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ALBXIS, JOSEPE, LB., AM. Professor of Germanic Langrragcs nnd Literahue. U n i k t y of N e b h

BANKRUPTCY, A BEACEAM, ROBERT J. Secretary, Baltimore Mexchrmts and M a n n h t m m


BALTIMORE. MD. B E R ~ Y GEORGE , R., PLD., D.D. of Hermeneutics and Old, Tesfammt Tht~logp.Cnlp.te Unrvenut~

tory and

Profauor of Engl'ih. Columbia Univmity


F'rofeauar American Literature. Unie t y of winsin



BASILICA BARDS CREIGHTON, JAlldES E., PhD., LLD. of Phitomphy. C m e l l U d k W






FWCK, HENRY T., AB. M u a i d Critic. "E-


New York

Fomrerly Libruipn of the M a n B& ciation




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of Ethica. N m Rochelle C o b

BENEDICT XV, OIACOMO DELLA CHIESA HAHFOrn, JAMES H., Ph.D. Profasot of English. Vnivsnity of North


d Gaman. U n i v a u t y of Mich-




E., B.Ph., PhD.


Portmaster-Cenerrl, United Stata



Hi FERRIS, RICHARD, C.E., D.Sc. Editorial StaE of The Americana








.. :,$"F!t.;TaF.Landcab k-

Bactdologiat, Univrnity d Pennsylvania



United States G~cological


Author " HLtoiy of Monetarp Bystmm." etc.




N a t w l i s t and Author


Editorial S t d of The bmcricPN. Tosonto

BEACONSFIELD DRURY, WELLS Secretary. Bcrtley Chambm of Commcxce



Contributom to Volume I11 -Continued PAINB, WILLIS 8, A.B., LLD.


Aatbor P.ine'm " Banking Lam

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ISMCS, LEwIs hr.,



Pmkmr of Pmycholqly. V n i v a i t y d b&higan


Mluial Critic and Cmmpaer


nRrm.. CHARLES W. Former Bmk and Clmring H o w Examiner

KLEm, H E m F. Lilnarian "London Times" 18991905 S d London ~ t s n - ' ~ 1-15: t Tbs AmaieM.








Editor,,d " The Foundation LiLnwy ". Cocditor ?ps ~gcyclopeija of k t m '~meria:i of c a Manag~ng Edrror of The German W "The South in the B~~ildinp of the Natum." etc.'



ROBERTS, GEORGE E. Assistant to the Praridsnt. N a W City Bank. New York






I ~ t r u c t o rin English. Columbt University

of English. l k v d Uniwrity



ROOT, E. R Ag"0rof"A B Cof Bssculyue" uld Pditor of ~ l e a n i n din' Bee Cultum




VicbRcsident, Bank of R o d r e Cent?; f-IY Secretary Savings Bank Sect~on.Amer~canBankm' Association







of Sanskrit. H a r d Univenity







Head of Gm& Departmart. U n i a i t y of

P r o f m r of J3npk.h. Glumbin University



SLOSSOA, GEORGE F. American Billiaud Expert




Stall Editors Tb Amsiclrno

Emeritus P m f m of Philoaoghy. TulrssUniversity

BAVARIA Profapr of Romana veruty. London. Out.

Leneuseca. Watarr


BETROTHED, THE I u C Q R g g O R , T. D. Vice-Prdmt. Edwin B i d Wilron. Inc


McDONNELL, JOHR B. Ediditoiial Staff. The Americana




of English Haward University


SPRACfUE, OLIVBa M. W., Ph9. Pd-r of Banking and Fbmce, veraity


d Uni-


THORRDIKE, ASELEY H., L.E.D., Ph.D. Professor of English Colurnbit University


Contributon, to Volume I11 -Continued TUCKER, MAFUON,



of h&h, Bmoklyn

The Polytdmk m m t d




, Ph9.


Author of "?pni@ Literature in the Bqdaad d tbTudar.

BENAVENTE Y MARTINEZ, JACINTO VAN DOREN, W, R D . hmchte Protenor of E u g W Columbk Uniwnity


WRIOBT, HENRY W., Phb. Rof-'of

VAHDRRLI~,FRANK A., A.M., U.D. Pmdent. National City Bank New Y






of ChIKCb Hirtory. Crorr Tbmkdd


Editor, "The B.nksn' M&e"

Author d " Modern Gemnu Literatam," etc.


