Human Resource Management and Environmental Sustainability


 
 
 Human
Resource
Management
and
 Environmental
Sustainability

 Lessons
Learned
from
Swiss
Companies
 Master
Thesis
 
 Institut
für
Strategie‐
...
Author: Meredith Palmer
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Human
Resource
Management
and
 Environmental
Sustainability



Lessons
Learned
from
Swiss
Companies
 Master
Thesis
 
 Institut
für
Strategie‐
und
Unternehmensökonomik
 University
of
Zurich
 Chair
of
Human
Resource
Management
 
 Prof.
Dr.
Bruno
Staffelbach
 Major:






MA
of
Arts
in
Economics,
Betriebswirtschaftslehre


Subject:





Human
Resource
Management


Autor:
 




Serafin
Bäbler


Adresse:




Bülachstr.
5i


PLZ
Ort:




CH‐8057
Zürich


E‐mail:
 




[email protected]

Matrikelnummer:


04‐705‐364


No.
of
Semesters:


10


Due
Date:


August,
27th
2010




HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


II




Abstract

 The
present
master
thesis
examines
the
field
of
corporate
environmental
strategies
and
 corresponding
human
resource
management
practices.
It
is
the
aim
of
this
work
to
de‐ velop
a
typology
for
corporate
environmental
initiatives
and
therefore
be
able
to
assess
 the
 company’s
 strategy
 with
 the
 help
 of
 three
 ideal
 types:
 First,
 the
 companies
 who
 follow
a
type
A
strategy
see
environmental
issues
as
a
risk,
which
is
to
be
mitigated
and
 they
therefore
establish
a
corporate
control
strategy.
Second,
firms
that
follow
a
type
B
 strategy
recognize
environmental
matters
as
an
opportunity
for
new
business
models
 and
transform
their
processes
and
core
values
to
‘green’
business
activities.
The
third
 way
incorporates
elements
form
the
type
A
and
B
at
the
same
time.

 During
the
development
and
the
execution
of
a
corporate
environmental
initiative,
sev‐ eral
 units
 of
 the
 organization
 contribute
 in
 a
 joint
 process
 and
 by
 doing
 so
 different
 roles
are
taken.
One
important
contributor
for
an
initiative
is
the
human
resource
man‐ agement
 of
 the
 firm.
 Based
 on
 the
 typology
 of
 initiatives,
 the
 requirements
 to
 the
 hu‐ man
 resource
 activities
 are
 elaborated.
 Three
 case
 studies,
 which
 are
 developed
 through
 qualitative
 research
 methods,
 describe
 environmental
 initiatives
 from
 Swiss
 firms
and
outline
lessons
learned
from
these
firms.

 All
in
all,
ten
specific
lessons
learned
are
derived
from
the
case
studies.
The
findings
are
 analyzed
and
discussed
with
the
consideration
of
the
respective
strategic
background
 of
the
company.
The
lessons
learned
describe
the
impact
of
training
on
the
employee’s
 understanding
 of
 the
 environmental
 matter.
 Moreover,
 the
 way
 of
 management
 sup‐ port
 is
 analyzed
 in
 the
 different
 strategic
 contexts
 of
 the
 companies.
 A
 further
 lesson
 learned
 describes
 the
 importance
 of
 the
 application
 of
 the
 topic
 of
 environmental
 sustainability
 to
 the
 specific
 tasks
 of
 the
 employee
 to
 raise
 the
 awareness
 for
 the
 im‐ portance
of
the
matter.
Additionally,
the
need
for
the
integration
of
the
environmental
 initiatives
into
the
human
resource
processes
is
explained.
These
are
only
some
of
the
 fields
which
are
covered
by
the
lessons
learned
form
the
case
studies.

 All
things
considered,
the
master
thesis
provides
a
framework
for
analysis
of
environ‐ mental
 initiatives
 and
 related
 lessons
 learned
 about
 effective
 human
 resource
 man‐ agement
activities
and
corresponding
roles.

 


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


III




Table
of
Contents
 List
of
Figures .........................................................................................................................................V
 List
of
Tables...........................................................................................................................................V
 List
of
Abbreviations .............................................................................................................................VI



 1
 Introduction............................................................................................................................. 1
 1.1
 Research
Questions ............................................................................................................... 2
 1.2
 Delimitations ......................................................................................................................... 3
 1.3
 Structure................................................................................................................................ 3



 Part
A:
Theoretical
Considerations
 2
 Environmental
Sustainability
and
Corporate
Strategies............................................................ 4
 2.1
 The
Green
Wave .................................................................................................................... 4
 2.2
 The
Environmental
Sustainability
Paradigm .......................................................................... 9
 2.3
 Impact
of
Environmental
Sustainability
on
Corporate
Strategies ....................................... 12
 3
 Corporate
Environmental
Initiatives....................................................................................... 19
 3.1
 Definition
of
Corporate
Environmental
Initiatives .............................................................. 19
 3.2
 A
Typology
of
Corporate
Environmental
Initiatives............................................................. 22
 3.2.1
 3.2.2
 3.2.3


Type
A:
Green
as
Threat
–
Corporate
Control
/
Risk
Mitigation ...........................................24
 Type
B:
Green
as
Opportunity
–
Entrepreneurial .................................................................26
 Hybrid
Form
of
A
and
B
within
One
Corporate
Strategy ......................................................28


4
 Interaction
with
Human
Resource
Management
Practices ..................................................... 29
 4.1
 Environmental
Human
Resource
Management
Practices ................................................... 29
 4.2
 Model
for
Key
Roles
and
Responsibilities............................................................................ 32
 4.3
 Organizational
Concerns
for
Corporate
Environmental
Initiatives...................................... 34
 


Part
B:
Empirical
Work
 5
 Cases
Studies:
Lessons
Learned
from
Swiss
Firms ................................................................... 36
 5.1
 Methodology ....................................................................................................................... 37
 5.1.1
 5.1.2


Sample
of
Companies ...........................................................................................................37
 Research
Method..................................................................................................................38


5.2.1
 5.2.2
 5.2.3
 5.2.4


Galenica’s
Corporate
Environmental
Strategy......................................................................42
 Code
of
Conduct
and
Employee
Participation:
Description
of
the
CEI
and
Results ..............45
 Lessons
Learned
form
the
Initiative......................................................................................49
 Discussion
and
Conclusion
form
the
Galenica
Case..............................................................51


5.3.1
 5.3.2
 5.3.3
 5.3.4


Geberit’s
Corporate
Environmental
Strategy .......................................................................53
 Environment
and
Recycling
Training:
Description
and
Results.............................................55
 Lessons
Learned
form
the
Initiative......................................................................................61
 Discussion
and
Conclusion
form
the
Geberit
Case ...............................................................63


5.4.1
 5.4.2
 5.4.3
 5.4.4


Holcim’s
Corporate
Environmental
Strategy ........................................................................65
 The
CEI
for
the
Usage
of
Alternative
Energies
in
the
Cement
Process .................................68
 Lessons
Learned
form
the
Initiative......................................................................................73
 Discussion
and
Conclusion
form
the
Holcim
Case ................................................................75


5.2
 Case
 Study
 1:
 Galenica’s
 Corporate
 Environmental
 Strategy
 and
 Initiatives
 in
 the
 Pharma
 Industry ............................................................................................................................... 41


5.3
 Case
 Study
 2:
 Geberit’s
 Corporate
 Environmental
 Strategy
 and
 Initiatives
 in
 the
 Sanitary
 Technology
Industry ............................................................................................................ 53


5.4
 Case
 Study
 3:
 Holcim’s
 Corporate
 Environmental
 Strategy
 and
 Initiatives
 in
 the
 Materials
 Industry ............................................................................................................................... 64




HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


IV



 Part
C:
Implications
from
the
Case
Studies
 6
 Discussion
of
the
Lessons
Learned
from
the
Case
Studies ....................................................... 76
 6.1
 Summary
of
the
Lessons
Learned........................................................................................ 76
 6.2
 Lessons
Learned
compared
in
different
Contexts ............................................................... 78
 6.2.1
 6.2.2


Impact
of
Management
Support ..........................................................................................78
 Employee
Training
for
‘Corporate
Greening’........................................................................80


6.3.1
 6.3.2


Assessment
of
the
Lessons
Learned
in
the
Key
Roles
Model ...............................................81
 Differences
in
Centralization
versus
Decentralization
of
HR
Functions................................83


6.3
 Human
Resource
Management’s
Roles
in
Corporate
Environmental
Initiatives................. 81
 6.4
 White
Spots
in
the
Lessons
Learned.................................................................................... 84
 
 7
 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 85
 
 List
of
Literature ........................................................................................................................... 87
 
 Appendix
I:
List
of
the
Interview
Partners ..................................................................................... 93
 Appendix
II:
Documents
form
the
Empirical
Process ..................................................................... 96
 Appendix
III:
Supplementary
Documents
form
the
Case
Studies ................................................. 102
 Case
Study
Galenica .................................................................................................................... 102
 Case
Study
Geberit ...................................................................................................................... 109
 Case
Study
Holcim ....................................................................................................................... 114




HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


V




List
of
Figures
 Fig.
1:
Illustration
of
the
Green
Wave. ................................................................................................... 8
 Fig.
2:
Impact
of
Environmental
Sustainability
on
Corporate
Strategies. ............................................ 15
 Fig.
3:
Framework
for
CEI. .................................................................................................................... 20
 Fig.
4:
Porter’s
Value
Chain .................................................................................................................. 21
 Fig.
5:
Model
of
Corporate
Environmental
Initiatives. ......................................................................... 23
 Fig.
6:
Typical
CEI
for
type
1
–
green
as
a
threat. ................................................................................. 25
 Fig.
7:
Typical
CEI
for
type
2
–
green
as
an
opportunity....................................................................... 27
 Fig.
8:
Type
hybrid
–
both
forms
of
CIE
within
one
company .............................................................. 28
 Fig.
9:
HRM
practices
and
the
relation
to
CEI....................................................................................... 30
 Fig.
10:
Continuum
of
Central
Organization
versus
Decentral
Organization
of
Functions................... 35
 Fig.
11:
Sample
of
the
Companies
for
the
Case
Studies. ...................................................................... 37
 Fig.
12:
Empirical
Process
for
the
Case
Studies. ................................................................................... 38
 Fig.
13:
Overview
of
Galenica’s
Business
Sections. .............................................................................. 41
 Fig.
14:
Classification
of
Galenica’s
CES
in
the
Model. ......................................................................... 43
 Fig.
15:
Galenica’s
CEI
for
the
Environmental
Code
of
Conduct........................................................... 45
 Fig.
16:
The
Scope
of
Galenica’s
CEI
in
Porter’s
Value
Chain................................................................ 47
 Fig.
17:
Roles
and
Responsibilities
within
Galenica’s
Initiative. ........................................................... 48
 Fig.
18:
Galenica’s
Lessons
Learned
form
the
CEI. ............................................................................... 50
 Fig.
19:
Geberit’s
CES
in
the
model. ..................................................................................................... 54
 Fig.
20:
Overview
of
Geberit’s
Initiative
for
Environmental
Training................................................... 55
 Fig.
21:
Diagramm
on
Geberit’s
Environmental
Impact. ...................................................................... 57
 Fig.
22:
The
Scope
of
Geberit’s
Initiative
in
Porter’s
Value
Chain. ....................................................... 58
 Fig.
23:
Roles
and
Responsibilities
within
Geberit’s
CEI. ...................................................................... 60
 Fig.
24:
Lessons
Learned
form
Geberit’s
CEI. ....................................................................................... 61
 Fig.
25:
Holcim’s
Business
Sections. ..................................................................................................... 64
 Fig.
26:
The
Focus
of
Environmental
Sustainability
at
Holcim.............................................................. 66
 Fig.
27:
Hocim’s
CES
in
the
Model........................................................................................................ 67
 Fig.
28:
Overview
of
Holcim’s
CEI......................................................................................................... 69
 Fig.
29:
The
Scope
of
Holcim’s
CEI
in
Porter’s
Value
Chain. ................................................................. 71
 Fig.
30:
Roles
and
Responsibilities
within
Holcim’s
CEI........................................................................ 72
 Fig.
31:
Lessons
Learned
form
Holcim’s
CEI. ........................................................................................ 74
 Fig.
32:
Overview
of
the
Lessons
Learned
in
the
Case
Studies............................................................. 77
 Fig.
33:
Different
Approaches
for
Management
Support..................................................................... 79
 Fig.
34:
Lessons
Learned
in
the
Area
of
Employee
Training. ................................................................ 80
 Fig.
35:
Organizational
Aspects
of
the
HR
Functions............................................................................ 83
 Fig.
36:
Affected
HR
Activities
in
the
Case
Studies. .............................................................................. 84




List
of
Tables

 Table
1:
List
of
Abbreviations................................................................................................................VI
 Table
2:
Overview
of
Environmental
Management
Models ................................................................ 16
 Table
3:
The
Key
Roles
and
Responsibilities
for
HR
Professionals ....................................................... 33
 Table
4:
Structure
of
the
Case
Studies ................................................................................................. 40
 Table
5:
Assessment
of
Roles
being
taken
in
the
Case
Studies ............................................................ 82


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability
 


List
of
Abbreviations
 Table
1:
List
of
Abbreviations


Abbr.
 Explanation
 BSC


Balanced
Score
Card


CES


Corporate
Environmental
Strategy


CEI


Corporate
Environmental
Initiative


CSR


Corporate
Social
Responsibility


DJSI


Dow
Jones
Sustainability
Index


EMS


Environmental
Management
System


GRI


Global
Reporting
Initiative


GTZ


Deutsche
Gesellschaft
für
technische
Zusammenarbeit


HR


Human
Resources


HRM
 Human
Resources
Management
 ISO


International
Standards
Organization


KPI


Key
Performance
Indicator


OD


Organizational
Development


PMS


Performance
Management
System


SIX


Swiss
Stock
Exchange


UN


United
Nations



 


