I

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2, March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2 MARCH 2016

Copyright@ International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature No portion of the material published in the International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature should be reproduced in any way form without the written permission of the editor. Disclaimer The views expressed by the authors do not necessarily represent those of the editor or publisher, or the management of International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature. Though every care has been taken to avoid errors, this journal is being published on the condition and understanding that all the information provided herein is merely for reference and must not take as having authority of or binding in any way on the authors, editor and publishes who do not owe any responsibility for any damage or loss to any person, for the result of any action taken on the basis of this work. The publisher shall be obliged if mistakes are brought to their notice.

II

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2, March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

Journal of Indian Languages & Literature ADVISARY COMMITTEE FOR JOILL Prof. V Kutumbashastry President International Association of Sanskrit Studies (IASS) Former Vice Chancellor Shri Somnath Sanskrit University Veraval, Gujarat Prof. Mudigonda Veera Bhadraiah Retd. Professor & H.O.D. Department of Telugu School of Humanities University of Hyderabad Prof. Y.V. Ramana Rao Retd. Professor, H.O.D.& Dean Department of Hindi School of Humanities University of Hyderabad Prof. D. Muni Ratnam Naidu Director, MVKR. International Telugu Centre P.S.Telugu University Hyderabad. Prof. S Lakshminarasimham Director of Research French Institute of Pondicherry Puducherry-605001 Dr. U. Vara Lakshmi, Retd. Reader & H.O.D. Department of Telugu Bapatla Arts Collage Sri Mallapragada Sreemannarayana Murthy, Retd. Lecturer, Editor For Kanaka Durga Prabha,Viswajanini and ManujaGeeta

III

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2, March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

EDITORIAL BOARD for JOILL

Editor in Chief Ramabhadra Rao.Maddu Contact No: +91 767 596 9655 Managing Editor Dr. S.L.V. Uma Maheswara Rao. M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. Senior Diploma in Sanskrit Department of Telugu. Contact No: +91 949 025 6347 E.Mail Id: [email protected] Members Dr. T.Lakshmi Suguna, Principal, Matrusri Oriental Collage, Jillellamudi. Contact No: +91 949 175 5866 Dr.Y. Reddy syamala, Associate Professor, Department of Lexicography, P.S.Telugu University, Hyderabad. Contact No: +91 984 969 7688 Dr. V. Bhasker Reddy, Ph.D. in Telugu, H.O.D., Department of Telugu, S.R.K.Government Collage, Yanam, Puducherry. Contact No: +91 944 012 7967 Dr. K. Karuna Sri, Ph.D. in Telugu, Lecturer in Telugu, D.K.Govt.College for Women, SPSR Nellore. Contact No: +91 944 154 0317 Dr. N. Suresh Babu, Ph.D. in Sanskrit, Ph.D. in Telugu, Lecturer in Sanskrit, Andhra Layola Collage, Vijayawada. Contact No: +91 986 628 2107

IV

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2, March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

Dr. Satya Narayana, Ph.D. in Telugu, Lecturer in Telugu, Government Degree Collage, Kovur, SPSR Nellore. Contact No: +91 944 073 2210 Dr. S.V.B.K.V.Gupta, Ph.D. in Sanskrit, Research Associate, (Under Prof. S L Narasimham), Department of Sansktit, French Institute of Pondicherry, Pondicherry. Contact No: +91 944 178 8551 Dr. Hema Chandran. Khara, Ph.D. in English, University of Cambridge(U.K.), Associate Professor, Department of English, IIT – Chennai. Contact No: +91 944 596 8854 Dr. Mahesh Chandra Prajapati, Ph.D. in Hindi, JNV-Shajahanpur. Contact No: +91 945 458 5052 Dr. T. Sai Sankar Reddy, Ph.D. in Telugu, President, Telugu Bhasha Parirakshana Samiti. Contact No: +91 944 163 3845 Mr. V. Eswara rao, Associate Editor, Sarat Chandrika Monthly Magazine. Contact No: +91 975 540 6203 Mr. D. Mohan Babu, H.O.D., Member in Board of Studies, Department of Telugu, Oakridge International Schools, Hyderabad. Contact No: +91 988 559 2478 *****

V

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2, March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

