Why involve citizens in actions on climate change?

Institut for Statskundskab Why involve citizens in actions on climate change? The Danish CIDEA project and how it relates to climate change action pr...
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Institut for Statskundskab

Why involve citizens in actions on climate change? The Danish CIDEA project and how it relates to climate change action programmes in New Zealand and Australia

Public seminar Victoria University, Wellington 17 March 2010 Professor Jens Hoff [email protected] Department of Political Science Copenhagen University, Denmark

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Institut for Statskundskab

Agenda:

1. What is the CIDEA (Citizen Driven Environmental Action) project? - initial assumptions, objectives, theory and methodology 2. What are the CCP (Communities for Climate Protection) programmes in New Zealand and Australia? 3. What lessons can be learned from the CCP-programmes?

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CIDEA: The CIDEA Project is a cross-disciplinary and cross-sectoral research project funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council with approximately 3 mill. NZ$ (10.9 mill. D.kr.). It is a 4 year project (1 January 2010 – 30 April 2014) involving 5 senior researchers, 2 PhD. students, 1 Post Doc. Student and 6 Danish municipalities.

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Point of departure: •

Immediate action is required in order to mitigate serious and devastating climate change.



Public authorities do not have the necessary resources or ideas to tackle this enormous challenge alone. Citizens, associations and businesses must therefore play a central role in combating climate change



As the COP15 Summit Meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009 did not result in significant global agreements on measures to curb CO2-emissions, local action has become all the more necessary.

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Objectives of project: 1. To help reduce citizen’s carbon emissions by stimulating a change of behaviour and lifestyle. 2. To introduce new effective methods and tools for citizen’s involvement in sustainable development at community level. 3. To support the efforts of local authorities and communities in becoming more dedicated, active and effective actors for sustainable development.

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Expected output of the project: •

A “tool-box” for municipalities in Denmark (and possibly beyond), which will contain a description of a number of models for informing and engaging citizens, businesses and organizations in actions to reduce their CO2-emissions.



A central component of the toolbox will be an IT-tool, which facilitates the process of informing and engaging citizens.



The “tool-box” will be disseminated to municipalities in collaboration with Local Government Denmark.



The knowledge created by the project is also expected to contribute to better informed, and therefore more effective local policies concerning climate change.

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Main theoretical and empirical challenge of the project:

Danes are knowledgeable about climate change, and 68% says (Eurobarometer 2008) they have taken some kind of personal action to fight climate change. However, on an aggregate level this seems to have little effect on CO2emissions. So what is needed is an in-depth understanding of people’s cognitive and behavioral stance towards climate change; especially of what barriers to engagement are.

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Theoretical framework: 1. Theories on the risk society and the self-reflexive individual in late modernity (Beck 1986, Giddens 1991) 2. Theories on governance and citizen participation (Rhodes 1997, Fung 2007) 3. Theory on the ‘ontology of dwelling’ (Heidegger 1971, Ingold 2000) 4. Studies on environmental behaviour (Bamberg & Moser 2007, Olabisi et al. 2009).

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Figure 1: Framework for Analysis

Individualism Collectivism

Contexts Conditions History

Institutional Processes & Organisational Structures

Economic Capital

Politics MacroEconomic Conditions

Educational Capital Organisational Capital

Institutions And Organisations

Climate Political Capital Local Culture Demography

Social Capital

Energy Consumption Strategies

Outcomes

Classical NonClimate Oriented Consumer

1. Health Improvements

Incipient Climate Oriented Consumer Climate Sustainability Oriented Consumer Climate Sustainability Life Style

Social Differentiation

Livelihood

2. Economic Benefits 3. Gratification through ”Green Behaviour” Sustainability 1. Macro Economic Benefits 2. Decreased CO2 Emissions