VI


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


1




1

Introduction


The
term
‘sustainability’
evolved
during
the
first
years
of
the
21st
century
to
one
of

the
 most
 cited
 key
 words
 and
 one
 of
 the
 biggest
 challenges
 for
 businesses
 and
 for
 the
 community
 (UN
 Global
 Compact,
 2004).
 The
 implementation
 of
 sustainable
 corporate
 strategies
 requires
 strong
 leadership
 and
 a
 concrete
 process
 (Glavas,
 Senge,
 Cooper‐ rider,
 2010).
 While
 scholars
 still
 dispute
 the
 impact
 of
 sustainability
 on
 the
 financial
 bottom
line,
the
implementation
in
firms
has
already
been
going
on
for
years
(Halme
&
 Laurila,
2009;
Elkington
1999).
However,
CES
often
take
place
without
a
vision
or
plan
 (Lubin
&
Esty,
2010).
 Facing
 the
 need
 of
 incorporating
 ‘green’
 into
 the
 corporate
 strategy,
 the
 topic
 of
 sustainability
 is
 moving
 up
 on
 the
 agenda
 of
 most
 business
 leaders
 and
 management
 boards,
 whereas
it
 generally
stays
 off
 the
radar
 screen
 and
 awareness
 of
 most
 practi‐ tioners
in
the
HR
environment
(Wirtenberg,
Harmon,
Russell
&
Fairfield,
2007).
 The
evolution
of
companies
towards
sustainable
business
models
takes
place
according
 to
 different
 strategies
 (Kolk
 &
 Mauser,
 2002;
 Delmas
 &
 Montes‐Sancho,
 2010).
 Some
 companies
see
‘green’
as
a
threat
while
others
recognize
‘green’
as
an
opportunity.
The
 diversification
 of
 corporate
 environmental
 strategies
 (CES)
 leads
 to
 different
 require‐ ments
towards
the
involved
business
units.
Especially
the
role
of
human
resource
man‐ agement
 (HRM)
 is
 dependent
 on
 strategic
 decisions
 and
 influenced
 by
 the
 corporate
 strategy
of
the
firm
(Campbell,
2007).
Therefore,
each
corporate
strategy
has
its
most
 effective
HRM
system
(Schuler
&
Jackson,
2001).
 This
 work
 will
 analyze
 the
 different
 approaches
 of
 the
 integration
 of
 environmental
 concerns
into
the
corporate
strategy
and
develop
a
framework
for
the
classification
of
 the
 strategies
 trough
 ideal
 types.
 Furthermore,
 the
 corresponding
 corporate
 environ‐ mental
initiatives
(CEI)
will
be
outlined,
which
correspond
to
the
underlying
strategy.
 This
 will
 result
 in
 a
 model
 for
 CEI,
 describing
 initiatives
 based
 on
 several
 strategic
 backgrounds.
Based
on
the
model,
the
requirements
to
the
HRM
department
will
first
 be
derived
from
a
theoretical
point
of
view.
The
application
of
these
findings
in
the
em‐ pirical
part
will
put
evidence
behind
the
implications
of
the
theoretical
part.
 The
 empirical
 part
 contains
 three
 case
 studies
 of
 Swiss
 companies.
 In
 the
 cases,
 one
 specific
initiative
is
described
and
some
lessons
learned
are
presented.
Afterwards,
the
 analysis
across
the
cases
will
discuss
and
validate
the
lessons
learned
and
derive
some
 general
implication
for
the
practitioners
and
the
scientist
too.


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


2




1.1

Research
Questions


Starting
with
the
review
of
the
current
state
of
literature,
one
can
find
many
concepts
 describing
 how
 companies
 can
 develop
 to
 more
 environmental
 sustainable
 business
 models.
 The
 decision
 about
 how
 to
 incorporate
 sustainability
 depends
 on
 several
 fac‐ tors,
for
example
the
position
and
the
strategy
in
the
market
(Kolk
&
Mauser,
2002).
It
 is
the
first
objective
of
the
thesis
to
develop
and
evaluate,
based
on
the
current
state
of
 the
literature,
a
typology
of
CES
and
–
in
doing
so
–
distinguish
between
three
types
of
 CEI.
This
leads
to
the
first
research
question:
 
 Q1:
What
are
the
major
concepts
of
environmental
sustainability
in
the
literature
and
 how
can
these
concepts
be
translated
into
a
typology
of
CES
and
corresponding
CEI?
 
 Given
 the
 typology
 of
 the
 corporate
 strategies
 and
 corresponding
 initiatives,
 the
 re‐ quirements
to
the
HRM
department
will
be
analyzed.
Each
environmental
strategy
has
 a
unique
impact
on
the
HRM
system
of
the
company
(Doppelt,
2008;
Losey,
Meisinger
&
 Ulrich,
2005).
The
impact
on
HRM
systems
will
be
explained
on
the
level
of
HR
activi‐ ties
that
are
typically
affected
trough
CEI
and
possible
roles
that
could
be
taken
by
the
 HRM
units
during
the
development
and
the
execution
of
an
initiative:
 
 Q2:
 From
 a
 conceptual
 point
 of
 view,
 what
 are
 the
 requirements
 from
 the
 different
 types
of
CEI
to
the
HR
activities
of
the
firms
and
the
role
being
played
by
HRM?
 
 Based
 on
 the
 findings
 of
 the
 conceptual
 part
 of
 this
 thesis,
 the
 empirical
 part
 of
 this
 thesis
will
be
conducted.
It
is
the
aim
of
the
empirical
part
to
derive
real‐life
examples
 of
the
challenges
and
lessons
learned
of
selected
companies
from
each
ideal
type
cor‐ porate
strategy
of
Q1
and
the
roles
and
requirements
from
Q2:
 
 Q3:
In
practice,
what
are
the
main
lessons
learned
and
challenges
with
regards
to
the
 practices
 and
 roles
 of
 HRM
 in
 the
 context
 of
 the
 type
 of
 corporate
 environmental
 sustainability
strategy?
 
 The
 three
 research
 question
 guide
 the
 work
 and
 lead
 to
 the
 structure
 of
 the
 thesis,
 which
 will
 be
 described
 as
 follows.
 But
 before,
 some
 delimitation
 to
 the
 scope
 of
 this
 work
will
be
made.


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


3




1.2

Delimitations


The
topic
of
environmental
sustainability
includes
a
wide
range
of
research
directions
 and
 ideologies.
 This
 thesis
 will
 focus
 on
 the
 management
 literature
 of
 environmental
 sustainability.
Although
environmental
sustainability
is
the
core
area
of
the
work,
some
 literature
 in
 the
 field
 of
 corporate
 social
 responsibility
 (CSR)
 can
 be
 included
 in
 the
 considerations
 (e.g.
 Porter
 &
 Kramer,
 2006;
 Pedersen,
 2010).
 Compared
 to
 the
 pure
 scope
of
environmental
sustainability,
the
publications
in
the
field
of
CSR
also
include
 societal
concerns.
But
for
this
thesis
is
was
mandatory
to
understand
the
full
scope
of
 the
topic
and
therefore
include
some
publications
in
this
field
as
well.


1.3

Structure


The
thesis
starts
with
the
introduction
(chapter
1),
which
describes
the
area
of
interest
 and
the
research
questions.

 The
remaining
document
is
structured
into
three
parts.
Part
A
represents
the
theoreti‐ cal
 foundation
 of
 the
 thesis,
 which
 includes
 the
 chapters
 2
 to
 4.
 Chapter
 2
 introduces
 the
reader
to
the
topic
of
environmental
sustainability
and
presents
the
current
status
 of
the
literature.
The
impact
of
environmental
sustainability
on
the
corporate
strategy
 of
 the
 companies
 lies
 in
 the
 focus
 of
 that
 chapter.
 Chapter
 3
 covers
 the
 need
 of
 a
 CES
 being
 translated
 into
 initiatives.
 The
 term
 CEI
 will
 be
 presented
 and
 discussed
 in
 a
 deeper
 manner
 within
 this
 chapter
 leading
 to
 a
 model
 for
 the
 classification
 of
 CEI
 ac‐ cording
 ideal
 types.
 Given
 the
 typology
 for
 CEI,
 the
 implication
 to
 the
 HRM
 system
 is
 derived
in
chapter
4.

 Based
 on
 the
 finding
 of
 the
 theoretical
 part,
 in
 chapter
 5
 a
 qualitative
 study
 is
 con‐ ducted
with
tree
cases
studies
(part
B).
The
empirical
part
focuses
on
the
roles
encoun‐ tered
 in
 practice,
 lessons
 learned
 and
 major
 challenges
 in
 the
 implementation
 of
 the
 initiatives
in
the
firms.

