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GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY OF THE

BULLOM LANGUAGE.

REV. GUSTAVUS REINHOLD

NYGNDER,

LONDON : P R I N T E D FOR THE CHURCH MISSKONARY SOCIETY, B Y ELLEILTV AND BEhlDERBON1 JOKNSOB'S COURT, FLEET STREET.

PART I. O F LETTERS A N D THEIR POWERS

-............., I

PART 11. OF T H E PARTS OF SPEECH.

.......................... ...........- .. ........... OfGender .... ..........-...-.... OfNombcr ..................... ... of- .......................... Chap. m. Of Adjectives, and the Degrees of Companson..... ......... ......................... Chap. IV. Of Pronouns. 1. Of the Personal Pronouns . . . . .. OfRelativcPmnouna .-........OfPosKasirePmnouns -.-.-.-....... . Of Demonstrative Prunow Ch.p.V. OfVerbs-............ -...,.. ..... Of Terns ............................ OfMood, ................ ........... The Conjugation of Neuter Verbs .. ... The Conjugation of Active Verbs aap.VI. Of Adverbs ............................ VJI. Of Prepositions ................ .......

Chap. I. Of the Article Chap. 11. Of Substantives Sect. 1. 4. 9.

. Sect.

f.

5. 4.

- 6 . .

b..

.

Chap.VIII Of Conjunctions IX Of Interjectiws

.

.....................Y ~47g e

........................

. . . .............................. PART I11

O F SYNTAX

The Order of Words Fables Letters Remarks on the Arrangeinent of the different parts of Speech A Collectionof Bullom Phrases...... Names.of the m t h s froper.Nanmof Persons...... Mamas cd several Towns and of tkt msiding Headmen, and the supposed m~mber.of14ihabitan

.......................................... .......................................... .......................................... .............. .............................

.................... ....

VOCABULARY

.

49

GRAMMAR OF THE

BULLOM LANGUAGE.

. OF LETTERS AND THEIR POWERS.

IN the Bullom Alphabet there aie twenty-three letters, viz. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, 1, m, n, o, p, q, r, S, t, U, V, W, y. Six of these are vowels, viz. a, e, i, 0, u, y. The consonants b, dt f, k, I, m, p q, s, t, v, and w, have the same powers as in English. c, is used only in connection with h and k : in the former, it sounds like ch in child; in the latter, it ir used merely to avoid the reduplication of k. g, is always hard, as in gold, glad, gun. gb, is a very difficult pronunciation : wherefore g it oftentimes omitted by strangers, which renders the B

.

language, or the sentence of the speaker, e~therentirely unintelligible, or eives quite a different meaning to what the speaker intended to say, as there are several words only distinguished by g : thus, bang siguifies any !hing that is had ; gbang signifies to-morrow ;- beng, a hoard ;gbeng, glory ;-bet, a box ;gbet, a ring ;-bannah, a plantain ; gbannah, the title of a chief;-gborr, or ~ g b o r r ,a herd of sheep ; bow, or u b m , a generation of people. gh, sounds as in ghost. h, commmly sounds like h in .hat, horse, &c. ; but when followed by c, i, or v, it seems to be a mere aspiration ; it sounds very much like h in hew, hewer. .In the following words: hml, four ; uhiant, a child, pronounced as if written uhyant ; huoy, a cloud : it is pronounced rather through the nose as it were : 'b denotes the preceding vowel to be short. j. There appears to be no sound in the Bullom Lanp a g e like j or g soft, as in English : dy may supply the place of j, in some measure, in the words '&Z, to kill ; Zyo, to eat ; ilyall, flesh, body. But it would not be advisable to write them with j, as both d and y are pronounced as if the words were written, ii-yall, tl-ye, d-yo. The names Jack and Jim are very common among the Bulloms ; but they pronounce them Yack, Yehmy. I t will be, however, necersary to introduce the letter j in the Bullom Alphabet, on account of the words or proper names which, by teaching them to read, will certainly occur; but as their tongues seem to be inhxible in this point, they must.

1

I

,

1 I

1

i

1 I

be left to their own way of pronouncing it : thus Jerw Salem, Jeremia, John, Judas, Jacob, must k pronounced Yeruadern, Yeremia, Yehn, Yudas, Yakob. n, before any vowel, except y,.souuds as in Epglish : no, and ; n ~ h not; , nin, people; no, a p e r m : W P ntlme, to extinguish. d, before consonants, is a sasal sound: as, nfo'h, speech, language ; ndi;rick, benefit ; ngworte, t h i s ; riyarra, thin, lean. ri, before m, b, p, is p r o n o w e d like m, thus: nbuntha, a parable; lipwthirr, uproar, tumult; amo'h, milk ; as if written dbuntha, mpunthirr, vivaoh. n' is employed, further, to point out the plurals d a great many nouns : it is also the charactecistic af the second person singular, in all tenses of the verbs. But as much attention must be paid to this n' as 40 before b ;otherwise the speaker will be liable to make a great many blunders, as there are wordq distiqguished only by the ri, thus : chang, to pass ; r i c l n g , teeth ; - 4 b t , monkey-apples ; h-unt, the ,monkeyapple-tree. fig&is a very strong nasal sound: u g h , they; nghen&z, you; hat& ngh~ll,to endeavour; ngho, nghom, who, what r, bas t h e e dserent sounds. At the begbning of words it is hard, as in rage, river, rome: thus, hallZ ramhg, to pray, pronounaed as if written rrawling ; tong, verily, truly-to give it mom force, &e Bulloms

'

my, ~r'r'ongdoug, it is very true; r'til, darkness, pronounced as if written rrtill. r, preceded by t, is very soft; it is hardly perceptible in the words, traa, a nest; tre, the article the ; trim, time. r, followed by m, sounds as in lawn, farm, hm, &c.

I

ah, sounds like eh in dull. th, sounds like th in thin, thought. y, as heard in y d m , young, year. a, is another letter the sound of whicb I have not observed in the Bullom Language ; the names written with that letter must be writtee in the Bullom witb t : thus, Sakarias, Sabulon, Scbcdcc, for Zacharias, Zabulon, Zebedee.

1

According to the plan adopted to write the BullLanguage, there are thirteen vowel sounds.

I

,

Words containing the dmple sounds. "

Letten denoting the simple munds.

............as heard in ............father, far. ............ as heard in ............ met, get. e ............as heard in ............ me, meet. E ............ as heard in ............ tbere. i ............ as heard in ............ hill, fill, bit. o ............as heard in ............ not, no. u .,.......... as heard in ............ bull, full. a

e

.

Q .,,,.,.,,.., aa heard in ,,.,,,,,.., bat,

cut.

, 1

5 Words eontoiling thesounds.

.Diphthong#.

............ as heard in ... ........ day, way. oa ............ as heard in ............ boat, float. oo ............ as beard ip ............ fool, tool.

ay

~

;

oe

............ both lettets are sounded in the word

oy

10% as if they were two distinct syllables. as heard in boy, cloy.

............

.............

o'i and u i are npt exactly to be considered as guttural sounds : they are formed in the back of the mouth, in a way that is rather difficult to imitate the Bulloms. Beside the above-mentioned vowel sounds, i and

u have a long sound, as in fine, mule, &c.: as, sighno, a palm-wine-maker ; nqui, oil ; h l Z C num, to extinguish. But it is only in these two words that i and u have thus occurred to me. y, as a vowel, occurs only at the end of some words : as, Zippy, beautiful ; upill', idleness ; hullc rorry, to mix ; sofally, an ass : where it sounds ac in the Eugliih words beauty, truly, sorry, &c.

,

PART 11.

-

OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

0,F T H E ARTICLE.

THERE is but one Article in the Bullom Language, tre, used in various ways. 1. I t always follows the substantive or noun with which it is connected ; as, k

S d L d k z h rimKumklk P '* didst thou set Mrs. Rnmbdh t" &I&,no!' W h yin F A ke' nrghsu, aot a t h i q u a &&." C h . - N g h mum BctMc&l, Ite J d d c&r m m r h g W, a* md thou Bethlehem in Judah art o+lt the mathst," &e.. . A - H i ; bi: un tMng ka, we bave no i.oory."NOTE.An is wmetimes erpresscd by d: as, ahfeh d dim, I'l say nothing.d ma kui ilill i Fey scte, cr thou shalt mot take tk name of God in vaia." 7 . Of Interrogation.

h yrr ycA rnin uh ? *'why didst tbsn not ask me 1" gch rovar Zeh nglii lo? why didst t b u d o . seY who appa moo mh yah ? c* hoar dots thy fitbv doP n g h m bi: ah ? " how much do you wast P

;CHAPTER IV. O F PREPOSITIONS.

