Ensure environmental sustainability

www.cepal.org/mdg Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 7.1. Introduction Goal 7 of MDG's addresses the immense task of "ensuring environment...
Author: Julian Lawson
40 downloads 0 Views 217KB Size
www.cepal.org/mdg

Goal 7.

Ensure environmental sustainability

7.1. Introduction Goal 7 of MDG's addresses the immense task of "ensuring environmental sustainability" through four key targets. Target 7A can be understood based on two fully distinct components: (i) Integration of the principles of sustainable development into country policies and (ii) reversion of the loss of environmental resources. Target 7B addresses the reduction in biodiversity loss. The other two targets are related to access to water and sanitation (Target 7C) as well as life conditions in human settlements (Target 7D). MDG 7 is disaggregated in both targets and indicators as to measure progress towards achievement of the Goal as set by international consensus in the United Nations Summit of the Millennium in 2000 and updated in 2008. Consolidated List of Targets and Indicators Goal 71 Type of indicator N° Indicators name Target 7.A Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources Official Supplementary Supplementary Supplementary Supplementary Supplementary Supplementary

7.1

Supplementary Supplementary Official Supplementary Supplementary Official Supplementary

7.2

7.3

Proportion of land area covered by forest Natural forest cover in Latin America and Caribbean countries Proportion of land area covered by natural forest Proportion of natural to total forest area Change in forest cover in Latin America and Caribbean countries Change in forest area in Latin American and Caribbean countries Distribution of change in forest area in Latin American and Caribbean region: Countries with decreased forest area Distribution of change in forest area in Latin American and Caribbean region: Countries with increased forest area Source of change in forest area CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) LAC contribution to world CO2 emissions annual average PM10 concentration in main cities with respect to national norm Consumption of ozone-depleting substances Consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that deplete the ozone layer

Supplementary Supplementary Supplementary

Percentage of population using solid fuels LAC contribution to world's chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) consumption Motorization rates in LAC countries

Supplementary

Evolution of motorization rates

Official

7.4

Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits

Official

7.5

Proportion of total water resources used

1

Official list of MDG indicators as published by the United Nations, including also Supplementary Regional Indicators for Latin America and the Caribbean. These supplementary indicators have been suggested by ECLAC as to approach the MDGs from a perspective inherent to the region. For those cases when there is not available information, some of these are used as proxy of official indicators. Further more, official indicators that were removed or modified during the last update of the official listing are also included to keep information collected from previous periods. 1

www.cepal.org/mdg

Consolidated List of Targets and Indicators Goal 71 Type of indicator Supplementary Supplementary



Indicators name Energy use (Kg oil equivalent) per $1000 GDP (PPP) Renewal of energy offer

Supplementary

Fertilizer use intensity

Supplementary

Land desertification as proportion of total country land area

Target 7.B Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss Official

7.6

Supplementary Official

Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected Surface area of marine areas protected

7.7

Proportion of species threatened with extinction

Supplementary

Evolution of extraction of main fisheries

Supplementary

Evolution of aquaculture production

Supplementary Environmental public expenditure Target 7.C Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation 7.8 Proportion of population with access to an improved drinking water source 7.8.1 Proportion of population with access to improved drinking water source Urban areas 7.8.2 Proportion of population with access to improved drinking water source Rural areas 7.9

Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility

7.9.1 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility Rural areas 7.9.2 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility Urban areas Target 7.D By 2010, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 7.10

Proportion of urban population living in slums*

The actual proportion of people living in slums is measured by a proxy, represented by the urban population living in households with at least one of the four characteristics: (a) lack of access to improved water supply; (b) lack of access to improved sanitation; (c) overcrowding (3 or more persons per room); and (d) dwellings made of non-durable material.

7.2. Progress Evaluation on MDG 7 in Latin America and the Caribbean Changes proposed to official and supplementary indicators between 1990 and 2005 in regard to MDG7 show a situation of concern. During the period of the analysis most MDG 7 supplementary and official indicators for Latin America and the Caribbean show significant environmental deteriorations both in terms of natural habitat as in areas constructed. All countries show great heterogeneity in the pattern exhibited by their indicators. Thus it is very important to keep the analysis at a national scale in consideration as all policies and programs aiming to resume the right track -and even achieve the goals proposed for the Millennium, will be subsequently undertaken by the countries and their institutions. Nevertheless, and while the countries show different patterns and behaviors when compared to the average or when compared to the regional aggregation for Latin America and the Caribbean, countries show in most cases changes and trends in the same direction than the aggregated variable at regional level.

