What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

ROCK IDENTIFICATION What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed? Breccia (volcanic)     Extrusive Igneous Rock Quick cooling molte...
Author: Aron Warren
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ROCK IDENTIFICATION

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Breccia (volcanic)



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Extrusive Igneous Rock Quick cooling molten rock (lava) Like “rubble” Broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together with fine-grain ash/dust from the volcano

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Obsidian

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Extrusive Igneous Rock No crystals formed Glassy Very quick cooling molten rock (lava)

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Basalt

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Extrusive Igneous Rock Fine grained (some small crystals) Formed from dark dense lava

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Pumice

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Extrusive Igneous Rock No crystals formed Quick cooling molten rock (lava) Many holes formed - gasses released Floats on water

What type of rocks are these? Where or how are they formed?

Granite

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Intrusive Igneous Rock Coarse Grained - can see crystals Contains quartz and feldspar

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Shale

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Sedimentary Rock Thin, dark gray sheets – easily broken Formed from mud and clay being pressed together

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed? Image Source

Sandstone … …

… …

Sedimentary Rock Light red/dark pink with very small pieces of sand Quartz cemented by silica or lime Most form in shallow seas

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed? Image Source

Coal … …

…

Organic Sedimentary Rock Most coal (“soft coal”/bituminous) is sedimentary (typically has bright and dull bands) “Hard coal” (anthracite) is metamorphic (has a bright luster)

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Black, smooth and lightweight Formed from layers of plant remains that are pressed together over time

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed? Image Source

Limestone

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Organic Sedimentary Rock Calcium Carbonate - calcite Forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, and fecal debris in clear, warm, shallow marine waters

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Conglomerate

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…

Sedimentary Rock Red with rounded pebbles cemented together Formed near moving water

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Quartzite

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…

Metamorphic Rock Non-Foliated Individual quartz grains have recrystallized but are too small too see Metamorphism of Sandstone

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Marble

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…

Metamorphic Non-Foliated Made of mostly small to medium sized calcite crystals Metamorphism of Limestone

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Gneiss

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… …

Metamorphic Foliated – pink and grey alternating bands Medium to coarse grained texture Metamorphism of Granite

What type of rock is this? Where or how is it formed?

Slate

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Metamorphic Rock Foliated Breaks into thin “slices” Metamorphism of Shale

What type of rock is this?

Sedimentary (coquina limestone)

Rock or Mineral?

Mineral (muscovite mica)

Comparisons …

Basalt vs. Slate † Both

dark colors † Basalt is igneous and Slate is metamorphic …

Pumice vs. Basalt † Both

igneous made of quick cooling lava (extrusive) † Pumice is felsic and Basalt is mafic …

Granite vs. Gneiss † Both

have course grains/crystals † Granite is igneous and Gneiss is metamorphic

Comparisons …

Scoria vs. Pumice † Both

are porous (have air bubbles/holes) † Scoria is mafic and Pumice is felsic …

Obsidian vs. Coal † Both

are black, no crystals † Obsidian is igneous and Coal is sedimentary …

Marble vs. Limestone † Both

are made of calcite † Marble is metamorphic and Limestone is sedimentary

Comparisons …

Slate vs. Shale † Both

thin slices, made of mud and clay, dark color † Slate is metamorphic (morphed from shale), Shale is sedimentary …

Hornfels vs. Slate † Both

metamorphic rocks made from Shale † Hornfels is not foliated and Slate is foliated …

Sandstone vs. Quartzite † Both

grainy and made of Quartz † Sandstone is sedimentary and Quartzite is metamorphic

Comparisons …

Limestone vs. Marble † Both

are made of calcite † Limestone is sedimentary and Marble is metamorphic …

Conglomerate vs. Limestone † Both

sedimentary rocks formed in or near water † Conglomerate is clastic (made of pebbles cemented together by moving water) and Limestone is organic (made of shell coral, fecal debri found in shallow water) …

Gneiss vs. Granite † Both

contain course grain crystals † Gneiss is metamorphic and Granite is igneous

Comparisons …

Quartzite vs. Sandstone † Both

contain the mineral Quartz † Quartzite is metamorphic (pressure and heat), Sandstone is sedimentary (cemented together by water + sandstone or lime) …

Coal vs. Obsidian † Both

are black and smooth and contain no crystals † Coal is sedimentary and Obsidian is igneous …

Shale vs. Slate † Both

made of mud and clay (Slate is made from Shale) † Shale is sedimentary and Slate is metamorphic

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