 Part
 C
 focuses
 on
 the
 implications
 of
 the
 case
 studies.
 In
 chapter
 6,
 the
 synthesis
 and
 the
re‐evaluation
of
the
case
studies
takes
place.
The
conclusion
in
chapter
7
shows
a
 summary
of
the
results
and
highlights
the
relevance
of
the
findings
and
results
for
prac‐ titioners
and
scientists.


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


4




2 2.1

Environmental
Sustainability
and
Corporate
Strategies
 The
Green
Wave


The
awareness
of
environmental
issues
has
been
increased
more
and
more
in
the
poli‐ tics,
 the
 public
 and
 also
 in
 the
 management
 level
 of
 companies.
 The
 following
 section
 will
 explain
 how
 this
 awareness
 has
 been
 reached
 and
 what
 the
 major
 impact
 points
 there
were
in
the
nearer
past.

 
 Information
technology
and
media
presence
 For
this
reason,
we
would
like
to
describe
the
most
important
prerequisites
and
at
the
 same
time
also
drivers
for
this
evolution
towards
environmental
awareness.
First
of
all,
 as
a
prerequisite
for
information
sharing
all
over
the
world,
telecommunication
made
a
 contribution
to
the
development
of
the
green
wave,
and
this
based
on
two
reasons.
On
 the
 on
 one
 hand,
 the
 newer
 media
 technologies
 can
 transport
 pictures
 and
 videos
 of
 natural
disasters
and
other
spectacular
phenomena
in
a
better
quality
and
faster
than
 ever
 all
 around
 the
 world.
 We
 all
 have
 certain
 pictures
 in
 our
 head
 when
 we
 think
 about
natural
disasters,
and
with
the
modern
media
and
telecommunication
technolo‐ gies,
 the
 whole
 modern
 world
 shares
 the
 pictures
 about
 this
 disasters
 and
 therefore
 also
 a
 basis
 for
 environmental
 issues.
 An
 example
 for
 this
 is
 the
 natural
 catastrophe
 that
occurred
in
2005
around
the
city
of
New
Orleans,
hurricane
Katrina.
Videos
on
TV,
 newspaper
pictures
and
radio
reports
were
spread
in
no
time
around
the
world.
Fur‐ thermore,
we
will
later
discuss
some
more
company
related
examples
of
environmental
 incidents,
the
media
reports
were
distributed
all
over
the
world
and
therefore
the
peo‐ ple
around
the
world
share
a
common
memory
about
these
issues.

 Beside
the
transportation
of
the
media
pictures
over
the
world,
the
information
sharing
 itself
has
been
enhanced
significantly
over
the
last
20
years.
With
the
diffusion
of
the
 access
to
the
World
Wide
Web,
research
communities
have
been
moved
together
to
a
 global
 community
 of
 scientists,
 also
 able
 to
 share
 information
 immediately
 and
 faster
 than
ever
before.
This
makes
the
community
highly
productive
and
effective
in
global
 collaboration.
 As
 an
 example
 for
 this,
 we
 will
 next
 present
 the
 major
 findings
 and
 re‐ ports
form
global
scholar
community
in
this
arena.
 


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


5



 Scientific
and
Political
Debate
from
Rio
de
Janeiro
Earth
Summit
to
AR4
 As
one
of
the
first
and
important
global
initiatives
in
the
mid
1980ies,
the
United
Na‐ tions
founded
an
international
group
of
experts
to
work
on
a
report
about
the
world’s
 environmental
 evolution.
 At
 the
 beginning
 the
 group
 was
 headed
 by
 Gro
 Harlem
 Brundtland,
 who
 was
 prime
 minister
 of
 Norway
 at
 this
 time.
 Under
 her
 guidance,
 the
 commission
 created
 a
 report
 named
 “Our
 Common
 Future”.1
 The
 publication
 of
 the
 report
 dramatically
 changed
 the
 public
 and
 political
 discussion
 about
 environmental
 issues.
For
the
first
time,
the
report
brought
things
in
connection
that
were
so
far
con‐ sidered
separately.
The
documents
provided
an
integrative
view
of
the
economic
pro‐ gress
 of
 the
 industrialized
 countries,
 which,
 for
 example,
 goes
 along
 with
 environ‐ mental
 pollution
 and
 arms
 build‐up,
 whereas
 on
 the
 other
 hand
 we
 face
 poverty
 and
 dept
 in
 the
 third
 world
 countries.
 These
 factors
 combined
 with
 the
 fact
 of
 growing
 of
 population
and
expansion
of
the
deserts
created
an
integrative,
but
also
alarming
and
 awakening
view
on
the
current
challenges
in
the
global
environmental
sector.
As
a
next
 important
point
of
the
report,
the
editors
declared
the
definition
of
sustainable
devel‐ opment,
as
we
know
it
today:
“Sustainable
development
is
development
that
meets
the
 needs
 of
 the
 present
 without
 compromising
 the
 ability
 of
 future
 generations
 to
 meet
 their
own
needs”
(Brundtland
&
Khalid,
1987).
As
one
result
of
the
publication
of
the
 paper,
 the
 earth
 summit
 in
 Rio
 de
 Janeiro
 (1992)
 was
 initiated.
 During
 the
 summit
 in
 Rio,
 the
 participants
 agreed
 on
 27
 principles
 and
 the
 so‐called
 agenda
 21
 about
 sus‐ tainable
development.2
The
principles
led
to
a
commitment
of
the
participants
to
pro‐ tect
the
global
environment
and
recognizing
the
interdependent
nature
of
the
Earth.
 Especially
the
scientific
community
did
not
stop
with
their
research
after
the
commit‐ ments
of
Rio
de
Janeiro.
As
one
important
project,
we
would
like
to
consider
here
the
 Intergovernmental
 Panel
 on
 Climate
 Change
 (IPCC).
 This
 group
 of
 scientist
 continu‐ ously
researches
on
climate
specific
issues
and
moreover
regularly
reviews
the
work
of
 the
 global
 community.
 Important
 for
 public
 awareness
 are
 the
 several
 reports
 pub‐ lished
by
this
group.
The
first
IPCC
assessment
report
(AR1)
was
ready
for
the
famous
 earth
summit
in
Rio.
After
this,
the
IPCC
community
further
published
three
more
as‐ sessment
reports.
The
second
assessment
report
(AR2)
was
published
in
the
year
1995,
 the
third
publication
(AR3)
in
2001
and
the
so
far
most
recent
report
in
2007
(AR4).3
 




























































 1
This
document
is
published
on
the
UN
website:
http://www.un‐documents.net/wced‐ocf.htm,


visited
on
May
25th
2010.
 2
The
document
is
available
on:
http://www.un‐documents.net/rio‐dec.htm,
visited
on
Mai
25th


2010.


3
All


the
 mentioned
 reports
 are
 available
 on
 the
 IPCC
 website:
 http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.htm,
 visited
 on
 June
1st
2010.