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spatifiation of the rocks eurnrunding .the &ester and C& Mountain. I n co-operation cares of S t a f a was made known to.natudists W U Admirals ~ Farragut and Porter he infor the first time Banks became resident of vested Port Hudson and unsuccessfully atthe Royal Society in 1777. In 1781 he. k r tempted to carry it by assault. In 1861, much made a baronet. The French chose hrn a against his judgmenc he was placed in commanbcr of the National Institute in 1802, be- mand of the Red River Expedition, which recause to his intercession they owed the recovery sulted most disastrously for the Federal forces. of the papers of La Pkyrouse reJating to his B a n b was widely censured and soon relieved e, which had fallen into the hands of of his command. General Grant, years later, in L y y n t i s h . His library and his collections in his (Memoirs' furnished a full vindication of natural histo are celebrated. Besides other Banks by giving tbe name of the superior officer contributions e wrote 'A Short Account of responsible for the expedition. From 1866 .to the Causes of the Bligh the Mildew, and the 1876 Geueral Banks represented hls old &strict Rust in Corn' (1805). $n accordance wrth a in Congress, and was rominent as chairman conhngent benuest his collections w e n added of the Committee on Eoreign Relations. He to the British Museum. The genui Banks*, was United States marshal for Massachusetts, of the natural order Proteacecp, was named 1n 1879-88. I n 1891 Congress bestowed on him honor of him by the younger Linnapus. an annual pension of $1,200, a severe mental BANK8, Louis Albert, American ckrgy- drsorder having come upon him. BANKS, Thomaa, English sculptor: b man and author: b. Corvallis, Ore., 12 Nov. 1855. H e was educated at Philomath College Lambeth, 29 . Dec. 1735 ; d. 2 Feb. 1805. H e and at Boston University. H e entered the studied sculpture in the Roval Academv. - . and Methodist Episcopal minlstry in 1879- was was sent as one of its studexits, to Italy. Here of the Independence Avenue d u r c h . he u~ecutedseveral excellent pieces, particularly &*or nsas City, in 1-11 and since then has been a bas-relief re resenting Caractacus and his cngagtd as evangelist in union evangelistic family before daudius, and a Cupid catching a carnoaims. H e was the Prohibition candidate butterfly. Among other works executed by him f o r governor of Massachusetts in 1893. Among was a colossal statue showing Achilles enraged his numerous writings are (The P e le's f o r the loss of Briscis, now in the .entrance hall Christ' (18R1); (The White Slaves' ( 1 3 2 ) ; of the Royal Academy. He was also the 'Anecdotes and Morals' (1894) ; 'Honeycomb sculptor of the admired monument of Sir Eyre of Life' (1895) ; (Christ and His Friends) Coote in Westminster Abb , and of those of (18%) ; 'Live 30 s in Oregon' (1897) ; (My Dr. Watts and Woollett. ?he was elected a Young Man) (l&) 'Chats With Young member of the Royal Academy in 1785. Christians, (1900) ; "fhe Great Saints q.f the BANKS, SIRWilljam Mitchell, Scottish Bible' (1901) ; (Youth of Famous Americans) surgeon and anatomist: b. Edinburgh 1842 ; d. (1902) ; (Sotll-Winning Stories' (1903) ; (The 1904. H e was graduated at Edinburgh UniReligious Life of Famous Americans) ( 1904) ; versity in 1864, was appointed demonstrator of (Spurgeon's - Illustrative Anecdotes) anatomy in the Univers~tyofGlasgow, and later (Sermons Which Have Won Souls' was consulting and operating surgeon at Liver(The Problems of Youth' (1909) pool. H e originated the modem method of World's Childhopd) (1910) ; 'The Great operating for cancer of the breast. H e reorgxnThemes of the Blbk' (1911) ; [A Summer m ized the Liverpool Medical School and founded Peter's Garden' (1913) ; etc, etc. University College, where he was for a time BANKS, Nathaniel Prentiss, American professor of anatomy. H e was chosen first soldier and statesman : b. Waltham; Mass., 30 president of the Liverpool Biological Society in Jan. 1816; d. there 1 Sept. 1894. Entirely self- 1886. In 1897 he delivered the address in surtaught, he worked himself up from the position gery before the British Medical Association at of bobbin-boy in a cotton factory to the editor- Montreal. H e published numerous papers and ship of a weekly newspaper. H e read law, was addresses. admitted to the bar, and began to practise, but B A N K S LAND, an island in the Arctic soon became active in politics. Elected to the Ocean, d~scovered by Parry in 1819, explored Massachusetts le islature in 1849, he became by McClure in 1850, and named by him Baring speaker in 1851-!2. In 1853 he was president Island. I t is separated b Banks Strait from of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention, Melville Island, lyin to t i e northwest, and by and the same year was elected to Congress as a Prince of Wales &rait from Prince Albert Coalition Democrat. The session which be- Land, lying eastward. gan 3 Dec. 1855, was memorable for its bitter BANKS A N D BANKING. This departspeakership contest, the candidates being Banks ment has been developed to g v e a conuse and William Aiken, a large slaveholder of digest of banking, finance, money, history of South Carolina. The contest lasted two banking, etc. I t is subdivided as follows: months, the President's message being withheld. 1. Orspn and Development 13 Ssti Bank and all legislative business blocked. The ser14: ~ o a x ~ a v n ip Banka. o Banhng. eant-at-arms borrowed $20,000 from a Phila2. The Functions of Banks. 13. Bank Oreanlzat~on and 3. World Syste-Types. Managiment. elphia bank in order to make advances to Intcrnat~onalBaalons. 16. Bank Supervision. needy members of both parties. 011the 133d 4. 17. Commercial Papa. 5. F & Exch ballot 2 Feb. 1856, Mr. Banks was elected. 6. In-rnent Bxng. 18. Bank and Trust Corn7. The Clea+~g Houae. pen Advertising. None of his decisions while speaker were ever 8. Banking tn the United 19. Bank ote Islues. reversed by the House. He was governor of States. 20. Guaranty of Bank DoMassachusetts, 1857-59. In 1861 President Lin9. The National Banking posits. . Syntem. 21. 'Rut Companies. coln appointed him major-general of volunteers. 10. S t a t e Banking System. 22. Bankrna' Aaeociaticma in He conducted active operations in the Shenan- 1 l. Privata Banks. the United States. d d Valley and fought with credit at Win- 12. Federal R+smz System.







ORIOIN AND DEVELOPMENT Bank (from the medieval bancrts and banco, the ancient name having rum, a purse for money. (Cicero, Verr. k n c u s or banco is commonly traced to the bench whereon money-changers sat, when bankm merely consisted in the urchase and sale opuncurrent coins, but as &own in Madox's (History of the Exchequer,' this is erroneous. Bancus or banco relates only to the Justices' Bench to which, in the 12th centuy in England, common causes, aCommon Pleas, began to be removed from the King's Bench to local courts. The point is important, because it disposes of the fable that banks owe their origin to the money changers of the Dark Ages. Primarily a bank or fisc means a place of deposit for money, en to the public. Banks can be traced back to% ome, Greece, Egypt, Babylon, indeed to every country which issued money susceptible of k i n g counted, and whose overnmcnt wac sufflciently powerful to protect e r funds from pillage and sufhciently just to permit the exercise by the bankers of their useful and lawful functions. .The word bundhoo, a bank, is even used in the Code of Menu (p 10), but the date is uncertain. The earliest settled m d permanent govemments were pontifical, the sovereign being both kin and hi h priest. Hence the earliest b a n h m &c ~ c c i f e n were t the national temples, such aa Delphi and Delos in Greece, whose activities in this respect date back to the earliest use of coined money. This money they received on deposit and loaned out a t rates of interest varying from 10 to 30 per cant per annum. Following the temple banks, erhaps coeval with them, were those private L k e r s whom we first hear of in Babylon, tempo Nebuchadnezzar, under the title of ((Egibi and Sons.3 about 600 B.C. (Cuneiform inscription). The state bank at Ikon, mentioned by Boeckh, m . paylng 10 per cent to depositors for money for the public service, must be dated about the 3d or 2d centu B.C. About the same period Thcocritus. wxose aIdyllsn date 2% ac.. mentions a banker at Alexandria, by name Carcus, who paid interest on deposits withdrawable at pleasure of the depositor, and payable not only In business hours, but at an time of day o r night. (E it, XXI, iii). Eiy ~ I I .21h , mentions tankers (argentarii) In ome 3 B.c. Tacitus and Suetonius both allude to banks in Rome during the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. Adam (Rorn. Ant.) cites numerous instances of private banks and banking terms and incidents during the early empire, such as the deposit and withdrawal of money, payment of interest, checks o r orders for payment, acceptances, bankers' books of account kept by double entry, transfers of accounts, loans, etc. Of late years an iron safe deposit has been dug up of the time of Hadrian, attached to which is a body of regulations, very simllar to those now in vogue. I t would app u r that the emperors had become the sole ankers of the empire Following the method which hc adopted with res ct to the pontifical, censorial, tribunitial, consuEr and other powers of the state, Augustus absorbed the most important financial powers into his own person, becoming himself essentially a cor oration sole. for of this character was the okce inherited 1.