PREPOSITIONS, or particles coaneding words with utw another, and sbewiug the relation between them, seem to be pretty numerous in the Bullom Lanl5"ag*

, I

A C o l k c t h of Prcpodtiom.

......... b.... .........

n6h

......... ......... La-lru-m;l ... kZ ............ ko ........ ku ............ lo ............ beat ieh

dere

......... ...

b i ngha ko, leh

...:..

......... for, to, about ...... from5 ......amidst,amongd ...... on, above ......... down, under ......... before ...... behind ...... a h r off ...... over ...... te, inll

halle hinkeh ayain of, en atook by *, it1 aldh to me eboH in to, in, on, att, wayling . Rwilf in k o lill if with: keke 'lah re wkh within, info for

'6f

.

......about it

NOTES.

The preposition

by," is sometimes expressed by n g b , ko, a d ke. t KO is sometimes ex ressed by k': as, Ce k' no pkm tre, " tbe man's w ~ f ;" e or, the woman," V belonging to the man ;*'--PO k' noma Ire, ~ k woe man's hoeband." 1 d stands as a preposition : nipin neh me flqwi m a ai u h r . a woang, " buy meeiljor tan bars." AA yill ?A rL:m naoni, " I am drunk with spirits." 5 In the common way of speaking, hink~his exphased by 'R : as, ?i h i 'k ks nghs ayain, '' be took it frm amongst them." 11 ri stands for ko or ko-kg: as, n p d l e" men bull, 4' in six days ;"-&ang t: tre ngha n ah mi, " the day in whi& I came." +

gc

P.

@

6g

lmtanccs of Prepositionr as they stand in Connectihn with other Words.

nipinehm?tiqni, "buy oil forme;" badkor'& bbo ti w m g ma ka ku &, " when finished send them to me ;" Book tre ha dwrr hoa J w , " the book oE the generation of Jesue ;" ah k2 G r r& tre ngRo moa wang l?h Furry, " I saw the letter which thou didst rend by Farry." Ah hvoy hall2 keh moo ku & kineh, " I am glad t o ree thee at my house :" kii with Ieh signifies within." Lou womb ay tre ko ko kamp, when.the king's c a m e goes t9 the colony." Kunny woa 4a kko-ke Sabah, " Kunny is going to Sabah;" or it is expressed thus: Kunny woa ko ko Sabah kt. Ha& pin Jlonkobeh, to buy sheep!' L a h lo ko kamp ah? " what news in the camp?" Ah tick ko shung atook, " I landerl' on the sand.? Yuck me ko moa killeh, '' guide me to thy house," or " into, &c." BZhlt?h he boa yuck kil& haUG woa, " till we are able to build a house for him.= No pokan to hinka London, " this man'comes from London." N'ko are derc, '' go with me." Lum tre +gEo cheh bim ngha By, " the Word was with, God." c6

I have mat with prepositioes connected with sub~tantivesin the following manner : rum atook on a. tree kick tre wayling behind the hilL ushall u tre lid1 over the river.

............. ...... ......,..

47

........before tlre boa= ............... in the woods

Bill tre Wfl.,.,~ tofoi ayain -gokilleh Lick allot messah allo'h

.............. in the hense ............... down the hidl ........ ,., .under -the tabk.

CHAPTER VIII. OF CONJUNCTIONS.

THE following 'is a list of the principal Conjum tions :

ngha lon leh ha116

...... A d

...... if .........that

......... for, because

.........because ...... wherefore .,.......then

yeh Lhna tha kareh kin num

...... but

......... as

......... Yet

Foy ii foll hoa menting Ire nii ngha.rubah, " God rested on the seventh (day) and made it holy." Abram krrm Isaak, sgha Icaak kurn Jakob, ngha Jakob krun Juda ngha L; pintrc woa;. " Abraham begat Isaac, and Isaac begat Jacob, and Jacob begat Judah and his brethra."

948

Lo .ahh "*XIarple ;" bn yoe iuw 8% " if you please." Ah hi'i r2 leh u g h ko wong ni mu loa l e l c y , ." I hear that they let it go for,a good price." Hall; geb Mu's k %ha boa r$ t o e ~ praj, csfwnow our people shall be able to plant." Yah kc gbo L: gbim L; ; kereh a loikehn, " I saw only smoke ; but I did not go in." I have not met with any conjunction expressing or, nor. The Bulloms, instead of saying John or James? shall go with me," ,say, No bull woa bi; hall2 ko a ~ c Herc, lo peh d i n gbo Yuck, tha Yehm;; that is, " Ooe person has to go with me, if it be not Jack, then J h " -u Which were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor.of the will of man ; but of Ged. Tlrr Bulloms say thus : Ngha nah peh kum chin ha n k q , mcr, chin ha ddyall ng&, chin ki;i;tennh i; no; ka* hzh F q : i. a. . ' which were born not of blood, of the $leek, mt .of bhe will of man ; but of Ood."

CHAPTER' I#.';

" There are seem1 littld words in the Bullom Language expressing the passions or emotions of the speaker :as, I Ahgbo! ah kmn la porrcn Llli: wmg h y d kL;yah m?, *' Oh !"or, '' Dear me !I fergot to m d a present to my mother." A h !ngha dyettG he won, "Ah (poor fellow)! they have taken hold of him now." Oh yang! ah rhack ah rL; e c M 1 i;, " Poor me ! I have been awake all night." Yeangrr'! watch hleng, '' Really! i d e e d it h a fine watch." E h yah mm zitercng u to, " Heigh ! 1am chewiog this rock ;(and when 1 have doale with it, I shall take hold of thee)." 4 GhE! behold?" iki;h, see;" gbo nZ?hl~. rc look only ;" ntd'i, qt kt!' Y?i%gn ! a bush ! silence 1" Shmo'h ! " welcome I lap "& ! !.* oh ti lap Besides these are several others used by the people which cannot be expressed by words ia writing: as, n, &hi, hd, &G I

'#

H

scotc8, th$i? card/oal The &buucaunling lunkrs are only frmn one to twmty, as Mbys ; . 1 Bull.

a tingeo*

-

7

anh,armmrk 4 bewl, or ninhewl. ba~n,#VMi.,*

t

8 mainbull. > 7b a h g . 8maid.

tt mebbewL 10 womg.

XI, w a g nu bulk. 14 m a g on nirtiug. 13 woang nu pinrah. 14 woeng nu ninhewl, 15 woang nu ninaea. 36 w WUU ~ mai9sUlI17 woang nu maintbg. 18 woang nu mainrah. 18 wowg nu mainhewl. W tome, or hang, a s m e u mon-i. e.$w rcore, at, k e d . ,108 1000 ulcerneb tewoang-i e. a n h d r c d two '

1

The numbers of order are formed by pre6xing# to the cardinals : as, ZebulZ, leting, l h h . kc., " once, twice, thrice," &c. They make a particular distinction also of &h, the first; a d liilau, the laat. T'iydn are all those that are between rGa'hand l&n. The distributive numbers are formed by doubling tbe cardiis, joining me by u; and all the rert by uh: as-ubYZI u W1,"one by one;" rrtingdtiags"tRo by two ;" ah rah d rah, three by three ;" ah h l d hewZs four by four."

P A R T 111. . I

.

OF SYNTAX.

! ,

I

.

;

,

THE agreement of the Substaotive with the A4eetive, the Relative with the Antecedent, and the Nominative with the Verb, is the same in the Bullom as in other languages, with the exception of a few peculiarities of that langnage. With regard 10 the general order of words, the chief circumstances to be remembered are, that the substantive precedes the article, the adjective, and the personal pronoun. The nominative precedes the genitive. All other cases and parts of speech, in most ,respects, differ very little from our way of arranging them ; as will be seen by the following fables. related by a Bullom, who knows very little of any language but his own. UTENN &SEI\.