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


6



 Going
briefly
into
the
details
of
the
report,
we
discover
the
following
structure
(Inter‐ governmental
Panel
on
Climate
Change,
2007):
Chapter
1
summarizes
the
observation
 of
 the
 changes
 in
 the
 environment
 and
 their
 effect
 on
 the
 natural
 and
 human
 system.
 The
 most
 important
 signals
 or
 evidence
 for
 changes
 are:
 Recurrent
 smog
 alerts,
 acid
 rain,
 holes
 in
 ozone
 layer,
 global
 warming,
 and
 the
 loss
 of
 biodiversity
 (Amber
 &
 La‐ noie,
2008).
The
other
chapters
focus
on
the
possible
sources
of
the
changes
described
 in
chapter
1
and
possible
mitigation
options.
This
report
is
important
for
both
the
pub‐ lic
and
the
politics,
because
it
raises
awareness
of
the
topics
and
sets
the
points
on
the
 public
and
political
agenda.
 As
 a
 follow
 up
 of
 the
 Earth
 Summit,
 in
 the
 year
 1997
 the
 conference
 in
 Kyoto
 took
 place.
This
convention
focused
especially
on
the
global
warming
issue
and
the
emission
 of
green
house
gases.
The
major
aim
of
the
conference
was
to
get
an
agreement
of
col‐ lective
 reduction
 of
 green
 house
 gas
 emissions.
 After
 days
 of
 negotiation,
 which
 was
 accompanied
by
a
major
media
presence
and
ongoing
publicity
all
over
the
world,
the
 187
participating
states
finally
agreed
on
a
reduction
target
of
minus
5.2%
based
on
the
 emissions
of
1990.
The
concrete
statement
of
the
countries
was
also
clear
signal
to
the
 business
 world
 that
 firms
 have
 to
 stick
 now
 concrete
 reductions
 too.
 The
 public
 and
 political
awareness
rose
more
and
more.
 After
 some
 more
 years
 of
 public
 debate
 and
 raising
 awareness
 of
 the
 environmental
 problems
 in
 the
 word
 the
 United
 Nations
 invited
 to
 another
 summit
 for
 international
 community
in
Johannesburg
(2001).
Based
on
the
AR2
and
AR3
report
of
IPCC,
the
poli‐ ticians
and
scientist
community
discussed
possible
new
ways
of
putting
the
green
gas
 reduction
 targets
 and
 other
 environmental
 protection
 plans
 into
 action.
 It
 can
 be
 rec‐ ognized
 that
 the
 (scientific)
 knowledge
 about
 the
 changes,
 trends
 and
 impacts
 con‐ sciously
increases
but
at
the
same
time
the
complexity
of
the
discussion
and
problem
 solving
 approaches
 also
 multiplies
 due
 to
 different
 interest
 substitution,
 for
 example
 the
 difference
 between
 emerging
 markets
 and
 the
 developed
 countries.
 But
 what
 we
 want
 to
 show
 here
 is
 the
 increasing
 awareness
 and
 recognition
 of
 the
 environmental
 issue
in
public,
politics
and
also
business.
 
 Major
worldwide
incidents
 Business
is
without
doubt
a
major
stakeholder
in
the
discussion
about
environmental
 issues
and
therefore
must
be
an
important
part
of
the
solution.
In
this
context
here,
we
 would
like
to
show
how
company
related
incidents
can
evolve
to
a
global
cognition
of
 environmental
 issues.
 For
 this
 reason,
 two
 stories
 have
 been
 chosen
 and
 will
 be
 de‐ scribed.
Of
course,
there
would
have
been
a
lot
of
other
cases
to
include
here,
however,


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


7



 these
 two
 incidents
 are
 supposed
 to
 show
 the
 changing
 public
 perception
 of
 environ‐ mental
issues.
 A
popular
case
for
the
demonstration
of
the
effect
of
business
actions
and
their
impact
 on
public
perception
is
the
case
of
Shell
UK
in
the
year
1995.
Zyglidopoulos
(2002)
de‐ scribes
the
circumstances
and
impact
of
the
case.
It
all
begun
with
the
decommission‐ ing
 of
a
oil
 platform
 located
in
the
 North
Sea.
 After
consultation
 of
 local
 governments
 and
interest
groups
Shell
decided
to
dispose
of
the
platform
through
a
deep‐water
dis‐ posal.
However
this
decision
led
to
a
big
public
discussion
and
opposition
against
this
 way
of
decommissioning.
As
a
sort
of
environmental
lawyer,
the
NGO
Greenpeace
took
 the
role
of
discussion
leader.
Finally
with
the
support
of
politics,
public
and
media
the
 big
Shell
Company
was
forced
to
choose
an
alternative
way
of
disposal.
This
case
shows
 on
the
one
hand,
that
in
the
recent
years,
public
and
NGOs
have
been
able
to
pressure
 big
multi
national
companies
towards
environmental
behavior.
And
on
the
other
hand,
 that
 unmindful
 business
 action
 that
 damages
 the
 environment
 can
 lead
 to
 enormous
 loss
in
company
reputation.
 A
 most
 recent
 case
 that
 occurred
 in
 the
 current
 year
 2010
 presents
 the
 immense
 oil
 spill
in
the
Golf
of
Mexico
in
the
USA.
An
accident
during
deep‐water
drilling
caused
a
 giant
oil
spill
in
spring
and
summer
2010
in
the
Mexican
Gulf.
Like
in
the
other
cases,
 this
 research
 does
 not
 want
 to
 examine
 any
 technical
 or
 legal
 facts
 but
 show
 the
 tre‐ mendous
 global
 response
 to
 this
 incident.
 A
 look
 at
 the
 New
 York
 Times
 (2010,
 June
 26th)
presents
the
report
of
day
66
after
the
accident.
At
this
time,
the
technical
prob‐ lem
 haD
 not
 been
 clearly
 solved
 yet,
 but
 the
 public
 and
 legal
 dispute
 about
 guilt
 and
 reparation
fines
was
already
in
progress
with
high
publicity.
The
main
criticism
against
 BP
was
the
acting
without
plan
and
the
unclear
and
aimless
risk
allocation
and
mitiga‐ tion
between
the
partner
companies
involved.
Up
to
now,
the
BP
group
has
lost
more
 than
$100
billion
in
 market
value,
 even
 though
it
 is
 not
 yet
 clear
 if
 and
 how
 long
 this
 negative
effect
will
hold
on.
But
what
is
clear
that
this
accident
caused
a
great
echo
in
 the
public.
At
that
time
the
oil
spill
was
everywhere.
Newspapers
provided
interactive
 real
time
materials
and
live
videos
were
available
on
the
world
wide
web.
This
is
also
 what
 the
 Newspaper
 The
 Daily
 Herald
 –
 Tribune
 (2010,
 June
 17th)
 highlighted
 in
 its
 article.
They
showed
that
the
oil
spill
was
spread
all
over
the
world
in
social
networks
 and
 was
 therefore
 in
 everybody’s
 mind
 and
 presence,
 mainly
 of
 course
 in
 a
 negative
 manner.
 This
 section
 has
 shown,
 that
 in
 combination
 with
 emerging
 telecommunication
 tech‐ nologies,
 which
 make
 news
 and
 scientific
 facts
 available
 almost
 immediately
 and
 all


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability


8



 over
the
world
in
combination
with
scholar’s
findings
and
politic
debate
should
make
 the
environmental
issue
to
a
hot
topic
on
each
manager’s
agenda.

 Fig.
1:
Illustration
of
the
Green
Wave.
 DB7$*EEB:/01$F13"*?-*% !"#$#%&+(*16+($& 6)0"2+)-& /012)$"%&8)0)%& *1--"*31(%& /"2.+*"%& *5/016"2& )**"//4&

@:.#)?1'*% !"#$#%& )//"62+3($%&?"6( !"#$%&''( )'#*'+',-./0'( 1%""2-''(

3)(4'0'$%#"',-( 56%$272'+8(

6*%7'++( 9.,.:'"',-(;( 1%""2?+-.2,[email protected]$2-&(

1(

1(

9.,.:'"',-( 5>2-'8(

1(



As
 the
 illustration
 above
 shows,
 the
 employee
 representative
 committee
 was
 embed‐ ded
in
a
network
of
four
counterparts.
The
three
functions
at
the
bottom
acted
as
col‐ laborator
(C).
 