and adminiatered by his o W a l successors. The public t r a s u r y was called Airwinm, the imperial treasary (practically, the national bank). tIie Fiscwm. I t received and paid out deposits of money, it loaned money at interest, rt ac- ' cepted heritages (some persons bequeathed their entire fortunes to it), and rt devoted large funds to public purposes. The functions performed at Rome by the Imperial fisc were permitted to be e x m i s e d in the provinces by the Proconsular fiscs, until the weakening of the Central power and encroachments of the Proconsular agents broke down the entire structure of Roman authority. Lampridintls makes some allusion to bankers In the rcign of Alexander Swerus ; afkrwa ^" mention of banks o r bankers ceases for a ong period. I n the reign of Alexander Severns the fiscal laws and system of the pmpire underwent a radical chyge, yet the mdences of a s re vealed by rnscriptrons recovered in recent times, are scattered over several centuries ; chiefl the 34.4t.h and 5th. The ublic treasury a n d i m penal fisc came to bc i&nhcal; a chan to Aylelian. The Lord Treasurer, Largcttonvm, managed all public funds; while the imperial demesnea and privy purse were committed t o the Comcr rerum priw&rurn, both of them being endowed with. sacetdptal titles. (Bury, J, 44). The intcrdrcuon agalnst the taking of Interest for money which these changes mvolved be n a new period in the history of banks. l?e capital of the emprre had been transferred to B z a n t i m (Gonstantinople), so that Europe, &rnerly within easy reach, was now far removed fnnn the court. What the vernment denied, nvate interest afforded; $e Jews braved its &spleaaure and its penalties by roviding a means to relieve the necessities of 8 e poor: a species of poverty banks, or lending houses, first mentioned by Prudentius, as having been established in Italy about A.D. 400. For a period of two o r three centuries during the Dark Ages these cstablishments appear to have been the only means of procuring loans of money. About the 8th century the poverty b a k s w e r e taken over b fraternities of monks and confirmed by the Jopes as montcs pieratis; the right to exact collateral security and to charge interest being affirmed by several ntiffs, especially Pius I1 and Sixtus IV. the fall of Constantinople in 1204 the monks were superseded in this lucrative business by the Lombard goldsmiths and money changers, whose vacous names of Bardis, Corsini, ctc, neither sh~eldedthem from popular averslop, nor prevented them from d n v ~ n ga lucrative trade. So influential did they become, that in 1311 one of their number, Raoul the goldsmith, was ennobled by his patron, Louis X ; the first instance of the sort known to history. I n 13!3 there was a 'Lombards bank at Delft, a n d - ~ n . 1320 another one at (probably) Calais, whch latter loaned 5,000 marks (about 16,000 gold dollars) to Edward I11 of England. T h e banks of Geneva, 1345, and of Florence, circ. 13% were probably an evolution from the Lombard goldsmiths, just as, the latter were eyolved from the montes ptetatis and these again from the poverty banks of the Jews. For the first time in 400 years, a circum-




BANKS A I D BAIIKXNG- ORPOZN-AND DEVELOPMEIYT, EX.0) stance entjnly war-d in work8 of r e f w enoe, Chnshyl gold coins now began to be struck in Euro e outside of Conat~ntinopls where the p r i v L had ever berm jeaburll, guarded by the Basileuc This had awcb tm do with the progress of bbanb, for it pbvidtd a more portable and reliable rnaney rhDn the heterogeneous and often debased and degra&d silver wins of the various princi &ties and kingdoms which had been uectef upon the ruins of the empire. The first C h k t . ~ gold ~ coins of western Euro e were the a stals of Frederkk 11, 1225, fdowsd by t h e 3 t a t s ~f Portugal, same ear, the pavdlons and a $?!l Louis I X of Jrance, the ducats$ : of and .Genoa, 1253, and the S uins or d.ucats of Vurae, 1276 Consult ~ e l e $ a r , (Science of Money.' p. 74. Confining the term bank to its more modem sense, what may bo regarded as m e of the rhaps the earliest, Christian iastituIS character, was the Bank of Barcelona, 1401. As the operations of this bank had


supervised by two well-known citizens; so that no fraud shall be committed as to material or weightr (Grimaudef 'Law of Payment,' New York edition, p. 14). The coin referred to is the famhar S de lata, of eight !o corn was ewful money m the dollar. &S the United States down to 1853 and till recent1 was known to New York tradesmen as a 'shilf ingr and throughout the Southern States and California, as the =bitD The coinage supervision ordered by Kmg John (father of Ferdinand, in whose reign Colurnbus discovered America), was afterward extended to Barcelona, whem it furnished the basls for the extensive dealings of its bank in the exchange of full-weighted reals and rtah de h ocho (dollar pieces of eight reals) for the heterogeneous coins which Aowed from all parts of Europe into that great cotnwrcial emporium; among them the coinages of Moslem Spain (Granada). From Barcelona Kin ohn's test of the coins, called in h g l a n f &he Trial of the Pyx,,, nrae carried from Spain into the SpenishAmencan mints of Mexico and Peru and adopted by the Un+ed States government from the period of its meeption. This supervidqn and testing of the mina is A 1 conducted m the Amencan mints U& a commission of civilians appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury. It constitutes the groundwork and basis of honest money and banking. The Ban$ of Barcelona alsp received on d o posit and disbursed the revenues, or part of than, of the four great ecclesiastico-military orders and kept the accounts of about a dozen other orders of knighthood, like those of Calatrava, Saint James, GoMen Fleece, Saint George, etc.. some of which were ecclesiastical and some merely chivalrous. The royal treasure, formerly deposited in the castle of Segovia, is believed to have been removed to the Bank of Barcelona, because the ContadorGeneral is known to have &awn some of his warrants for public expenses upon that institu-


tioh. In 1480 I s b e 1 4 holding cowt at To16dq signed a decree which greatly affected the bank