3. Political Gains

Contextual Analysis of Conditions and Assessment of Policy Setting

Analysis of Analysis of Institutional/OrganiLivelihood sational Influences Resources, on Access to Trade-Offs, Resources and Combinations, Composition of and Sequences Sted og dato (Indsæt -->Energy Diasnummer) Portfolio Dias 9

Analysis of Livelihood Strategy Portfolios and Energy Pathways

Analysis of Outcomes and Trade-Offs

Institut for Statskundskab

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Case studies in 6 municipalities – 2 big, 2 middle sized and two small (in all case studies focus is on the interplay between citizens’ energy consumption strategies and the forms of citizen participation used) Middelfart (37,661 inhabitants) The municipality has retrofitted its own buildings using the ESCO concept, and focus is on retrofitting of private homes. The case study will create a virtual meeting ground for house owners in smaller geographical units. It is expected that conversation on the meeting ground will lead to common action, such as procurement of energy saving windows, etc. Skanderborg (57,303 inhabitants) The municipality is very experienced in using ICT to involve citizens in municipal plans. Following a citizens meeting three themes are selected for action. A blog for each theme is set up to further discuss and elaborate ideas for action. Citizens are blog owners. Intervention is expected to lead to common procurement of sun cells and/or thermo windows (one theme).

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City of Skanderborg

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Case studies in 6 municipalities – 2 big, 2 middle sized and two small Kolding (89,071 inhabitants) Energy savings in the village of Sdr. Stenderup. The village, as well as the rest of the municipality aim at a 75% reduction of use of electricity and heating (oil, gas) before end of 2012. Different ways of informing citizens are tried out: through ‘grass root organisations’, schools, municipal admin. Køge (57,125 inhabitants) Study of car pool club. Who car pools and why? Promotion of cycling as a daily means of transportation. ‘Cycling pioneers’ are writing about their experiences in blogs, on Facebook and Twitter.

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Case studies in 6 municipalities – 2 big, 2 middle sized and two small Copenhagen (528,208 inhabitants) Case study is a climate campaign aimed especially at persons who have recently moved to the municipality. Campaign will be launched in a split-even design, where part of the communication is designed and takes place through a voluntary organisation, while the other part is carried out by the municipal administration itself. Which is most effective? Odense (188,777 inhabitants) The city’s ‘Traffic and Mobility Plan’ contain three initiatives: a) reducing the speed of motorized traffic to 30km/hour in all inner city areas, b) reduction of speed to 40km/hour on bigger roads, c) changing the traffic pattern in the city centre towards sustainability. Three models of citizen participation will be tried out: one for each initiative. Models are: mobilisation through associations, mobilisation via ICT (a blog), and hearing through a survey.

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Center of Copenhagen

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After the case studies: 1. The project will conduct a number of Innovation Workshops with participation of citizens, representatives from municipalities, software developers and researchers. The workshops will work through and discuss how organizational models and technology can impact citizens’ involvement in reduction of energy and carbon dioxide emission based on the findings from, and experiments carried out in the case studies. This will lead to the development of the “toolbox”. 2. The developed “toolbox”, including carefully documented organizational models for informing, motivating and activating citizens in changing their energy consumption strategies, as well as the ICT-solution developed, will be tested.

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What were the CCP-programmes? The Communities for Climate Protection (CCP) were voluntary programmes for local councils whereby they committed themselves to: • Reduce their own (‘corporate’) emissions of CO2 • and their communities’ emissions of CO2 • by following a quantifiable approach marked by the achievement of milestones (1 to 5): - milestone 1: Conduct a CO2-emissions inventory, analysis and forecast - milestone 2: Set emissions reduction goals - milestone 3: Develop a local action plan to achieve sustainable reductions in emissions - milestone 4: Implement the climate action plan and quantify the benefits of policies and actions - milestone 5: Monitor progress towards the reduction goals, and start the process for re-inventory and review of the plan

