Work, Energy and the Simple Machines: COMPOUND MACHINES. Instructor s Guide

Work, Energy and the Simple Machines: COMPOUND MACHINES Instructor’s Guide Work, Energy and the Simple Machines: COMPOUND MACHINES INSTRUCTOR’S GUI...
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Work, Energy and the Simple Machines: COMPOUND MACHINES

Instructor’s Guide

Work, Energy and the Simple Machines: COMPOUND MACHINES INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE Written and Produced by John Colgren

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©MMI John Colgren

COMPOUND MACHINES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Instructional Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Links to Curriculum Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Student Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Assessment Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Teacher Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Introducing the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Blackline Master Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Enrichment Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Internet Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Script of Program Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 CC

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COMPOUND MACHINES GRADE LEVELS: 5-8 INTRODUCTION This live-action program is designed for use with the primary grade levels (5-8). A machine is a devise or tool that does one or more of these three things: makes work easier, makes work faster, or changes the direction of the force. Two or more simple machines used together make a compound machine. This program is about the compound machines that we find all around us. They have all been influenced in some way by the six simple machines. The program will conclude with a section on Rube Goldberg and his famous cartoons which poked fun at the complicated inventions that appeared at the start of the 20th Century. He thought up complicated ways to accomplish simple everday tasks or jobs. He often used simple machines or principles associated with simple machines to accomplish these tasks. Students should enjoy learning a little bit about Rube Goldberg and trying to identify what his inventions were attempting to accomplish. They will be challenged in the ancillary materials to dream up some of their own Rube Goldberg like inventions. INSTRUCTIONALNOTES Before presenting this lesson to your students, we suggest that you preview the program and review this guide and the accompanying blackline master activities in order to familiarize yourself with their content. As you review the materials presented in this guide, you may find it necessary to make some changes, additions, or deletions to meet the specific needs of your class. We encourage you to do so, for only by tailoring this program to your class will they obtain the maximum instructional benefits afforded by the materials. It is also suggested that the program presentation take place before the entire group under your supervision. The lesson activities grow out of the context of the program; therefore, the presentation should be a common experience for all students.

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LINKS TO CURRICULUM STANDARDS This Unit of Study addresses the following National Science Education Standards for grades 5-8: Science as Inquiry Content Standard A: * Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry * Understandings about scientific inquiry Physical Science Content Standard B: * Motions and forces The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed. * Transfer of Energy Energy is a property of many substances and is associated with heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound, nuclei, and the nature of a chemical. Energy is transferred in many ways. Science and Technology Content Standard E: * Understanding about Science and Technology Many different people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology History and Nature of Science Content Standard G: * Science as a Human Endeavor * Nature of Science * History of Science STUDENT OBJECTIVES After viewing the program and participating in the follow-up activities, students/participants should be able to... • Give a definition for a machine. • Give a definition for the term compound machine. • Tell what simple machines are found within certain compound machines. ASSESSMENT TOOLS This lesson provides you with three different assessment tools. Together they make it possible to follow closely the progress of your students and to judge their mastery of the subject matter.

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The Pre-Test Blackline Master #1 can be used to get some idea of students’ understanding of the topic before the video is presented. The Post-Test, presented as Blackline Master #9, can be used as a final test for the lesson. The Video Quiz and its accompanying answer sheet (Blackline Master #2) can be used either as a way to introduce the topic prior to showing the video or to judge student mastery once the video has been presented.

