WARNING: THISKIT CONTAINS CHEMICALS THATMAYBE Item #2894-08 AGES 10 AND UP
nly for use by children over 10 years old. To be used ely under the strict supervision of adults that have ied the precautions given in the experimental set."
HARMFUL IF MISUSED.READALL WARNING STATEMENTS ONINDIVIDUAL PACKETS ANDINSTRUCTIONS BEFORE USING THISKIT. THIS CRYSTAL KIT MAYBE JSEDBY YOUNG CHILDREN ONLYWITHADULT SUPERVISION. IF DRYPOWDER ORMIXED L!QUlDIS SPILLED, RINSEWITHWATER. DONOTUSEANYBLEACHES ORCLEANERS CONTAINING CHLORINE.
® SMITHSONIAN CRYSTAL GROWINGSET - SERIES I
CRYSTAL GROWING PROCEDURES
"GOLDENCITRINE" CRYSTALCLUSTER "AQUAMARINEBLUE" CRYSTAL CLUSTER "EMERALDGREEN" CRYSTAL CLUSTER © MCMXCV NATURALSCIENCE INDUSTRIES, LTD. 910 ORLANDOAVENUE¯ WESTHEMPSTEAD,NEW YORK 11552 0 1995SmithsonianInstitution
Rev 0103 Madein U.S.A.
CONTENTS OF YOUR CRYSTAL GROWINGKIT
CRYSTALS AND CRYSTAL GROWING PROCEDURES WARNING! READ ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS BEFORE STARTING. ALL CHEMICALS AND PROCEDURES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO CAUSE HARM!
Your crystal growing kit contains the following materials and equipmentfor growingbeautiful chemicalcrystals: Safety goggles
3 poly bags of crystal growingchemicals In this crystal growingset, the chemicalsusedand the proce- [3 dures outlined have been madeas safe as possible through [3 1 size "C" crystal growingcup careful testing and packaging. However,they are not without 3 size "D" crystal growingcups somehazard since ALL chemicals AREpotentially dangerous. [3 3 size "D" lids Be sure you read the warnings and caution statements on the r3 2 wooden spatulas individual containers and follow the proceduresand directions carefully. Instruction booklet NOTE:This crystal growing kit maybe used by youngchildren only with adult subervision! (1) NEVER put any chemicals, crystals or solutions into the mouth. Neverswallowor eat any chemicals,crystals or solutions. Do not eat or drink whenhandlingchemicals,crystals or solutions.
Magnifying glass [3
Poly bagcontaining granite "base rocks"
MATERIALNEEDED TO BE SUPPLIED BY YOU
(2) AVOID contactof any chemicals,solutions or crystals with the skin, Gathertogether the following materials andcontainersto help your eyesandmouth.Becareful of stirring sticks andcontainerswhichhave procedures run more smoothly and to insure that your crystal beenused with the chemicalsor solutions. Alwayswashyour hands growingwill be moresuccessful. andarmsafter handling chemicals,crystals, or solutions. Keepyour workarea clean and dust-freer Youwill need: (3) READINSTRUCTIONS for each procedure before actually doing [3 A room or location in your homewhere the temperature the procedure.Makesure you haveall of the equipmentand materials remainsrelatively constant and wherethe cryst~. 3 maygrow and readyfor the procedurebefore starting. not be disturbed. Onceyou place your crystals ready to grow, try (4) If chemicalsaccidentally comein contact with skin, washthe area not to disturb them. with soapandwater. If eye contact occurs, carefully flush eyeswith [3 A mediumsize saucepanin which to heat water to boiling. waterfor 15 minutes.If irritation occurs,or if it persists, get medical Alwaysuse a stainless steel or Teflon~ coated saucepan.Never attention. Somechemicals mayform or contain DUST.If a chemical use an aluminumpan. The boiling water will be used to dissolve dust is inhaled, seek fresh air. If symptomsoccur, seek medical chemicals. Whenusing boiling water, always have parents or an attention. If any chemicals, crystals or solutions are swallowed, adult help you. immediatelyrinse your mouthwith milk or water; drink several glasses [3 Plenty of newspaperor plastic sheeting to protect your work of milk or water. Seekmedical attention or call a Poison Control area from spills and from the dyeswhichare addedto manyof the Center. chemicals.Thepowerfuldyesmaystain floors or table tops if the (5) Keepchemicals, solutions and crystals out of the reach of small colored solutions are spilled onto these surfaces. children andpets. [3 Several small clean used jars with tops (like usedjelly jars, (6) Alwayswork with the safety goggles, which are supplied in your baby food jars or canning jars) in which to store someof your crystal growingkit. chemicalsolutions for use later on. (7) Makesure your work area is covered with several sheets newspaper or a waterproof plastic sheeting to reducethe problemof spills fromchemicalsandfrom the dyeswhichare usedin the chemical solutions. If there is a spill, clean the area immediatelywith paper towels. (8) It is importantto coverclothing with a protective layer of cloth, plastic or rubber. Youshould obtain an apron(like a workshop apron) andwear it while you are doing the procedures.
[3 A small plastic bucket (like a clean usedpeanutbutter bucket or discarded quart Tupperware~container). Makesure that your containers and bucketsare thoroughly cleaned and dried. [3 A supplyof papertowels or tissue paperfor drying crystals and cleaningup any spills.