ªÄX¯µj·T+ yÓsTT´ yÓTÆfi¯fl Á|üj·÷DyÓTÆHê ˇø£ÿ n&ÉT>∑T‘√H˚ ÁbÕs¡+uÛÑeTÚ‘·T+~. ø±˙! #ê˝≤kÕs¡T¢ yÓTT∑T |ü&É&Éy˚T ø£wüºeTÚ‘·T+~. ∑*–‘˚ ãVüQXÊ Ä n&ÉT>∑T≈£î Äø±X¯yT˚ Vü≤± kÕVæ≤‘·´ |üs¡e÷s¡ú+ πøe\+ »qs¡+»ø£y˚T ø±≈£î+&Ü Á|üCÀ|üjÓ÷>∑+>± ñ+&Ü*. n|ü⁄Œ&˚ Ä kÕVæ≤‘·´+ Á|üC≤±] j·÷∑eBZ‘· 2-7) j·TT∑+˝À ns¡Tq® T&ç ìπs«∑πøåeT+ eVü‰eT´Vü≤+µµ(uÛÑ>∑eBZ‘· 9-22) uÛ>Ñ e∑ BZ‘q· T mìïkÕs¡T¢ #·~yêeTH˚ ∑T]+∫ Ä˝À∫dü÷Ô, ∑πøåe÷*ï ‘·H˚ #·÷düT≈£î+{≤qì kÕø屑Y |üs¡e÷‘·Tà&ç∫Ãq nuÛÑj·TeTTÁ∑‘·Ô |ü&Ü*. uÛÑ>∑e+‘·T&ç >∑T]+∫ Ä˝À∫dü÷Ô, ∑e± #Ój·T´eTì. n+fÒ #˚ùd |üìH˚ |üP»>± uÛ≤$+∫ #Ój·T´eTì |üs¡e÷‘·à ñ Ê DE, A|] ूU Šß? e PÀ ू? ू, ूj² ौ^Iँ^ j ` ‡]  ।}]   }˜  ž ¨Ó ‡ (Ecology) ‚ ।TÚ  AÄ` P}E @E xY ।   E Y  ?  ।  `  बABAUA US   } > ` UPE UY T @Y । ऽB»  ू  }]  } r  Y ZB A] @ 

  । -?q- Â- - ]- -A- A -Š  -‡ौ-‡-}- ?@]--}-

ि- – q- T=  À Uj  D „ । ू W ू  }]   E Šß? e ¼A ।}  ‡`^ ¸r ¤?¸ ¤SYUY ।

120

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

ऽP V P E - “,ौBE” ? }– ]Bऽ Dr. ASAVADI SUDHAMA VAMSI Mobile No: +91 9440087823. E Mail: [email protected],

”U> U> ूÏ u  ¤?  ¤?F@ F@” F@” T=UDADB]? =  ¤?UV, U] ¤?E ` =Y ू`] T  Sू` `E।  ^  AÅC   ¤?UV UV T=UूB।   BAE  xA =@E > xA T= q  ‡Ä ¤xA  B।A “  ¼A

þV   ¤?B B” , “  ZAÅी AÅी]--- B †  Š  e  Z”T= ू`   ¤?UVE,  ¤?S  U ¨Ó _ Y। Zr ‡B  Y  ¤?UV  p }] ] ‡   †   । fI  C PE  ¤?E Š#] , q  Fj  Uj  =†]j UE ÷]^j।  E ौÏ A ूVE। ``}  }â fAh}â ]। U T |  } þV@`e> B  hE PE VA  }âZ।  S }âÐU }] ूZE  SZE- C ÐU A x ऽ  ÐU।

C ÐU ऽ DFऽ  ÐU।। IE  }E }ू] । E }> ]    }]।  }  Ö   }]   `  E   ूÊE।  f  E V , ॄÝV , ‡ V , BऽP V , Š  Vƒ, ^V , M V  B @  ऽ E Š r E }Y`। }   Š± | x Nऽ r @ BऽP V  V±| B  Ó Iँ। A ? }   BÀS BऽP मlE Š]`बE। f मlE ूD  }E,   Öe]A। }^, }  –V ‡`^ E @ T

121

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

BऽP मlF  p> Ê=_> ?]pC ू@E Y। – BऽP मlE }   ‡`^   ूShB]  `À ौ   S Š Y। f BऽP मlE ू= > ?  ?@!?@  Y। fV  BऽP मlV  ß] }E ू¨E Y। f f ß] > }>A= Z A hYE। ऽ BऽP मlV  ? }– ]BऽP A }E ]IE ‡  T xC  Ó  ू?h। BऽP मlE p> Ê>pE T V A ]I] U  S   ? C म >, p W `E बE ]।

1. 1.  `E @> Ç  > q ` ptÛ?  । f V  Y। fV p Vp  ^ E ूA । ऽ pg@F- .Y ÇY ]U p T @   >` > Ç ‹ p। p   @Ç ूE । T p  þV> Up ]  V   ूAD – ƜE j  > Fj ÊAS ÊAS@ / /।

ÎAV `qE  þD ौAऽ।। q य  > |  ौAऽ।  † pB]= Z ॄÝA  ] 1।। 

E Vp  ‡B Z @Ç U] ž। f p @AD PÀ V  UY–

q ^ ƜA  þD ÎAV @। @ ÊS Vp >N ]VE।। ]VE 

@ q, ^ , ƜE,  þD,  ÎAV,  Ê V1 _ p UY।

2.ÊPऽ  ऽ, 2Pऽ, ÊPऽ WpÄ Y। ऽ ौjPऽ, ?”Pऽ, BP   Pऽ] Wp ÊPऽpC ÇY।tp 1.ौjP  ?B ऽ 2. ?”Pऽ 3. BऽP  4. 2Pऽ T। ौjऽPऽV  ZÇ    r। ?”PऽV  ? EZ ^  Ç   ¤W  ? । BऽP V  }^, ौBE, ÇE ^ ` Š e । 2PऽV  ÇxF@