TEACHER PREPARATION View the video and review the accompanying activities. Duplicate any blackline masters you wish to distribute. If you plan to use the Video Quiz, which immediately follows the video presentation, you may wish to have copies of the quiz ready to distribute at the completion of the video program. Also, plan to pause the tape between questions if students require more time. INTRODUCING THE PROGRAM Ask the class to name the six simple machines (lever, wqheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, screw). Remind them that all machines of our modern world are linked in one way or another to those six simple machines. VIEW THE PROGRAM Viewing time for this program is 10 minutes. The video quiz that follows the presentation will take about 5 minutes when you build in pauses for recording answers. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS You may wish to conduct a discussion after viewing the program based on the following: 1. Ask the students to describe some compound machines they use around the house. Can they pick out which simple machines are used in each compound machine? 2. How would life be different if we didn’t have any machines? 3. Have any of the students heard about Rube Goldberg before? Have they seen any of his wonderful inventions? Who remembers what he was trying to do with his illustrations? (Poke fun about the complicated inventions that were introduced at the turn of the Century - he designed complicated procedures for accomplishing simple tasks) 4. In the early 1940’s, a Patent Office official declared that the United States Patent office should be closed because everything useful had now been invented. What do you think of that statement?

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BLACKLINE MASTER DESCRIPTIONS This program contains nine blackline masters that can be used to reinforce ideas and information presented in the program. • Blackline Master #1: Pre-Test provides a way of finding out how much students know about the material covered in this lesson before you present it. Student scores on the Pre-Test can be compared with their scores on the final Post-Test (Blackline Master #9). • Blackline Master #2: Video Quiz is to be used at the end of the program. At the completion of the program, there is a short quiz. The narrator will read the questions which are displayed on the screen. Students can use Blackline Master #2: Video Quiz to record their answers. Answers to the questions are provided in the Answer Key section of this teacher’s guide. • Blackline Master #3: Find Out More asks students to find out more information about Archimedes the famous mathematician and inventor who lived over 2000 years ago. • Blackline Master #4: Expert Challenge is an assignment designed for those with some mathematical ability and patience. Archimedes had once boasted that if he had a place to stand and a lever long enough he could move the earth. The challenge is to determine the length of the effort arm for a lever used to move the earth given that the moon at its mean distance from the earth is used as the fulcrum. Students are supplied with information about the weight of the planet and the mean distance of the moon. Also only 100 pounds of effort is to be used to lift the earth. • Blackline Master #5: Home Hunt challenges students to locate and identify simple machines and compound machines used around their home. They can use pictures from magazines or hand drawn illustrations to accompany their description of the simple machines found in each device. • Blackline Master #6: The Bicycle is a perfect example of a compound machine. Students are to identify some of the simple machines found in use on their bicycle. • Blackline Master #7: Rube Goldberg Designs provides information about Rube Goldberg and asks students to finish the description of his famous “SelfOperating Napkin.” • Blackline Master #8: Rube Goldberg Designs 2 asks students to finish the description of another Rube Goldberg cartoon called “Pencil Sharpener.” Be sure students know to include the four words at the top of the page. They should

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help with the interpretation of the drawing. Also at the bottom of the page is an opportunity for students to create their own Rube Goldberg machines. • Blackline Master #9: Post-Test is the final test for this program. ENRICHMENTACTIVITIES • You may wish to dress up like Archimedes and visit the classroom as a guest speaker. A white beard and toga would add a nice touch. • Carry the Rube Goldberg inventions idea further to have some students build working versions of their ideas. • Remember the patent office employee who thought that the United States Patent office should be closed because by the 1940’s everything of value had been invented? How would life be differernt if we didn’t have some of the inventions that were patented after the forties? • What are some of the inventions students can imagine for the future. How will travel be different? How will communication be different? How will entertainment (television, radio, internet) be different 20 years from now? ANSWER KEY • BLACKLINE MASTER #1: PRETEST 1. a. make work easier b. make work faster c. change the direction of effort 2. A compound machine is a tool or device that is made up of two or more simple machines. 3. The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It changes from one form to another. 4. friction, gravity, air resistance 5. lever, wedge 6. lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, and screw 7. lever, wheel and axle 8. lever, wedge 9. to help cut down on friction 10. mechanical energy • Blackline Master #2: Video Quiz 1. true 2. false 3. true 4. false 5. c 6. fulcrum

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7. 8. 9. 10.

lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, screw make work easier, make work faster, change the direction of the effort answers will vary wheel and axle, wedge

