Electric Vehicles and the Grid

Electric Vehicles and the Grid Ontario Smart Grid Forum October 14th, 2008 Dr. Arindam Maitra Senior Project Manager Electric Transportation Power De...
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Electric Vehicles and the Grid Ontario Smart Grid Forum October 14th, 2008

Dr. Arindam Maitra Senior Project Manager Electric Transportation Power Delivery & Utilization (PDU)

EPRI Vision for Infrastructure • Safe, intercompatible, and intelligent interface • Common connector and communication standards

Efficient Building Systems

Utility Communications Internet

– SAE J1772, J2836 Consumer Portal & Building EMS

• Smart Grid enabled – Bi-directional data exchange between vehicle and grid – AMI and non-AMI strategies to enable smart charging

• Understand System Impacts

Distribution Operations

– Vehicle-to-grid

2

Advanced Metering

PV

Control Interface

Plug-In Hybrids

Data Management

• Smart Grid Initiatives and Demonstrations • Synergistic with stationary energy storage, distributed generation • Long-term R&D

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dynamic Systems Control

Renewables

Distributed Generation & Storage

Smart End-Use Devices

Auto Industry Interest in PHEVs (and EVs) Announced Programs by Most Major OEMs EV

PHEV or EREV

Production

Demo

Saturn VUE 2-Mode Blended Intro: 2011 CY

Nissan 2010 CY

Chevrolet Volt Extended Range EV 40-mile EV range 16kWh Li-Ion Intro: 2010 CY

Mitsubishi iMIEV 2010 CY, 100 mile range, PG&E, SCE demo

Ford Escape PHEV 2008 CY, 21 car fleet with SCE/EPRI/Utilities Ford/Eaton Trouble Truck 10 truck fleet w/ utilities

Toyota Prius PHEV 500-car fleet 2009 CY © 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Daimler Smart ForTwo 2010 CY

VW Golf TwinDrive 30 mile EV range 20-car fleet, 2009 3

Dodge ZEO 150-200 mile range

Subaru R1e 50 Mile AER 10-car fleet 2008 CY

Electricity – The Only Energy Source with Significant Capacity to Support Transportation Industrial 25.7%

Commercial 36.2%

Residential 37.5% 10M EREVs and PHEVs 0.5%

Efficient use of electricity – 1% increase in electricity to charge PHEVs saves 174 million barrels of petroleum annually DOE EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2008, Tables A2. and A18. © 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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PHEVs are Synergistic with Low-Carbon Generation, Smart Grids

Creating the Electricity Network of the Future © 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

5

PHEV Charging is a Crucial Smart Grid Application

• •

Minimal grid impacts, maximum utility value Harmonize customer and utility requirements

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

6

EPRI vision of standards unification among IntelliGrid, SDOs and auto industry INTERDEPENDENT CONCURRENT SYNCHRONOUS

EAEC SAE J2847, J2836 RP 2.0 (Final c:2009)

JARI

UL

SAE J2847, J2836 SAE

Auto OEMs

IEEE

ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 2.x

EPRI IntelliGrid

IntelliGrid CIM 1.0

IntelliGrid CIM 2.0

ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 1.x

ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 1.0

Need for SAE development to work closely with the Smart Energy Alliance to bring all the Demand Response Program features under a single canopy © 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

7

EPRI IWC & PHEVWG

IEC

NEC ZigBee Alliance

HomePlug Alliance OpenHAN

OpenAMI

UtilityAMI

Distribution System Impacts • Evaluate localized impacts of PHEVs to utility distribution systems • Participants – ConEd, AEP, Hydro-Quebec, Dominion, TVA, Southern, NU, BC Hydro

• • • • • •

Plug-In Characteristics

Thermal Loading • Plug-in vehicle type and range Losses • PEV market share Voltage and distribution Imbalance • Charge profile and Harmonics power level Protection System • Charger behavior Impacts • Advanced Metering • ©EE devices 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 8

July 27th 2007 24 hr: Total Loading for the Feeder Under Study Base Load Scenario PHEV Case 1:- (120V, 15A) Charging @1am

12000

11000 Total Loading at Substation (KW)

Distribution Impacts

10000

9000

8000

off-peak load 7000

off-peak load

6000

Opportunity for Smart Charging 5000

4000 0

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11 12 Hours

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Load Growth in the Entertainment Sector PLASMA TV

SET TOP BOX Average Power

300W!

Average Power

5.5hrs/day

30W!



Plasma TV prices are dropping which encourages people to buy one!