122

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

   Pऽ   ¾•S ?eE। ू= ÊPऽ> Š D ÇS  Bþ ।  ?B  p A rY। }– > Zh]  E AB ÊPऽ, ‡ F¨3Pऽ,   ÊPऽ @ Z| ÊPऽ p rY।

3.Bg>@E Bg>@@ @  ।  S V  †@– gAS ूD  ‡] D „ T  ..  U>UूE। BgAS B?{– B AVAE T BAE  ू=   E। BgAS ूE B`E(Religious ordinances or rites) T=@– V  ूÎ E Iँ।

4.Pऽg>@E ]^  @À 5    Pऽ  2 T Pऽg> ^¢hE। V YY  T BAE Ae»`

3

   ू= ?  Pऽ  T  ‹। Pऽ>@F  YE U। T ŠPऽ

 qZE @U„ ^  UY। @  Pऽ   ÊZ qZE PऽV  ŽÊZ 

@j¿ „ U। W IPऽÄमlE  Pऽg ^ ँ। Pऽ YE  ZA  । Pऽq –  ‚ `  AS@~ ऽ ƒPऽ  T=  T Š।  S P  q  



ÊqœÅB u¥A|। FAU xW Pऽ PऽA ÐE4।। ? }– ¨ BऽP  ऽ]]   AB BऽP , ‡ F¨BऽP ,   BऽP ।

5. ,ौE ? }– > ू|V  ऽV  AB  F¨  BऽP V  AB BऽP   tAE BऽP AE uAE BE t»  Š E। AB BऽP   V»  Š E Y। ू? V ,B B? = AB BऽP > @ ‡ F¨  BऽP AE Ù`Z= Ù`´ UUूE Y। P  – ौE `@E ‡ौE U। ौE Aq ‡ÄÇ  `  E Iँ। ‡  ^ ूम  Œ  tE f ,E। IeIe@    =E f ,E। ,ौB

123

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

T ू?  >pC ,म  BE  , ,  t>E BE, ,  BBE, FP , , E Uq Z BS Z @बम ूँY। BE ‡ F¨  BऽP AE Z S PऽEZ f ूE।  AB BऽP  म u]ू6> Sž |u BE V»  ूE।  V  ोM5 , ो}E6, UqE7, ,E8,  E9 T gZE ,ौA ऽ  BऽP ^_E। IeIe@    =E f ,E। ूम  Œ  tE ,E। U ौ]?  Œ=E ,E ूADE- Œ   t , µ= , A ÐE।µ=

ूN7 ूN7 `qE10।।

6. 6.,म  BE  Ç। ॄÝ` VC ? ौ ,   11 ?  ` ‡VE `@ – U ,E म”E T  † ?    ूौ   T=  ‡ौौ C Y  tFA U] AB BऽP  P –

‡ौौ C N AA }ÚE।Uq ौYE S S Uq12।। f ू@ौऽVC ¢S   tFA U] Ç। @   ू  t ,SBE F] ž। Y, ऽ] AB  F¨  BऽP  ॄÝ` ूो}  [Y-  f 13   ॄÝ` ूो} AS V14 T। AS f ॄÝ` ूो}]=

 f ॄÝ`ौ ॄÝ` 8 ॄÝ`E ूो}  [ ऽZ ÙVA U। ॄÝ`– , `  ]A BE ॄÝ` , Y , VE ,E। f  ॄÝ`ौ  t ऽ AB  F¨  BऽP   –A r। @` ]  ? ौ 15 , = 16, ? U 17, ू}E ŽB– ूÏ   18, V˜ 19,  ू  20  ,म9SBASF] AB BऽP   [e।

7. 7.,  t>E BE ूम  Œ  tE ,E21। IeIe@    =E f ,E 22। f  ौVP E,  = ZhAE =E ,   =E ŠDE। Y ž >,  P । ^E T AB  F¨  BऽP V D

124

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

, > ,E ADE। ÏB  t>    t23 T ूADE ।

 t] Žž `ƒ?} 

24

AB ` , 

Žž

fAƒ?} E25 T

‡ F¨  BऽP AE ` ´ > ,E ,  DC म”। f > ,E  ADE। @  ऽAE ौVP   । –  ?^DE A ¨Ó E =ÎE,   ौVP D   27। ऽ P । W, ,  WA ो pC þ  j26 T AB BऽP      ौVP g  ऽAE, xA  þ 28 P। f  ऽAE, xA ौVP    t]  t Ç। W AB  = ? , E  = Zh ]  , Œ Vº  =E ूADE T U-

 }y ।Aq@˜ ू– ऽ Œ VAE29।।  = Zh   ू=}y ू=

8. 8.,  ो ,   ] ो , Š ो ` AB BऽP  Š tF ।  , =, 

F:, Z@  } (  V–  –; – ]q]  } W),   W , 

 =FZt Z@  > ` } = T= 30।। ोC PY- @ ो UY –    ौVP   ऽAE, @ Z W  _t Š ो ` AB BऽP  ू । बABE, þ  xA `,  ूE ]ÑC , j`,  ‡ E T=] W Š ोC UB]Y-