• Blackline Master #3: Find Out More answers will vary • Blackline Master #4: Expert Challenge 13,200,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 lbs. x 240,000 miles = 100 lbs. x Le Le = 31,680,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles • Blackline Master #5: Home Hunt Answers will vary • Blackline Master #6: The Bicycle wheel and axles, brakes are levers, handle bars for steering are wheel and axles, The early bikes could move forward at high speed with little effort because the big wheel was pedaled and the little wheel in back went around many times for each single revolution of the larger wheel. In today’s bikes the idea is carried over in the pedals which move through a larger circle than the sprokets of the rear tire. • Blackline Master #7: Rube Goldberg Designs As you raise the spoon of soup (A) to your mouth it pulls string (B), thereby jerking ladle (C) which throws cracker (D) past parrot (E). Parrot jumps after cracker and perch (F) tilts, upsetting seeds (G) into pail (H). Extra weight in pail pulls cord (I), which opens and lights automatic cigar lighter (J), setting off sky-rocket (K) which causes sickle (L) to cut string (M) and allow pendulum with attached napkin to swing back and forth, thereby wiping off your chin. • Blackline Master #8: Rube Goldberg Designs 2 Rube Goldberg gets his think-tank working and evolves the simplified pencil sharpener. Open window (A) and fly kite (B). String (C) lifts small door (D) allowing moths (E) to escape and eat red flannel shirt (F). As weight of shirt becomes less, shoe (G) steps on switch (H) which heats electric iron (I) and burns hole in pants (J). Smoke (K) enters hole in tree (L) smoking out opossum (M) which jumps into basket (N) pulling rope (O) and lifting cage (P), allowing woodpecker (Q) to chew wood from pencil (R), exposing lead. Emergency knife (S) is always handy in case opossum or the woodpecker gets sick and can’t work.

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• Blackline Master #9: Quiz 1. A machine is any tool or device that does one or more of the following: makes work easier, makes work faster, changes the direction of effort. 2. Two or more simple machines used together. 3. Efficiency of a machine has to do with how much work results from the work input into the machine. 4. inclined plane, lever, pulley, screw, wedge, wheel and axle 5. a. wheel and axle, wedge b. wedge, lever c. wheel and axle, lever d. wedges, lever e. wheel and axle, lever INTERNET RESOURCE The following website may be a valuable source of additional information to reinforce the objectives of this lesson: 1.) Work, Energy and the Simple Machines at http://www.unitedlearning.com will be designed as an electronic learning module specifically correlated to this Unit of Study. It will support and enhance the content and ideas presented in this series. Compound Machines Script of Narration Machines play an important role in our lives. We depend on them for construction, transportation, household chores and all kinds of other daily jobs and activities. A machine is defined as a tool or device that does one or more of the following things; make work easier, makes work faster, changes the direction of the effort or force. Therefore, to be considered a machine a tool or device must do one or more of those things. A lawn mower is a machine because it makes work easier and faster. Life would be very different if we didnít have lawn mowers. There is one very important thing to remember, a machine can not do more work than the energy put into it. In other words machines can’t create energy. They can change one form of energy to another. Such as solar cells changing light energy into electricity to power this calculator.

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The girl’s mechanical energy is used to turn this generator to get electrical energy to light the bulb. Mechanical energy changes to electrical. To take it a step further the girl is able to develop mechanical energy because of the chemical energy she gets from the food she eats and the electrical energy is changed to light and heat energy when the bulb lights up. The Law of Conservation of Energy says that energy is neither created nor destroyed, it remains constant as it changes from one form to another. Unfortunately most machines are not totally efficient. Efficiency is based on a comparison of the amount of energy put into a machine and the amount of energy it supplies. Cars are only about 25% efficient because a great deal of the energy supplied as fuel is wasted as heat. No machine is 100% efficient because friction is produced by all machines. Friction is a force that opposes motion. It wastes energy in the form of heat and wear and tear. That’s why oil and grease are used in machines with many moving parts. The oil or grease will help cut down on friction and help to improve performance and efficiency. What machines do for us is to use work in a more useful way. Take energy of one kind and change it to energy of another kind to get a job done. The person using the shovel is using energy from the food they’ve eaten to develop the mechanical energy needed to move the leaves. All the machines that we have become accustomed to in our modern society have their basis in six simple machines that have been used by people throughout much of history. The lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge and screw have been used for thousands of years to make work easier, faster, or to change the direction of effort. The lever consists of a plank that is free moving and a turning point which is fixed or stationary. The turning point is called a fulcrum.