Scissors Flashlight A selection of various rocks on which you will growyour own (9) Disposeof USED chemicalsin a mannerwhich is environmentally crystals. Theserocks maybe collected from the neighborhoodor safe. Talk to your parents or school science teacher about the best maybe from your own rock collection. The prettier and more wayto dispose of chemicals. interesting the rocks you use, the moreinteresting will be the NO MA’n’ER WHATTHE EXPERIMENT, EQUIPMENTOR PROCE- "bases" for your crystals to growon. DURE,THEONETHINGTO CONSIDER AT ALL TIMESIS S-A-F-E-T-Y You mayhave to break the rocks with a hammer.Whenbreaking rocks with a hammer, work outdoors, and alwayswearyour safety (’ALWAYS WEARYOURSAFETY GOGGLESWHENPERFORMING’~ goggles.Coverthe rock you are trying to break with an old cloth ~ EXPERIMENTSWITH CHEMICALSOR DOING THE PROCEDURES|or budapsack to prevent rock shards from scattering or flying outwardfrom the breakingarea. Becareful of sharp edgesfrom the ~ OUTLINEDFORCRYSTALGROWING ANDSOLUTIONMAKING! BE / I/ CAREFULWHENHANDLING HOT WATER! ALWAYSWEARYOUR broken rocks. Youmayalso use the granite "base rocks" supplied WHENBREAKINGUP ROCKSFOR THE "BASE in yourkit. /’1 SAFETYGOGGLES J ~,ROCKS"FORYOURCRYSTALS. 2
0 Transparenttape on whichyou can write with a permanentink marker. This will help you keeptrack of whichchemicalsolutions youare savingand whichcrystals are growingin each container.
GE’I’rlNG READY Usingscissors, cut apart the indi~clual plastic crystal growingcupsfromthe plastic sheet where they are all attached. Leave a rim around each individual plastic growingcup, but cut off sharppoints fromthe comersof the ~ms.Youwill also use the flat plastic sheetto cut "lids" for various growingcups. YOUwill needlids for size "D" growingcups.
ALWAYS WEARYO’JR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN PERFORMINGEXPERIMENTSWITH CHEMICALS OR DOING THE PROCEDURESOUTUNED FOR CRYSTAL GROWINGAND SOLUTION MAKING! BE CAREFUL WHEN HANDLING HOT WATER.I ALWAYS WEAR YOUR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN BREAKING UP ROCKSFOR THE "BASE ROCKS" FOR YOUR CRYSTALS.
KEEPING RECORDS- LABORATORY NOTES: It is impo~lantto keepa record of eachprocedureyou perform.Usea small notebook and pencil to record the important information about each operation ORyou mayuse the record keeping log at the end of each procedure. The informabonyou should record is: 1. Timeand date you stad eachcrystal growing procedure. 2. Timeand date you end each crystal growing procedure. 3. Whatsize rock andwhattype rock usedfor the "baserock" for your crystal growing procedure. 4. The nameof the chemical used, how muchchemical used, and how nmchwater used in each crystal growing procedure. 5. Recordthe room temperature and the solution temperature dt the beginningof each crystal growingprocedure. 6. Comments: Note also whenyou could first see crystals beginning to grow, whatShapethey are, and howfast they appearto grow. Noteif the "baserocks" yo~are using are light or dark colored andwhatkind of rock is usedfor "baserocks" (like limestone,granite, etc.). Youmaywishto use the "record keeping log" printed at the end of each procedure.The most important techniqueto developis to measure all chemicalsandall amounts of water VERYCAREFULLY. For each crystal growing experiment, the amountof water neededis given in gramsandmilliliters (ml) as well as cups, teaspoonsand tablespoons. Youmayuse any system you like, but the metric measurement in milliliters (ml) or grams(g) will be usedin manual. The size "D" crystal growing cups have two markings embossed on them.The lower markdenoting20 mililiter (ml) andthe upperdenoting 68 milliliters (ml). Theseare the only twomeasurements that are usedin the following experiments. 7. Whenyou removethe crystals from their growingvessel andare making ready to dry them, place the crystals on absorbent paper toweling or newspaper andlet themdry for a dayor so undisturbed.Letting the crystals ~ this waywill insure the crystals become firmly attached to the "base rocks" and will serve as a safe and stable methodto display your new 8. If youmakea displayof all your crystals, it is importantto keepthemdry and free of dust, andawayfrom too muchheat. Someof the crystals you groware very delicate andwill break if handledroughly. If you can find somedear plastic boxesin whichto display them, all the better. If your crystals get dusty, youmaywantto clean themoff with a soft bristle brush, o¢ the air froma hair dryer.
REMEMBER: All of your crystals will re-dissolve in waterll So do NOT get your c~stals wet or try to washthem.., the c~/stals will tumback k~to solutkm.
Carefullycut all of the crystal growing cupsopartfromoneanother. Be sure to leave a rim aroundeachgrowingcup. Also removeany sharpcornersfromthe rimswith yourscissors.
NOTE:The measuring cupincluded withthis kit is marked withounces (oz.) andcubiccentimeters(cc.). Onemilliliter equal,,;onecubiccentimeter. For Example : lml = lcc 2ml = 2cc 3ml = 3cc
Crystal~whichare fo~mdin noturemayhavetakenthousand~ or eve~ millionsof yearsto growinto thermalshapeandsize whichwe recognize.Somenaturalcrystals formin hot sohaioneof chemicah deepwithinthe earth. Crys~at~ mayalso formas the result o[~inerals frommoltenrockor superheatedvaporso/mineralsor elements.
