NUTRITION GOOD FOOD GOOD HEALTH

NUTRITION GOOD FOOD GOOD HEALTH NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS: Components of Healthy Nutrition 45 Essential Nutrients are needed for a healthy body ! PR...
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NUTRITION

GOOD FOOD GOOD HEALTH

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS: Components of Healthy Nutrition 45 Essential Nutrients are needed for a healthy body ! PROTEINS ! FATS ! CARBS ! VITAMINS & MINERALS ! WATER

DAILY CALORIC INTAKE

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Depends on age and activity Average Daily Caloric Intake = 2000 calories

! Daily Caloric Intake from Calories ! PROTEIN: 30% ! FAT: 30% ! CARBS: 40% ! WATER: Male – 3 Liters; Female – 2 Liters ! MINERALS: Iron, Calcium, Magnesium & K+ ! VITAMINS: A, D, E, K – Fat Soluble –

Vitamin C + 8 B complex (Thiamin, Niacin, Riboflavin, B6, FOLATE, B12, Biotin, Pantolhenic – Water Soluble

PROTEINS

Form muscle, bone, blood, enzymes, hormones and cell membrane. ! Provide energy, growth and body functions Complete Proteins – supply all essential amino acids ! Meat ! Fish ! Poultry – chicken, turkey, duck ! Eggs – egg white ! Milk ! Cheese ! Soy ! Whey – most complete protein !

INCOMPLETE PROTEINS

Supply on some of the essential amino acids ! Come mainly from plants ! Two vegetables can form a complete protein Examples: ! Beans & rice ! Pinto & Kidney beans ! Wheat bread & peanut butter Recommended amount: 10 grams for every 30 pounds ! 120lb woman = 40g 200lb man = 70g !

GOOD FATS CONT.

A. OMEGA – 3 FATTY ACIDS FISH & FISH OIL ! Salmon (Wild) ! Tuna ! Trout ! Mackerel ! Herring ! Sardines & Anchovies PLANTS ! Green, leafy vegetables: Kale, Spinach ! Walnuts ! Flax_Seed & Flaxseed Oils ! Canola Oil

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FATS or LIPIDS

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Most concentrated source of energy – Stores energy and provides insulation & support for body organs – 2 Fats are a must: linoleic and alpha linoleic acid GOOD FATS: 1. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids ! Avocados ! RAW Nuts esp walnuts & almonds ! Olives ! Canola Oil ! Olive Oil ! Peanuts

DO NOT HEAT THE OILS 2. Polyunsaturated Oil

BAD FATS

1. Saturated Fats: Come form animal products ! Red Meats (hamburger, steak, roast) ! Whole Milk ! Cheese ! Processed Meats (hot dogs, lunch meat) ! Palm & Coconut Oil 2. Hydrogenated Fats: ! A process which turns good fat into bad fat through heating

BAD FATS CONT.

Trans Fats – VERY BAD ! Through hydrogenation, unsaturated fatty acids are turned into trans fats ! Most common – Very crispy french fries (McDonalds) – Potato chips – Fried chicken – Stick margarine – Pot Pies – Doughnuts ! Trans fats have a double negative effect on the lipid profile. ! It raises LDL and lowers HDL

LIPID PROFILE

1.

Total Cholesterol – a substance found in the blood cells, needed for synthesis of cell membranes. In excess amounts, adheres to the blood vessel causing narrowing and plaque buildup.

! 2. HDL – Good Cholesterol (High Density Lipids) – the “good” cholesterol which prevents the buildup of plaque thus protecting the heart against disease.