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The idea is to move a load which is located at one end of the plank with a force that is applied at the other end. If the load is closer to the fulcrum than the force the load can be lifted with less effort. The wheel and axle is a simple machine closely related to the lever. It too, can make work easier. The wheel represents the effort arm and the axle represents the resistance arm. Since the radius of the wheel is longer than the radius of the axle a mechanical advantage is achieved. The pulley is made up of a grooved wheel with a rope or belt passing through it. When used as a single fixed pulley it simply changes the direction of effort. We pull down and the sail goes up. However, when used as a movable pulley or as a combination of pulleys there is a definite advantage gained. A small force can be used to lift a great weight. The inclined plane is used to move objects from one elevation to another with a decrease in effort. Moving this heavy carton into the van is easier with a inclined plane. Wedges are tools or devices that have cutting edges, knives, razors, scissors and tips of shovels are all examples of wedges. And finally the last simple machine, the screw is used to hold materials such as furniture or automobiles tightly together. These machines have been used throughout the world for thousands of years. They are still used today and can be found as the basis for all other machines. A compound machine is two or more simple machines combined. This unusual device is actually an apple or potato peeler. To begin we spear an apple on the wedge shaped prongs.

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Next the cutting blades are adjusted. There is a blade on the side that peels away the apple skin. There are also cutting blades that are located in such a way that as the apple moves forward it is cut into a long spiral. When the crank, which is a wheel and axle, is turned the apple spins and at the same time moves forward towards the main blade. The apple is peeled and cut into a spiral slice. The diameter of the circle the crank moves through is much larger than the diameter of the axle. The mechanical advantage is large and therefore the effort required to turn the apple is very small. There is an additional simple machine in the axle. Notice how the axle resembles a screw. As the axle turns, the apple is moved forward towards the cutting blades. So this compound machine uses a couple of wedges, a wheel and axle, and a screw to perform its task. Even heavy duty excavating equipment are made up of simple machines. The excavators arm are a series of levers. The scoop has sharp teeth or wedges so it can dig easily into the ground. The entire vehicle moves because of wheels and gears. These tower cranes use pulleys to lift heavy loads to the upper floors of skyscrapers. Rube Goldberg was a engineer and cartoonist who is best known for his drawings of how some very simple tasks can be made into very complicated ordeals. Mr. Goldberg was poking fun at the fascination people had for tools and gadgets. His cartoons appeared in newspapers from the early 1900’s to the 1960’s. His artwork is so famous that the name Rube Goldberg is used to mean anything done in a complicated fashion. His contraptions often included simple machines and common household items.

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This Rube Goldberg machine is titled “Self-Operating Napkin”. As the explanation says, Professor Butts walks in his sleep, strolls through a cactus field in his bare feet, and screams out an idea for a self-operating napkin. Notice the letters next to the different parts of the diagram. They were used to help explain how things worked. For example the explanation for this device would read; as you raise spoon of soup (A), to your mouth it pulls string (B), thereby jerking ladle (C) which throws cracker (D) past parrot (E). And so on. Lets try this again but this time without the letters. We’ll add some animation to help visualize how the machine works. As you raise spoon of soup (A), to your mouth it pulls string (B), thereby jerking ladle (C) which throws cracker (D) past parrot (E). Parrot Jumps after cracker and perch (F) tilts, upsetting seeds (G) into pail (H). Extra weight in pail pulls cord (I) which opens and lights automatic cigar lighter (J), setting off sky-rocket (K) which causes sickle (L) to cut string (M) and allow pendulum with attached napkin to swing back and forth thereby wiping off your chin. After the meal, substitute a harmonica for the napkin and youíll be able to entertain the guests with a little music. So we owe a lot to the simple machines that are found all around us.