FABLE I.

Epeh ngha Ehlung.

TheEtephant andtheGod.

The elephant and the Epeh a %ha tkulung %ha La poke re halle goat had been disputing

-

ramno. d b a e dgo - .y~o ; about W c C e f them c d d q h l g kg kii sonlrh.hnll5 . eat mort ; t k y went to Lib ngrha *pin. Epoh m a the lion to speak between u & . j i b e toea, .M them. Tlie elephant made kisey, dka tebmwoa ; iiir rpeech ; and haviog fiQU dip. u boa .Boa; nu nished, gave it to his kbsy : wnlah . n g b I& : friend : he made his, and la Bu sn dim. Yab.no yuck having -finished, the' lion Le traal bomung tre, won. a i d : ncoer mind ; I sbalk no gbo chang dyo . yolt lead you into a large field; woa La halte chQ Ire aub mhuh of ym eats most L eh ; kerth wonno peh .ta- shalb give him to dwell mo yeo, loa u shee gbo among people ; but he din: u ma ml k ~ hk t& that is conquered, let him foll. Woa yuck n g h ke knowthr thing, he shall not traal bomung tre, nu a see me with these eyes. IIe aem halli ltlde ngha Yeh conducted. them into the ngho n,$mng gboo oh ogha large field, and stood to wenth e gall behkb foy look at tlrem. When they had stooped down, they ~ % i o , k pi% a pi5 ke; %ha dko bin k6 utereog utook fed the whole day until balk wickin hkonteh ngha the sky had gone to rest : Ekulung woa dtrip halle they went to lay down 00' gboo k t ngha balk snm a rock to stretcrh their Barn. Epeb y e woa : limbs: tbe goat l e g i to. Tehmbah! ycb moa ~iim strain and to chew the S U L ~all l e'11 ! yah su!n cud. l'he elephaot asked, utereng u to, yali cliel lelr Frieud! what, doest tbou. kung ko, yah ruoa hirr, chew get?. Thegoat re.. '

.

.

3h YJm@eeprli k a k h t n plJcd: hyet db W4h2 @bibMah;nbogahlm I ~ w t h & n r d r 1ham doll8 Wkh.-~, t Birbal1,Grlre .bekl of thee.' lIAmtbeel~detlinto lbe w d r , and to tbl3~day

a nea mmc o u t

Lalthb!bi(kehwl m m wor minta Mi9 9th cbia gbo dyerich b a h g kinmuntre: d m a m i e b ah nIn ah li d e e n Lo lots ngba mattiin M I.

UTENN TEYAIN.

. matirtsstj:ibtbow remit any pmm, be net p u d becallre he i#no€ iard1tbingslilrethee:bc not bold (or impudent) againrt people,tbm knowa t net in what phce they arc hidden.

FABLE 11.

T l c Chanteleon, the M e k q , d tk Pdm-wine no t r e . Maker. The chameleon and the Turma ngba kill ngha ka oheh ko I k h n ngha monkey were gone to vibum m mo"i Sighno. Kill, siting, and met with the *ha lck, Tthmbah bii wine of Sighno. Monkey Lull ma. Turma npha leh: said, Friend, let us drink Ah mintshn, Kill n g k it. Chameleon replied, 114: Be'b 1 be kuU ma. I am not bold enough. Turma =ha leh-: dko,ma ,Menkey said :Puh !' let mTurma ngiiaKill nu Sigh

SA WQI~4988 4o+ nu drinkjt. Chameleon said : M d g 4u

t d ; Go thou drink it. He

ughq a b ~ ahwaia ; no"i bway&w u kc4 u dye tro di bussla, wea eh& sght uayliag I t z q l q y ww k m ogba, nu yde whim lch: Bin ah woa kid 9& 1s'3 lW n&1& : shinTurmroii biole la. Kill n g b Id ye)peb b h k kt;,dl& M he ; womo gbo risloet yeo &a nos kuU oh

*-.

Vr &wg, ns aca, nu mgh leb : dleh 18 yao, >ah w e t el woa 6 b d kmh, lek: IWQ ra I chaeg yoa, to peb&o k4 iyillin, U peh cbang ah, w. scm ab, wotl $rialre(, Bill nglia &A: rike no. k~lhh-mo"itukeho. h g bang tre woa yette tLIrm8 nu b w g wou gbeeng nu mail, nu ngha leh : cdi lap' ah m a r8 hallii kill, yah ma dg* lapoa r;d

climbed up, and drank plenty and came down ; and they went on. The owner of the wine walked after them, and saw the wet footsteps ; he followed &dm a d Martook theam, ad osled: swing ;Wbo i s be that dmqkmy wide? Theltll)~ ke$ s d : I am aot bQ I\be cbrarebtde&i&iit Mkakeyd: Anitis& aiwl tn thh look at -he tbat etaggers, the ~~nc~he(~&ankit; llsd he wafked, he stoad ,still, a d mid : Look, d e I atagger l He &d to the chamebesn : Thou ales shouldst walk if t h ~ v~ r l ; pot drunk. Ije p e s d , aud he stood still ; he staggered. Tbt ~noakey said : See ! the whedriaker is not bidden. The man took bold of the ch* mtleen , aud b e ~ t hian

a6 ..

'

much, and d~~ hh, 1 Ohd mid : I fw@8 thee. jbrmmhy'erP)c: or, if it were not Eot the sake af thc maokeg I would kill tbce; (or, it is for the mbnkey's sake I do n o t kiU tbee.) N g h c&mg'&~~llnfgba Theg went L m r d , ad bum y o t l . TMmr ngha met a farm p r u p e d jbr h h : hi td'in yotba to : hwmag. The chamdeoa kill ngba Ieh : ay*! ah said ; Let us born the kay. Turma D& lch ni hrtn. The. monkey rebull, ba nghw &"is. Nn p k d :Age ! I won't. The 40 kui u bakng w troff char~cleoa said : Stay ! ngbo dyom, ngho he% gbo let US bur0 it ; M weut woo, ngho nume. Ah ma and took a fircbraad, plnd tre ngha moi nu ng%ry e kindkd the fire ; it burnt la Tunna ngha lch : ah But dead-it extioguishs h e la4 gab kc *bi e ; ed. The people came h r e b ah loikehn Iqa aad*iiquiredabout i t T h e npdah kill ngba leh : yah chameleon said : I do not ngho. Turma ngha leh : b o ~ I, saw the ~rneke, e h woa la hiam k& gbs but 1 entered not hands lehld Be thuh, netuin-oh- h e r e . The monkey said : yotha tukchn ; pch l ~ h M I also ($2. innocent). The turma sue, peh keh tha chameleon said : As he rarrag, nu ngka leh thus denies it, only look a'wicky geo p&h kill ; a t our hands, the burner kill peh wicky ah tha Litr of the bush cannot be

57 t& :Peh YtttG &or nu . ngba bung m a , . nu $;bath woa u bet, . la bull woa ngha loi kith, n u l o b tofeah.

hid. The chameleon's barids were examioed,and found to Be clean, and he said :Stmtch out the monkey's hands. As the mookey stretched out, . they looked as if they were black ; he was taken hold pf, and tbey,beat bim and struck him with a blow, that left his head short, and entered .into the woods.

BTENN LULAN. :.

THE LAST FABLE.

me

igira Boranth.

. .Unah ' ngha bonnth .@ha ka ko & wamna trim -6rick.'ugho ,ko f& ke t i banaama.. Unah sem nu I&% kull eh egbim e ire nghe ehang fog 'k: kull, n bgha leh : loa woa ko ; kereb :bo&th ko kall oh kgbtir~2 tre nghe chin Cgbirr kull;. nghang seng.hb) th& . Uqah: peh. ka

Catwpillar and the Land Tortoise.

