enough.

Sp

spelling error

This sentence is flaude with two mispellings.

-s

problem with final -s

He wonder what these teacher think of him.

STET

Let it stand

The proofreader uses this Latin term to indicate that proofreading marks calling for a change should be ignored and the text as originally written should be "let stand."

S/V

subject/verb agreement

The problem with these cities are leadership.

T

verb tense problem

He comes into the room, and he pulled his gun.

Wdy

wordy

Seldom have we perused a document so verbose, so ostentatious in phrasing, so burdened with too many words.

WW

wrong word

What affect did the movie have on Sheila? She tried to hard to analyze its conclusion.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

16

Directions for ACE Writing Strategy This is merely a guide about how teachers can implement ACE instruction into the classroom. There are many variations. Step 1: Put students into groups (suggested number is 3) Step 2: Distribute the same open-ended question to each group and tell them to develop an answer. Step 3: After all groups are done explain the ACE method to them. A= answer the question as written C= cite from the text using details and quotes to support your answer E= explain how your citations support your answer Step 4: Have each group go back over their answer and revise it so that it contains the 3 parts of the ACE method. Step 5: After they've completed their revisions, collect the responses and redistribute them so that each group has another groups' response. Step 6: Each group should identify the A, C, and the E in the response they have. Step 7: Choose a volunteer from each group to write on the board. Have them write the "A" from the paper they have on the board and then as a class discuss the various answers while identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each one. Step 8: Follow the same routine for the C and E. Step 9: For homework, give students a worksheet with at least 4 different open-ended questions and their responses. Ask students to identify the A, C, and E in each response.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

17

ACE  Outline   Question: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________

ANSWER Answer the question • Make sure that you completely answer the question. • Use key words from the question in your responses.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

CITE Cite evidence from the readings, graphs or illustrations to support, prove, or explain.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

EXPLAIN/EXPAND Explain your answer or expand upon your answer. Extend your response by explaining the connection between the information that you cited and the answer. Make it clear that you know the answer because of the evidence. Personal connections help expand.

__________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

18

from The Descent of Man (1871) by Charles Darwin chapter XXI "General Summary and Conclusion" Project Gutenberg http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/2300/pg2300.html The main conclusion here arrived at, and now held by many naturalists who are well competent to form a sound judgment, is that man is descended from some less highly organised form. The grounds upon which this conclusion rests will never be shaken, for the close similarity between man and the lower animals in embryonic development, as well as in innumerable points of structure and constitution, both of high and of the most trifling importance ... are facts which cannot be disputed. They have long been known, but until recently they told us nothing with respect to the origin of man. Now when viewed by the light of our knowledge of the whole organic world, their meaning is unmistakable. The great principle of evolution stands up clear and firm, when these groups or facts are considered in connection with others. ... It is incredible that all these facts should speak falsely. He who is not content to look, like a savage, at the phenomena of nature as disconnected, cannot any longer believe that man is the work of a separate act of creation. He will be forced to admit that the close resemblance of the embryo of man to that, for instance, of a dog—the construction of his skull, limbs and whole frame on the same plan with that of other mammals, independently of the uses to which the parts may be put ... all point in the plainest manner to the conclusion that man is the co-descendant with other mammals of a common progenitor. ... It must not be supposed that the divergence of each race from the other races, and of all from a common stock, can be traced back to any one pair of progenitors. On the contrary, at every stage in the process of modification, all the individuals which were in any way better fitted for their conditions of life, though in different degrees, would have survived in greater numbers than the less well-fitted. The process would have been like that followed by man, when he does not intentionally select particular individuals, but breeds from all the superior individuals, and neglects the inferior. He thus slowly but surely modifies his stock, and unconsciously forms a new strain. ... By considering the embryological structure of man,—the homologies which he presents with the lower animals,—the rudiments which he retains,—and the reversions to which he is liable, we can partly recall in imagination the former condition of our early progenitors; and can approximately place them in their proper place in the zoological series. We thus learn that man is descended from a hairy, tailed quadruped, probably arboreal in its habits, and an inhabitant of the Old World. This creature, if its whole structure had been examined by a naturalist, would have been classed amongst the Quadrumana, as surely as the still more ancient progenitor of the Old and New World monkeys. The Quadrumana and all the higher mammals are probably derived from an ancient marsupial animal, and this through a long line of diversified forms, from some amphibian-like creature, and this again from some fish-like animal. In the dim obscurity of the past we can see that the early progenitor of all the Vertebrata must have been an aquatic animal, provided with branchiae, with the two sexes united in the same individual, For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

19

and with the most important organs of the body (such as the brain and heart) imperfectly or not at all developed. This animal seems to have been more like the larvae of the existing marine Ascidians than any other known form. ... The belief in God has often been advanced as not only the greatest, but the most complete of all the distinctions between man and the lower animals. It is however impossible, as we have seen, to maintain that this belief is innate or instinctive in man. On the other hand a belief in allpervading spiritual agencies seems to be universal; and apparently follows from a considerable advance in man's reason, and from a still greater advance in his faculties of imagination, curiosity and wonder. I am aware that the assumed instinctive belief in God has been used by many persons as an argument for His existence. But this is a rash argument, as we should thus be compelled to believe in the existence of many cruel and malignant spirits, only a little more powerful than man; for the belief in them is far more general than in a beneficent Deity. The idea of a universal and beneficent Creator does not seem to arise in the mind of man, until he has been elevated by long-continued culture. ... I am aware that the conclusions arrived at in this work will be denounced by some as highly irreligious; but he who denounces them is bound to shew why it is more irreligious to explain the origin of man as a distinct species by descent from some lower form, through the laws of variation and natural selection, than to explain the birth of the individual through the laws of ordinary reproduction. The birth both of the species and of the individual are equally parts of that grand sequence of events, which our minds refuse to accept as the result of blind chance. The understanding revolts at such a conclusion, whether or not we are able to believe that every slight variation of structure,—the union of each pair in marriage, the dissemination of each seed,—and other such events, have all been ordained for some special purpose. ... The main conclusion arrived at in this work, namely, that man is descended from some lowly organised form, will, I regret to think, be highly distasteful to many. But there can hardly be a doubt that we are descended from barbarians. The astonishment which I felt on first seeing a party of Fuegians on a wild and broken shore will never be forgotten by me, for the reflection at once rushed into my mind—such were our ancestors. These men were absolutely naked and bedaubed with paint, their long hair was tangled, their mouths frothed with excitement, and their expression was wild, startled, and distrustful. They possessed hardly any arts, and like wild animals lived on what they could catch; they had no government, and were merciless to every one not of their own small tribe. He who has seen a savage in his native land will not feel much shame, if forced to acknowledge that the blood of some more humble creature flows in his veins. For my own part I would as soon be descended from that heroic little monkey, who braved his dreaded enemy in order to save the life of his keeper, or from that old baboon, who descending from the mountains, carried away in triumph his young comrade from a crowd of astonished dogs—as from a savage who delights to torture his enemies, offers up bloody sacrifices, practices infanticide without remorse, treats his wives like slaves, knows no decency, and is haunted by the grossest superstitions.

For classroom use only. May not be reproduced for commercial purposes.

20

Suggest Documents