 ौVP S W ZA ो UYUY- बABA þ Sूँj` S 31।  C_ @À U। @  ो   f ो  ो–Š ोAU–  B ूShþy Š±õ 

 þूSh ,

Š ो WA±õ 

y ूSh

 [e

U।

f

ो-Š ो –E

‡ F¨  BऽP AE Iँ।

9. 9.,  BBE ,  BBF  ‡ F¨  BऽP AE t»  ूE।  31  a। |   E  AB BऽP   V»  ?eE।  t] f] ऽ]  U 31a

125

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

 ‡X  j ] B] U 34 । ,म  Y <   32 ।  C ऽ  33 । p  A B35 ।  þAUE, ूE >Y ऽVZ S £ ZE   43 । Y j Š ]41।  ॐ? CE ? CE  ऽ]}   42 ।  ूE … Aऽ£ }    AD- , E …À ऽV  BऽP

…  ? ?SA

 E

Žž

44 

fAƒ?} A

`

म

ू?h

45

ूrS ूrS AS AS ऽS , …  ? ?SA  E T। ॄÝ`E B x…À, ? >j  x… Aऽ,  ू> A   । , F  Z B W…F]= …E। >    U। , ZV  | > U। >` E  t] UPE। ŽžF  ू ऽ } E। ?qPA  t]46। A ?qF> P ूE47। ूÄA E48। ूA ॄÝ, ू ž 49 T AB BऽP  Š । fI Žž ` ?} - Žž fAƒ?} A `

50

, Žž `ƒ?}51। Žžtऽ j ो] >-

 E52,  ` A U]53। ू?Ì Z f Uq म U 54। UqZ f म ू 55 । t  E, @ E56। fPE  t] T @  ? €]  A@  } A]  ` `Y   `। Z† म u  57 । Y V f†   Ï AB BऽP  Š58। P Uो ?9] 59 AB BऽP  P। W  t] `, fI),  U   U P UA UP ऽZ   P ।  ,   ` UP  िA ], @  @ ? }–]BऽP V  ?@!?@  »  ,ौB–V   ]E BE,  E Š E।।

126

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

œUE

26. 26. A. A. 2.6.11. 11.18 u? hS

1.  . 23. 23.1

27. 27. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.3

2. Šू 4 .163

28. 28. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.3 ?hE

3. B E  E 8.1

29. x Bू , ±]. ±]. 29. AB BऽP .  x Bू ,

4.  ?”Pऽ ू

?.85

5. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.7  . 27. 27.5.116

30. 30. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.2

6. A. A. 2.6.11. 11.14

31. 31. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.3

7. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.17

31a. 31a. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.1

8. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.1

32. 32. A. A. 2.6.11. 11.20

9. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.1  . 27, 27,5,109

33. 33. A 2.6.11. 11.19

 .2 10. 10. U.]. ]. Aq, Aq,A 18. 18

34. 34. A 2.6.11. 11.21

11. 11.  . 6.33

35. 35. A 2.10. 10.17. 17.40

12. 12. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.16

36. 36. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.40 ?hE

13. 13. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.8  27. 27.5.117

37. 37. A. A. 2.6.11. 11.23

14. 14. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.2

38. 38. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.11  . 27. 27.5.120

15. 15. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.3

39. 39. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.12  . 27. 27.5.121

16. 16. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.3

40. 40. A. A. 2.6.11. 11.28

17. 17. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.4

41. 41. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.24

18. 18. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.5

42. 42. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.37

19. 19. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.6

43. 43. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.23

20. 20. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.7

44. 44. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.10  . 27. 27.5.119

21. 21. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.1 ?hE

45. 45. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.25

22. 22. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.7 ?hE  .27. 27.5.116? 116?hE

46. 46. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.29

23. 23. .B.P 4.10

47. 47. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.30

24. 24. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.27

48. 48. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.31

25. 25. ‡ . ‡ .2.9.21. 21.10  . 27. 27.5.119

49. 49. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.32

127

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

50. 50. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.10  . 27. 27.5.119 51. 51. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.27 52. 52. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.10  .27. 27.5.119 53. 53. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.31 54. 54. म ू?h ूr, ूr, ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.10  . 27. 27.5.119 55. 55. A. A. 2.10. 10.18. 18.26 56. 56. A. A. 2.6.11. 11.19 57. 57. ‡ . ‡ . 2.9.21. 21.10 ?hE  . 27. 27.5.119 ?hE 58. 58. A. A. 2.6.11. 11.22 59. 59. A. A. 2.10. 10.17. 17.29, 29,30 Š DमlE 1. BE 2. ‡ F¨Bऽ  3. AB BऽP   4. }–E 5.   BऽP   6.  †?E 7.  ?”Pऽ  8.  U€  9. ÏBऽP  

n  P`] 1. ‡ – ‡ F¨Bऽ  P  ऽ 2. A – AB Bऽ 3.  -   BऽP  

128

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

ZVB]` ौBE Dr. Anupama Ryali, Ryali, Mobile No: +919701999976 E Mail: [email protected]