Typical Plasma TV 42” consumes as much as three times more power than 27” CRT TV



By 2009, 16% of all TV’s shipped to North America will be Plasma (nearly 6 million TVs!)

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

9



Set-top boxes decode the signals sent by cable TV operators



They consume power even when they are Switched OFF!!



They are typically ON 24x7



Annual energy consumption of 2 set-top boxes is equal to the energy consumed by one refrigerator!

Example Assessment – Tankless Water Heaters • Effect on required distribution transformer ratings • Effect on secondary conductor requirements • Effect on customer service rating requirements • Effect on power quality (voltage fluctuations or flicker) • Effect of current waveshape on possible transformer saturation, metering, and other effects 11kW

28kW

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

10

EPRI PHEV Distribution Impact Supplemental

• Scope is distribution system, substation transformer, primary distribution, distribution transformer, and secondary system up to service entrance © 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 11

System Modeling Tools • Existing Modeling Tools – CYME CYMDIST – Milsoft – SynerGEE

• New Approaches and Tools • • • • •

Complete 3 phase distribution system representation Ability to represent load profiles Simulation over the entire year Applicability to real time simulations Stochastic assessments (e.g. Monte Carlo simulations)  Distribution Engineering Workstation (DEW)  Distribution System Simulator (DSS)

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

12

Distribution Transformer Load Management • The areas of distribution transformer failures and loadings will continue to receive increased attention. • Customer-scale load estimation and modeling systems are becoming more prevalent, particular with the advent of Automated Meter Reading (AMR) technology, AMI, and increased penetration of SCADA systems within distribution networks. • These systems have made comprehensive Transformer Load Management systems a practical and attractive possibility.

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Source: Distribution Transformer Failure and Load Analyses: Review of Historical Performance and Best Practices, EPRI Report Feb 2008 13

Z

Example System Study System (Assumptions) • Model every single customer, transformer, service

DISTRIBUTION XFMR

Substation

Z

AC

Z

Z

• Charging – 120V, 12A & 240V, 20A, Others • Time of charge – Night charge & Day Time Charging

Circuit (URBAN) • Substation Utilized Capacity – 73% • Load Class – 95% Residential and 5% Commercial • Total Circuit Length – 24 miles • No AMI Coverage • Summer Peak • 3260 customers (3103 Residential)

8760 Load Profile @ Substation

Peak - July and August Peak Period @ Aug - 11am - 7pm Peak - 69.8MW @ Aug 8th, 2007 @ 2pm Substation Transformer- 87MVA (Base Rating) Feeder Under Study Load (peak) - 15 MVA

Total Loading at the Substation (2007) kW

72000 66000 60000 54000 48000 42000 kW 36000 30000 24000 18000 12000 6000 0

11000 10000 9000 8000

10000-11000 9000-10000 8000-9000 7000-8000 6000-7000 5000-6000 4000-5000 3000-4000 2000-3000 1000-2000 0-1000

7000 kW

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000

23 Jan

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nov

Sep

Jul

May

Mar

21

17

19

13

Hour

15

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5

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1

0

Month

15

Nov

Sep

Jul

May

Mar

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23 Jan

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Hour Peak - Jan and July and August Peak Period @ July/Aug - 1pm - 8pm Peak Period @ Jan - 8am - 11am & 5pm-9pm Peak - 10.4MW @ July 27th, 2007 @ 5pm

Total Loading on Feeder Under Study (2007) kW

15

11

9

7

5

3

1

66000-72000 60000-66000 54000-60000 48000-54000 42000-48000 36000-42000 30000-36000 24000-30000 18000-24000 12000-18000 6000-12000 0-6000

Month

Battery Charge Profiles Different Battery Charge Profile 8.00 7.00

120V15ACharge Profile 120V 20ACharge Profile 240V 15A Charge Profile 240V 20A Charge Profile 240V 30A Charge Profile

6.00

KW

5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0

1

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9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Hours/Day

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Aug 7th 2007 24 hr: TOTAL [email protected] Base Load Scenario PHEV Case 1:- (120V, 15A) Charging @1am Penetration=10% PHEV Case 1:- (240V, 20A) Charging @1am Penetration=10% PHEV Case 1:- (120V, 15A) Charging @7pm Penetration=10% PHEV Case 1:- (240V, 20A) Charging @7pm Penetration=10%

70000

Total Loading at Substation (KW)

65000

Opportunity for Smart Charging

60000 55000 50000

off-peak load off-peak load

45000 40000 35000 0

2

4

6

8

July 27th 2007 24 hr: Total Loading for the Feder Under Study 12000

Total Loading at Substation (KW)