Tb support the government of Castile Henry

IV had issued artain cedulas or certificates of annuities assigned oa the public rents, and these by purchase had become the pro rty of ttte nobles, who in turn had borrowe%money on them from the bank. Isabella's decree, d e nouncing and annulling thasa certifiuks-virtually an act of repudiation -m entrusted for exekxation to her confessor, Ferdinvrd de

Talaver;4- who performed his task with such fidelity that it asaved* 30,000,000 rnaravedis annually to the Crown (Pracott). If the bank survived the depletion of its resources in 1440, it could scarcely have weathered the civil war of 1517-22, dunng which period of turbalenca the bank, despairing of a return to eace and security, appears to have quietly disJarged its obligations, m u a d up its affairs and lmnorably dissolved. Between the Bank of Barcelona (barring the ~ B a d cof~ Saint George at Genoa, 1407), that IS to say between 1401 and the formatmn of the Bapk of Amsterdam. !607, works of refer* encc wlll be searched In varn for any notlce of a public b e n t in Europe. The significant absence of the of a bank in an kingdom or princi* civilized worlg for an interval of over 200 years, is not even commented upon. The socalled Bask of Venice, which is assigned to the year 1157, was xxat.a ublic bank until 1619, when it was reorganuetas the Banco & Rialto, w e converted it into a public bank uf dcpomt-and-wlthdrawaL Meanwhile the Bank 05 Venia was merely a Chamber of Loans (Camera degli Imprestigi) into which patriotic capital was Invited to assist the government of Venice. Even had it been a public bank it was not in a position to exercise the proper fun@ tioa~sof a European bank, namely, .the agglomerahon of pnvate captal, to be dstributed in l o p s helpful to Euro an commerce and enterprise. How could a Enetian bank promote or assist the trade of Spain, France, England, the Netherlands or Germany? I t could not, and in fact it did nat do anything of the sort. BCtween the dissolution of the Bank of Barcelona, rather between the date when its commercial achvities ceased,. about 1522, and the Bank of Amsterdam, 1607. and Hamburg, 1619, an entire century elapsed. What institution of securit and commercial credit o r convenience filled t i e void? This interval witnessed the greatest of all commercial events, the discovery, conquest and colonization of America, the abstraction and removal of its enormous treasures in gold y ~ d silver, their coinage into money, the openlng to plunder and afterward to commerce of India, China and Japan, the consolidation of the German empire, the rise of prices and the progress of the Reformation. Where are the .institutions b t o whose hands these conquered treasures might be placed, to whom could the impatient European commerce of this period apply for assistance? There seems but one reply. Charles I, King of Spain and sovereign of America, elected Emperor of Germany as Charles V, in 1519, having been assisted to this elevation by the banking house of the Fuggers of Augsburg, turned over to them the entire



banking business of his extensive anpim. He a s z e d (farmed) to them the monopoly of ilver (plmadep mines of Spain), the 8\dalcanal silver mmes and vlrtual control of man of the mines in America. He transferred to the vast accounts and balances of the military and episcopal orders. Hc even granted to than the royal and imperial rerogative of coinage (1534). They copductefthe mints of Valencia, Augsburg, Wussenhorn (Brvaria). and other places. They even were privileged to stamp t h a r names and titles upon the golden florins, for example, Ant. Fwg er D. in W&s d o r n , 153060. For upwar& of a centurg, such of the American treasure as escaped capture b the English, Dutch and French cruisers y e d ' through their hands, leaving them a ortune estimated at 60,000,000 florins or ducats, say $150,000,000. They bcame Inshops, barons, dukes, even princes, and their house survives to the present day. Such was the bank of the 16th century. Beyond the jurisdiction of England, France, the Netherlands and some of the Italian republics, the sole assistance which commerce mjoyed from the vast stores of the precious metals which flawed into Europe during this eriod came from or through the house of uggers. It was not until the reign of Charles 11, 1665, some say Charles 111, that Spain was enabled to establ~sha.public bank for the convenience of the public: that of San Carlos. Meanwhile the Inquisition, b burnin or bana t%oroughly ishing the Moors and Jews, destroyed her domesbc industry that it imrted to this little known institution but 8 eeble existence. To American readers it is on1 known through the pages of Blanqui bention has alread been made of the banks of Amsterdam and Efamburg. Between them came the Bank of Middlcberg, 1616, and a f t a them the banks of Rotterdam, 1635, and the Swedish Riksbank of 1656. All of these mstitutions were of Protestant origin, opposed to the Catholic house of Fugger, which after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 lost much of its imperial support and influence. These northern institutions became the effective promoters of that enormous wpansiow of commerce, industry and the arts, which bestowed upon the 17th century the name of the H a p .Age. They rornoted and supported the x t ~ l ~ sand b ~ u t ~East \ and West India companies, the African Company and the numerous other cosmopolitan enterprises of a im arted to the nknnlous period; and th commerce of the British, %ren$, Dutch and Sundinavian ports an impetus which they have ever since retained. Until 1656, when the Riksbank of Sweden issued circulating notes, their functions consisted almost sokly of recaving funds on deposit for safety, and loaninq them out U n commercial or governmental bills of excgnge, promissory notes or bonds.. Some of them were endowed with special privileges o r mono lies, as the banks of Amsterdam, ~ n g l a n r a n d France (Cornptoir des Escomptes). All of them were of great service to commerce, indeed the Bank of Amsterdam went so far, in its secret loans to the Dutch East India Company, that it became insolvent about 1760 and was liquidated in 1819. Meanwhile a new empire had arisen beyond