! 3. LDL – Bad Cholesterol (Low Density Lipids) – Blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues. In excess amounts it attaches to the arterial wall causing narrowing and plaques

! 4. Triglycerides – Most fats in the body are in the form of triglycerides. Composed of one glycerol molecule and 3

HOW TO IMPROVE LIPID PROFILE

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Eat healthy foods LIMIT carbohydrates Eat “good” fates from monounsaturated & polyunsaturated categories Avoid saturated and trans fats HDL can be increased through exercise Medications are available if levels remain high

RECOMMENDED AMOUNT OF DAILY FAT

30 % of total calories ! 3-4 teaspoons of oil i.e. olive oil ! Cholesterol: Less than 300mg/day Foods high in cholesterol ! Eggs (yolk) ! Dairy fat – whole milk, cheese, butter ! Liver ! Shellfish (shrimp, lobster) ! Mayonnaise

CARBOHYDRATES (CARBS) – 
 The Ideal Source of Energy

Supplies immediate energy to body cells 2 Types of Carbohydrates ! Complex – maintain a steady blood sugar !

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In Between – –

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Vegetables Beans Whole Grains Fruits Milk

Simple Carbs – add pounds, cause unstable blood sugar, rot teeth, taste good, very addicting –

Sugar of ANY KIND: white, brown, processed, raw honey, molasses, fruit juice

% GRAMS

Protein ! Fat ! Carbohydrates ! Sodium

Men 56g

Women 46g

18.6g

13.1g

130g

130g

2000mg

1600mg

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Response

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Insulin and glucose levels Quick rise in glucose and insulin levels = high glycemic index –

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Eating high glycemic index foods may increase appetite: sugar, soft drinks, doughnuts, coffee “specialty” drinks, cupcakes Increases the risk of diabetes and heart disease Unrefined grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes have relatively low glycemic index – EAT ALL YOU WANT!!!

WATER

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Composed of about 50-60% water Can live up to 50 days without food but only a few days without water Water and other beverages make up 80-90% of your daily water intake Men – 3.7 total liters of water with 3.0 liters (13 cups) coming from beverages Women – 2.7 total liters of water with 2.2 (9 cups) coming from beverages

VITAMINS

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Organic (carbon-containing) substances required in small amouns to promote specific chemical reactions (catalyst) within a living cell Thirteen vitamins: – –

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Four Fat Soluble: A, D, E, and K Nine Water Soluble: C and 8 B-complex vitamins. (Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pyridoxine (B6), Folate, B-12, Biotine and Pantothenic acid

Sources: –

Human body does not manufacture most vitamins. Abundant in fruits, vegetables and grains

MINERALS

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Inorganic compounds Helps to regulate body functions, aid in growth, maintenance of body tissues, and a catalyst for energy release 17 essential minerals –

Major minerals – 100 milligrams or more !



Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, potassium, and chloride

Trace minerals – minute amounts !

Cobalt, copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc

OTHER SUBSTANCES IN FOOD

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Free radicals in the environment such as pollution – cigarette smoking, exhaust fumes and some drugs can damage cell membranes and mutate genes

ANTIOXIDANTS

Foods high in antioxidants ! Can help protect the body from the damage caused by free radicals ! These foods can repair the cells ! TYPES: Carotenoids found in yellow, orange and deep green vegetables ! TOP Antioxidants: – Blackberries – Walnuts – Strawberries – Artichokes – Cranberries – Brewed coffee – Raspberries – Pecans – Blueberries – Cloves – Grape juice – Unsweetened baking chocolate – Sour cherries – Red wine – Bressel sprouts

PHYTO CHEMICALS

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Soy – lowers cholesterol Garlic and onions boost cancer fighting immune cells Cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower protect against cancer

Recommendations for Nutritional Success according to Nurse Carole

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Protein – eat all you want Carbs – eat all the COMPLEX carbs you want –

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Fats – eat moderately from “good” fats –

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AVOID ALL SUGAR! Never drink a drink containing sugar AVOID ALL FRIED FOOD

Water – have all you want

HEALTHY SHOPPING



Buy

Meats – Look at fat content syrup) –

Leave -Items in a can (w/

& buy when packaged -Items in a box (w/ sugar or preservatives -Items in a bag (w/

Fresh vegetables sugar, trans fats, additives) – Fresh fru – cookies Bread & Rice – whole grain fruit Raw nuts breakfast junk

-Ice cream, pop/ sickles -Pop tarts and

SERVING SIZES

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Grains – 1 slice of bread, 1 small muffin (2.5 diameter), 1 cup ready-toeat cereal flakes Vegetables – 1 cup raw leafy vegetables, ½ cup cooked or raw vegetables, ½ cup of vegetable juice Fruit – ½ cup fresh, canned or frozen fruit, ½ cup 100% fruit juice, 1 small whole fruit, ¼ cup dried fruit, ¾ cup fruit juice

SERVING SIZES CONT.