 Results
of
the
Initiative
 The
 commitment
 to
 the
 initiative
 was
 high
 across
 the
 whole
 production
 site.
 In
 the
 three
months
period,
160
ideas
were
submitted.
On
one
hand
single
people
brought
in
 their
suggestions,
but
also
whole
groups
participated
in
the
initiative.
Some
teams
con‐ ducted
workshops
to
develop
ideas
for
the
postbox.
Finally,
123
ideas
were
compiled
in
 the
closing
document
of
the
environmental
code
of
conduct.
The
code
of
conduct
con‐ sists
of
22
regulations
to
be
followed
in
the
respective
areas
of
the
initiative.
The
code
 of
conduct
contains
the
following
topics:
 
 1. General
introduction
 2. Workplace
 3. Transports
 4. Facilities
 5. Legal
validity
 
 In
 the
 part
 of
 the
 general
 introduction,
 the
 environmental
 code
 of
 conduct
 points
 out
 the
context
of
the
document.
Furthermore,
in
this
section
the
paper
describes
the
rele‐ vance
of
the
code
of
conduct
as
regulation
that
has
to
be
followed
by
all
the
employees.
 The
section
workplace
contains
settings
to
be
considered
with
regards
to
the
computer
 and
the
printer.
With
simple
changes
on
the
monitor
settings
for
example,
the
company
 as
a
whole
is
able
to
save
energy
and
with
regards
to
the
print
management,
to
spend
 less
paper
for
the
print
outs.



HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability
 49
 
 The
transport
section
of
the
document
contains
the
guideline
for
the
purchase
of
new
 cars.
It
rules
that
cars
with
less
emission
of
green
house
gas
should
be
preferred.
Fur‐ thermore
 it
 engages
 the
 employees
 to
 use
 the
 public
 transport
 or
 the
 bicycle
 to
 go
 to
 work
 wherever
 possible.
 In
 the
 section
 of
 the
 facilities
 the
 document
 the
 appropriate
 heating
 and
 lightning
 of
 the
 company
 building.
 The
 legal
 validity
 notice
 declares
 the
 code
of
conduct
to
be
binding
as
of
1st
of
July,
2010.

 All
 in
 all,
 the
 environmental
 code
 of
 conduct
 sets
 the
 guideline
 for
 environmental‐ friendly
 behavior
 for
 the
 administrative
 business
 activities.
 The
 ideas,
 which
 consid‐ ered
 other
 topics
 than
 the
 mentioned
 ones,
 were
 submitted
 to
 the
 respective
 process
 owners.
The
tracking
of
these
additional
ideas
was
not
anymore
covered
by
this
CEI.


5.2.3 Lessons
Learned
form
the
Initiative
 The
 following
 part
 will
 focus
 on
 the
 lessons
 learned
 form
 the
 initiative.
 As
 a
 starting
 point,
the
major
objectives
and
scope
will
be
repeated
quickly.
It
was
the
intention
of
 the
CEI
to
gather
concrete
points
of
improvement
in
the
area
of
environmental
sustain‐ ability
 at
 the
 production
 site
 in
 Niderbipp.
 Moreover,
 the
 initiative
 was
 supposed
 to
 strengthen
the
awareness
for
the
environmental
sustainability
topic.
It
was
not
the
aim
 of
 the
 initiative
 to
 create
 big
 costs.
 Rather,
 hands‐on
 suggestions
 for
 savings
 and
 risk
 mitigations
were
expected
in
the
area
of
the
workplace,
transport
and
facility
manage‐ ment.
The
results
of
the
initiative
lead
to
the
code
of
conduct,
which
includes
guidelines
 for
the
employees
supposed
to
reduce
the
costs
for
energy
and
fuel.
 In
discussion
with
the
several
interview
partners,
the
following
three
key
points
for
the
 successful
implementation
of
such
an
initiative
in
that
context
have
been
derived.
The
 statements
are
illustrated
in
the
following
figure.
The
lessons
learned
are
based
on
the
 experiences
of
the
involved
people
in
the
initiative
at
the
production
site
and
also
form
 the
central
support
functions.
 


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability
 50
 
 Fig.
18:
Galenica’s
Lessons
Learned
form
the
CEI.



 
 As
 the
 illustration
 above
 presents,
 the
 lessons
 learned
 can
 be
 summarized
 in
 three
 main
points.
The
items
will
now
be
described
in
more
detail.
 First,
the
initiative
was
successful
through
the
positive
effect
of
the
employee
participa‐ tion.
On
one
hand,
the
idea
with
the
postbox
to
gather
the
inputs
for
the
employees
was
 initiated
 by
 the
 employees
 themselves.
 The
 employee
 representation
 team,
 which
 re‐ flects
 the
 footing
 of
 the
 company,
 initiated
 the
 idea,
 which
 was
 successful.
 Empowerment
 in
 general
 means
 to
 delegate
 the
 decision
 about
 the
 approach
 and
 im‐ plementation
 of
 the
 initiative
 to
 a
 lower
 level
 of
 hierarchy
 (Lashley,
 2001).
 When
 the
 initiative
is
founded
on
the
employee
level,
the
motivation
and
the
identification
for
the
 topic
are
per
se
much
higher
than
those
a
top
down
initiative
might
trigger.
And
espe‐ cially
in
the
situation,
where
the
aim
of
the
imitative
is
to
gather
ideas
and
suggestions
 that
are
already
in
the
mind
of
the
employees
or
even
already
informally
implemented
 somewhere,
 the
 empowerment
 of
 the
 employees
 reflected
 an
 accurate
 and
 successful
 method
to
conduct
an
initiative
like
the
CEI
of
Galenica.
 Second,
 once
 the
 initiative
 was
 initiated
 and
 reported
 to
 the
 management,
 the
 execu‐ tives
had
to
decide
whether
to
support
the
CEI
or
not
and
in
which
way.
In
the
case
of
 the
initiative
for
the
code
of
conduct,
the
local
site
management
commited
their
strong
 support
for
the
initiative.
In
the
view
of
Mr.
Clémençent,
head
of
business
sector
logis‐ tics,
it
is
crucial
to
officially
support
an
initiative.
“It
is
important
to
us
to
acknowledge
 the
efforts
and
the
ideas
of
the
employees
in
the
area
of
environmental
sustainability”
 Mr.
 Clémençent
 says.
 The
 site
 management
 acted
 as
 a
 sponsor
 and
 promoter
 of
 the
 initiative.
For
example,
in
the
official
announcement
Mr.
Clémençent
acted
as
a
speaker
 to
 underline
 the
 importance
 and
 the
 relevance
 of
 the
 initiative.
 The
 effort
 of
 the
 top


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability
 51
 
 management
showed
to
the
employees
that
the
initiative
must
be
taken
seriously
and
 ensured
the
serious
participation
of
the
employees
in
the
project.

 As
a
third
lesson
learned,
Galenica
recognized
the
importance
to
support
and
guide
the
 employees’
 initiative
 with
 expert
 knowledge
 form
 central
 site.
 Once
 the
 CEI
 was
 ac‐ cepted
 and
 supported
 by
 the
 management,
 the
 process
 management
 and
 the
 central
 environmental
team
attended
the
development
and
execution
phase
of
the
initiative.
In
 the
focus
of
the
coaching
were
the
financial
planning
and
the
scheduling
of
the
project.
 Furthermore,
the
central
functions
acted
as
coordination
partners
and
enabled
syner‐ gies
through
the
intermediation
of
knowledge
across
business
units
and
functions.
The
 combination
of
local
effort
and
engagement
together
with
the
competences
of
the
cen‐ tral
function
ensured
the
successful
development
and
execution
of
the
initiative
accord‐ ing
to
the
objectives
and
the
requirements
of
the
CEI.