Thecrystals whichyouwill growin this kit are chemicalcrysmlxYour cryxtals growveryrapidly, needingonly a few hoursor daysto their growth.Boththe crystals foundin natureandthe onesyougrow fromyourkit areactualcrysto, s within~ernalstr~aresroachthe s, me, exceptyoudonot haveto wall~hoasands of yearsto see the result yourcrystal growth.~
Actual CITRINE crystals are a variety of quartz whichshowa light yellow color. The "GoldenCitrine" crystals which you will growin Procedure#I use the chemicalmonoammonium phosphateanda yellow food dye to simulateactual CITRINE quartz.Bothyourchemicalcrystals andactual citrine crystals do, however,formin the hexagonal crystal system. Crystals of the samechemicalsubstancemayexhibit a wide variety of shapes. However,it is possible to choosethree reference axes (called crystallographic axes) that uniquelydefine the geometryof each crystal. Theseaxes intersect at common point at the center of the crystal. For highly regular shapeslike cubes(high symmetry),the axes are the samelength, and the angles betweenthe axes are 90°. Anexampleof this type of crystal is table salt (the mineralhalite). Thereare seven different combinationsof crystallographic axes. Theseare called crystal systemsand are shownin the marginimmediately below. The"GoldenCitrine" crystals that you will growin Procedure#1 crystallize in one of these systems. Canyou determine which one? Thecrystals whichyouwill growin a water(aqueous)solution are not actual citrine quartz crystals as seen in jewelrystores or museums, but are nonethelessbeautiful goldencrystal structures.
PROCEDURE#1: "GOLDENClTRINE" CRYSTALS OVERVIEW- PROCEDURE #1: In procedure#1 - "GoldenCitrine" Crystals, youwill growcrystal clusters of a golden ambercolor on a base rock. The crystal growing chemical contains monoammonium phosphateand a concentrated food dye colorant. After you havegrownthe "GoldenCitrine" crystals, keepthemas clean and dry as possible. If they become dusty, they maybe cleanedwith a soft brush or with air from a gentle blowersuchas a hair dryer. Protect your finished crystals from harsh light andmoisture. Youwill needthe following materials to completethis procedure: El Safety goggles Polybag#1 containing "GoldenCitrine" crystal growing chemical Size "C" plastic crystal growingcup Size "D" plastic crystal growingcup Size "D" plastic crystal growingcup lid Wooden spatula (for stirring) Saucepan for boiling water (let your parents help you with boiling water) ORstyrofoamcup if wateris boiled in microwave "Baserock" piecesto place in the bottomof plastic crystal growingcup for your crystals to growupon Small storagejar with lid for stodngthe excesssolution for later steps or follow-up experiments Newspaper or plastic sheeting to cover your working area to reducethe hazardof spills on table or floor El Flashlight. Magnifying glass Small notebookand pencil for recording the steps of procedure ORyou mayuse the record keeping log at the endof this procedure Proceduresteps:
(1) Openpoly bag #1, the "GoldenCitrine" crystal growingchemicaland pour the contentsinto a size "C" plastic crystal growingcup. (2) Usinga clean dry wooden spatula and your magnifyingglass, carefully look at the small grains andcrystals of the chemicalfromthe poly bag#1. (3) After you haveexamined the crystals, put a few (about 1/8 teaspoon) themback into poly bag #1 for use as seedcrystals. (4) Usingthe size "D" growingcup, fill with water to the uppermark,and place this water into a saucepan.Place the saucepanonto the stove and heat until the wateris boiling.
TRICLINIC All crystalswhichareknownhavebeenclassifiedinto oneof the seven categories called CRYSTAL SYSTEMS. All natural crystals canhe identified as belongingto one of these seven CRYSTAL SYSTEMS. The crystals that yougrowwithyoarcrystal growing set mayalso be classifiedunderoneor the otherof thesecategories(shapes).
(5) Pourthe boilingwaterfromthe sm~saucepan into the size "C" plastic growing cupwtlichoontains the contents frompolybag# 1. Stir this mixture ~ one of your wooden spstulas until all of the chemicalgroins have (6) Placeoneor twobrokenrockfragments in the bottomof the size "D" plastic growingcup. These~ rocks" should only comeup from the boltomof the growingcupabout3/4" (or about2 cm).
ALWAYSWEARYOURSAFETYGOGGLES WHEN PERFORMING EXPERMENTSWITH CHEMICALS OR DOINGTHE PROCEDURES OUTLINEDFOR CRYSTALGROWING AND SOLUTIONMAKING! BE CAREFULWHENHANDLINGHOT WATERI ALWAYSWEARYOURSAFETYGOGGLES WHEN BREAKING UP ROCKE;FORTHE"BASEROCKS" FORYOUR CRYSTAL,=;.