ौ] VE > ZVB]` ` -

j

? %’

? h

‘ ZVB]`’

T

 ^

`



 

] =B]Aí¥ `ब`PF[ }¼A AAhूU  E ZЀU Óू  E ]> => C> `   f í ‡]=ऽ F `  ]E ।  f fÄZ П] “ UU, ây> AE । Š ZVB ^ Ù yE Ù ` UE” ।। T

^Z• –   ^ u Ä । ^™† = ू  ूÑ । Ù` ूE, Ù`âB À, Ù`´  A «}

Ñ



^>

ÄC

p]ÄC

`

ौ |C



éé}C A Ï  । V uh±}  ^ Ð~B=†  ‘ ZVB ujVB’  T A€   । ^™†  ू  U]À, B À, UVjÏ ,    ` ूM । ^>> x  µA   Y ।  f B]U ^  ‡Ž ] D „ ।

‡ौBE ू`]  V U]  ौBE }]   E ‡  | @    ] ^E  Š  ]E  }Ç ऽ ू   ौ?†?=  | ौ?g म™ £-ॄÝ-

129

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

  | T B S ूíE ]E   | > ूí> ‡-Š  V C » A  B?” À xA¾ौBE |

 '‡ौ' ŠìँW ‡ौ' g> ^¢hE   'ौ' BAE  E | ‡ौBE ^D E   ` ^ ऽ '‡ौ' gE '‡' Š  P  ू=  > V}] Zä ^ D |  `  > ^D  æ  Y | f BE ^e,  M¨, } Y ` @ Ñ BY | A  ू=†ौ ू=   UP ौE ब | ^D E ɝ= }ौ f | f BS ^D}j Öौj Y | 

 –  >   UjA  ‡žÄA™ †  E Ž]E }

 |

‡ौ ˜-  @ '}] E'  (.) T @ ` ' E þVE'  > ‡  ZE ू  | (F.ॄ.) T |  ` }}]V }]  ूू?hE | ू  ब    íS   | @   '  (ò.) @ ` '‡–  ' (.) T | T    B EZ  > E ' †B `V  UV  UÎ, `ौE ÊE | @  ूtौE | ू=ौ> BE NB ू E ौ†? V  | ॄÝ` 

òऽ]-‡ौB PBE òऽ]  E òV GZ  ऽUE òZ¸ }â ू$A | @ ू  Zh]   -  E ू}  ?rE | “} A Z ॄÝUòH } | ॄÝ`– òVrA, Ç r fV  ?A E ऽ] I ॄÝ`] ||” T   ‡ौ^  rE òrE A` | @ ॄÝ` ौ òVò,   ZE ò @   ौ    ू}  G  E A | @ `   ऽ þV@– tE

YS AqE ू |

( ) BE  ^ ू] । ‘ो’ T E @ ‘~ ?AE’ T ‘?’

r U™†   ू=>   ‘’ g>  ÂhU । @ ` BAE ‘?} ? ? Vि} t ŽrA ’ T Pऽ ‘ ’

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

130

  >  E T  VWUूE । ?eE  E Ž}]   @À   ?hौ,   ूU? }â Z ^ Y u E ।  ] UD „ – (1) AUE, Ç Ú A¿E (2) Fj, म  qB UPj, (3) ŠूB A žUE, ` ब¨A™ D»  = ]BS, (4) j,   Bj ]ू?hूj ` । TJ  }A™ `B UÎ – (1) ॄÝA Ç ¨E (2) qऽA q¨E (3) ZँE ? VΨE (4) PिE ौVP ¨S । fUू= òÅ  }– ™ @  ]W ` ±_“ॄÝA™> |]  æ }tE ? E । Š» >   ZँE K PिA } ।।” T13 @ `  “` À  ?e  UE ।  >   ‹^ ।।” T14 ?  F  । @ – fV `  UE  † “ॄÝE qऽA Zँ  u}E । `@  f}F  Pि F  WE ।।” T15   ौ] V– Ž] ^  E ूADE Ç ZE ।  @ U]B ॄÝqऽZँPि T ` ू =B   ]L –  ^™† ू  Lj h  ौ] V>  } ` ॄÝ ´AMFE ‡]   – ß? E UY] TÚ h   E ^ × –   P}  ` C, YA ?  ऽ P}Y],  ` E u}A™  BE T=†    u}E ऽ E  ß],  E Z] E, ूCौC´  P} U T BB E Z] TÚE  P }16 ।

13

य.वे XXXI.11

14

भ.गी IV-13

15

म.ःमृ. X-4

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

131

 V~™ ¼  – W   V  ॄÝ>     । ‘ॄÝA    ’ T ौ`  ौ] ॄÝ™7 j िV     , V  W  Uƒ  ƒ,  ¹  U]A }E ।  ॄÝ>     VB17 @ `     > ॄÝC ँ, E BA ू Pि  YU]  ू=  E – ॄÝौÏ‹   ]C   DS  E ŽÀ Z18 । UM  ` V  ॄÝqऽZँZE ब >œ  ूF] ।