The caterpillar and the tortoise went to travel in the time of famine, and came into the neighbouring countries ; the caterpillar stood and looked where the most smoke was coming from, and said, thither he would go ; but the tortoise should go where there was not mucb I

moi Lo wor ah u b n t h smoke. They both pa& gbo peh gbill erum egbir ; cd : tbe caterpillar came kereh boranth u bum pek to his (place chosen) and nikre udyo keleng folo'b. fouod ~ n l ymuch wood Uoah kebn yain kcleng ko heaped up; but the top lo moll oh Lull nu ween toise met very good vicnu kim. koe ko k6 bo- tuals ptepared. The camoth ; u bum woa II terpillar .did not see a kung dyo nu wainy kuss; good place for his lodgu moi gbo nu gbine, u ing, withdrew himself and folahfolahngha leh: T e l ~ m fled, went to the tortoise? b h d hun ka. Bo'i-anth met him having finished ngha leh : ah kay. Ah eating, and placing away chang ah pumahi Utiah the remainder. The cangha leh: riwainy kuss? terpillar came and p e e p Boranth ngtia leh, ah loe ed, whispering said : My gbo dtoonc. Unah ngha good friend, come here. leh : dka mt ma oh! nu The tortoise replied : I chee ah, ah dyo pereh nu will not, I have done fillah pum kin mun nu lca ka ingmy beUy. The cater, woa ma nu kyng ma dyo. pillar said : Did you put away the remainder 3 Tortoise said :'! left but a We. Caterpillar said : Give it t o me ! bring it (that) I also (may) eat and be filled like thyself; and he gave it to him and he finished eating. The tortoise said : BaBoranth agha leh :hkd

59 loa gbeh yeh n g k rakono ni ma woa ngba yua f a moa peh lamleh kull oh Qbim 8 tre nglre kull, 1iidyo koeh, b ; s k l ~ h la chin ngho n; #o peh moa sotoh rii Zeii td ma na La win.

bold ! when thou walkest with(thy) neighbour, thou must w t deceive him. Thou thoughest, where there is smoke there is food ; not knowing that it ie not there. If thou hadet obtained i t thou wouldesa not have given me any.

BULLOM LETTERS. Kuop Wellwell, 1819.

Y& me, Yuckno tre ha rag to woa moa ka uwahlin painbuII ha te ubokoh: d pin neh me nqui moaloa d e bar a woang, loa n' k u g gbo dwoag ma ka ku me :lo m boa soto'h sesok, m pin seh me ngha nu wong ngha ubor ubull. Ah lengkeh bay tre, e pintre ngha 8 want6 me buleing. Yah moa ko Lalle keh moa chong. Yah leh, Yah me,

Traak

moa, HINNEH.

Sierra Leone, Jan. 18 19,

My Mother, g ~ bearer e of this letter will deliver to thee six fathoms of blue baft. Buy for me oil, ten bars worth ; when done, send it to me. If tl~oucanst get any fowls, buy me them and send all together. My compliments to the kin3 and all my brothers and sisters. I shall come to see yaw by and by. I am, My Mother, .Thy Soa, HINWEY.

60 Yongmo, ~ a n k i e k 1812, ~,

Tmak m e , Ah ke re ra6 tre agho m a wong lch Furry, agha boko'h tre ; dqui ma chirock ke loko to :kereh vah moa, keh m pum, b boa gba. Shok kung moa re pin neb halie e bar ah mainting yah moa ngho Wong oh loo worn bay tre ngho gbe ko ko kamp.. Kunny woa re weh ; woa ko ko ke Yehme halle soto'h liyZrick halle pin ionkobeh ngha &ar halle i b2 an tzring ka. woa. H Ah Timanee ngha bi? o k ilgbir, nghd ah td'i re leh ngha ko.wong m moa loa keleng. Upin ah woke ka kundy be marr ah la re; hall6 yeb ania he tigha boa R wom rah ngha fd m%eJll Ah b;2 an peh din hallii

fo'h. G h leh, Traak mG, Yah moa, SHEELOH.

-

~o&roe, FC@&~$,

itnk

My w. , I have ,'seen- tbe k t t e i which thous eat& by Furry, and thk Isaft: palm oil it . acarce. this time ;but I aha41 loolP(fbr> some for thee if possible., Fowls I have done buy for thee seven bars' worth. I shall send them to thee. w M e r the king goes to the Colony. Kunny is well ; Woa is going to Yehme to get goodsL t b bug sheep and bullocks for him. We have. rib worys here. The 'Timnees have d u c h '&imwood, and I r m d e r s W that they,sent it ziway Magood price. The slave trdde b eria tirely done. We are glad, about i t ; for dnw o u r peoplt tire able to plant;. and to make palm-oil; I have'ndthing more td Sag. I am, my Son, Thy Mother, '

'

'

SHBELOH.

6.1 Kammem, Marcl~,f 81% Kammcm, Gb.crdon, 1812. Tebmbah; . , Good F r i e d , . Chenchab: p m g Yesterday idler-. Ib tick ,ko shung a t ~ o k noon I landed on the sand loa k e h Ach+ trmk beech, where 1 met with tre woa. Ah ngha leh; thy brother's son. I told yuck m e ko moa ,killeh. him to oonduct me to thy Loa h e ~hepchab,kp ah house, a d when we were kyo Kehf?yno u chall going, I sew a blind man 2 woa turn oh bpyah ; , Yah he sat; he begged almr: y S : ye&. kc ? u kunan I asked him : What i a mia leh peb kum woa re the? He told me that h e ha l e h . llh ka woa pea- was born without sight. E a s h uboh, ah fohm woa, gave him a piece of bread, leh n hun ku sea, kilbh ; and told that , b e should kereh i~choe tittk.eh..kin come to tby house; but Moosah. , he was lame like Moses.. Rubah kquog ,z!h, lu- : ,What a grpat blessing koh foll ti woa ngha to be entrusted with eye? &wnk woa! . He oq way ,. and with limbs: We 1-6f o y mama WlB - xi&e$ouM give God thanks rick n c h e b k~ he na for t h e tbiqg cont.isued bghell hall nghq ,vcy : u to us, .,We.ehould endeahvoy. Lo m boa re sotoh vour to make bim glad. a$n, ngha dy&ick dye ' If thou canst obtain a behleh he h a ,yaek: kit1 -lod&g 4@,ago tQ ,eat ball5 langbang m w k tre , for the :poot &av; till w s ri kunan Itin y,uckm, ' p.,cltp~builela' h@e for hirnt Yah leh tell by the bearer.. I auc Tew m0% . . Thy F r h d i . . ,

SHUKAEL

SHACK&

From the . above fables and very simple letters* which are translated almost word tbr word, it appears as if there were but very little difference between the manner of the Builoms arranging their words and the manner in which it is done in our own language. T h e letters were first written in English and translated into ~ullom,'and ailerwards translated from tbe Bdfom again into English. We shall now proceed to take a view of what seems to be most remarkable in the arrangement of & different parts of speech. SECT.. I.

The article is always preceded by the subs-tantiv~ by the substantive and adjective, and by several snbrtantives in a question. It is sometimes placed between the substantive and the adjective, perhaps improperly. The article is entirely omitted : as, in the lablee, elephant and goat went to lion : caterpillar and tortoise were travelling. I t is made me of, as ia obserted page 6. When iwo rubstantives stand in opposition, the article i s added to the latter : as, Duty buy tre, David the King,' Isaiah prophet he, " Isaiah the prophet." When one substantive governr another, signifying 8

63 different thing in the poeeessive case ; as, " my ikLber's house," " the king's palace," " the chief'r son ;"the Bulloms say thus : kiiZ appa ))2L; t r e t r o k d e m o tre. They cannot dlace ** father" before *f house," ** chief" before *' sou," withopt giving it qaite a different signification. Thus : wom bay tre, is " the king's vessel ;" but, bay wool tre, is " the ~essel's king," or the king of the vessel ;" i. 6. '' captain, commander of the veesel." , In some cases ha or hod is plaoed betwxeu the two substantives, to denote the genitive case ;as, book tre ha uborr hoa Jcsus, '* the book of the generation of Jesus ;" yo6 ka John, the mother of John ;"m l a ka ha Foy, *"e angel of God ;" bay ha ah Jew b e , But to say the king's house, it " king of the Jews." cannot be said, bay ha kill tre, which signifies " tlrp king of the house," as above ; bay wmn tre, " the king of tbe canoe." I t must be said then, wona bay t e , *' the king's canoe," and kill bay tre, " the king's bouse." S E ~ T .III.

The ailjectives admit of no change at all; they always agree with their substantives in gender, number, and case. SECT. 1V.