(7) Pourlhe chemical/water sotutionfromthe size*C*plastic cupINTO the size "D" crystal growingcup.Pourright overthe baserocks. Theliquid shouldbepoured in thecupso as to allowaboutone-thirdof aninch(8 ram) of spacebetween top of liquid andrim of cup.Let the solutioncooluntil lukewarm. (8) Fromthe poly bag, takeafewsaedcaystalswhichyousavedback,and cerofullydepositthesoat differentplacesonthetop of the rockswhichare on~ boltomof the size "D" ptastJccrystal growing cup.Youmayjust let these*seedoystals"sink clownthroughthe liquid andlandonthe rocks. (9) Primethe lid whichfits the topof size"D" cupontop of yourcrystal (10)Setyour’Golden Citrine"crystalgrowing cupin a placewhere it will not be disturbedby movement or changes in temperature. (11) Recordin your notebook all of the stepswhichyouhaveperformed duringthis procedure, including~ime,date,andwhichcrystal typeyouare growing.Make sumyoualso label the crystal growing cupwith the typeof crystalyouaregrowing in it andwhen the crystalwill bereadyto beremoved from the solution. YOUrr~y use the RECORD KEEPING LOGat the end of this proceclure as a handyplaceto recordyourdateandresults. (12) Yourcrystalswill start growing in just a fewhours.Youmayuseyour flashlight to look throughthe sidesof the cupandwatchthe process. (13)Allowthecfystaleto growwithoutbaingclisturbodfor threeor four days. At that time youmayremove your crystals fromthe solution ORyoumay lakeoff the lid andlet It~ solutionevaporate for a fewmoredays(to make lengercrystals).If youremove thelid andlet thesolutionevaporate, a crust of c~/stalsmayformatlt~ topofI~esolutionorat thetop rimof thecrystal growingcup. In imy ¢e=ermnoveyour growncn/stals BEFORE ~ top of yourc~stalsm’eexposad I~troughlhe surfaceof the so~ulk)n.If the crystal of the growing cup,youmaywantto breakoff ex__~e~__ crystalswhichform a squareshapein on:let to makeyour cry~ massdisplay look more (14) When youare salisfied with the stuzpeandsize of yourcrystal mass ~men,set it asideon a pieceof newspaper or papertowel andallow to (15)Pourtheextra solutionfromthe growing cupinto a storagejar. Label the jar with transpe~tape a~to which=:~rdonthe jar contains.Retain this jar of sotu6on for later proce¢luras. Make surethejar basa tight fitting lid.
Carefully pour boiling water i~to crystal growingc~p. Stir boiling water ¢mdchemical~ntil it is ,-ompletely dissolved. Alwayshave adult supervisionwhendealin ~ with boiling water.
(16) The crystals which mayhave grownon the sides or bottom of the crystal growing cup can now be removedand dded on newspaperor paper toweling. After they are dry, retumthemto the "GoldenCitrine" crystal poly bag #1, and save them for use in a later procedure or for follow-up experimentsof your owndesign. (17) If you prefer to groweven larger "GoldenCitdne" crystals, you may wish to combineyour excesssolution andthe "excess"crystals whichhave formedon the sides and bottomof the growingcup together with about 20 milliliters (ml) of water.Fill the size "D" growing cupto the lower20mililiter (ml) line to get the measurement of water. Heat this mixture of excess solution, excesscrystals andwater to boiling, andstir constantly with a wooden spatulauntil all of the solid crystal andpowder is dissolved.B~sure to use a stainless steel 0r Teflon~coatedsaucepan(NOTALUMINUM!) for
ALWAYS WEAR YOUR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN PERFORMINGEXPERIMENTS WITH CHEMICALS OR DOING THE PROCEDURESOUTLINED FOR CRYSTAL GROWINGAND SOLUTION MAKING! BE CAREFUL WHEN HANDLING HOT WATERI ALWAYS WEAR YOUR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN BREAKING UP ROCKSFOR THE "BASE ROCKS" FOR YOUR CRYSTALS.
this procedure. (18) While this solution is cooling, place your "GoldenCitrine" cluster, previously grown,into a clean size "D" growingcup. Carefully pour the new solution over the "goldencitrine" clusters. Youdo not needto addseed crystals this time. Covergrowingcupwith lid andallow your crystals to grow as before.