5.2.4 Discussion
and
Conclusion
form
the
Galenica
Case
 In
the
closing
discussion
and
the
conclusion
of
this
case
study,
first
the
question
of
pre‐ requisites
for
the
replication
to
other
departments
or
companies
will
be
discussed.
Af‐ terwards,
a
critical
review
of
the
initiative
will
answer
the
question,
in
which
way
the
 CEI
supports
the
CES
of
Galenica.
 The
transfer
of
the
approach
to
another
context
depends
on
several
factors.
The
deci‐ sive
points
will
be
discussed
as
follows.
To
gather
valuable
inputs
form
the
employees,
 the
people
need
to
have
a
certain
knowledge
of
the
topic
of
environmental
sustainabil‐ ity.
Looking
at
the
employees
of
the
production
site,
mainly
the
people
working
at
the
 administration
 where
 involved
 in
 the
 initiative.
 This
 department
 represents
 people
 with
 the
 necessary
 educational
 background
 that
 enable
 them
 to
 contribute
 to
 such
 a
 CEI.
As
a
second
point
in
this
context,
the
culture
of
the
company
must
be
ready
to
ac‐ cept
and
acknowledge
a
regulation
like
a
code
of
conduct.
When
the
employees
are
not
 used
 to
 act
 according
 the
 written
 rules
 and
 regulation
 of
 a
 company,
 a
 document
 like
 the
 code
 of
 conduct
 could
 lack
 acceptance
 from
 the
 employee’s
 side.
 Such
 a
 situation
 could
 occur
 when
 people
 are
 not
 able
 to
 read
 and
 many
 instructions
 are
 provided
 word‐of‐mouth
or
through
practical
application.
This
is
not
the
case
for
Galenica.
The
 employees
 of
 Galenica
 work
 in
 an
 environment
 of
 strict
 quality
 and
 behavior
 regula‐ tions.
 To
 accentuate
 the
 importance
 of
 the
 environmental
 code
 of
 conduct,
 the
 legal
 department
 decided
 to
 include
 the
 environmental
 code
 of
 conduct,
 which
 was
 elabo‐ rated
by
the
initiative,
into
the
overarching
framework
of
the
general
code
of
conduct.
 Therefore,
only
if
the
necessary
knowledge
of
the
employees
is
available
and
the
accep‐ tance
 of
 a
 written
 statement
 is
 given,
 the
 initiative
 can
 be
 transferred
 to
 another
 de‐

HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability
 52
 
 partment
 or
 company.
 These
 two
 points
 are
 considered
 as
 the
 crucial
 factors
 for
 the
 replication
of
the
initiative
to
elsewhere.
 To
conclude
the
case
study,
the
feedback
from
the
initiative
to
the
environmental
strat‐ egy
 of
 Galenica
 will
 be
 discussed.
 As
 showed
 in
 the
 introduction,
 Galenica
 follows
 a
 strategy
 where
 environmental
 matters
 are
 taken
 seriously
 into
 account.
 Galenica
 as‐ sesses
 and
 reviews
 the
 environmental
 impact
 of
 its
 business
 activities
 and
 seeks
 for
 mitigation
and
improvements.
This
approach
has
been
idealized
as
the
type
A
strategy
 in
 the
 framework
 for
 CES.
 Especially
 for
 the
 rollout
 of
 the
 CES,
 Galenica
 emphasized
 that
the
behavior
of
the
employees
is
a
bit
green
already
because
the
staff
consists
of
 people
 that
 have
 a
 sound
 knowledge
 and
 educational
 background
 in
 this
 matter.
 As
 a
 consequence
 of
 this,
 Galenica
 started
 to
 gather
 what
 was
 already
 in
 the
 behavior
 and
 knowledge
of
the
people.
As
the
outcomes
of
the
imitative
have
shown,
the
simple
col‐ lecting
of
ideas
–
and
of
course
the
rework
of
the
CEI
execution
team
–
have
resulted
in
 an
environmental
code
of
conduct
with
moderate
effort.
This
case
study
represents
an
 example
of
a
CEI
that
supports
the
strategy
of
type
A
because
the
core
processes
of
the
 company
 do
 not
 need
 to
 be
 redesigned
 or
 revised.
 But
 the
 initiative
 sensibilized
 the
 staff
 for
 environmental
 issues
 through
 participation
 effects
 and
 incentives
 for
 partici‐ pation.
Therefore,
the
CEI
of
Galenica
can
be
seen
as
an
initiative
where
sustainability
is
 not
the
core
strategy,
but
is
taken
into
account
wholeheartedly.



HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability
 53
 



 5.3

Case
Study
2:
Geberit’s
Corporate
Environmental
Strategy
and
Initia‐ tives
in
the
Sanitary
Technology
Industry


The
 Geberit
 group
 produces
 and
 sells
 sanitary
 products
 and
 technologies
 in
 over
 100
 countries
around
the
world.
The
headquarter
of
the
company
is
based
in
Rapperswil‐ Jona,
 Switzerland.
 Geberit,
 which
 was
 founded
 in
 1874,
 achieved
 2.2
 bn.
 Swiss
 Francs
 revenue
in
the
year
2009.
In
the
same
year,
the
Geberit
group
employed
approximately
 5,600
people
in
67
countries.
The
company
operates
production
sites
in
Germany,
Aus‐ tria
and
Switzerland
but
also
in
the
USA,
China,
Italy
and
Slovenia.
Geberit
managed
to
 develop
 to
 a
 European
 market
 leader
 position
 over
 the
 last
 years
 and
 faces
 good
 growth
perspectives
in
North
America
and
Asia.
The
product
portfolio
of
Geberit
con‐ sists
of
sanitary
materials
such
as
cisterns
systems,
faucets
and
flushing
systems,
waste
 fittings,
traps
and
according
piping
systems.
The
group
is
stock
listed
at
the
SIX
and
is
 in
public
ownership.
Sustainability
is
an
important
part
of
Geberit’s
corporate
strategy.
 This
includes
the
provisioning
 of
 sustainable
 products
 to
 the
 market
 on
 the
 one
hand
 and
the
sustainable
business
behavior
towards
the
stakeholder
of
the
firm
on
the
other
 hand.

 Geberit
 conducted
 a
 number
 of
 environmental
 initiatives.
 The
 effort
 of
 Geberit
 for
 achieving
 sustainability
 reflects
 the
 high
 investments
 in
 training
 of
 the
 employees
 for
 example.
 Also
 in
 the
 focus
 of
 CEI
 are
 waste
 and
 water
 reduction
 measurements
 and
 also
 energy
 efficiency
 programs.
 On
 a
 systems
 and
 processes
 level,
 Geberit’s
 environ‐ mental
management
is
implemented
in
accordance
with
ISO
14001.

 This
case
will
focus
on
one
specific
CEI
of
Geberit
in
the
area
of
employee
training.
For
 the
 last
 three
 years,
 Geberit
 has
 been
 conducting
 an
 extended
 environment
 and
 recy‐ cling
training.
The
aim
of
this
case
study
is
to
highlight
the
importance
of
an
integrated
 training
 concept
 for
 achieving
 environmental
 sustainable
 behavior
 as
 a
 part
 of
 an
 ex‐ tensive
green
business
strategy.
This
example
will
show
how
the
organizational
design,
 the
 roles
 and
 responsibilities
 in
 this
 CEI
 are
 able
 to
 transfer
 the
 values
 of
 environ‐ mental
sustainability
to
the
employees
of
a
production
site.