11000

Base Load Scenario PHEV Case 1:- (120V, 15A) Charging @1am PHEV Case 1:- (240V, 20A) Charging @1am PHEV Case 1:- (120V, 15A) Charging @7pm PHEV Case 1:- (240V, 20A) Charging @7pm

Penetration=10% Penetration=10% Penetration=10% Penetration=10%

Opportunity for Smart Charging

10000 9000 8000

off-peak load 7000

off-peak load

6000 5000 4000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 © 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.Hours

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Hours

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Developing the Smart Grid – EPRI Demonstration Initiative

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

18

Smart Grid Sensors….Two Way Communications….Intelligence Markets

Transmission

Substation

Distribution

Consumer

Information & Communication Enabled Power Infrastructure

Acting on this Information Will: Enable active participation by consumers Anticipate & respond to system disturbances (self-heal)

Accommodate all generation and storage options

Operate resiliently against attack and natural disaster

Enable new products, services and markets

Optimize asset utilization and operate efficiently

Provide power quality for the digital economy

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

19

EPRI Smart Grid Demonstrations • Smart Grid Demonstrations for Integrating Distributed Resources

Deploying the Virtual Power Plant • Several regional demonstrations – Multiple Levels of Integration – Multiple Types of Distributed Energy Resources To • Reduce Peak Demand • More efficient use of Generation resources • Reduce Carbon emissions, Enhance Markets…… • Further Technologies / Systems enabling the Smart Grid

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

20

Smart Grid Demonstration Critical Elements Integration Level vs. DER Types Interoperable Integrated

Open Interfaces

Use of Standards

System Operations

I N T E G R A T I O N

Preferred Smart Grid Demonstration Project

System Planning

Funding Common Resources Object Models

L E V E L

Distributed Energy Resource Types Demand Response Renewables

System Resource

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

PHEV Storage

Customer Resource

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Distributed Generation

Dynamic Rates

Smart Grid Demonstration Critical Elements • Integration of Multiple Distributed Resource Types – Demand Response, Distributed Generation, Storage, Renewable Generation

• Connect retail customers to wholesale conditions – Dyanamic Rates, Ancillary Services

• Integration with System Planning & Operations – Level of integration, Tools & Techniques, Visibility © 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

22

Smart Grid Demonstration Critical Elements • Critical Integration Technologies and Standards – Use of standards, common object models, Comm interfaces • Compatibility with EPRI’s Initiative and Approach – Use cases, business case development, enables wide spread integration • Funding requirements and leverage of other funding resources – Government, Research Orgs, Vendors, Universities – Capitol costs born by utility 23

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Diverse Characteristics Lead to Multiple Demonstration Sites • Regional characteristics – Weather – Regulatory / Market – Availability of Renewable Generation & Storage • Customer / Load characteristics – Residential, Commercial, Industrial • Distribution system characteristics – Rural, suburban, urban overhead and underground systems • Communication Infrastructure available – Public (internet, cellular) – Private (AMI, licensed)

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

24

Smart Grid Demonstrations Distributed Resources as Virtual Power Plant Leverage information and communication technologies

Transmission

Connect Wholesale Conditions to Retail Market

G

Storage Renewables

Distribution Communication

System Ops DMS Market

PHEV Process Control Sys

Large Loads

Distributed Gen

=Standard Interfaces

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Building Control Sys

UPS

Lighting Control Sys

Distributed Energy Resources 25

AMI Interface

Thermostat

Water Heater

Objectives of the Demonstration Initiative Define information models and communications interfaces – All Levels of distributed resource integration (home, enterprise, market) Develop application guidelines, integration requirements and standards for distributed resource integration.

Energy Markets

Security Network Management Data Management

Field Assessments to: – Understand required systems and technologies for distributed resource integration Verify Smart Grid business case assumptions – Describe costs and benefits associated DER Integration

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

26

DER Integration

Smart Grid Project Tasks • Task 1: Analytics Framework Development

• Task 2: Critical Integration Technologies and Systems Architecture

• Task 3: Technology Demonstrations

Efficient Building Systems

Utility Communications Internet

Consumer Portal & Building EMS

Dynamic Systems Control

Distribution Operations

PV

Control Interface

Plug-In Hybrids

• Task 4: Technology Transfer Data Management

© 2008 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Advanced Metering

Renewables

27

Distributed Generation & Storage

Smart End-Use Devices

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