Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015;8(6):6107-6116 www.ijcep.com /ISSN:1936-2625/IJCEP0008839
Original Article Knockdown of microRNA-127 reverses adriamycin resistance via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis sensitization in adriamycin-resistant human glioma cells Ren Feng1, Lei Dong2 1 Department of Medical Administration, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin 300060, China; 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Received April 7, 2015; Accepted May 26, 2015; Epub June 1, 2015; Published June 15, 2015 Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate signaling pathways for reversal of microRNA-127-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in gliomas cells. Adriamycin-resistant glioma cell lines U251/adr and U87-MG/adr were established and we found that anti-microRNA-127 markedly reduced microRNA-127 expression levels in a timedependent manner, leading to distinct inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and the content of intracellular Rh123. Silencing of microRNA-127 significantly increased the sensitivity of U251/ADR and U87-MG/ adr cells to adriamycin, compared to cells transfected with negative control siRNA. Silencing of microRNA-127 also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR1 and MRP1, which are major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter linked to multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. And Runx2, p53, bcl-2 and survivin, which are important role in cell apoptosis, also markedly changed after microRNA-127 silencing. In addition, down-regulating microRNA-127 decreased the level of phosphorylated-Akt. Our data indicate that down-regulation of micorRNA-127 can trigger apoptosis and overcome drug resistance of gliomas cells. Therefore, this resistance of adriamycin in gliomas can be cancelled by silencing expression of microRNA-127. Keywords: microRNA-127, gliomas, adriamycin, drug resistance reversal
Glioma, as a common neurological malignancy, has become a major public health issue in the contemporary society. The treatment of malignant glioma is mainly relying on surgical excision at present, supported by postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy [1, 2]. However, the treatment of tumor is a complex process. Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy continues to be a major clinical obstacle to the successful treatment of cancer, including gliomas. Cause of tumor multidrug resistance (MDR) is very complexed and reduced survival of the patients [3, 4], resolving the issue of tumor MDR and searching for the target to overcome drug resistance has important significance in the treatment of many tumors, including gliomas.
logic processes. They have been shown to have both diagnostic and prognostic significance and to constitute a novel target for cancer treatment . Recently, miRNAs have been associated with cell chemosensitivity or chemotherapy resistance in a variety of cancer cell types, including gliomas [6, 7]. microRNA-127 was differentially expressed in a number of metabolic pathways, including cell proliferation, cycle arrest, angiogenesis and apoptosis, and acted as a tumor suppressor gene in several tumor development processes [8-12]. Zhou J et al found that miR-127 was proposed to be a tumor suppressor in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells . These results indicated that microRNA-127 might be linked to gliomas chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of microRNA-127 in chemotherapy resistance in gliomas remains elusive.
MicroRNAs, a group of short non-coding RNAs, which play important roles in a variety of bio-
The objective of this study was to investigate whether the down-regulation of microRNA-127
microRNA-127 knockdown reverses human glioma resistance could sensitize gliomas cells to adriamycin. We down-regulated the expression of microRNA-127 by specific miRNA inhibitor, and conducted cellular proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, Rh123 content and drug sensibility assays to elucidate the role of microRNA-127 in adriamycin-resistance human glioma cell lines.
(Guangzhou, China). And the two miArrest miRNA inhibitors were named sh1 and sh2. Transfection was carried out and then the successfully transfected cells were screened out in accordance with the reagent instructions.
Materials and methods
The cells in logarithmic growth phase, 1×105 cells/ml, were seeded in 96-well microplates, 100 μl/well, and cultured overnight to allow cell adherence. The medium was removed after continuous culture for 72 h; MTS was added in accordance with the reagent instructions to continue the culture for 4 h. Finally, the OD value was measured at 490 nm wavelength with a microplate reader to represent the cell counts. The inhibition rate of this drug on cells was calculated as follows: inhibition rate = (1-experimental group OD/control group OD) ×100%.
Main reagents and instruments Human glioma cell lines U251 and U87-MG were purchased from Cell Bank (Shanghai) of Type Culture Collection Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; viral vectors and related reagents for shRNAs-mediated silencing were purchased from GenePharma (Shanghai); MTS and RT-PCR kit were purchased from Promega; flow cytometry kit was purchased from BD Biosciences; various monoclonal antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz; ECL immunoblotting substrate kit was purchased from Millipore; microplate reader: Thermo; PCR instrument: Thermo; flow cytometer: BD Biosciences. Cell culture and induction of adriamycin-resistant cell lines The cells were cultured in an incubator under 37°C, 5% CO2 and saturated humidity condition. The culture medium was DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. The cells were digested with 0.25% trypsin-EDTA for passaging. Cells in logarithmic growth phase were used in all experiments. To obtain adriamycin-resistant cell lines, U251 and U87-MG were cultured in medium containing 10 nM adriamycin. One day later, the medium was changed to adriamycinfree medium to resume the culture for 6 d. Using 7 d as a cycle, adriamycin concentration was doubled each time; the above procedures were repeated until the cell clones were able to tolerate 2 μM or higher concentration of adriamycin. The adriamycin-resistant cell lines were named U251/Adr and U87-MG/Adr, respectively. microRNA-127 inhibitor preparation Two miArrest miRNA inhibitors, which are vector-based microRNA inhibitors, block microRNA-127 regulation of target gene expression were offered by GeneCopoeia company
Flow cytometry The cells in logarithmic growth phase were digested with trypsin and the density was adjusted to 106 cells per ml with PBS. In cell cycle assay, PI staining technique was used; the cells were first fixed with 70% ethanol for 2 h; after washing off the ethanol, the cells were stained with the staining solution containing 50 μg/mL RNaseA, 1% Triton X-100 and 40 μg/mL PI (BD) for 30 min to be analyzed with a flow cytometer. In apoptosis assay, the collected cells were directly stained with Annexin V-FITC/ PI in accordance with the kit instructions. In Rh-123 uptake assay, the cells were stained with 10 μM Rh-123 for 1 h prior to analysis. Western blot The cells were lysed to extract proteins from the cell lysate. The proteins were separated in 12% SDS-PAGE and then transferred onto a PVDF membrane; the target proteins were detected with different antibodies (4°C overnight). After washing off the primary antibodies, the membrane was incubated with HRPconjugated secondary antibody for 1 h. After several washes, ECL kit was used to develop the immunoreactive bands. Then β-actin was used as an internal control to determine not only the expression levels of MDR1, MPR1, Runx2, p53, bcl-2, survivin, and ErbB4, but also the phosphorylation levels of AKT in these cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015;8(6):6107-6116
microRNA-127 knockdown reverses human glioma resistance
Figure 1. The expression of microRNA-127 was up-regulated in U251/Adr and U87-MG/Adr cell lines. A. The IC50 of adriamycin in adriamycin-resistant glioma cell lines and their parental cell lines were detected by MTS assay (*P