RECORD KEEPING LOG: Procedure #1 : "GOLDEN CITRINE"CRYSTALS
(1) Datethis procedure started:
(2) Typeof "baserock"used(limestone,granite,etc.): of "baserooks"used: (3) Number of Chemicalused: (4) Name
used: (5)Weightof Chemical of Waterused: (6)Amount (7) Room temperature of crystal growingroom:
(8) Temperature of solutionat beginning of prooedure: (9) Temperature of solutionat endof procedure: (10) Temperature of roomat endof procedure: (11) Datewhen first crystal growthobserved:
(12) Estimated sizeof first crystalsseengrowing: (13) Estimated growthrate of crystals seengrowing: (14) Dateprocedure ended:. (15) Amount of dry crystal residuesavedafter procedure: (16) Amount of residuesolutionsavedafter procedure:
The actual gem AQUAMARINE is a color variation of the mineral crystal beryl. Eme--alds are also beryls. Both aquamarine and emeralds are classified in the hexagonal crystal system. In Procedure #7 you will grow a blue chemical crystal which only simulates actual aquamarine in color and crystalline appearance. Your blue crystal clusters are formed in a water (aqueous) soi,~tion of monoammoniumphosphate which contains atoms of nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and phosphorous. Actual aquamarine is formed under extreme pressure and heat over long periods of time. Actual aquamarine beryl is made of atoms of beryllium, aluminum, silicon and oxygen. Both actual aquamarine and your chemically grown "Aquamarine Blue" crystals form in the hexagonal crystal system. Sometimes you may obtain needle-like crystals from your crystal growing experiments. Other conditions may produce prismatic crystals. The difference maybe due to conditions of temperature or humidity, or to the in,purities given to the solution by the "base rocks" that you use. Similar differences in crystal shape occur in nature because atorr s in the solution surrounding the growing crystal are attracted more strongly to some surfaces (faces) than others. This means that different crystal faces grow at different rates - the slower the rate of growth, the larger the face. Whenan impurity atora attaches itself to a growing surface, it may alter the rate of growth of a particular face, and change the shape or "habit" of the crystal (needle-like to prismatic, for example). PROCEDURE #7: "AQUAMARINEBLUE" CRYSTALS OVERVIEW- PROCEDURE #7: In procedure#7 - "Aquamanne Blue" Crystals, you will growcrystal clusters of a deepblue color on a baserock. Thecrystal growingchemicalcontains monoammonium phosphateand a concentrated food dye colorant. After you have grownthe "AquamarineBlue" crystals, keep themas clean and dry as possible. If they become dusty, they maybe cleanedwith a soft brush or with air froma gentle blowersuchas a hair dryer. Protect your finished crystals fromharsh light andmoisture. Youwill needthe following mateda,sto completethis procedure: Safety goggles Polybagcontaining "AquamarineBlue" crystal growingchemical Size "C" plastic crystal growingcup Size "D" plastic crystal growingcup Size "D" plastic crystal growingcuplid Wooden spatula (for stirring) Saucepan for boiling water (let your parents help you with boiling water) ORstyrofoamcup if wateris boiled in microwave "Baserock" pieces to place in the bottom of plastic crystal growingcupfor your crystals to grow upon El Smallstoragejar with lid for stodngthe excess solution for later steps or follow-up experiments Newspaper or plastic sheeting to cover your workingarea to reducethe hazardof spills ontable or floor Flashlight Magnifying glass Small notebookandpencil for recording the steps of procedure Proceduresteps: (1) Openpoly bag#7, the "Aquamarine Blue" crystal growingchemicaland pourthe contentsinto a size "C" plastic crystal growingcup. (2) Usinga clean, dry wooden spatula andyour magnifyingglass, carefully look at the small grains andcrystals of the chemicalfrom the poly bag#7.
ALWAYS WEARYOUR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN PERFORMINGEXPER MENTS WITH CHEMICALS OR DOING THE PROCEDURESOUTLINED FOR CRYSTAL GROWINGAND SOLUTION MAKING! BE CAREFUL WHEN HANDLING HOT WATER! ALWAYS WEARYOUR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN BREAKINGUP ROCK~; FOR THE "BASE ROCKS" FORYOURCRYSTAL,~;.
(3) After you haveexamined the crystals, put a few (about 1/8 teaspoon) thembackinto poly bag#7 for use as seedcrystals. (4) Usingthe size "D" growingcup, fill with water to the uppermark, and place this water into a saucepan.Place the saucePan onto the stove and heat until the wateris boiling. (5) Pourthe boiling waterfrom the small saucepan into the size "C" plastic growingcup whichcontainsthe contentsfrompoly bag#7. Stir this mixture with one of your woodenspatulas until all of the chemical grains have dissolved completely.
ALWAYS WEAR YOUR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN PERFORMINGEXPERIMENTS WITH CHEMICALS OR DOING THE PROCEDURESOUTLINED FOR CRYSTAL GROWINGAND SOLUTION MAKING! BE CAREFUL WHEN HANDLING HOT WATER! ALWAYS WEAR YOUR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN BREAKING UP ROCKSFOR THE "BASE ROCKS" FOR YOUR CRYSTALS.
(6) Place oneor two brokenrock fragmentsin the bottomof the size "D" plastic growing cup. These"base rocks" should only comeup from the bottomof the growingcup about 3/4" (or about 2 cm). (7) Pourthe chemical/watersolution from the size "C" plastic cupINTOthe size "D" crystal growingcup. Pour right over the baserocks. The liquid shouldbe pouredin the cup so as to allow aboutone-third of an inch (8 mm) of spacebetweentop of liquid andrim of cup. (8) Fromthe poly bag, take a few crystals which you saved back, and carefully deposittheseat different placeson the top of the rocks whichare on the bottomof the size "D" plastic crystal growingcup. Youmayjust let these"seed crystals" sink downthroughthe liquid andland on the rocks. (9) Place the lid whichfits the top of size "D" cupon top of your crystal solution cup. (10) Set your"Aquamarine Blue" crystal growingcup in a place whereit will not be disturbed by movement or changesin temperature. (11) Recordin your notebookall of the steps whichyou have performed during this experiment,including time, date, andwhichcrystal type you are growing.Makesure you also label the crystal growingcup with the type of crystal youare growingin it andwhenthe crystal will be readyto be removed from the solution. You may use the RECORD KEEPING LOGat the end of this experimentas a handyplace to record your data andresults. (12) Yourcrystals will start growingin just a few hours. Youmayuse your flashlight to look through the sides of the cup andwatchthe process. (13) Allowthe crystals to growwithoutbeingdisturbedfor three or four days. At that time you mayremoveyour crystals from the solution ORyou may take off the lid andlet the solution evaporatefor a fewmoredays(to make larger crystals). If youremove the lid andlet the solution evaporate,a crust of crystals mayformat the top of the solution or at the top rim of the crystal growing cup. In any case removeyour growncrystals BEFORE the top of your crystals are exposed throughthe surfaceof the solution. If the crystal massand the "base rock" have formeda square shape due to the shape of the growingcup, you maywantto break off excesscrystals which form a square shape in order to makeyour crystal massdisplay look more geologically natural. (14) When you are satisfied with the shapeandsize of your crystal mass specimen,set it aside on a piece of newspaper or papertowel andallow to dry completelyfor one day.