The verb agrees with its nominative case in number and person. One verb governs another that follows, or depends upon it in the infinitive mood : as, ah y d ma hallc prrcnj ** I desire to learn ;" ah lpoi rt; Iblli; ke4 mocr,

.&.Icalhe .to ree thee." BaZ wfien it i s said of an, distant peridd or furnw time, than the pronoun of tbe person to be visit.& ieplaeed between tht n o t n i ~ a t i ~ e and the verb :as, ph nrotdko Mlii hh,cc I shall come " 1 theego to see ;* woo tnon to see thee,"-IiteraJly. &a uieehliwmainbull, "ba will give thee six fathoms ;*' k~r~hw mha kb d paom, bur I shall look for some thee,''-literally. " but I thee see some ;''yuh m a ngha wmg, *' I shall send them te thee," or I thee 'them send." SBCT. V.

ThC Bnlkms make use of some particles and single letters connected with words 'and sentences,' without altering the import of the words er sentence, merely as ornaments of the language. Thus, uh, ?b, and oh are used agreeabiy to the obsepatiau in page 21. Ahis employed in a variety of signi6cations : 1. It is the personal pronoun of the first person in the sinTgular number. 2. It is the characteristic of the plaaals signifying persons. 3. It is used at the eud of sentences, pointing them ont to be questions. 4. It follows some active verbs. 6. It is an interjection. ~h is oftentimes connected with the prepositiens ko and ku *: as, ko mi; kill eh, unto my bonse ;"h t& kin 8, rr w i t b i my house." Besides these particles, there are singie letters made use of as embellishments: such are, a, t; s, k, I, n' and m. a, a, and Q iu genela1follow woda. beginning with &hem : aa, a y i r a hu, '< the phce ;" i t a n g Z t r Z

" the day," (tbe space of timt betwceb.the r&ag mad setting of the sun) ; ii k r r , u bull, 4c dl at onus, tw gather." NOT E.-i; is used oftentimes to point out questioas, like ah : as, nko m? dere Z ? dost thou go with me?" m' &fe'h Z? " hast thou money 3" . k, A, ,and m are used as prepositions: see p. 46. d and I are used as adverbs : see p p 41 and 44 : besides this, ri is of various sigeilkatiops, as obsenect p. 3. The.particle gto, added to sentences without any signification, shews that the sentence* are couditionil : as, kereh mure p d t a m yeo, ha u s b gbo dlr, at m+s cni; keh k tiifoll; " but whosoever is amquered, let him know that he shall not see me with his eyes :"-. wonme gho r i n k t yeo tha m a kull ohma, " whosoever staggers, the same d d it :"-ii chang yeo lo peh gbo kh iiyillin, " paas by if thou art not drunk." Pail i h.c I k h k &ng ate& yeo : iidyo konne lAii sotsh, ii/dl w trc kono ki; bmg yeo ;trim bul2ing ma hi! h n a n I& F' woa rt; ko tukeh ; " the suu tbat passes over us ; the food which we receive ; thereat which we eqjoy, a t all tirrees tell us tbat there is a God in heaven." Having thus endeavoumd to find oat the principle* of the Bullom Laoguege, I would humbly request any eae who would take the trouble to peruse these few pages, to consider this to be the work of pne who by IW meaos would pretend even to be a teacher; but who, by much l a b w an4 .great diiEculties, endtaK

tomred to scrape the gold out of the dust, but c ~ u l d not avoid picking up much dust with it, which, for the present, must be left to tho= who u e able to refine it and to polish it.

1shall oow add a few BuLLom PHRASES, whlch perhaps will be bob acceptable and ureful.

.

Kunny langbang ben tre Kunhy the OM mam forb spoke. wom bay tre the king's canoe. traak pintre woa his brother's son. bin ah ngha ngho ah? who made it? he carried them away ino yuck ngha re gboat deed. u chee ah ngho Be brought ii r loi rii ka halk sotoh feh he staid here to get m s w J . if God please I-go in &e lon yoo Foy yab ko &ho morning. theygavehim n d h a c k s . hgha ka iP11 8 Shacka ngho pay re iipeleh ngha it is filled with rice and kiiss hiss . Indian corn. unghandyeken nanlahgbir he made himself very rich. ah tumdy book hall6 moa I asked a book from him. ania tre ngha r6 kath ha118 the people are strong fbr bay ngba their king. mia Bullom ah tre ngha the Bulloms are hard for t.th b a ~ eymme tkir lorenip..

........................) ............... ............ ... **{ ............ .

... ................)

.................1

......)

67

a wfill e bay he..;

......... ......

he resembles the king. kin kin bay .tre he seemsto beliketheking. woa kiu mungal leh appa he appears 'to be like my m6 father. by tre wum woa ke traa the king sent him to his a son. woa wong n g h kg won eh he seat it to him. yeh d yeh ma? what dost thou want? I have him-he is mine. gah b5 woa hin bubing he hun woo... we all must die. ngha M re li ning halle they have laid schemes to shinay turr tre destroy the town. mungktm kn moi the end is come. ah sarrah woa I hate him. ah sarrab wondy 19 bL; I hate him, that is the reaan,or kcn*,l hate him. la ah marr ah moa I love him. ngbo marraa it is leving, pleasing. I wish to learn. ah yehma h l l e perrin ah moi re halle keh moa I came to see thee. wda kunan me halle ngba he told me to do it, ngho what price ? yeh moa loa whatdost thou want for it? yeh dyehma la? I am drunk with spirits. ah $11 eh re d mo"i be beat him with a stick. u bung woa ko utock he is in the road. woa fi Lo nae he is in the town. aoa fi turr tre this comes to two bars. komoiebarating it exceeds two bars. Lo chang ebar ating agho m pang ma cshangah? how many months since ?

...................... 1 ........................I ............

..................

.........I

......... ................ 1 ............ ............... ...

.....................I ............... ........... ...... ...

............... ............

...... ......

nglto tihen la chmg ab ? hpw many years are pest ? yeh ngbe mi ka kii u ngha ) when they came here, Be la 5 did i t ah moi re ka enaos I came herq to day. trim Ian tre u moib....,, at that time be came k c . kill bay tre the king's house. lak no pokau tre the man's wife. the wife's husband; pok noma tre traak bay tre the k b d s sou. u ngha re din ah kdeng be did a good thiag. gbitty yendy condemnation on thyself. ( they coadcmned Jack, w peh gbitty ah Yack Jack is c o n d e d . ~i kon k'i won eh he went to bim. ah sun ngha alloh I stood under it. woa k h woa ko atook he put it on him. a kui k ko nghs ayaing he took itfromut~~ongtherta. konno n' soto'h yeo wbich thou reeeivest. hin ah woa sotob ngho 1 wbo received it? things belonging to the xiyerick .ha d bay tre { king hin ah woa bay tre ? wbo is king ? hin ah woa kh cbeh bay tre? who ma king 1 it is I. yah la it is thou. mu.u lpoi la it is be. woa woi la he na la we are tbey, or it is we. nghang who la you are tbey, o r it is yw, they are they, or it is they, ngha la they are good people ngha re ah nia kdeog u pgha 1au i,.,..,,, he did not.

..........................

....,....

.................. ......... ...............

............... ... ............... .......

.

......... ...... .., ... .........

... .....

........................ ..............,... ................,. ...................... ...........:

..................... ...

... ......

.........

chin woa ngba la not he did it. nc~kull-oh-mo"itukehn thewinedrinker is not hid. kereh ah loikchn Zoa d but I did not enter the p&h hand. there. ahyattahn Ido wtrow. I d o not lay down, I do ah hinehn . not re.(, I am uneasy. ugboll u woa ko ka hinehn his heart did not lay do&. ah kay yatt I will not row. ah kay kull 1.will not drink. ( make it come dona, o r h tulle ngho talie it down. hoa moa it is tbine. boa moa e 1. is it tbine 3 hang 6 tre ngha ri ah moi the day in which I came Lakeoh here ayina tre La I'ah cbeh kull the place where I dwell. ayin a tre ka I'ah binkeh the place where I come Lull fm kill tre ka I'ah cheh kull the house where I dwell. loa u hinkab 3. where does he come from3 wbere doat thou dwell ? loa d choc J3 he fought mightily. u cho'h re fAhsa he knows much. u shee re fohsa u dyo I+ fohsa he ate much. I ran mightily, swiftly. ah gburakan Eohsr art thou well ? .or h 4 t t h u beka well through mi pe kay r*? tbe day ? b i t thou been .well durd shacb ah r e ? ing the aigbtZ

...

