What is gatekeeping? Who does it? How is it done? Who is affected?

Gatekeeping and digital media Peter Olaf Looms What am I going to talk about? 1. What is gatekeeping? gatekeeping? • • • Who does it? Ho is it don...
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Gatekeeping and digital media Peter Olaf Looms

What am I going to talk about?

1. What is gatekeeping? gatekeeping? • • •

Who does it? Ho is it done? How Who is affected? affected?

2. What impact does gatekeeping have? •

Gatekeeping at different levels in organisations and society

3. What does it mean for media policy? 4. What actions are needed to keep it under control? control ?

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

2

What is g gatekeeping? p g • Who does it? • How is it done? • Who is affected?

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

3

Walled city: Derry in the Middle Ages Source: http://www.derryswalls.com/maps.html

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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Walled city: Derry in the Middle Ages Source: http://www.derryswalls.com/maps.html

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

5

Gate to Inca city Machu Picchu, Peru

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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Chinese walled city: 建水 建水县 县

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

Jianshui County

8 December 2010

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The gatekeeping mechanism - portcullis

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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The gatekeeping mechanism - drawbridge

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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Gatekeeping: central questions Where are there gates? Who is the gatekeeper? Who are ”the gated”? How does it work?

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

10

Gatekeeping: Central terms

Term Gate

Explanation The point(s) at which passage is controlled The process of controlling passage

Gatekeeping Gatekeeper The “Gated” Gatekeeping mechanism

Peter Olaf Looms

The actor or stakeholder that performs gatekeeping The entity on whom gatekeeping is exercised The means used to carry out gatekeeping

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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Gatekeeping: some cases

A. Watching TV in Hong Kong (NOW TV and free-to-air digital TV). B. American Idol on Star TV C. News widgets on television screens ( (samsung and dY Yahoo!) h !) D. Wikileaks on the Internet

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

12

Media “food chain” or value chain Program

TV-channel

TV-offering

TV-distribution

TV-reception

Rights

Viewer e e Information

Sources

Production Company

Peter Olaf Looms

Broadcaster

Operator

Transmission Company

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

Consumer Electronics Manufacturer

8 December 2010

13

A. Watching TV in Hong Kong: pay TV or free

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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A. Watching TV in Hong Kong: pay TV or free

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

15

Pay TV Program

TV-channel

TV-offering

TV-distribution

TV-reception

Rights

Viewer e e Information

6

7

Sources

Production Company

Peter Olaf Looms

Broadcaster

Operator

Transmission Company

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

Consumer Electronics Manufacturer

8 December 2010

16

Free--to Free to--air TV Program

TV-channel

TV-offering

TV-distribution

TV-reception

Rights

Viewer e e Information

Sources

Production Company

Peter Olaf Looms

Broadcaster

Operator

Transmission Company

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

Consumer Electronics Manufacturer

8 December 2010

17

There are many gates in the value chain Program

TV-channel

TV-offering

TV-distribution

TV-reception

Rights

1

Viewer e e

Information

2

4

5

6

7

Sources

3 Production Company

Peter Olaf Looms

Broadcaster

Operator

Transmission Company

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

Consumer Electronics Manufacturer

8 December 2010

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There are also gates within news production News item Research

Electronic Electronic News News Gathering item editing

A

B

Live news programme line-up & playout

C

D

TV journalist TV journalist TV journalist Executive producer research assistant ENG crew video/audio editor vision mixer graphics artist audio engineer captions artist graphics, captions subtitles

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

19

B. American Idol on Star TV

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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Value network for American Idol Main revenue streams

Advertisers Rights Holder Simon Fuller

Content Production

Broadcaster

Fox Broadcasting F B d ti Corporation

Satellite Operator Star TV

Transmission a s ss o Providers

The Viewer

Programme Sponsors

AT&T, Coca Cola & Ford

SMS Voting

AT&T (US only)

Product flow Revenue flow Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

21

Value network for American Idol Main revenue streams Commercial interests

Owned by News Corp

Sponsors

Satellite Operator

Transmission a s ss o Providers

Advertisers Rights Holder Simon Fuller

Content Production

Broadcaster

Fox Broadcasting F B d ti Corporation

Star TV

The Viewer

Programme Sponsors

AT&T, Coca Cola & Ford

SMS Voting

AT&T (US only)

Product flow Revenue flow Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

22

C. News widgets on television screens Program

TV-channel

TV-offering

TV-distribution

TV-reception

Rights

Viewer e e Information

Sources

Production Company

Peter Olaf Looms

Broadcaster

Operator

Transmission Company

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

Samsung Manufacturer

8 December 2010

23

C. News widgets on television screens

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

24

A concealed gate in Portugal…

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ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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A concealed gate in Portugal…

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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C. News widgets on television screensscreens-Samsung Program

TV-channel

TV-offering

TV-distribution

TV-reception

Rights

Viewer e e Information

7 Sources

Production Company

Peter Olaf Looms

Broadcaster

Operator

Transmission Company

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

Consumer Electronics Manufacturer

8 December 2010

27

D. Wikileaks and the Internet Portal

Domain Name

Host/ISPs

E-payment

Computer

Attacks

User Use Information

Sources

Wikileaks

Peter Olaf Looms

DNS.com

Amazon/OVH (France) Visa/PayPal National firewalls “Green Dam”

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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D. Wikileaks

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

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What impact does gatekeeping g p g have?

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

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Sticky (keeps user with supplier)

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ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

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Makes switching supplier costly

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ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

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Media creation and distribution is opaque

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ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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What does it mean for media policy? p y

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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Need for a level playing field Convergence requires technology agnostic regulation technology-agnostic

Internet TV

Broadcast TV

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ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

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Need for transparency

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

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Need for transparency: Apple’s app. store

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

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Need for transparency: Android’s app. store

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

38

What actions are needed to keep p it under control?

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

39

3 actions to keep gatekeeping under control

1. Media regulation: • Pluralism and diversity of supply • Carrots Ca ots and sticks • Self-regulation (trade bodies) • Competition (anti-trust) and Fair Trading Legislation

2. Investigative journalism and academic research: • Understand how business models work in the digital world

3. Increase awareness of media production and distribution in education • Make media in schools, reflect on the process

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

40

3 actions to keep gatekeeping under control

1. Media regulation: • Pluralism and diversity of supply • Carrots Ca ots and sticks • Self-regulation (trade bodies) • Competition (anti-trust) and Fair Trading Legislation

2. Investigative journalism and academic research: • Understand how business models work in the digital world

3. Increase awareness of media production and distribution in education • Make media in schools, reflect on the process

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

41

3 actions to keep gatekeeping under control

1. Media regulation: • Pluralism and diversity of supply • Carrots Ca ots and sticks • Self-regulation (trade bodies) • Competition (anti-trust) and Fair Trading Legislation

2. Investigative journalism and academic research: • Understand how business models work in the digital world

3. Increase awareness of media production and distribution in education • Make media in schools, reflect on the process

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

42

Now it is your turn…

Questions?

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

43

Thank you!

Contact particulars Peter Olaf Looms DR, Danish Broadcasting Corporation DR Media Strategy & Projects DR-Byen Emil Holms Kanal 20 DK-0999 Copenhagen C DENMARK E: [email protected] M: +45 51 56 75 46 D: +45 35 20 83 66

Peter Olaf Looms

ECOM-ICOM Expert Address

8 December 2010

44

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