Now it’s time for the Video Quiz on some of the information from today’s presentation. There will be ten questions. The first four questions are true or false. Here is question number one. A compound machine is made up of two or more simple machines. True or False Here is question number two. Automobiles are about ninety percent efficient. True or False Here is question number three. The Law of Conservation of Energy states that a machineís work output can’t be greater than it’s work input. True or False Question number four. Friction is a force that can make work easier. True or False

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The next two questions are multiple choice. Select the best answer from the four choices. Question number five. No machine is 100 percent efficient because some energy must be used to overcome ___________. a. speed b. distance c. friction d. weight Question number six. The pivot point for a lever is called the ___________ a. resistance b. fulcrum c. effort d. energy The next four questions require short answers. Question number seven. Name the six simple machines. Question number eight. To be considered a machine, a tool or device must do one or more of the following things: Question number nine. Name some common compound machines from around the house or school. Question number ten. What simple machines are found in a pencil sharpener?

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Name ____________________ Work, Energy, and the Simple Machines: Compound Machines PRE-TEST

DIRECTIONS: Write the answers to the following questions in the places provided. 1. To qualify as a machine, a tool or device must do one or more of the following things: a. b. c. 2. What is a compound machine? 3. What is the Law of Conservation of Energy? 4. What force stops machines from being 100% efficient? 5. Scissors are an example of a compound machine. What simple machines are represented by a pair of scissors? 6. Name the six simple machines.

7. What simple machines are found in a wheelbarrow?

8. A shovel is a compound machine made up of what simple machines?

9. Why do motors and engines use oil and grease?

10. If a person is riding a bicycle they will change the chemical energy of the food they have eaten into ______________ energy to pedal the bicycle.

“Work, Energy and the Simple Machines”

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Name ____________________ Work, Energy, and the Simple Machines: Compound Machines VIDEO QUIZ

DIRECTIONS: At the end of the video presentation there will be a short video quiz. You can write your answers to the questions on this sheet. True or False (Circle either True or False) 1. A compound machine is made up of two or more simple machines. True or False 2. Automobiles are about 90 percent efficient. True or False 3. A machine’s work output can’t be greater than it’s work input. True or False 4. Friction is a force that can make work easier. True or False Multiple Choice 5. No machine is 100 percent efficient because some energy must be used to overcome a. speed b. distance c. friction d. weight 6. The pivot point for a lever is called the __________ a. resistance b. fulcrum c. effort d. energy Short Answer 7. Name the six simple machines. ______________ ______________ _____________ _______________ _______________ __________________ 8. To be considered a machine, a tool or device must do one or more of the following things: a. ________________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________________ 9. Name some common compound machines from around the house or school.

10. What simple machines are found in a pencil sharpener?

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Name ____________________ Work, Energy, and the Simple Machines: Compound Machines FIND OUT MORE

Find Out More About Archimedes led a very interesting life. Take a trip to the library or the Internet and find out more about his personal and professional life. Remember he lived over 2000 years ago and yet contributed an unbelievable amount of mathematical and scientific knowledge to the world. Here are a few of his accomplishments to get you interested in finding out more. He developed a device for lifting water from one level to another that is still in use today. It is used in some countries to irrigate farm land. He began the science of hydrostatics, which deals with the pressure of liquids. He discovered the principle of buoyancy. He predicted eclipses of the sun and moon. He discovered the principle of specific gravity. He estimated the distances to the five planets they knew of during his life. He invented war machines that defended the city of Syracuse from a massive Roman Army for three years.