.....................1 .................. ..................

.................. .................

...............

..................... .................

.................. 1

.......................1 .............. ............ ............ ............

............ ........

..

;.,.-...#.

............ art thou well ?

m moa rC web ? hin ah woabet tungal

...

who settled the palaver? durn mol woa ngho ke? are these thy words ? ah hvoy balk keh m a ko .

............... ...... ............... .................. peh suntah woa re? ...... be was struck. i~cbang me re u shull ... he is taller than I. epeh chang suay balk bo- > an elephant larger than a mung .................... horse. Yongroo loi l6 bomung ............... papa'h me woa bii & fe'h my .father. has much kin ha m a ...............1 money as thine. W t i m e keleng ......... good girls. ewantim e lippy............ beautiful girls. he koti ..................... let us go. ki ko he tissung ............ let us go to play. moa me ko dere e 1 ...... dost thou .go with me? ri ko me dere ............... go with me. ah bay ........................ I will n o t ah & po bull ............... I bave .but one. Foy u po bull ............... Is there but one God 1 po b ~ d l ..................... one only. moa pong lokoh ......... thou throwest time. loa moa fo'h ?.............. wbat dosr thou say 3 rih ma ..................... give me. inkauta fongfol u tre shut the door. xi £oh me leo tell it me. nyoh ao moo cheh nung

a*

moa ka me

.................. thou givest me,

...........,... dost dost thou give me 9 ihou understand moa td'i d h o e 6 3 ......{ Susoo ? yah td'i m' pooto ......... I understand English. ah chin td'i ............... I don't understand. he is of great renowu, his ~ W I r o a ngho gbeh. .....( about.

am me ka 8 1

-

woman's husband .....ithisgone. lo boa gbo .................. if possible. poke noma to kondy.

......

ngho moi tenen ah ? nghom bZ ah pomoh ah 1 kaynah, dko me yeo dere pcb k a kundy ngho ukissy

...... ........................

.

is

how old art thou ? how many has he ? friend, go with me. it is finished. the end.

Names of the Months.

.............January.

.

Wellwell Bankleley Gbakroon Yanthemi% Wafay Epang e bomung Gbootba Mu& Shakumo'h Thananteah Tharockonay Papdl .mm.ra,..e.c.e,

............ February, ............ March. ............ April.' .................. May. ... June. ............... July. .............., August. ......,..... September, ......... October.

......... November. December.

4

PROPER NAMES*

'

Of Men. Hinneh. Furry. Kunny. Shackah. Sabah. Gbannah., Ballah. Kongbeh Bonkeh. Shembeh. Limbah. Tamhah. Secky. Serry. Tunkah. Menkey. Of Towns.

Of I&>ma. Farma. Kumbali. Warrah. Yirrmah. Yambah, Kanny. Kohny. Kutah. Bintah. Sheelo'b. Chirrah. Mayin. Bahley. Yeblcy. Henny. Bo1'ink6L Nuraberd

Of Head?TU%.

InbdAtants.

............ king George .................. 1 5 0 ......... bay Maruh .............,.... 200 ............ nen Sukoh ..............,.. 1 0 0 ............... pah Bap ..................... 100 ......... pah Menkey ................. 50 ......... nen Ballah..................... A 0

Yongroo Kumrobay Monlo'h Kafoo Kommem Robenkeh Tolung

;

............pak Bussom ...................

30

.

73 Towns.

Hcadnren. pah Manoh pah Tunkah Sopereh Dalamodu Henny (a woman) pah Kongbeh a slave town. a elave town. pah Peter

............ ............ ............... ............ ...... ............ .............. ...........

Manoh Tagery Boom Lonkeh Kamasundu Tetrick Kiturr Menkeh Baloh

................

Number uf

Inhabitaatu

.....,............ .................. ........................ ..................... ............

........,......

30 60 20 300 16

.,.,...,.U.....H...

25

28

VOCABULARY,

PART I. BULLOM AND ENGLISH.

A.

!..............an interjection. ............... yes. ............... the personal pronoun ,of the first persou singular. ah ............... stands at the end of sentences

Ah ah ah

merely to point them out to be questions : as, loa n choc ah ? where dost thou dwell 3 ah follows~active verbs without any signification. aha& mine own. ahamoa thine own. ahawoa his own. ahahe our own. ahano your own. akangha ....try, their own.

............... ......... ......... ......... ......... .........

......... an interjection-oh ........ inhabitants.

abgboh ! adureh ahwain akpilbal~ alloh an

!

......... owner. ......,,.)ledty, w t many. ...........down, under. ............... negative particle-no, M m, I have not. appa ............ master, fitber. 13

not ;h t

...see above, on. etook ayG in, within, inward. ayin a ploce, somewhere. d ayin no where. ayin-buleing in d l places, every where. ayin a chillang another place. ayin a bull in one place, togetbcr. ayaing midst, amongst. a p i n again yesJ true. e yah...,........the ntiddle ones, the middle of the body.

........... ........... ......... ... ...... ......... ... '

,..,....a fire-brand. .............p a t , father of marry children.

babang bah bah Hinneh

... great Hinneh : as, Alesanderr the Great. bah me ........, my father. Bah Tukeh ...... Father of heaven, God.

ha118 ball

.....,......,..to sin, treeps,

.

3 ....

ha118 ballamg

-

.

to write.

. . .

ballo or barry a palaver houre, court buse. babna a country knife. a plantain-pl. d. evil, bad ;a chain, bang hall6 b a g d loodk to bend the knees, W. Bankkcley February. bar a bar,-value of three ebillings and six peace ; in Sierra Leone, a d e h r , or five shilings. ha& bass to sweep. betankah a potatoe. batto a cutlass. king. bay 1e bay kingdom. bay 1%moa thy kingdom. halle baykeh to put in mind, remember, remind ; rule. balle bay te pi1 to lay eggs.

............ ......... ............ ... ...... ...............

............ ......

............ ............

............ ...... ......... ...,..... 22 1 ...... until, except. be'h ....,..,.... no. hallii b6 ............... to have, to possess. hall6 beh ..,............to put any thing upor, to load. belang ......... sideway, privately. bulleh. ........,,. a sail-pl. behung

.........

i%.

ride, edge, border ;2: bclhrllg e tfng, on botb sides ; r bob Amg w bull, on one side.

78

.........

hall6 bempah to circumcise. u bempah circumcision. old. ben benah parents, elders, old people. halle beng to feel, touch,meddle, interfere. halle beng u gbellmg to ring the beU . bencheleh a bench. hall&benkir to habituate, accustom, endure. bag a hard. . berikeh goode, merchandize. berikehno a merchant. beck a broom. besheleh not knowing: compound of be'& not ; ahce, know ; leh, it. bet a box. halle bett to cut. to cut or settle palaver. hall%bett tunga the lower part of the belly; bettelo'h loins. bick a coarse mat., bikeh storm, tornado. bin ngha along with. to be able (can). halle boa a servaut (maid). boi bokdh baft, European cloth.

...... ............

............

............ ...... ......... ............ ......... ...... .........

......

............... ........... ......

......

............

............ ...... ............ ............... ......... ...... large, great. bomung bonno... ........ speech, apology, d e h c e ,

boolung

.........

ex-

cuse, (see dim). llte place where the sun sets; west.

boolung halle booss bongba halk bonth

........ downward.

............to skin, to undress. ........ pity, sympathy, sorrow. ............ to meet with, or find something. born ) ......{ generation, line of descenduborr ance hall6 bu"i ................to dig. ......... ............ ............ ........... ......... ............ ......... ... ...........

bul~iug all. the bead; number one. bull bgll a story, falsehood, lie. halle bum to meet. balle bungul to whet, sharpen. haw bunti% to rub the skin; to wash,bathe. buntha a parable. halle buss or gboss to bark. hall&buffle to be cold. halB conth 11 buffle... to d t c b cold. buftle cold. u buffle u gbir colder. ngho chang buffle coldest. haUe bussle to be wet. buttong button. battiill green, not ripe. buyah a gift, alms.