2

www.cepal.org/mdg The following is an aggregated regional analysis of the behavior of MDG7 indicators,, including both official and supplementary indicators, for 1990 - 2005, after 56% of the time designated to achieve all MDGs has lapsed. For the Latin America and Caribbean natural environment the alarming and increasingly faster rate of loss in forest cover and area is (I7.1) a reason of concern, reaching -8.5% of cumulated variation for 1990 - 2005, altogether loss of habitat and decrease in biodiversity. Also, the degree of land degradation continues to be very high in several countries, reaching 81% as aggregated of the area of 19 countries. Chart 1 (Indicator 7.1) Evolution of land area covered by forest Latin America and the Caribbean 1990, 2000, 2005 (thousand of hectares and % of coverage) 1,400,000

60%

51% 1,200,000

48%

47%

50%

1,000,000

992,823 800,000

40%

947,879

924,163 30%

600,000 20% 400,000 10%

200,000 -

0% 1990

2000

Hectares of forest

2005

% of forest cover

Source: ECLAC on the basis of FRA - FAO, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005.

3

www.cepal.org/mdg

Chart 2 (Supplemmentary Indicator) Land affected by degradation Latin America and the Caribbean countries, 2000

64.0% Honduras

62.0%

65.0% Guatemala

63.0%

66.0% Panama

67.0%

72.0% Mexico

70%

68.0%

73.0% Colombia

72.0%

73.0%

79.00% Venezuela

Bolivia

79.0%

82.0% Chile

Belize

83.0% Guyana

80.00%

85.0% Peru

80%

Suriname

85.0%

90%

French Guiana

91.0%

(percentage) 100%

(%)

60% 50% 40% 30% 20%

Costa Rica

Ecuador

Argentina

Nicaragua

Brasil

0%

Paraguay

10%

Source: ECLAC on the basis of FAO. World Resources Report 2000. Land and Resource Potentia and Constraints at Regional and Country Level. Rome, 2000.

Chart 3 (Supplemmentary Indicator) Total water extraction as percentaje of total renewal water Latin America and the Caribbean countries. Last year with available data 1998-2002. (percentage) 18% 16% 14%

Percentage (%)

12% 10% 8% 6% 4%

Source: ECLAC on the basis of AQUASTAT, on-line database. Information download: November, 2006.

4

Paraguay

Bolivia

Colombia

Panama

Nicaragua

Venezuela

Guyana

Brazil

Belize

Honduras

Peru

Chile

Guatemala

Uruguay

Costa Rica

Argentina

Ecuador

Jamaica

El Salvador

Haiti

Trinidad and Tobago

Mexico

0%

Dominican Republic

2%

www.cepal.org/mdg An indicator that shows a positive change in terms of environmental sustainability refers to the proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected as to preserve biodiversity (I7.6). This indicator has increased in almost 28% for the period. Nevertheless, indicator I7.6 does not ensure protection of ecosystems at country level as the degree of effective protection of bio-diversity and representation of species and biomes in the given country are both elements which are addressed by this indicator. Chart 4 (Indicator 7.6) Evolution of terrestrial and marine protected areas Latin America and the Caribbean 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 (percentage) 20 17.7

18

16.3 15.3

16 14

12.8

(%)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1990

1995

2000

2005

Source: ECLAC on the basis of United Nations. Millennium Development Goals Indicators.On-line database.

Another indicator showing a positive behavior is the energy intensity indicator of GDP (Ex I27) which has decreased in a cumulated 3.1% for the period. As supplementary indicators, a steady increase in the intensity of fertilizers and pesticides used has been observed. The supplementary indicator for fertilizer use intensity shows, for instance, an obvious increase which is an eight-fold growth in the region from 1962 to 2002. In 1990 - 2002 the increase amounts to 60%. Intensity of use for certain types of pesticides as herbicides, and fungicides has not been determined for the region due to lack of statistics.

5

www.cepal.org/mdg

Chart 5 (Supplemmentary Indicator) Intensity of fertilizer consumption Latin America and the Caribbean, 1962-2002 (Tones per thousand of hectares) 18 16

Tons/1.000 hectares

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1962

1967

1972

1977

1982

1987

1992

1997

2002

Note: Annual average variation rate: 5,8%. Accumulated variation rate: 871,1% Source: ECLAC on the basis of FAOSTAT, on-line database.