the Atlantic, whose growing commerce d o manded the convenie~ceand assistance of public commercial banks. % 1652 the province of Massachusetts found it neccssa (for it was no mere act d wantonness o r o?profit-seeking by the colony), to defy fhe Royal authoety by erectlng a Mmt and strilang Pine-Tree shlllmgs. The origin of this silver is not known. In 1662 some of the silver smuggled out of Mexico o r captured from the Spanish galleons, found its way to the Chesapcldn and was coined in Maryland.' These events presaged a bank In 1680 a bank was established for the convenience of planters in South Carolina, which William Paterson, afterward promoter of the Bank of England, now fresh f rom the Darien colony on the Isthmus of Panama, is said to have investlgated Five or six years later, 1686, John B l a h e l l and his coadjutors unrted to establish a bank of issue in Boston, also in defiance of British authority; and on 3 Feb. 1690, the colony of Massachusetts issued its own bills of credit. It has been su gested that these bills were to pay off the sol%ers in the Phips carnpaign to Quebec, whereas in fact the notes were Issued before the Phips expedition was resolved upon. One of these notes is still in existence. (A copy will be found in Del Mar's (History of Money in America,' p. 79). On 2 July 1692, the colonial government of Massachusetts made these notes legal tenders for the payment of all debts and obli tions, except those which had been contracterin special moneys. The amount of the notes outstanding was between f30.000 and i40,000. The pressing necessity for circulating money and the creation of banks, two subjects unavoidably connected for sustaining and developing the exchanges and commerce of the BritishAmerican colonies, manifested itself almost at the outset of their settlement; and had no little to do with their subsequent revolt from royal authority. The position of the Crown, as laid down in the celebrated case of the Mixt Moneys, 1604, was that the creation and issuance of money was a royal prerogative, which could not lawfully be exercised by any other power than the King; a prero ative not delegated to the raloniu. Hence, wLtever coins, or substitutes for coins, were needed for their exchan es, had to come from England. Such, too, had feen the position o i the. Spanish Crown ; yet the neceesit~esof Hlspmlola, Puerto Ebm and other Spanish possessions in America, had compelled their inhabitants, so early as 1586, to employ leather moneys in their dealings. Consub Lcweq Roberf 'Map of Commerce,) London 1711, p. 16, . Strengthened by this exatn,ple, the attitude of the British cqlonies was laid down in 1665 qo. less dpsitively than the Mixt Moneys deaslon. They say,D writes a commissioner of Massachusetts, =that so long as they pay. (to the Crown) a fifth of the gold and s ~ l v e r (found or captured), according to the terms of the Charter, they are not obliged to the King, except by civility." (Sir J. R. Seeley, (Expansion of England,' Norman Angell, dtante, p. 376). Such became their justification for the Pine Tree coinage, for John Blackwell's bank and for colonial bills of credit. The subsequent institution of American

BANKS AND BANKINQ-TH colonial banks and issues of money a r e treated under appropriate heads. Bibliography.-Adam, Alexander, (Roman Antiquities' London 1814); Anderson, Adam, ( H i s T of d O m e m ) (London 1781) ; A&Economics) (London 1870); Bastiat, (Harmonies of Political Economy) London 1860) ; Bayle, Peter, (Historical d t i m a r y ) London 1741); Blanqui, J. A, (Histo b o l i t i a l EFonomy) New York 1880) ;%o&h, Augustus, (Public &nomy of the Afhauam) (London 1857) ; Boisard, J., (Traite des Monoyes) (Paris 1711) ;. Budeh V. R, (De Mon& et re Numanr' b r i p p . , 1591) ; Bu J. B., (Later Roman Em(London 1888;Calcott, M.. (History of pap'. (London 1840); Carr, T. S., (Roman Antlqmtles) (London 1836) ; C~cero, (De Ofhciis) Londani 1761) ; D'Avenant, Sir Charles, (4rade) (London 1690); Davies, Sir Moneys in Ireland' Alexander, (Works' Edward Cavendish, (London 1768); Grimaudet, Fran~ois,(Law of Payment) (New York 1900) ; Hazlitt, W. C., (Coins'of Europe' (London 1893) ; Humboldt, Baron Alexander von, (Fluctuatibns of Gold) (New York 1900) ; Lover (pseudon , (Money the Sinews of Trade) (Boston 1 ~ :; Yadox, Thomas, (History of the Exchequer' (London 1M) ; Menu (Menoo), (Hindu Code' (ed. N. B. Halhed, London 1776) ; Moulton, H. G., 'Principles of Money and Banking' (New York 1916) ; Mun, Thomas, (England's Treasure' (London 1664); Necker, James (Baron), (Finances of France) (London 1785) ; Postlethwayt. Malachi, (Encyclopedia of Gommcrce' (London 1750) ; Prescott, William H., (Ferdinand and Isabella) and (Con uest of Mexico' (London 1854 Raynal, W. (AbW), (History of the &st and West Indies) London 1783) Reich Emil, (Histo of Civhization) g d n n a t i 1867) : Lewes, Xobert, (Ma of mmerce' (London 1711) ; schoenhot J., (Money and Prices) (New York 1896) ; Suctomus, Propertius, Prudentius and Lampridinus ed Nisard, Paris 1845 - Theocritus ( e d in alov. London 1821) : iornton. Henrv. (Inquiry 'into Credit' (iondon and ~hilah'elhia 1807) ; Turgot. A. R., 'Wealth) (London 1 7!5) : Yarranton, Andrew, (England's Improvement by Sea and Land) (London 1677) ; Zimmerman. E. A. W., (Present State of Europe' (London 1787). ALEXANDFS DELMAR, Author 'History of Monetary Systems? 2. THE F U N C T I O N S OF BANKS. T h e functions of banks may convenrently be divlded into those relating to loans and lhvestments, and those relating to money and the substitutes for coined mone provided by banks. Savings banks, the simprest class of banking institutions, are entirely concerned with the first of these functions. The inducement of the interest return brines to them deposits, most of which remain unhsturbed for long periods. Safety of principal and the income yield are therefore the considerations which determine the character of the investments of savings banks. State and municipal bonds, the bonds of estab lished public service corporations with a good dividend record and real estate mortgage loane