`

‘]’‘Ÿ E’19

T=gZE

Y>,

þ20‘

`ऽ>’

‘ >’21

 ‘E’23, T=†  Ž,  ‘Zब ?’24  ‘q ’25  ‘ ` ’26  ‘’22  T=]  g  ूA ZE PिEZ  E UE Pि} ` ¼  । ‘} ’27

(‡) ‡ौBE – `ौ ूFE  M –  ‡|M    Fr ? ] ,   > ` ZE ?  Z  ऽAE q , UE  , Y > AV ] ¼  E28 । @ `  VB  ू   ? EZ P –

16

नैष Ð V-10

17

नैष Ð XI-68

18

नैष Ð IV-70

19

(नैष Ð I-12)

20

(नैष Ð I-38)

21

(नैष Ð II-32)

22

(नैष Ð VI-61)

23

(नैष- VIII-99)

24

(नैष Ð X-6)

25

(नैष Ð XV-34)

26

(नैष Ð XVI-81-82)

27

(नैष Ð XIX-13)

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

132

? ,  ूyZ   ^  , ]   ‡ौUPZ  ` †ौ ूA ूE29 ।  ` ॄÝ`Uी } ? ?`ÇA ] ू x ॄÝ`ौ ूM E ।

¼]BE –   E ŽUS ]IN] œ E – #   `hE Žू U । V ?  ू> qZ U30  `  ] €  Sh ू$ Y31 । @E ßE @ ]E T=   `h `rF x ू E E @rE A  =, F¾ ूq @À } , éx„¨™™ œ  Bू, BBy ? }  j = h^32     @ þ Z’33 T=† A ‘ू ¢]  x    ’ T ौ`  ‘ ž  ू   =

ž^   ? } E । “ P FA ॄÝ  ž }  E ।  म ¼ x%A E  FE ।।” T ` âP ž™म ` ॄÝ  E ब ÏY] ूF ]? E   । “ ]   }      । u]A™r  hE V ।।” T=„» ] þVAY   ॐ ू Y^34 ू=   E ।  `

28

(नैष Ð I-135)

29

(नैष - XVII-175)

30

(नैष Ð IX-129)

31

(नैष – XVII-6)

32

नैष Ð VIII-20

33

नैष Ð XI-92

34

नैष Ð XIV-68

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

133

ू=E  Y ŽY > ŠhC ॐE f U]35 ूF] ।   ? > ` “‡Ä  A  ‡ÛA ?9]ÎÏ =ऽAE ।।”  =  œ E – “Ž  T `PC  ‡Ä  Ž  D^ B  ? M  BE”36 ।

 ` UA}  EP > †` Z V C 37 ^}  E ।

Š  E TM ZVB ौB`E Iँ । fVौB` }ौE  A  }Ç   ौVP  P A UPC þ B ौ?†?= Š  VE | ‡`uB]= ऽ t  ?= tA  é=  O      Ï ,  ŽžB] , B}Ç , þ  ऽ €W B   ,  Žé –Ú ूÏ,  t>, #] M  ,   Y ॄÝAUwx T |  ]म    T ÆœAÅA  V  ू  38|      E, TM ऽB  `ौB   Ñ Aq$A]  |

 Š DमlP `]]1.

^ VE, ौ]Ÿ], Ah, uZौE, 1996.

2.

ौ] VE, ZVB]`,  ?  ], ], 1984

3.

 ? E, A] ], ±], 1983  ,  †

4.

 ), 1996 `E, þV@ B BE, M.`Ú| (

5.

‡ œŽ» ौ,   ौ] V @ Š  ZVB^ ( ),  U ू , | Š, 1988

6.

ÆœAÅA  V ,    ¼U€ , ]ू,  A| , 1993 __________

35

नैष Ð I-140

36

नैष Ð IX-13

37

नैष Ð XVI-73

38

छा.उ (VIII-15)

134

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

Head of the country in the past and present scenario with special reference to Agni Purana L.Sreelatha Mobile No: +919000200052 Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT: From the ancient period, the head of the country is the supreme head of executive, legislative and judiciary branches. In Atharvaveda, certain qualities emphasized to the head (king). A man who is giver of auspicious things, ruler of subjects, dispeller of darkness, controlling enemies, strong like bull, peaceful, provider of safety, giver of wealth and knowledge, protector of all is eligible to occupy the throne.1. In Valmiki Ramayana, Rama tells to Bharatha “Ministers should be wellversed and they are the source for King’s victory. 2. Santhiparva of Mahabharatha gives elaborate information regarding Rajadharma. The head of the country should always be ready for immediate actions. The utmost duty of the head (king) is to protect his subjects. This paper tries to focus on Agni Purana. Puranas – ancient but advanced. Puranas plays a major role to reflect the social, political, economical and religious conditions of India in different times. Among eighteen puranas, ‘Agni Purana’ occupies important place for scientific, historical tracts. Nearly twenty chapters of this Agni Purana teach the administration with applicable examples. The coronation of the country head, the election of dignitaries, employment of different workers etc., are well described. It is described the head with a pregnant woman, as he shall do all pleasures for his own and wellbeing of his people. िन5यंराFातथाभाHयंगिभणीसहधिमणी। यथाःवंसख ु मु5सृKयगभःयसुखमावहे त ्।।AgniPuranam-Chapter 223. 8 The life of a head should be dedicated to protect his subjects, which becomes heaven for him. If he neglects the prosperity of his subjects it is just a hell. It is clearly explained the rules of conduct of a head, which can be revived for present circumstances. From the puranic period to present, so many changes are taking part. According to the time and conditions of the nation, administrators also can acknowledge the