In regard to pollution with greenhouse effect and depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, the situation is as follows. For the indicator of CO2 emissions per capita (I7.2) the level has been steady at 2.4 for the 1990 - 2003 period (increasing to 3.1 in 2000), while the supplementary indicator showing LAC contribution to world emissions kept the same low trend with a slight increase from 4.6% in 1990 to 5.3% in 2002. The supplementary indicator for CFC consumption (Ex I28b) shows a drop equaling 141% for the 1990 - 2004 period while the supplementary indicator showing LAC contribution to world emissions is still relatively low with a slight increase from 11.4% in 1990 to 16.1% in 2003. Air pollution and the growth of vulnerable, precarious settlements are the main issues in regard with built environment. In terms of use of solid fuels (Ex I29), the proxy per capita consumption of biomass (wood, cane products, and other primary products) has been alternatively used for the Latin American and Caribbean region as a whole. This indicator shows a cumulated decrease of 7.9% for 1990 - 2005, i.e. 0.96 to 0.89 equivalent tons of oil for every inhabitant, which shows great progress in terms of environmental sustainability. Below is the sub-regional breakdown of the indicator: The Caribbean sub-region shows a decrease of 80.5%, while Central America shows a reduction of 16%, both for the same period of time. It has not been possible to build the supplementary indicator for PM 10 concentration using historical series. Thus it is not possible to determine the evolution the region has experienced in time. There are existing official statistics to study the progress in some urban centers of the region. However, using the statistics available, and

6

www.cepal.org/mdg based on data compiled by PAHO, there is clear evidence showing that several cities in the region exceed their own maximum standard for PM 10 concentration. With respect to the supplementary indicator for motorization rate, there is also a clear increase in the number of vehicles per capita in the region, with a cumulative increase of 32% between 1990 and 2000, and the further pressure on emissions from mobile sources. In regard to potential indicators for Target 7a, integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs, no official indicators have been proposed as of yet and has not been possible to build Latin American supplementary indicators mainly due to lack of official statistical series for computation purposes. These elements are addressed in detail in the study. Findings from pilot studies conducted on environmental public expenditure with respect to GDP are shown albeit not comparable, and they exhibit values below 1% for all cases, which are by all means considered insufficient. In general, official indicators associated to Target 7.C -Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation- show a positive evolution. Indicator for coverage of safe drinking water (I7.8), though the territory aggregation still shows high disparities in terms of coverage and access to both water and sanitation in Latin American and Caribbean countries. There is also a positive change in indicators for coverage of sanitation (7.9), for national and urban and rural areas, however with a certain degree of progress which is lesser than progress made in terms of coverage for water. With respect to target 7D which proposes a reduction in the number and proportion of people living in slums, the regional analysis shows that the value for the indicator, i.e. proportion of the population sill living in slums (I7.10 proxy), has a positive trend regardless an increase of 18 million people living in slums.

7

Jamaica Mexico Montserrat Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela

www.cepal.org/mdg

Guyana Haiti Honduras

Chart 6 (Indicator 7.8a)

Grenada Guatemala

Proportion of urban population using an improved drinking water source

French Guiana

Latin American and the Caribbean countries, 1990, 2004

Uruguay Venezuela

Ecuador El Salvador (percentage)

Suriname Trinidad and Tobago

120

Rural Target 2015

Saint Lucia

120

0

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

100

Peru Saint Kitts and Nevis

Dominican Republic

Urban Target 2015

Panama Paraguay

100

Nicaragua

80

Montserrat

80

Jamaica Mexico

60

2004

Haiti Honduras

60

Guyana

40

Guatemala

Colombia

2004

(percentage)

Grenada

British Virgin Islands Chile Costa Rica Cuba

Chart 7 (Indicator 7.8b)

French Guiana

40

Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador

Latin American and the Caribbean countries 1990, 2004

Colombia Costa Rica

20

0

Chile

Belize Bolivia Brazil 1990

Brazil British Virgin Islands

Proportion of rural population using an improved drinking water source

Belize Bolivia

20

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Argentina Bahamas Barbados

Barbados

1990

8

Source: ECLAC on the basis of WHO/ UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP)

Argentina Bahamas

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

100

120

80

100

120

Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay

Jamaica Mexico Montserrat Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela 0

Venezuela

Urban Target 2015

Montserrat

(percentage)

Jamaica

Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras

Latin American and the Caribbean countries 1990, 2004

Haiti Honduras

Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador French Guiana

www.cepal.org/mdg

80

60

1

Guyana

2004

Grenada Guatemala

Chart 9 (Indicator 7.9b)

(percentage)

French Guiana

Brazil British Virgin Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica

Chart 8 (Indicator 7.9a)

60

40

Ecuador El Salvador

Belize Bolivia

Proportion of urban population using an improved sanitation facility

40

Cuba Dominican Republic

Latin American and the Caribbean countries 1990, 2004

Colombia Costa Rica

1990

Chile

Proportion of rural population using an improved sanitation facility

Brazil British Virgin Islands

Rural Target 2015

20

Belize Bolivia

2004

20

0 Argentina Bahamas Barbados

Barbados

1990

9

Source: ECLAC on the basis of WHO/ UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP)

Argentina Bahamas

120

100

80

60

40

20

0