meet these rcqqircments and make up tha bulk of the investments of this class of banks. Through the facilities which they supply, thrift is m u r a g e d and much income whrch other* vice m g t be wasted is made availabl+ to increase e total capital of the commmty. Loam and 1nvaatmenta.- Inwme yield and safety a r e quite as important for other banks, but they mast be sought in a narrower investment field. With them the quakt of liquidness is also essential, since most o f the funds which they employ are payable on demand, and large and unexpected payments must fre umtly be made. The deposrts of these commonly known as commercial o r credit banks, consist mainly of cash resources which are being currently used for business purposes, o r for personal expenditure They are therefore subject to continued change, bung constantly drawn upon by their owners. T o meet this .situation the funds of commercipl banks must, m large measure, be employed UI those investments which can quickly be converted into cash. I n other words, they must be liquid, Sacurltiea f o r which there is a broad market, such as most of those wbich are listed on stock exchanges, meet this requirement of hqu~dness. A far more important avenue for the em loyment of the funds of commeraal banks, owcver, arises from the demand for short periods of time which comes to the banks from everyone engaged in active business. Working capital requirements in many lines of business vary with the seasons, and in every line of business with the volume of dealings. In satisfying these r e q l t i r ~ e n t s the banks secure investments ideally m t e d to their own needs A t thc same time a valuaqle service is rendered to the community. Capital is econo m k L I t is not necessary for each businem to supply itself permanently with sufficient capital to take care of its maximum requirements. The sup ly of capital is also made more elasuc, and finaty the trained foresight of the banker is exercised in selecting from the mass of would-be borrowers those who have mamfested capacity to employ capital wisely and effectively. Commercial banks, including the banking departments of trust companies, unlike savings banks, do not limit their loans and other investments t o the funds received from depositors and shareholders They lend their credi! and thus cf._eate a lar e part of the funds uplized ? by borrowers fhey are able to do t h ~ sbe- cause they provide more or less generally acceptable substitutes for coined money. The bank note, the promise of a bank to pay money on demand, is obviously a credit instrument which is a substitute f o r money. But partly because of legislation limiting the power to issue notes, and even more because the check has behl found more convenient for most purposes, the bank note has become a subordiriate and rather special means of extending credit. Credit.-Banks, of course, do not extend credit directly by issuing checks, since the check is an order on a bank to pay money, not its promise to pay money. Such orders are based upon obli tions to pay money recorded on the books o$the banks, and known as d c posits. Clearly, a baak cannot lend its a l r d existing obligations to pay money on danani

(G? &,









%a r

I t may indeed happen that a bank receives, l& us say, $1,000 in money from a depositor, and L on that account in position to lend more than might otherwise be advisable; but even here it is not the deposit which it lends but either the $1,000 o r (and this is far more likely) a new kight to draw $1,000, both transactions- the recei t of the thousand dollars and the loan of the $ourand dollars- creating absolutely simikr deposit obligations. I t is the eneral use of the check +at makes it p o s s l e for banks to create d e p t s through their lending operations. If borrowers made all payments with money, it would be necessary for them to withdraw the proceslt of their loans from the banks in the form of money. The bus~ness of commeraal banks, like that of savings b a n b , would then be limited to the funds received from depositors and shareholders, and possibly some sh&t amaunt in addition thereto, smce borrowers would presumably not immediately draw oat the entire proceeds of their loans. I t may, however, be objected that even though the borrower does use checks, the bank will be o b l i ~ e dto make payment almost as speedily as if money were used. Chedts do not circulate indefinitely: they are quickly p r e sented for pyment w e r the counter, o r b other banks In which they have been depositcl Assumin8 that.a b n k were abnptly to double its depont o b l ~ Qons by gnntlng many new loans, it would?mqueatlonably be confronted almost at once with heavy demands for pa ment of the largely increased number of c d s that would certainly be drawn upon i t If, however, and this is the usual case, all the banks of a locality increase their loans at the same time with a consequent cxpaasion of da posits, each bank will have a greater number of c h e s drawn upon it, but it will also receive from rts dcpmltors a greater number of checks drawn on the other banks. There would be a greater number of checks drawn, but not a correspondingly greater amount of cash needed in making settlements between the banks. This increase In loans, if made by the banks of a aingle locality, w o d d probably lead to increased purchases from producers elsewhere, thus occasionin a balance of indebtedness against the locaf banks. Sooner or later carrency would have to be shipped to the banks in other parts of the country, and this would soon p r v e n t further e x sion and might make mntradmn necessary; again, if expansion of banL loans were country wide, this difficulty would not be e rienced unless gold exports were s t i m u l a t r a n d even this contingency would not present itself if the expansion of credit were world-wide. The general expansion of credit cannot continue indefinitely. An increasing volume of checks like an increase in the quantity of money has the same tendency to bring about an advance in ~rices. Rapidly rising prices invariably stimulate unhealthy business activities. Sooner or later the expansion of credit is checked by the deterioration in the average quality of the loans of the banks; fa~lures bccome more numerous; confidence. not only in the future of business, but also in the banks, is weakened; a crisis breaks out followed by a period of depression; the volume of credit ig then reduced through a slackening in the dc-




the Iiquidzitian of mand f o r loans, and thloans previously made. However univeksal the use of eh& may became, the individual bank does not on that account cease to be subject to constant demands f o r cash. A bank an exert no control over the use its depositors make of their accounfs from day to day; cheeks deposited with lt never exactly ba+e pmesptcd for payment; there w111 be wlde vanauon, sometimes favorable, sometimes unfavorable. I n the latter contingency reliance may be placed upon a speedy change in favor of the bank. bdore positive action is, however, certain to become neccruuy trom time to time in the experience of every bank The requirements of d e p s i t o n will occasionall result in a s u e cessron of unfavorable A c e s , and further, every bank must face the pqssibility that unfounded rumors may subject ~t to a run. I t IS imgerative, therefore, that a bank be able to pay large amounts of money on demand, and also be in position quickly to replenish de lewd reserves. Its assets, o r at least a consi8erablc portion of them must be of sucb a character that they can be quickly converted into mon T o serve this purpose the same degree o7liquidness in all assets is not a requisite. Immediate conversion into cash of a portion of the assets of a bank will ordinarily serve for the buildin up of reserve depleted on amount of unusuayly lar e requirements o n the p r t of depositors, a n t the gradual m n v e r m n of the remaining assets is all that can be dremed necessary for exceptional contingenaes. Experience shows that a bank, all of whose assets can be converted into cash withm a few months without loss, is altogether unlikely to be disturbed by lack of c d d e n and s b u l d jt be a.ubjectedd to u j o u n d a rumors, no ctfficulty IS exper~enced In securing the necessa funds from other banks. Cent* the development of commerual banlang in most countries, there has been a distinct tendency toward the establishment of a special class of institutions, the rimary function of which is to enable other fanks to convert their assets into cash i n periods of stress. These s ecial banks, commonly known as central banL, maintain k m selves in ordinary times in a position of great strength. They endeavor to exercise a restraining influence during periods of rapid credit erpansion, but when the emergency presents itself grant loans freely. The Bank of England is the oldest and most famous ~ n s t i tution of this kind. The very great advantages secured through its operations and those of similar institutions in other European countries led to the establishment in the United States of the Federal Reserve Banks in 1914. See FEDERAL RESERVESYSTEM ; FEDERAL FARMLOAN ACT; LANDCREDIT. The bank notes which these institutions issue are as serviceable and acceptable for all domestic purposes as coined money. In many countries they are a legal tender. Consequently these central banks are able to st~pplythe other banks with such amounts of cash as they may need. to meet even the most severe contingencles. The banks are thus relieved of the necessity of resorting to general loan contraction, a method of strengthening themselves which cannot be carried far without i m l v ~ n g