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Milk/Dairy – I cup milk or yogurt, ½ cup ricotta cheese, 1.5 oz natural cheese, 2 oz. processed cheese Meat and Beans – 1 ounce cooked lean meat, ¼ cup cooked dry beans or tofu, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon peanut butter, ½ ounce nuts or seeds Oils Discretionary calories, solid fats and added sugars

VEGETARIANS

Reasons vegetarians Types: -Vegans -Lacto-Vegetarians -Lacto-ovo-vegetarians -Partial vegetarians -Pescovegetarians -Semivegetarians

A food plan for -Vitamin B-12 -Vitamin D -Calcium -Iron -Zinc

FOOD SAFETY

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Food-borne disease affect 76 million Americans each year Be careful around: – – – – – –

Poultry Meats Eggs Shellfish Milk products Fresh fruits and vegetables

KEY MESSAGES OF MY PYRAMID

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Remind consumers to make healthy food choices Personalization Daily physical activity Moderation Proportionality Variety Gradual improvement

DIETARY CHALLENGES FOR SPECIAL POPULATION GROUPS

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Children and teenagers College students Older adults Athletes People with special health concerns

PERSONAL PLAN: MAKING INFORMED CHOICES ABOUT FOOD

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Reading food labels Reading dietary supplement labels Evaluating functional foods Organic foods Additives in foods Food Irradiation Genetically Modified (GM) Foods

PROTECTING YOURSELF AGAINST FOOD-BORNE ILLNESS

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Causes of food-borne illnesses – – – – – – – –

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Campylobacter jejuni Salmonella Shigella Escherichia coli (E-coli) Listeria monocytogenes Staphylococcus Clostridium botulinum Norovirus

Preventing and treating food-borne illnesses Environmental contaminants and organic foods Food allergies

FOOD ALLERGIES AND FOOD INTOLERANCES

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Food allergies – – – –

Reaction of the body’s immune system Affect 2% of the adult population 4-6% of infants 90% of food allergies !

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Cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish

Food intolerances

Best Foods to Eat-Drink

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Salmon-Wild Raw nuts Olive oil Avocados Kale Quinoia Wild rice Green tea Water

Worst foods to eat

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Juice !

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Sugar !

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Sodas !

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Margarine !

37 ! White/wheat bread

Reading a Label: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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! What is the name of the product? What ingredients are in the product What is the main ingredient? How many servings are in the container? How many calories are in the container? How many calories are in each serving? What percent of FAT calories is in each serving? How much sodium is in each serving? What type of sugar is in the product? What are the preservatives?

Which is healthier?

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Which is healthier?

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Orange Juice vs. Orange Drink

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Infwn’WJUA;ESLK

McDonalds Burgers

McDonalds French Fries

McDonalds Salads

McDonalds Breakfast

McDonalds Drinks/Shakes/Iced Coffee

Starbucks Frappaccinos

Starbucks

Jack in the Box

Jack in the Box

Jack in the Box

Jack in the Box

Jack in the Box

HOW TO READ NUTRITION LABELS

NUTRITION LABELS CONT.

NUTRITIONAL LABELS CONT.

NUTRITIONAL LABELS CONT.

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Reading the label Lays Classic Potato Chip

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Ingredients: Potatoes,sunflower oil, salt.

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Nutritional facts: – Serving size 1 oz – Servings per container 3 – Calories 120 per serving; – Calories from fat 60 per serving – Cholesterol 0% – Sodium 200mg – Total Carbohydrate 21g ! Dietary fiber 2g ! Protein 2g