5.3.1 Geberit’s
Corporate
Environmental
Strategy
 The
company
follows
an
approach
of
integrating
environmental
sustainability
into
the
 core
business
strategy.
 For
Geberit,
sustainability
is
emphasized
in
all
business
actions
 and
with
a
continuing
transformational
character.
Environmental
concerns
are
not
only
 taken
as
a
possible
risk
for
mitigation,
but
as
a
challenge
to
create
new
and
innovative


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability
 54
 
 ways
of
raising
the
value
of
the
company.
The
strategy
of
Geberit
concerning
environ‐ mental
 matters
 is
 to
 innovate
 and
 become
 environmental
 friendly
 before
 an
 issue
 is
 ruled
 by
 governmental
 regulations.
 Moreover,
 Geberit
 aims
 to
 create
 a
 more
 sustain‐ able
industry
environment
by
proactively
approaching
possible
hazards
with
partners
 and
competitors
in
a
joint
process.
 As
an
example
for
the
corporate
environmental
strategy,
Geberit
creates
and
maintains
 an
extended
stakeholder
dialogue.
The
stakeholder
dialogue
represents
the
discussion
 and
 alignment
 with
 Geberit’s
 stakeholders,
 namely
 the
 customers,
 shareholders,
 em‐ ployees,
governmental
and
industry
organizations
and
other
participants
of
the
market.
 Geberit
uses
several
channels
for
interactions.
The
Information
Center
is
an
important
 part
 of
 it,
 where
 the
 company
 shows
 and
 informs
 about
 their
 products
 and
 business
 activities,
 mainly
 for
 citizens,
 partners
 and
 official
 bodies.
 Other
 ways
 of
 stakeholder
 interaction
 are
 fairs,
 forums,
 summits,
 and
 also
 personal
 contacts.
 For
 internal
 stakeholders
workshops
and
trainings
are
conducted.
Geberit
managed
to
set
up
a
cul‐ ture
 of
 constant
 learning
 over
 the
 last
 couple
 of
 years.
 In
 average,
 each
 employee
 at‐ tended
around
19
hours
of
training
in
the
year
2009
(Geberit,
2010).
 With
 regard
 to
 the
 typology
 of
 environmental
 strategies,
 the
 approach
 of
 Geberit
 matches
 with
 the
 type
 b.
 For
 type
 b
 companies,
 the
 challenges
 of
 environmental
 mat‐ ters
are
incorporated
in
a
transformational,
innovative
core
strategy
representing
eco‐ friendly
behavior
within
the
core
value
proposition.
 Fig.
19:
Geberit’s
CES
in
the
model.




HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability
 55
 
 With
regards
to
the
sustainability
reporting,
Geberit
adapted
the
GRI
3.0
standard
with
 the
 full
 extend
 (A+
 adaptor).
 The
 way
 to
 sustainability
 and
 the
 transparent
 reporting
 standards
 also
 have
 a
 positive
 impact
 on
 Geberit
 as
 an
 investment
 opportunity.
 Over
 the
 last
 years,
 Geberit
 has
 developed
 to
 an
 interesting
 share
 for
 investors
 who
 are
 aware
 of
 environmental
 friendly
 behavior.
 The
 share
 of
 the
 company
 is
 listed
 in
 the
 Dow
Jones
Sustainability
Index
(DJSI)
(SAM,
2010).


5.3.2 Environment
and
Recycling
Training:
Description
and
Results
 In
 the
 following
 paragraph,
 Geberit’s
 employee
 training
 initiative
 will
 be
 described
 in
 more
 detail.
 The
 initiative
 is
 called
 the
 “environmental
 and
 recycling
 training”
 and
 is
 conducted
for
the
employees
at
the
production
site
Rapperswil‐Jona.
To
get
a
detailed
 understanding
of
Geberit’s
initiative,
the
case
study
follows
the
different
steps
showed
 in
 the
 illustration
 above.
 First,
 the
 specific
 needs
 for
 this
 initiative
 will
 be
 outlined.
 Based
 on
 the
 needs,
 the
 objectives
 for
 the
 initiative
 are
 described.
 The
 scope
 and
 the
 actual
 content
 of
 the
 CEI
 will
 be
 described
 as
 the
 third
 step.
 And
 as
 a
 fourth
 step,
 a
 model
will
be
presented
for
the
several
roles
and
responsibilities
that
were
taken
dur‐ ing
elaboration
and
rollout
of
the
initiative.
The
last
paragraph
of
this
subchapter
will
 highlight
the
results
of
the
CEI
and
show
what
has
been
achieved
by
the
implementa‐ tion
of
the
initiative
so
far.
Additionally
to
the
steps
already
mentioned,
the
illustration
 shows
the
most
important
key
words
for
the
respective
step,
which
will
be
explained
in
 the
text
below.
 
 Fig.
20:
Overview
of
Geberit’s
Initiative
for
Environmental
Training.


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The
 second
 case
 study
 was
 the
 case
 of
 Geberit.
 In
 the
 model
 for
 CES,
 Geberit
 follows
 more
of
a
type
B
strategy.
This
represents
the
transformation
of
the
business
towards
 eco‐friendly
 business
 opportunities.
 Regarding
 the
 lessons
 learned,
 here
 the
 manage‐ ment
support
lies
more
on
the
sustainability
matter
itself
rather
than
on
the
concrete
 initiative.
 It
 is
 about
 creating
 the
 awareness
 and
 the
 understanding
 for
 the
 general
 topic.
The
several
CEI
benefit
indirectly
of
overall
importance,
that
is
seen
in
the
topic
 by
the
employees
and
line
management.

 The
 third
 case
 is
 Holcim
 with
 the
 hybrid
 strategy.
 Here
 an
 ‘old’
 value
 chain
 coexists
 with
 a
 ‘green’
 value
 chain.
 To
 ensure
 a
 proper
 implementation
 and
 operation
 of
 the
 eco‐friendly
 business
 section
 it
 is
 the
 focus
 of
 the
 management
 support
 to
 create
 an
 understanding
and
acceptance
for
the
new
‘green’
model.
The
new
model
has
to
work
 parallel
to
the
traditional
business.
It
is
more
of
a
balance
to
be
found
between
tradi‐ tional
values
and
innovative
atmosphere
of
a
‘green’
business
section.
 The
analysis
of
management
support
reflected
a
set
of
lessons
learned
which
have
to
be
 interpreted
 in
 the
 specific
 context
 of
 the
 company.
 It
 shows
 that
 the
 analysis
 of
 a
 CEI
 always
 has
 to
 consider
 the
 strategic
 background
 of
 the
 company
 to
 gain
 valuable
 re‐ sults.
An
additional
case,
where
the
CES
background
matters,
will
now
be
presented.


HRM
and
Environmental
Sustainability
 80
 


6.2.2 Employee
Training
for
‘Corporate
Greening’
 The
case
study
of
Holcim
and
Geberit
included
the
topic
of
staff
training.
The
following
 section
will
outline
the
specialties
of
the
training
topics
with
regard
to
environmental
 initiatives.
The
following
figure
shows
the
two
lessons
learned
in
this
field.
The
box
on
 the
left
represents
the
lesson
learned
form
Geberit.
On
the
right
side,
the
message
form
 the
Holcim
case
study
is
shown.

 Fig.
34:
Lessons
Learned
in
the
Area
of
Employee
Training.


!"#$%$%&'(' )*+*,-./*%0'

123'/450'6*'$%0*&"#0*7' $%'08*'9+*"#,,'!"#$%$%&' :"-&"#//'

)*+*,-.';%7*"50#%7$%&'