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The CCP-programme in New Zealand: The CCP-New Zealand programme was a New Zealand Government initiative delivered by ICLEI Oceania. (International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives) and supported by Local Government New Zealand. In New Zealand the CCP-programme ran between 30 June 2004 and 30 June 2009, and was joined by 34 councils covering 83% of New Zealand’s population. An Actions Profile report from 2009 found that the councils’ progress and actions demonstrates a strong business case for greenhouse gas abatement activities, and that councils have reported significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from the utilisation of landfill gas as well as major savings in the use of building electricity energy. CO2-abatements: >400,000 tonnes CO2-e (over 3 years) Savings: xxx mill. NZ$

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The CCP-programme in Australia: The CCP-programme in Australia was implemented as a collaboration between local governments, ICLEI Oceania and the Australian Government’s Department of The Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. The Australian CCP-programme ran between 1997 and 2009, and had 233 participating councils covering 84% of the Australian population. A Measures Evaluation report from 2008 found that since reporting began in 1998/99 18 mill. tonnes CO2-e has been saved. Since 1998/99 councils have invested $203 mill. on actions to reduce corporate and community emissions. Financial savings due to reduced energy costs are estimated at $95 mill. in the same period (1998-2008).

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What lessons can be learned from the CCP-programmes? Question 1: Does the initiation and carrying out of a comprehensive and long-term climate action project like the CCP make a difference in terms of local community engagement in CO2abatements/sustainability? If yes, in what ways?

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What lessons can be learned from the CCP-programmes? Answer 1: The character of the CCP as coherent programmes, and especially the milestone approach gave local councils a strong focus, which allowed them to take on a leadership role in the community. As the main intermediary between national government and local community, such leadership role seem to be crucial, if a real culture change towards a climate sustainable lifestyle is to be effected. Local governments must be ‘project owners’, and try to align the agendas of different stakeholders in order to create win-win situations. Examples of local community engagement: a) Involvement in reduction of residential waste (Halve Garbage Waste program Frankston City Council, Victoria) b) cycling/more sustainable transport (Regional Bicycle Network, Tasmania) c) Insulation schemes (North East valley, Dunedin – also senior citizen’s groups and church groups involved) d) Energy audits, waste audits and environmental management systems for small and medium sized businesses (Wellington’s eMission programme).

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What lessons can be learned from the CCP-programmes? Question 2: Does a comprehensive climate change action programme necessitate or initiate organisational changes in local administration?

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What lessons can be learned from the CCP-programmes? Answer 2: A comprehensive climate change action programme seem to necessitate internal training and capacity building in order to develop adequate detail policies, staff and funding structures in order to support it. As a result of participation in the CCP-programme many councils have also appointed energy managers to coordinate effort, and create coherent policies across sectors.

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What lessons can be learned from the CCP-programmes? Question 3:

Apart from CO2-abatements and financial savings what other benefits have there been from the CCP-programme?

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What lessons can be learned from the CCP-programmes? Answer 3: There seem to be a number of positive spin-off’s from the CCPprogramme, which is of importance for the community, local administration and a global audience. These are: a) Technological innovation (different types of landfill gas generators, (Christchurch, Nelson), green building developments (Waitakere), torrefied wood heating (Dunedin) b) Community building (strengthening social capital) c) Local administration reorganization (energy manager, etc.)

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Meridian Building, Wellington

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What lessons can be learned from the CCP-programmes? Question 4: What is the best method for engaging citizens in climate change action programmes? Answer 4: There is probably no single best method. It depends on the area under consideration (energy conservation, renewable energy, waste, sustainable transport, etc.), and on the local context. A mix of off-line and on-line engagement methods must be adapted to these factors.

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Dilemmas in the CCP-programme and other climate change action plans:

1. Political dilemmas (national – local government (cf. sea level rise) 2. Organisational dilemmas (climate change mitigation is cross-sectoral) 3. Financial dilemmas (funding, public-private partnerships, ownership of assets).

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Thank you for your attention!

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