BANK8 AND BANKINQ-WOR B e business community in serious %nanci;rI mote the ptrblic interest, as their first copsideration. diiculties. The most noteworthy difference in the OLIVEX M. W. SPMGUE, Pro essov Banking and Finance, Harvmd operations of these banks has been in the . management of the note issues. The Bank of diversity. EnglCnd is authorized to issue notes to the 3. WORLD SYSTEMS-TYPES. T h e amount of f18,450,000 upon the security of banking institutions of Europe, with the in- government bonds and other securities. in its crease of capital, the development of industry but all iasues in e x c m of this m v t and tlie growth of international. relations, k v e fully covered by its vaults. T h r naturally conformed to there ~nfiuentxs, wlth requirement, which was Imposed upo? it C the result t&t there is an approximation eve the Act of 1844, was prompted by a ehef that where t o certain stim&+s o r tyqa for excessive note issues had promoted ova-exdifferent cluses of bankang tensions of c n d i the exportation of old and diff e r e n n s in organuation e the recurrence o financial crises. ~ a effect main. are not fundamental, on afford little was to make the note-issue absolutely dxed o c w o n for companwn o r argument a s to save as the stock of gold in the bank was their advan es o r desirability but are ex- increased o r decreased. This restraint upon plained by %r origin and & established issaes occasioned less inconveniences in Engcustoms of the peopk. land than it would have caused on the Continent, C e p t d Banks of I u i u c In e,wry couptry for the reason that even before 1844 the bank there IS now a central bank, w h l d 1s rccogmzed check had become to a r t e x t a in England to be the head of the system, and is charged a substitute for the nk note. With the with certain responsibilities. I t is the fiscal c w h t of the joint-stock banks the Nstom of agent of the overnmat and the custodian of p n g bank accounts and making pa menh treasury f u n z ; i t issues the pa e r currency. check has been steadily spreading, &le m carries the gold reserve and hol& a dominate Continent tt remains the meral custom to ing position in the fo!eign ex+nges and the make payments in currency. %he rutriction.of domestic credit situation. I t 1s the final &- the Act of 1844 not on1 failed to prevent the pository of the other banks of the country, and recumnce of crises in Engl?nci, but it a c t u a l l ~ as a . bank of re-discount, with the o y e r of hampered the bank in dealln w ~ t hthem to bmes I such an extent that in 1847, 185v and 1866, w h o n o t r u s u it it ex ected .to have a t reserve avallabg c r d t w h d will be used confronted by emergencies of this character, M needed for the support of the banking and the Ministry requested the bank to disregard general business situation. This reserve of the provisions of the law, and Parliament in credit is maintained .by jpdicious use of the each instance afterward gave its approval by discount rate. wbich 1s m s e d and lowered to passing an act of indemnity. The situation control the demand f o r credit. I n alt European upon each of these occasions was that public countries judgment has been Gven in favor of confidence in the general state of credit, and in confiding + e r w e r of note-lssue to a slngle the condition of certain private bulking instibank, but m r u t Bntain, Germany and Italy tutions, was I n k e n , but there was no want of a few benlcs which were in possession of the confidence in the Bank of England. The right of note-issue when the present sy?tem latter, by Qisre rdin the law, and issuing it8 was determned upon were allowed to retain a own notes to ba& and firms which w m restricted right. able to give security relieved the pressure and These central banks, by reason of the pe- stopped t& panic. h i s demonstration of the culiar responsibili!ies with which they are effectiveness of flexible noteissues under the charged, are requlred to confine t h a r credit control of a stmn central banking institution operations in the main to short commercial has had a powerkl influence in shaping the loans, usually not exceedrng four months, which banking systems of other countries. In E n p facilitate current trade and industrp. Bills of land no rmmdiatc change in the Bank Act exchange, arising out of specific transactions, was made, but an important change was made and financing the movemenf of commodi$es to in the management of the bank I t was dismarket, constitute the pnncrpal class of tnvest- covered that by raising the discount rate the ments. Loans to the government, however, are tendency to over-expansion could be checked authorized, and advances upon government se- and the gqld reserve of the bank incnas.ed, curities and other approved collateral are made thus permlttlng a n enlargement of cred~ts, a t a higher rate of interest and in limited either by deposit accounts o r note issues. Since amount. Nothing but gold and short commer- 1866 this knowledge has been used so skilfully cial bills are considered a proper cover for that the arguments in favor of a libemllzation note-issues. of note-issues have not been pressed. I n 1914, T h e capital of these central banks, with. the however, following the outbreak of the exception of the Russian Imperial Bank, is sup- European War. Parliament passed an act givlied bv ~ r i v a t eshareholders. but in manv caser ing the Ministry authority to permit the Bank b e e x k i t i v e oflicers. and fn the case -of the to issue notee without the statuto reserve. Reichsbank the executive board, are named b The statutes governing the ~ a n r kof Fr;mce fix a maximum limit upon its issues, but this the government. The Bank of ~ n g l a n dwhicg . 1s the oldest of the great banks, and which led has always been high enough to give practical in the demonstration of the most important freedom to the management, which wlthin the functions of a central institution, is a com- limit named is without restraint. The framers letely private institution in its organization, of the law governing the Reichsbank introits policy is none the less governed by a duced a novel feature, which has been since sense of public responsibility. All of these adopted in man countnes, including the institutions are bound to safeguard and prcr United States. &is iii a provision levying a













