What? Who? Why? & How?

Cultural Resource Management Using Cultural Mapping Workshop Lahore, Pakistan 21-22 August, 2006 What? Who? Why? & How?............. Elizabeth Maras...
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Cultural Resource Management Using Cultural Mapping Workshop Lahore, Pakistan 21-22 August, 2006

What? Who? Why? & How?.............

Elizabeth Marasco Australian Youth Ambassador for Development GIS – Culture Unit Office of the Regional Advisor for Culture in the Asia Pacific UNESCO Bangkok

What is Culture? The fundamental goal of culture and cultural mapping is to help communities recognize, celebrate, and support diversity

• Culture includes: – A sense of identity – the elements that make a community unique – cultural elements are recorded

• Cultural mapping illustrates: – local cultural resources – strategies that engage in accurate and sensitive analysis of people, places, and environments

Tangibles

Intangibles

Galleries

Memories

Craft industries

Personal histories

Distinctive landmarks

Attitudes

Local events

Values

Culture and its diversity • Culture is complex therefore it is important to have an understanding of its nature and spatial distribution ………a geographic point of view • Characteristics of a culture languages, beliefs, institutions, technologies …..

Cultural characteristics are not static. Culture changes

What is a map? Maps show how things are related to each other by distance •

Location -- where things are Maps are the tools needed to define distance



Place -- Physical and human characteristics All entities have distinctive characteristics that give them meaning and character.



Relationships – interrelatedness discovering the connections between different phenomena.

Location

Place • Hierarchical place

Relationships

Mapping can refer to…….. •

Cartography - mapmaking



Surveying - accurately determining the position of points in 3-D space



A mapping or map in mathematics, synonymous with a function.



Metaphor - cross mapping across two or more seemingly unrelated subjects



Gene mapping - the assignment of DNA fragments to chromosomes



Data mapping - data element mappings between two distinct data models

Cartographic Map

Genealogical Map

Mathematical Function Map

Data Model Map

Who uses Cultural Maps? Cultural maps can be used by a wide range of user-groups •

Community-based organizations

As a collaborative process •

Local, provincial and national governments

To make cultural policy a key component of development •

Non-governmental organizations Intergovernmental organizations Program planners Academic institutions

To ensure national cultural goals and understanding

Why Map? Maps are useful to understand and identify spatial links and explain concepts in a visual way Maps represent compilations of information

Context

Thematic Cultural Layers

Artefacts

Rituals Behavioral norms Shared language Reward systems Office design

Beliefs

Important community value

Control

Community power structures

Discourse

Open community issues Taboo community issues

Energy

Energy expenditure Macro, micro or meso?

Flow

Movement in, out and within communities

Generative

Build capacity Knowledge sharing

Layers

Making the "invisible" become "visible"

Cultural mapping provides insights into •diverse people •history •identity •knowledge

….more advantages of cultural mapping •

Documentation of cultural resources



a cultural repository



Community empowerment



a sense of belongingness and pride of cultural roots



Effective cultural resource management



Control over cultural resources is strengthened



Community economic development



unveiling traditional systems to create livelihood opportunities



Transmission of local knowledge systems



passing cultural assets from one generation to another.



Promotion of intercultural dialogue



a meaningful medium for giving expressions to diverse cultures.

cultural mapping serves as a channel to preserve cultural diversity and encourage intercultural dialogue

How to map • Many techniques • Maps can be made with: – pen and paper – remote sensing – spatial layers in a GIS

Methodologies are endless….

Pen and paper

Remote sensing

River confluence, South Australia. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)

GIS layers

Always know where your data came from Only use cultural data of high integrity Respect the parameters(limitations) of your data

Mind Mapping • Revolutionizes the process of taking down notes

The Mind Map Book. Chapter "Mind Mapping Guidelines” BUZAN, Tony.

Example mindmap by Graham Burnett

• Linkages shown in a structure that the mind can easily understand • Mind maps incorporate images, symbols and shapes, codes, keywords, and colors • Overcoming complex problems, and organizes thoughts

Cognitive Mapping • Cognitive maps allows the "mind's eye" to visualize images

Kids neighborhood workshop, City of Rancho

• The internal spatial representation of environmental information • The mental models that people use to perceive, contextualize, simplify, and make sense complex problems

Social Mapping Social mapping is used to map social networks. For example: village layout demography health patterns

infrastructure ethno-linguistic groups wealth…….

Child labor eradication community mapping exercise, Asaman Nepal. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

• Visualization to provoke discussion of difficult issues

Social Mapping

Kids neighborhood workshop, City of Rancho

Gujarat disaster management planning (UNDP)

Cultural mapping develops imaginative thinking and knowledge fusions between different aspects of a culture maximizing the creative potential of a community

Cultural mapping is…… a fundamental way for storing and displaying information

• Stimulates debate as a basis for joint planning • A basis of analysis for decision making

Questions?

Task 1 – Create the aggregate risk/significance layers • Required materials – 3 risk layers

environmental social economical

– 2 significance layers

cultural socio-economic

– 2 blank transparencies – Marker pens

Possible risk/significance scenarios Risk aggregate H HH

M

Significance aggregate L

H

M

L

HHH HHM HHL

H

HH

HM

HL

MM MMH MMM MML

M

MH

MM

ML

LL

L

LH

LM

LL

LLH

LLM

LLL

Final risk/significance aggregate HS

MS

LS

HR

HR/HS

HR/MS

HR/LS

MR

MR/HS

MR/MS

MR/LS

LR

LR/HS

LR/MS

LR/LS

Task 2 – impact assessment scenario • Aim: produce an output from the manual GIS produced in Task 1 based on defined areas of significance and risk. • Method: – each person volunteer for a role – use the significance/risk assessment to evaluate the scenario – discuss the potential scenario layout

Roles……. •Curator/site manager Other roles…….. Protocol officer Security Emergency & first aid services Catering & food preparation Stage entertainment & speeches Horse parades & fireworks Seating & table service Electricity & lighting Sanitation & garbage collection incl. toilets Parking & route preparation Temporary landscaping