............

. ............

......... .........

.........

.

Or

3 ...

chenchab balle cbeh or choe cbeh

C. yesterday

... ....,.....,. here,

tolive, to be, to dwell, to abide.

............ to uit down. ...... to&w. ............todpaw to be b e m top-by;

ball6 cball hailk! chakomam halle cbang

;

W

;

.........

r thae Up=-

h a rbii;i (&) te Bring. halle chemm (el) to warn, give notiar, grPdaim : n & ~ n g h a J ~ r l , g O

them.

...... yderdoy. ......... wirdolll.

chenchah cherry cheer&

......... pdawr, civil .business .tisat is talked of the ilk*Jy; or, 8t

m m l y the speaLbg of .I(is paher, a

......... aaohr.

cbillang cbincby . chin m chain... chirock balle chissung B d e chbh chom

........, a plate-pl.

Z.

not.-

......... scnroely, salderp. ......., to ............ to 6gbt. ............ a rowd low seat like a W etod; stool. chong ............ by .and by. scam, tmeme.

bd1e choo or chew... ,to sfdb,to pieroe w i t h a pointed weapon ; to inform ; to warn ; to caution. balk choomoot to tickle. ha118 chossung to suck the teeth (ansidered by Africans as a vePy ofhut.)

...... ......

81

M B chuck

............ to twist; to spb.

............night. ...... midnight.

.

,

.

chuln chull ayah halle chum

............ to break a nut ;to fire a gun or an arrow. halle chum Mh.;. ... to Itreak the arm, .or to bend the elbows.-To have a right idea of this word, it must be observed, that when the common Bullom wmes to see the king, he kneels down before his mGesty, touches the ground with his elbows and forehead at once, and, prostrating himself thus,says, SukWy, which he repeats thrice ; to which the king answers thrice, nj boh, m' bah, ni bah. After this ceremony, the subject ventures to draw nearer to his mqjesty, and shakes hands with him. Hence we nlay make use of balle chum p&h as, to worship, reverence, hanour, adore. chundai bad, lewd, lustful. hawe choe chundal to be lewd. nomachundal... a lewd woman, a prostitute, strumpet.

......

.........

...

M

D

.........thesecond day after t o - m o m . ............ witb.

Deedth due dhing

........... hair-pl.

1;.

&ring u tumi fine grass, food for cattle.

............

dees heavy. detsul heavier. ngho ahang dees heavkst dtwdh death. thing : ah be an din, I have din nothing. dinteh....,, white (see linteh). halk dim to speak, plead, aporogiae. hallf dim ubonnoh to make a speech, apology. . . dyad the day after t+morron. dyall flesh. body. h i d l dyo to eat. halle d y e to kill. dpeeao a murderer. ~yom fire. l. ball@dui to steal. du:ino a thief.

.........

............... ...... .............. ...

............ ............ ............... ............ ......... ............ ............ ............

E.

E

..................a nouns particle used between and adjectives.

the ' It

1

~i!'boIl 4khang H e

f o m a great maay p h l s of ~ ~ 4 like 5 ,ah, n, ti;, se. It b placed at, tbs end of sentences, like ah, to point out tbe. seDtePce to be a question : as, apor mZ ko dere 61 dost thou go with me 9 .. before a toetb-pL &bmg.

............

............ ............... yamr.

oh li lap 5fui

. .

... ah ! shame!

......,....... lqgiug, boasting, ............smoke. ............;..... intejection, eapressiog

egbim e'h

wonder.

.............. At. ...............a wander. ............ bodL ............ acockles. ......... a goat-pl. s;, ............... deformity. .,............. a bullock-pL sli ............ today. Gpeh .......,...... an elephant-pl, s& + h ..........,,.. a corpse, dead body. +pehli ............ grace, favour, prig%.

&hi511

Black teook Bkolo'h ekulung +lorr Qnarr *ang

u+sq

............

+pang tbe won. P p q 2 bomvbg the great moon; June.

sur-

............... a thing-pl. d. ............ mountain-pl.

hick h g nrong

8

n.

............ the pl. of $mg, signifies a mask. &rmgetook ... the top of a mountain. &ho ...............morning, the time when the sun rises.

............... a fowl-pl. ...............coals. ............ ants. ............ a key-pl.

&ok tsoy bhang et8me etook

ri;.

n'.

............above, upward, on

; the place where the stin rises ; east. a baboon-pl. si;. . an anchor. an iron pot-pl. ntih. a mortar-pl. ntui. a bird-pl. 82;. oysters. a fish-pl. ui;uoo and d ~ 8 i ; e .

............... ............... ............... ............... ............... ............

eting ethh aiih etu'i 4vay eway $ou

..............

F.

Fel

...........,...money.

................. to cut the throat. ............... to go ont.

halle fe halle foe foe halle foh m fohmehn nfoh halle foko'h

... ............... out. ............ to speak, tell. ...,..... not speaking.

,

............... language. .........,..to deliver, fetch out.

.

hall6 folafolah hall5 foll

......... to whisper.

...............to give over work ; to rest. foll .............. rest, quietness. foil ............... an eye-pl. ti$olZ. Lalle fonkong ........ to bleed. halle fook ...............to come from, come out. halle fool ...............to blow. . foro'h ............ baft. fosso'h ............ strength, power, might. fohsa ............ strongly, powerfully, mightily. Eoy ............... sky, heaven, God. fongfo'll ......... a door ;-inkanla fongfoll u tre, shut the door.

fui

............... the floating of any thing ; the pressing of palm-oil out of the nuts ; the coming-out of the oil ; the making oil. to make palm-oil. to float on water; swim. sour oranges. salt water. manner, habit. a rice store. a man's name. family. . backbiting.

............... ......... ........... ri f i b g ......... fun ............... funs............... Furry ............

hall& fui halle fuiyung fukah

furr furr

...............

...............

G.

.........publicly.

Obahot Glnkroon

...... Maroh.

.

.

............to a r k ............writiag. .........a writer, ......... a blackrsith's sbap ......... a portmanteau a bag--+ ti?. ............ to rub, moint the sLt with

ball5 gbalt rgball gballno gballo'h gbamm'h -Mi gbam

;

palm-oil

......... thetotitle of the headman next the kisg in p a r . ............ t-w,

gbmah g*

........ rrutoundiog,

gbantama

neigbbolving

coantry,

gbankang podo an umbrella to dear up, divide ; beu testimony. hall6 g b u k y 3 "' .Wegbath te strike with the fist ; to thump. hdle gbantba to pluck. gbassah a bnmlkercbief. gbeak a rud&r. hall6 gWug to take aa oath ; b mar ;&at~ rii @kg 1 9 canat +ham swear to it 'I ballid gbeh (yeh) to walk about, tritvd. ~gbeh dk. gbehno d u ,traveller. gbelling a bell. W i gbdleng to search, examine, note, o B serve ;to look at any thhg with attention. M e gbassy

t ......... ......... ............ .., .......

.......,....

...... ............ .........

......... .........

-g

,.,...... -.

$7 the Mojsom of a tree.

............ glorj. .........much.

gbeng gbengd h a 3 gMa&

,

......... to have a~thority,power,

...... ...... hall5 gbent ............ .gbengbe'h gbengbah

influence. PePPer* restless, uncomfortaMe (of sleep). to hurt any member of the body by a cut or blow, so as. to leave r mark ; to mark, to carve*

., ....... to seize.

hallg gbentii gbentick gbet balle gbenthle gbere gbere'h gbe rreh gbirr l a l l e gbing halle gbinghiw hall6 gbill h a l l e gbitty (ah) gbitty yendy

......... seizing, catching.

............... a ring-pl.

ti.

......... to surprize, to catch unawares..

............ no. ......... severity. . .........flour, meal. . ............ much. ............ to finish. ......... to threaten. ............ to heap up wood for burning; ...... to condemn, ... condemoation; judgment o n thyself.

............... only, ever. I heart, mind ; ugbollu bomung, 1 a large heart ;proud.

gbo gboll ugboll gbordir'h

(

......... the chin.

88

ball* gbosr (buss) Gbootha gbothlah

... to bark dog barks.

;-tumoi

caw g b ~the ,

......... July.