135

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

influence of ancient Sanskrit literature. The “Head” should always improve himself by enriching the values to guide and protect the people. KEYWORDS Head of the country, Agnipurana, King, Raja, Administration. INTRODUCTION In the beginning the welfare of the society was taken by the people themselves. According to sages, the first era after creation began, was Satya yuga - the era of truth, in which principles and rules of morality demonstrated by people themselves automatically. Satya yuga represents an ideal of human life where the artificial systems like state and government are not to be seen. There was no administrator to impose punishment and therefore was no subject to receive it. In this era, there is no requirement of governmental administration.It was a stateless society because everybody observed strictly the principles of dharma. People in that society followed the concept of dharma which is supreme one. न वै राKयं न राजाऽऽसी'न च दBडो न दा1Bडकः। धमMणैव ूजाः सवाः रN1'त ःम परःपरम ्।। (1) Later this society diverged from dharma and polluted by “moha” and “svartha”. Weak people controlled by the stronger. To save the oppressed people Brahma created the first king. (2) As stated in Aitareya brahmana, Indra was announced as the king of deities. King was treated as God in Vedic period. He has been regarded as the supporter and upholder of the law. The epics and puranas also described the king as God. He was the protector of the country and dharma. *** Rajan – head of the country in olden days, today the term has been changed. The duties and responsibilities of the head also were fair in the past. Many changes can be observed in present with lot of complications to the position of ‘head’. Head of the country means the person should be well learned, should always think of righteous actions should be free from all weaknesses. The king has to protect the kingdom and in times of distress the people also have to protect the king. But this mutual dependence gradually decreased. By the observations, it is clear that these changes happening in the mindset of the protector and the people. Once the mentality of a protector or king’s spoiled,

136

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

automatically it effects on country. The self-study of the Vedas gradually got extinct and the result is adverse effect on the country. Vedic literature is the source of any branch of knowledge. The thought of uplifting the life of man and making him happy, rich and prosperous can be observed in Vedas. Vedic knowledge directed towards universal welfare of humanity. According to Rgveda, all are brothers. No one is superior or inferior. All should strive for the interest of all and should progress collectively. Especially Atharva veda’s, contribution in promoting the efforts made by the administration is of considerable importance. The ancient period of India has been extremely prosperous. Atharva veda, explains how to protect the people, how a king should save his subjects from enemies and what are the qualities of a king. सोमो राजाऽिधपा मृडता च भूतःय नः पतयो मृडय'तु। (3) How the sun removes the darkness and give light to this world, how an elephant crosses obstacles, just like that a king should remove darkness from the lives of his people and cross over the troubles. All have equal rights on articles of food and water. The yoke of the chariot of life is placed equally on the shoulders of all. All should live together with harmony supporting one another like the spokes of a wheel of the chariot, connecting its rim and hub. The science of government had developed to a maximum height during the epic age. In Valmiki Ramayana, the protector of Ayodhya city was King Dasaratha who was well-versed in the Vedas and collected all the useful things. The people of the city were happy, virtuous, learned in sacred lore, free from greed, truthful and contented with their own fortune. King Dasaratha selected the ministers very carefully. He tests first the friends of the particular candidate who is going to become a minister. King Dasaratha had eight ministers who were very dedicated and they never take step back to punish their own children who has done a mistake. कुशला Hयवहारे षु सौPदे षु परQ1Nताः। ूाRकालं तु ते दBडं धारयेयःु सुतेंवप।। (4) King Dasaratha knew how to weigh the positive and negative things of a problem, could read the mind of others were ever devoted to the welfare of their beloved master. Dasaratha ruled Ayodya effectively with his spies as his own