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Name ____________________ Work, Energy, and the Simple Machines: Compound Machines EXPERT CHALLENGE

Could Archimedes Have Moved the Earth? Archimedes had once boasted to the king of Syracuse that if he had a place upon which to stand, and a lever long enough he could move the earth. The task set before you is not an easy one. In fact it may challenge your mathematical ability to its limit. This is not an activity for the weak of heart. Solve the following question using the information provided on this worksheet. QUESTION: How long would the effort arm of the lever have to be if the moon at its mean distance from the earth is used as the fulcrum and Archimedes only wants to use a force of 100 pounds to move the earth? (Hint: length of effort arm x effort = length of resistance arm x resistance) Le x E = Lr x R

Earth weighs: 13,200,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 pounds

240,000 miles from the moon to the earth

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Name ____________________ Work, Energy, and the Simple Machines: Compound Machines HOME HUNT

Directions: Find examples of simple machines in and around your home. Include a picture and a description of each. The description should tell what simple machine or machines are used in each device. Example: Blender Wedges on the spinning blades to chop up food Wheel and axles (gears) inside connected to electric motor to adjust speed of spinning blades.

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Name ____________________ Work, Energy, and the Simple Machines: Compound Machines THE BICYCLE

A bicycle is a perfect example of a compound machine. There are many simple machines working together to make the bicycle a splendid means of transportation. Your job today is to take a spin on your bicycle and try to identify some of the simple machines that play a part in the bicycle’s performance. Here is a picture of a bicycle that you can use as a reference. Write down the simple machines you find and then draw a line to its location on the bicycle.

Here is a picture of the way early bikes were constructed. Notice the large wheel in front and the small wheel in back. Why do you think these bikes were built like that? Today’s bicycles still use a major idea associated with the early bikes. Look closely at the relationship of the large pedal wheel and the small wheel in the rear. How is that idea still used today?

“Work, Energy and the Simple Machines”

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Name ____________________ Work, Energy, and the Simple Machines: Compound Machines RUBE GOLDBERG DESIGNS

Rube Goldberg was a Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist, author, engineer, and sculpture. He lived from 1883 to 1970. His cartoons were published in newspapers from the early 1900’s to the 1960’s. He poked fun at the complicated inventions that appeared at the start of the 20th Century. He thought up complicated ways to accomplish simple everyday tasks or jobs. He often used simple machines or principles associated with simple machines to accomplish these tasks. DIRECTIONS: Here is a copy of the Rube Goldberg cartoon discussed in the video. See if you can finish the directions listed below the illustration.

Rube Goldberg TM & © of Rube Goldberg, Inc.

As you raise the spoon of soup(A) to your mouth it pulls string (B), thereby jerking ladle (C) which

“Work, Energy and the Simple Machines”

©2001 Colgren Communications

All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution.

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Name ____________________ Work, Energy, and the Simple Machines: Compound Machines RUBE GOLDBERG DESIGNS 2

Here is a Rube Goldberg cartoon entitled “Pencil Sharpener.” DIRECTIONS: Finish the description below the cartoon to explain what happens. Here are some words to use in that description: moths electric switch opossum woodpecker

Rube Goldberg TM & © of Rube Goldberg, Inc.

Rube Goldberg gets his think-tank working and evolves the simplified pencil sharpener. Open window (A) and fly kite (B). String (C) lifts small door (D)

Try creating one of your own Rube Goldberg machines. Here are some topics: * Shut off alarm clock * Peel an apple * Wake up and make bed * Automatic garage door opener * Automatic dishwasher * Your original idea “Work, Energy and the Simple Machines”

©2001 Colgren Communications

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Name ____________________ Work, Energy, and the Simple Machines: Compound Machines POST-TEST

DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Give a definition for the term machine.

2. What is a compound machine?

3. What is meant by the efficiency of a machine?

4. Here are illustrations of each of the six simple machines. Write their name under each illustration.

5. What simple machines can be found with the following common objects? a. pencil sharpener

b. shovel

c. wheelbarrow

d. scissors

e. bicycle

“Work, Energy and the Simple Machines”

©2001 Colgren Communications

All rights to print materials cleared for classroom duplication and distribution.