......... stunted; hindered from growtb; not so large as common. to he able ha116 gboo (oh)......... to stoop down,

....

to feed (animals). hall6 gbooke to belch, strain. gbum dust. gbuss smell. to order ; to command. hall6 gbus ngha gbus nghano ...a commander. hdlegburrikan to gbtirriikap ....sea tortoise. gbht 0. gbet ...a ring-pl. n'. halle gby to charge a person with crime; to impute.

......... ............

............ ...... .........

....

...............

.

H.

.............. here. ............... of, on.

.

Ha ha haloh hall'e hankirr hate harah te h a &he'h

............ which. ............... about, for, to. ....'.....a rib-pl. ............... belonging to black-ha and t?. ......... blue baft. ............... to embark ; to glimmer, glow (fire) heleh ............ the sea. he.,

............... pron. we.

1;.

.

,

.................. ......wiad. a lug~lr,plantation.

htng

hill halle bin hall2 hine hinehn

............... to ley down; to rest. ............... came to lay dewn. ............ not laid down; wt at rest; aneasy,. hinakin ......... ourselves. hinating ......... we, both. MI% binka ............ to come from. hinkeb .........,..from, sometime devoted by k only. halle hiam ............to deny. hall% hirr ............... to cross ; to go over. hall* hirrick ............to carry over; to translate. boa ................ of, on. halle hong ........... to blow a whistle. horah ........... Lft.

... white baR. ... .... blue baft.

horah dinteh horah te ; hall& bun halbe bvoy hoof

...........,...tocome. ............ to be glad. ........,..a cloud.

. 1. ............ name. . ............ boiled rice.

IlillS indc inokutung

Gs

rice. ...-.......... anwhitetempt. interjection, densting con b~,...

N

.

., . . . . . .

&. bee. ,

ka adla-k'k W, lCBbPll~hrrzc.. ,*, W . k r s r P B h w.+ karery m kallern kamokbh hall&kunga

~l ( b ~ ,..

*.give.

........... m"=

.........&n.misle. ......W e r . .......,,....bd o any thing badl; aoit .In. kanshung.......,. sbibbornness, obstinacy. ball%kanta .....,.......bsPub. ukante *,. ....... a o8utkr. .Ban& Wpah ... the shutter of a lanul, a 4 r s o p ............ ,..... ............. ...... ............... ......... ...... ............ ............ ......

karoo a wooden bowL kath or k t hard. katul harder. ngho chang kat hardest. ball'&kcb and Ire te see; sornetirper, be. kg tlio, &is way. kehfoyno .a Ilihd ,man. kehkehtoo immediately, .just POW, sently. halhe kellkin to shine. keleng good. yenkeleng bettar. . .ngho chang keleng, Lest. lien .a brass kettle. $to-break a stick. ha116 kenti

............... ............

Gc-

...............

We keth keth kew kick kill &ill kdl S grll

W a&

do&, thick, separate.

......,...... a dl)lkien orf laad; a chapter. ...............ao-aHigater. .. ............a srnelF h a . . - . ...............a mkey-pt. d: ...............a huwm--$. t?:

,.. &eeeplacedhouses stones in a heap, to the re--r i.

~aera-

t.

ofthe dead,

............... ta bite. ...., ........ a shell-pl. E. .............. to ma away, he. ...............

halle kill kim halle k i a halle kin kinkin or liikeag kin le pomdh kirah kirr kit kite kiturr halle kissy ukissy

to

*appCar.

............;..as, like. ... a knife. ... a s~natlknife, p h i & . ............ the aet ef doingany thing. ............... ssnake, a setpenti .............. Httk, smd. ...............the breast. .

............ a king of sugar plumbs. .............the end. ............... to, at, in. ............... to go.

............ to flaish.

Lo

hall&ko koetho kondy ko lill ; kolmah kollung

............ not re go. ............gem ............ over.

......... a mat ef bulrushes. ......... the same..

.,... . reed, . large 8ea tortoue.

kollq kong .......a h a l t kong nkong bdle konth kontch

grain,

. .

............ to bury. . . ............ blood. ............ to catch. . ......... limbs of an animal legs, Bones. .

.

;

which, or that which . . ;the same who. a relative pronoun of things, ......a chain-pl. L .. to, in. to mentioa, speak about. an earthes pot-pi. LC. trowsers. to take; gut, up. there. . . to drink. to cause to drink. not drinking. to regard, respect, hom.ur; t o mind. kullo'h regarded, respected. to beget ; to bear. balIe kum (oh) kumtar pregnant ; no l a k a ~kwlrur, a pregnant woman. .unto thee ; to your place. kum oh Lull ko kum oh ayaing out of thee. . kumdy born ; begotten. kun the belly. .bowels. knn~ch

"""

1 ............. ............... ..,............. ........, ......... ............. ............... ............... ............ ......'... ......... ............ ......... ......... ...

konneh k&h koron'tah ku ha118 ku kuMh kufkrah halle kui kull balle kull balle kuile kullehn balk kullbh

"""

.........

.............. .........

,

,

,

s

.....,.,.a 1~enkey.-appbtrec--:p1. K

kunt.;..,. ukunt Lung.. kundy kunk kuroth Kunny. kurass balle kunaa ; kiinkureh kuss h l l e kussy kqsskuse kut tokol... kutah

........... a monkey-apple-pl. d. .+* ............ to tinish. ............ finisbed. .........,. a h e . . . ............the throat. ......... the name of a man.. ......,"... corrals. ... ........tq.tell, inform. ...... a cwk. ........... worse1; remainder of victarlr; ......,.....to take, by force, ......... indian corn-pl.. n. ......beyond, y.9nder. ............ cloth, .

.

.

. . . . . . . . .

L

La,lakan,a~dlak ...... no hkan %em&, wife, womau. 3 noma labum great-grandmother. a midwife. lagbing lahna ke this thing, .. l a b woa yeo... the thiog on her. lalhh an oar. laleh that is. . la and lan it, the same. hallii lamleh to think, imagine. . langbang a young man. . . lapgbang moaeh a poor man. .

......

............ ............ ......... ......... ............ ............ :.....

............ .........

WH leskaag (ob)

h a esr, Imririb, tisten, b a r , obey. .as,m Bnglish, Sir ? Mkdm? anm ? (see ah.) te

I...

............ hallii lant ............... te lwg up. halle lap ............... maht a s b o d lap ............... hrgi*eaesk, & m e . lantah

; L& ibgivc.

fo

............... gtaad1wt8tr. ......, ... thigh. ............... tbet. .............. to sbf. ......... said, raying, Iebang ............ badly, bad, d, rca& ldkhj ............ the earth. lekeng ............knife. lemo ............ salutation at meeting ; as, hou

larm

latang leh WE l& ngha leh

halle lenka

you do ? Reply, khh. bards, to seed com-

do sllake ............ topliments. .

............,..all.

ltng lempl-p l&hall ley& ha118 hhle ; nlthl'e ! hall' lill ko lill hall'e lim halle lintch lintehanddintdi

...... quickly, swiftly.

............ the rainy season. ............fat. ...... ........ to look, beheld ; to k alive.

............ behold ! .............. to come down (rain.) ............ over. .

.....-..........to fdlow after. ........... to whiten. white.

The B-s

. cb not

&ntchm, a M e &an ; hat p&m, a l ~ a n,ofwhite

*+ ,

lippy lipre -

+clay;qeote 8i;gnifjiug lurhite .*.

..,.

bmtifd.

............... an torange-pl. i. m yerso

mi-

. srnd olangeo, Jirnes.

......&

do d J v t ~ lao halls loe balk loe loekehn Ioi loi will lotook

.......

w h , where.

...............to leave a place. ............... to eater in. ......... not $Mared

.............. . a i d e , grave. ............ a deep hole. ............a hole .with a top to .it, a co,verad p a v e . 11all.elock ............... to k t the drum. . .

............a leg-+pl. alooolk, ,legs, .limb, Bme4. lukbb ............ !time. .I~kob buleiag ... .always, far ever. lollg ............ @Ad--pl. d. loonk

dong n tenui long

.... gold.fm tle.ears, earrings.

...............the noblest .part of the l~uman h l y , conceived to b e i g mat ,in the head ;