Carefullypourboilingwaterinto crystalgrowingcup.Stir boiling waterandchemicaluntil it is completelydissolved.Alwayshave adult supervisionwhendealingwith boilingwater.
solutionfor later procedures. Make surethe jar hasa tight fitting lid. (16) The crystals which mayhave grownon the sides or bottom of the crystal growing cup can nowbe removedanddried on newspaper or paper toweling. After they are dry, return themto the "Aquamarine Blue" crystal poly bag#7, andsavethemfor use in a later procedure.
~ ALWAYS WEARYO,JR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN PERFORMINGEXPI£RIMENTS WITH CHEMICALS OR DOING THE PF OCEDURESOUTLINED FOR CRYSTAL GROWlkG AND SOLUTION MAKING! BE CAREFUL WHEN HANDLING HOT WATER! ALWAYS WEARYO’JR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN BREAKINGUP ROCKSFOR THE "BASE ROCKS" FOR YOURCRYSTALS.
(17) If you prefer to growevenlarger "Aquamarine Blue" crystals, you may wish to combineyour excesssolution, andthe excesscrystals whichhave formedon the bottomandsides of the growingcup together with about 20 milliliters (ml) of water.Fill the size "D"growingcupto the lower20mililiter (ml) line to get the measurement of water. Heat this mixture of excess solution, excesscrystals and waterto boiling andstir constantly with a wooden spatula until all of the solid crystal andpowderhas dissolved. Be sure to use a stainless steel or Teflon~) coated sauceDan (NOTALUMINUM!)for this procedure. (18) While the solution is cooling, place your "Aquamarine Blue" crystal cluster, previouslygrown,into a clean size "D" growingcup. Carefully pour the newsolution over the "Aquamarine Blue" cluster. Youdo not needto addseed crystals this time. Covergrowingcup with lid and allow your crystals to growas before. RECORD KEEPINGLOG: Procedure #7: "AQUAMARINE BLUE" CRYSIALS
(1) Datethis procedurestarted:
(2) Typeof "baserock" used(limestone,granite, etc.): (3) Numberof "base rocks" used: (4) Name of Chemical used: __
Total weight of "base rocks": __ PolybagNo.:
(5) Weightof Che~nicalused: (6) Amountof Water used: (7) Room temperatureof crystal growing room: (8) Temperature of solution at beginningof procedure: (9) Temperature of solution at endof procedure:
(10) Temperature of roomat end of procedure: (11) Date whenfirst
crystal growth observed:
(12) Estimatedsize of first crystals seengrowing: (13) Estimatedgrowthrate of crystals seengrowing: (14) Date procedureended:
(15) Amountof dry crystal residue savedafter procedure: (16) Amountof residue solution savedafter procedure:
"EmeraldGreen~Crystals Natural emeraldis a green variety of beryl. It is one of the mosthighly prized of all gems.Emeraldshavebeen knownfromthe time of the Greeks,and wereminedin Egyptas early as 2000B.C. Crystals of emeraldare smaller than other beryl gemssuch as aquamarine(bluegreen), whichis one reason whylarge emeraldsare so valuable. Emeraldsdo not crystallize fromhot chemicalsolutions, as do the other beryls, but growin solid rock as the temperatureand pressure increases. All beryls belongto the hexagonalcrystal system,and commonly showsix-sided shapes called prisms. The deepgreen color in emeraldis due to the replacementof aluminum by small amountsof chromium during growthof the crystal. Naturalemeraldcontains inclusions of foreign materials that can be usedto distinguishit fromthe synthetic gem.Theseinclusions, whichare trapped inside the crystal as it grows, can sometimesbe used to determinethe exact place wherethe emeraldwas "found. The "EmeraldGreen"crystal clusters whichyou will growin Procedure#8 are, of course, not real emeralds. Your chemical crystals are grownfrom a water (aqueous) solution containing monoammonium phosphate and a green dye. Your chemically growncrystals only simulate the color of real emeralds. Nonetheless,you will enjoy the beautiful shape (hexagonalsystem)and color variations of your own"EmeraldGreen"crystals. PROCEDURE #8: "EMERALDGREEN"CRYSTALS OVERVIEW - PROCEDURE #8: In procedure #8- "Emerald Green" Crystals,youwill growcrystal clusters of a greencolor on a baserock. Thecrystal growingchemicalcontains monoammonium phosphateand a concentratedfood dyecolorant. After youhavegrownthe "Emerald Green"crystals, keepthemas cleanand as possible.If theybecome dusty, they maybe cleanedwith a soft brush or withair froma gentleblowersuchas a hair dryer.Protectyourf!nished crystalsfromharshlight andmoisture.
