Cultural Resource Management Using Cultural Mapping Workshop Lahore, Pakistan 21-22 August, 2006
What? Who? Why? & How?.............
Elizabeth Marasco Australian Youth Ambassador for Development GIS – Culture Unit Office of the Regional Advisor for Culture in the Asia Pacific UNESCO Bangkok
What is Culture? The fundamental goal of culture and cultural mapping is to help communities recognize, celebrate, and support diversity
• Culture includes: – A sense of identity – the elements that make a community unique – cultural elements are recorded
• Cultural mapping illustrates: – local cultural resources – strategies that engage in accurate and sensitive analysis of people, places, and environments
Culture and its diversity • Culture is complex therefore it is important to have an understanding of its nature and spatial distribution ………a geographic point of view • Characteristics of a culture languages, beliefs, institutions, technologies …..
Cultural characteristics are not static. Culture changes
What is a map? Maps show how things are related to each other by distance •
Location -- where things are Maps are the tools needed to define distance
Place -- Physical and human characteristics All entities have distinctive characteristics that give them meaning and character.
Relationships – interrelatedness discovering the connections between different phenomena.
Place • Hierarchical place
Mapping can refer to…….. •
Cartography - mapmaking
Surveying - accurately determining the position of points in 3-D space
A mapping or map in mathematics, synonymous with a function.
Metaphor - cross mapping across two or more seemingly unrelated subjects
Gene mapping - the assignment of DNA fragments to chromosomes
Data mapping - data element mappings between two distinct data models
Mathematical Function Map
Data Model Map
Who uses Cultural Maps? Cultural maps can be used by a wide range of user-groups •
As a collaborative process •
Local, provincial and national governments
To make cultural policy a key component of development •
Non-governmental organizations Intergovernmental organizations Program planners Academic institutions
To ensure national cultural goals and understanding
Why Map? Maps are useful to understand and identify spatial links and explain concepts in a visual way Maps represent compilations of information
Thematic Cultural Layers
Rituals Behavioral norms Shared language Reward systems Office design
Important community value
Community power structures
Open community issues Taboo community issues
Energy expenditure Macro, micro or meso?
Movement in, out and within communities
Build capacity Knowledge sharing
Making the "invisible" become "visible"
Cultural mapping provides insights into •diverse people •history •identity •knowledge
….more advantages of cultural mapping •
Documentation of cultural resources
a cultural repository
a sense of belongingness and pride of cultural roots
Effective cultural resource management
Control over cultural resources is strengthened
Community economic development
unveiling traditional systems to create livelihood opportunities
Transmission of local knowledge systems
passing cultural assets from one generation to another.
Promotion of intercultural dialogue
a meaningful medium for giving expressions to diverse cultures.
cultural mapping serves as a channel to preserve cultural diversity and encourage intercultural dialogue
How to map • Many techniques • Maps can be made with: – pen and paper – remote sensing – spatial layers in a GIS
Methodologies are endless….
Pen and paper
River confluence, South Australia. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
Always know where your data came from Only use cultural data of high integrity Respect the parameters(limitations) of your data
Mind Mapping • Revolutionizes the process of taking down notes
The Mind Map Book. Chapter "Mind Mapping Guidelines” BUZAN, Tony.
Example mindmap by Graham Burnett
• Linkages shown in a structure that the mind can easily understand • Mind maps incorporate images, symbols and shapes, codes, keywords, and colors • Overcoming complex problems, and organizes thoughts
Cognitive Mapping • Cognitive maps allows the "mind's eye" to visualize images
Kids neighborhood workshop, City of Rancho
• The internal spatial representation of environmental information • The mental models that people use to perceive, contextualize, simplify, and make sense complex problems
Social Mapping Social mapping is used to map social networks. For example: village layout demography health patterns
infrastructure ethno-linguistic groups wealth…….
Child labor eradication community mapping exercise, Asaman Nepal. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
• Visualization to provoke discussion of difficult issues
Kids neighborhood workshop, City of Rancho
Gujarat disaster management planning (UNDP)
Cultural mapping develops imaginative thinking and knowledge fusions between different aspects of a culture maximizing the creative potential of a community
Cultural mapping is…… a fundamental way for storing and displaying information
• Stimulates debate as a basis for joint planning • A basis of analysis for decision making
Task 1 – Create the aggregate risk/significance layers • Required materials – 3 risk layers
environmental social economical
– 2 significance layers
– 2 blank transparencies – Marker pens
Possible risk/significance scenarios Risk aggregate H HH
Significance aggregate L
HHH HHM HHL
MM MMH MMM MML
Final risk/significance aggregate HS
Task 2 – impact assessment scenario • Aim: produce an output from the manual GIS produced in Task 1 based on defined areas of significance and risk. • Method: – each person volunteer for a role – use the significance/risk assessment to evaluate the scenario – discuss the potential scenario layout
Roles……. •Curator/site manager Other roles…….. Protocol officer Security Emergency & first aid services Catering & food preparation Stage entertainment & speeches Horse parades & fireworks Seating & table service Electricity & lighting Sanitation & garbage collection incl. toilets Parking & route preparation Temporary landscaping