137

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

eyes and ears. Today the system has been changed and not concentrating so much on prior interrogation of any test to select a candidate as minister. Most of the ministers are illiterates in this time. So there is no question of thinking about people welfare. The Ikshvaku dynasty is that much careful in the protection of their people. With their symbol itself one can realize their care towards people. Kovidara vriksha is the tree which traps the Sun’s heat and it provides cool shade to others. Kovidara vriksha symbol can find on the flag of Ikshvakus. Kings of Ikshvaku dynasty, take all the troubles and ever ready to give protection to their subjects. Today the thing is just reverse the protector himself becomes destructor. In Ayodhya kanda, Sri Rama enquires his younger brother Bharatha regarding the administration. He asked about the selection of priests, soldiers and spies. It shows a king should be very very careful while selecting the people for a responsible post. Sage Valmiki beautifully described how the people of Ayodhya took pleasure under the rule of king Ayodhya. त1ःमन ् पुरवरे PTा धमा5मनो बहुौत ु ाः। नराःतुTा धनैः ःवैः ःवैः अलु)धाः स5यवादनः।। (5) People of Ayodhya were very happy. The king was watchful towards his people and their prosperity. People of Ayodhya who speaks only truth were well versed, well known of all things, righteous. They were satisfied with the wealth what they have and they were ready to sacrifice. All these count on the head. Like ruler like ruled. The Mahabharatha deals extensively with the Rajadharma as well as the Apaddharma. Rajadharma section of the Santhiparvan, explains the several systems of Government. It deals with the origin of ministers with proper education and devotion to the cause of the nation. In Mahabharatha, a king, while welcoming a group of sages, he assures: न मे ःतेनो जनपदे न कदयV न मWपः। नानाहता1Xननाव"ान ् न ःवैरQ ःवैYरणी कुताः।। (6) O esteemed sages, there is no thief in my kingdom, no one addicted to liquor, no greedy person.

138

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

Every individual follow divine dictates, enters the family life after graduating from the gurukula and follow the duties of householder and maintains Ahitagni – the sacrificial fire, along with his wife. As well, all my subjects are learned. There is no question of unchaste human here. The strong-willed king expresses his attention towards his subjects. Puranas plays a major role to reflect the social, political, economical and religious conditions of India in different times.Nearly twenty chapters of this Agni Purana teach the administration with applicable examples. The coronation of the country head, the election of dignitaries, employment of different workers etc., are well described. In Agni purana, Fire God said to Vasishtha about duties related to sovereignty as revealed to Rama by Pushkara. The king shall encourage all honest pursuits and should help who are in the path of virtue. King is the responsible person to elect his priests, ministers who are well versed in all the branches of learning and with the workings of human heart. A detailed description of coronation is narrated in Agni purana - the accountability of a person who is going take the heir ship. With the help of his ministers, the king should becrowned in the presence of deities and recitation of mantras by brahmanas. After the coronation, ministers elected by the royal head, shall pour water, clarified butter and milk etc. Then the priest chants mantras and invites all the gods to take part in the coronation ceremony to preserve the king. Pushkara narrates the mantras which are to be used on the occasion of the installation of the king. राजदे वाWिभषेकम'ऽा'वआयेऽघमद नान ्। कु8भा5कुशोदकैः िस]चेतेन सव^ ह िस_`यित।।(7) It denotes that the person who is going to take the charge should be matured, cautious and active. Even the process of the installation, projected coronation is coherent in puranic age. It is clearly mentioned that a member of the Brahmana or the Kshatriya caste should be elected for the commander-in-chief of the kingdom. To represent the king at foreign courts, should be selected the ambassador who issharp intellect, good speaker and well versed in the diplomacy. कुलीनो नीितशाaFः ूतीहारb नीितवत ्। दत ू b ूयवादQ ःयदNीणोऽितबला1'वतः।।(8)

139

International Journal of Indian Languages and Literature,Vol.1 Issue.2 ,March -2016, ISSN(O):2455-1678

Agni purana illustrates, it is king’s duty to elect in works which can be safely done by such men a worthwhile foreign minister, Soldiers,essential qualified royal cook, the royal treasurer, the royal physician etc., The spies are the king’s eyes and men should be employed in secret service, without letting the public know that they had been so employed. They should appear themselves as merchants, physicians, astrologers etc. The king should not trust the statement of a single spy. He should adopt the whole country and workout accordingly, so must very attentive in every aspect. भृ5यं विशTं वFेयाः कुभृ5याb तथैकतः। चारचाNुभव  ेिाजा िनयु]जीत सदा चरान ्।। (9) The king should do attract the hearts of his subjects and refrain from displeasures. The strength of a king is the love of his subjects and the title Raja is derived from the fact of his pleasing (Ranja to please) the people. अनुरागकरं कम चरे Kजcा"रागजम ्। जनानुरागया लआ8या राजा ःयाKजनर]जनात ्।। (10) Agni purana warns the king that if he subjugates his subjects and misgoverns his kingdom goes to hell after his death. One sloka in this purana portrays correlation between the head and a pregnant woman, as he shall do all pleasures for his own and wellbeing of his people. िन5यं राFा तथा भाHयं गिभणी सहधिमणी। यथा ःवं सुखमु5ॐुKय गभःय सुखमावहे त ्।। (11) Agni purana recommends the royal head that he should rule his kingdom neither with too much limitations nor with too much liberation. The king, who subjugates his senses, carefully learns from the Brahmanas and well versed in the Vedas, the three sciences of logic, punishment and money making. Acquiring special knowledge of commercial undertakings of the world becomes able to keep his subjects under his own control. आ'वी1Nक