ALWAYSWEARYOUR SAFETY GOGGLESWHEN PERFORMING EXPERIMENTSWITH CHEMICALS OR DOING THE PROCEDURES OUTLINED FOR CRYSTALGROWING AND SOLUTIONMAKING! BE CAREFULWHEN HANDLINGHOTWATER!ALWAYS WEARYOURSAFETYGOGGLES WHENBREAKING UP ROCKSFOR THE "BASE ROCKS"FOR YOUR CRYSTALS. ¯
Youwill needthe followingmaterialsto complete this procedure: Safetygoggles Polybag#8 containing"EmeraldGreen"crystal growingchemical Size"C" plastic crystal growing cup Size"D" plastic crystal growing cup Size"D" plastic crystalgrowing cuplid Wooden spatula(for stirring) Sauce panfor boiling water(let yourparentshelpyouwith boiling water)ORstyrofoam cupif wateris boiledin microwave. DONOTUSEANALUMINUM saucepan. Usaonly a Teflor~) coatedor stainless steel saucepan "Baserock"piecesto placein the bottomof plastic crystal growing cupfor your crystals to growupon Smallstoragejar with lid for stodngthe excess solutionfor a later procedure. Newspaper or plastic sheetingto coveryour workingareato reducethehazardof spills ontable or floor Flashlight Magnifyingglass Smallnotebook andpencil for recordingthe stepsof procedure OR youmayusethe recordkeepinglog at the endof this procedure Procedure steps: (1) Openpoly bag#8, the "EmeraldGreen"crystal growingchemicaland pourthecontentsinto a size"C" plastic crystalgrowing cup. (2) Usinga cleandry wooden spatulaandyourmagnifying glass, carefully look at the smallgrainsandcrystalsof the chemical fromthe pol,/beg#8. (3) After youhaveexamined the crystals, put a few(about1/8 teaspoon) thembackinto poly bag#8 for useas seedcrystals. (4) Usingthe size "D" growing cup,fill with waterto the uppermark,and placethis waterinto a saucepan. Placethe saucepan onto the stoveand heatuntil thewateris boiling. (5) Pourtheboiling waterfromthe smallsaucepan into t.~ size"C" plastic growing cupwhichcontainsthe contentsfrompolybag#8. Stir this mixture with oneof your wooden spatulasuntil all of the chemicalgrains have dissolvedcompletely. 10
Sometimes youmayobtainneedle-likecrystalsfromyourcrystal growing experiments. Otherconditionsmayproduce prism-likecrystal clusters.Thedifference maybedueeitherto the conditions of temperature orhumidity, or to theimpurities givento the solutionby "baserocks"thoryouuse.
bottomof the growingcup about 3/4" (or about2 crn). (7) Pourthe chemical/water so/ution from the size "C" plastic cup INTOthe size’D" crystal growingcup. Pour~ chemicalsolution right over the base rocks. Theliquid shouldbe pouredin the cupso as to allow aboutone-third of an inch (8 mm)of spacebetweentop of liquid andrim of cup. (8) Fromthe poly bag, take a few crystals which you savedback, and carefully depos~theseat different placeson the top of the "base rocks" whichare on the bottomof the size "D" plastio crystal growingcup. Youmay just let these"seedcrystals" sink downthroughthe liquid andlend on the rocks.
ALWAYS WEAR YOUR SAFETY GOGGLES WHEN PERFORMINGEXPERIMENTS WITH CHEMICALS OR DOING THE PROCEDURESOUTLINED FOR CRYSTAL GROWINGAND SOLUTION MAKINGi BE CAREFUL WHENHANDLING HOT WATER! ALWAYS WEARYOURSAFETYCH~.-~GLES WHENBREAKING UP ROCKSFOR THE ’BASE ROCKS" FOR YOUR CRYSTALS.
(9) Place the lid whichfits the top of size "D" cup on top of your crys~ sotcrdo~cup.
(17) If you prefer to grow even larger "AquamarineBlue" crystals, you maywish to combineyour excesssokrdon, and the excess cwstals which have formed on the bottom and (10) Set your "EmeraldGreen"crystal growingcup in a place whereit will sidesof the growingcuptogetherwith about20 milliliters (ml) not be disturbed by movement or changesin temperature. (11) Recordin your notebookall of the steps whichyou have performed of water.Fill the size "D" growingcup to the lower20 mililiter of water. Heatthis mixtureof duringthis experiment,including time, date, andwhichcrystal type youare (ml) line to get the measurement growing.Makesure you also labet Ifm crystal growingcup with the type of excesssolution, excesscrystals andwaterto boiling andstir spatulauntil all of the solid crystal c~stal youare growingin it andwhenthe crystal will be readyto be removed constantlywith a wooden from the solution. You mayuse the RECORD KEEPING LOGat the end andpowderhas d~ssoived.J3e sumto use a ste~nlesssteel or Teflor~ coated saucaoan(NOTALUMINUM!) for this proceof this procedureas a handyplace to record your data andresults. dure. (12) Yourcrystals will star growingin just a few hours. Youmayuse your flashlight to look throughthe sides of the cup andwatchthe process. (18) While the solution is (ooling, place your "Aquamarine (13) Allowthe crystals to growwittx)ut beingdisturbedfor three or four days. Blue" crystal cluster, previously grown,into a clean size "D" At that time you mayremoveyour crystals from the solution ORyou may growingcup. Carefully pou~the newsolution over the "Aquatake off the lid andlet the solution evaporatefor a fewmoredays(to make marineBlue"cluster. Youclc, not needto addseedcrystals this larger cwstals). If you remove the lid andlet ~hesolution evaporate,a crust time. Covergrowingcup with lid and allow your crystals to of crystals mayformat the top of the solutionor at the top rim of the crystal grow as before. growing cup. In any case removeyour growncrystals BEFORE the top of your crystals are exposed through’thesurfaceof the solution. If the crystal massand ~ "base rock" have formed a square shape due to the shape of the growingcup, you maywantto break off excesscrystals whichform a square shape in order to makeyour crystal massdisplay look more (14) When you are satisfied with the shapeand size of your crystal mass specimen,set it ask~eon a place of newspaper or papertowel andallow to dry completelyfor oneday. (15) Pourthe extra solution fromthe growingcup to a storagejar. Labelthe jar with transparenttape as to whichsolution the jar contains.Retainthis jar of solutionfor later procedures. Make surethe jar hasa tight tiffing lid. (16) The crystals which mayhave grownon the sides or bottom of the crysta~ growing cup can nowbe removedanddried on newspaperor paper toweling. After they are dry, return themto the "EmeraldGreen"crystal poly bag #8, andsavethemfor use in a later procedure. ["
RECORO KEEPINGLOG: Procedure #8: "EMERALD GREEN"CRYSTALS (1) Datethis ;x’ocedum started: (2) Typeof "baserock"u~ed(limestone, granite,etc.): (3) Nurnbe~ of "t)e, se rocks"used: (4) Name of Chem¢~ used: (5) weloteo~ChemicaJ use(J: (8) Amount of Waterused: (7) Room temperature of (WstaJgrowingroom: (8) Tem0emture of solutionat bngin~ng of procedure: (9) Temperature of solu’donat endof ixocedure: (10) Temperature of roo~at eflcl of wocedure: Time:
(12) EMimated ~ of firat c~ seefl gcowing: (13) Estimatedgrowthrate of cP~seengrowing: (14) DateWocadure ended: (15) Amcunt of dn/crystel residuesavedafter procedure: (16) Amount of residuesolutionsavedi~ter pnx~eclum:
TROUBLESHOOTING: WHATIF MY CRYSTALSDON’T GROW?
After completing all of the procedures, you should now havea collection of various crystal specimens of different crystalline shapesand colors. Youwill also havean assortmentof "saved"residuechemical solutions and residue crystals. You mayexperiment with these to try and grow your own crystals. Youmay experimentwith growinglarge single crystals or with growing clusters of crystals. Youmayalso wantto try to grow multi-coloredcrystals by first growinga crystal cluster of one color and then changingthe solutions to havethe final growthof thosecrystals of a different color. For example:if you use the chemicalsfrom the "Aquamarine Blue" crystal procedureas well as colored chemicals from the "Golden Citrine" and "Emerald Green" proceo dures, what kind of results can you obtain? You have seen that by evaporating solutions you can concentrate the growing solutions to makethe crystal growths larger. Remember, whenevaporation happensin a solution, the chemicalsremainin the solution andonly the water evaporates. Try experiments of your owndesign, evaporating small amounts of various saved solutions and describe the results. Onall of the experiments whichyoutry on your own,be sure to keepdetailed notesso that if youdiscovera newcrystal you can reproduceyour results again.
If crystals do not grow properly there can be several reasons.If no growthis observed,you haveprobably used too muchwater. If this is the case,just remove the solution andre-boil it in a stainless steel or Teflon® coatedsaucepan or in a non-aluminumsaucepanwhich is no longer usedfor cooking.Let the solution cool andpourit backinto the crystal growingcup. If youusetoo little water, youmay get manyvery small crystals. In this case, simplyadda bit morewater to your growingsolution, reheatit, cool it, and addit backto your crystal growingcup. Sometimes the type of "base rocks" which are used will hinder the growthof crystals. Some"baserocks" seemnot to accept crystals growing on them. You will have to experimentwith what type of "base rock" worksbest with your different procedures. Alwaystry to keepgoodrecords, and carefully measureall chemicalsand water to makeyour solutions. The temperature in the roomwhich you select for your crystal growingis an important factor. The temperature should remainfairly constantand unchanging.Humidityin the air also will causechangesin crystal growth.Humidity affects howfast the solutions will evaporateand therefore howlong it will take for somecrystals to grow. Whilecrystals are growing,try not to disturb them.Youmay useyourflashlight to obsor’.~etheir growth,but tP) to doso without disturbing the crystal growingcup.
LIST OF SET CONTENTS 1 Packet ........ 1 Packet ........ 1 Packet ........ OnePair........ One ............... Three ............. Three .............
"Emerald Green" crystal growing chemical (monoammonium phosphateand food dye colorant) "GoldenC;itrine" c~lstal growing chemical (monoammonium phosphateand food dye colorant) "AquamarineBlue" crystal growing chemical (monoammonium phosphateand food dye colorant) Safety goggles Size "C plastic crystal growingcup Size "D" plastic crystai growingcups Size "D" lids
Two ............... One ............... One ............... One ...............
Woodenspatulas Instruction booklet Magnifying glass Poly bag containing granite "base rocks"
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