tax upon issues in excess of a named amount which is assumed to be sufficient for normal requirements. This is accompanied. however, by another provision, requiring that at all times a minimum reserve of 33% per cent against outstanding notes shall be maintained. The German tax upon excess issues is 5 per cent; in the United States, in .appl 'ng the plan to tax is a prothe Federal Reserve banks, gressive one. increasing as the percentage of nserve diminishes. In all of the countnes where the central banks are owned by pnvate shareholders, the profits are divided with the Treasury or there are other compensations to the Treasury f o r the charter privileges. Commercia! Banks aad Discount HoI n all countnes the. bulk of the banlang buslness with the publlc IS transacted by what a r e commonly called 'joint-stockD banks, althou h the distinction betwey these banks and &C cmtral banks is n0t.m the facf that .they arc jornt-stock corporahons but m thew more private character. In E land there.mnst be lncluded in n?y study of %e commeroal cre&t s stem, the bscount houses or bill brokerq.and &e accepting houses which are auxiliaries of the bankin system These a r c specialists in credit, a n t intermediaries between the b o r rowers and the banks, although the d~scount houses accept deposits and ay interest on ! m the banks, them. They borrow largely m and-theit._chief-function is_ to specialize in the several lines of trade. By doing this, and mb r s i n g the pa they handle, they raise this paper to a h g K r grade of credit, which will command a lower sate of interest I n this difference between the rats which thi8 paper would have to bear without their endorsement and the rate at which they place it with the banks, they find t h u r compeuabon. The acc ting houses perform a s~milarfunction in a d z e r e n t manner. I t has long been the custom for the seller of goods to draw a draft the buyer, payable at some date agreed upon in the future, which the buyer aacceptsD as soon as it is presented by writing the word 'accepted" across its face and signlng h ~ name s thereunder. The draft when assigned by the drawer becomes two-name commercial paper. and is usually sold on the market Evidently much depends upon the character of the names, and if the buyer is not well known he can afford to pa a commission to a house of hi@ standing W&& will accept for h i m T h ~ s custom developed gradually, first within a trade where the houses knew each other, until it became a regular business. Back of these discount houses and accepting houses are the joint-stock banks, which are usually in the market for high-class paper, and back of all is the Bank of England, which is under obligation to always buy paper a t some rate. W h q the war broke out, and paralysis fell upon credit, so im rtant was ~t deemed that the fluidity of bilrshould be maintained, that the government stepped into the situation and guaranteed the Bank of En land against loss in the purchase of pre-war %ills. The joint-stock banks of Great Britain carry the current accounts of merchants and manufacturers, although the Bank. of England also does to some extent a general banking business. These banks lend to their customers



a i d buy bills in the open market. They also lend upon collateral, and in recent years the practice has developed among them of acceptmg bills for houses with whose affairs they are familiar. This shows how the functions of the banks, the discount houses and acceptance houses overlap and dovetai!, and how sharp IS the competition in the credlt field. T l y joint-stock banks of Great Brim,in a r e organued under the General Compan~esAct. There a r r no requirements as to reserves o r tegulating the character of the business. The practices of the banks have been established by the lessons of experience and the teachings and wdtings of men reco ized as authorities. It has become an accepterdoctrine that bank investments must be of a temporary and liquid character. and that banks shall not take a pro rietary interest in any business. 8 o the -Conti.nent, as in England, the jointstock banks other than the central banks 'are organized under the general incorporation acts, and are quite free as to the character of business they may do. There are no requirements as to reserves and, in most countries no governmental inspection o r su ervision. *he jointstock banks of Germany gave develo d their any business on - broader lines than other corporate banking institutions, and with racticall the freedom, of private bankin gouse, h i s has been due laygtly to the rapi8 development of German industry and over-seas trade since 1880, and the demands which have fallen upon the banks in connection with i t The need f o r capital to finance growing and profitable industries has been before their eyes, and they have gone further than British banks are accustomed to o in su plying capital which could not be readiky withlrawn. I n doing this they have considered it advisable, instead of restricting their interests to loans, to take a t times proprietary interests, evidenced by stock and to be represented in the directorate of such comparues. They have organized companies to take over private business, and reorganized corn nies to increase their capital, offering the b o n r and shares to the public over their countgrs, through their branches and upon the stock exchanges. The stock exchanges are for the most part controlled by the banks, and most of the transactions are through the banks. The head of the leading Gennan joint-stock bank stated to the Amencan Monetary Commission in 1908 that that bank had 50 member? of +e Berlin Stock Exchan e to attend to ~ t sbusness. A11 of this is gfferent from banking in England, and, as to relations. with the stock exchange, from banking in the United States, but it 1s not so different as ossibly at first sight a p p r s from common &nking practice in Amenca, so far as capital advances are concerned It is common, knowledge that the banks of this count particularly in the smaller towns, have ha?a lar e of their assets in the form of loans w h s e p r e r m t fixed investments. The country has been growin rapidly, every branch of industry has require! more capital and the only source of supply has been the local credit institutions. As a result few American banks outside of the large cities would stand the theoretical test as to liquid conditions any better probably than the German joint-stock banks, and many of them not so





well. T h e American banks, however, have been prevented by law from taking proprietary interests. The Gennan policy cannot be commended as a scientific policy, but, although there have been disasters from it, on the whale it probably has met the conditions existing in Germany, and promoted the development of industries more effectual1 than a more rigid system of banking would g v e done. The German banks which have come +rough the. upenence have been managed wlth great abllrty, have prudently built up Iar capitals, and in years immediately precegng they were in a condition as to liquid assets that was scarcely open to criticism. I n an article written f o r the National Monetary Commission in 1908, Herr Mueller, a director of the Dresden Bank, and who served upon .&e Imperial Commlss~on to consider a rev~sion of the law regulating the Reichsbank, stated that in most of great German banks the prinaple was adhered to of not allowing the total amount of tied-up assets, such as bank sites and other fixed investments and interests, to exceed the bank's own paid-u capital, plus the capital accumulations whi$ in the United States are called surplus and undivided profits. The great capital of these banks permits them even then to have large fixed investments. I n France there has not been the-pressure for capital for industr~alpurposes which there has been in Germany, and the joint-stock banks or credit societies, as they are called, have confined themselves closely to the financing of current trade. In other countries of Europe the practice varies, and everywhere there is almost complete freedom from legal restraints. Investment and Mort ge B e e . - T h e Credit Mobilier, founded i n g a n c e In 1852, was the original of a type of investment banks. I t sold its own debentures o r collateral bonds against holdings in its own possession of various securities which it was a master spirit in promotin It had a successful career for a time,.but afier about 15 ears was forced into liquidation as the resuc of heavy losses. The type of the Credit Mobilier, the name of ifies a mobilizing of credit, has been followe to some extent in many countries. but which its mistakes have been a warning against the policy of using such an or nization to promote new enterprises. The R g $ h investment companies issue their own debentures based upon securities which the have purchased, but their purchases are c o d n e d to the issues of established enterprises. The mortgage banks of Europe are organized upon the above princ~ple. The Credit Foncier, which has almost a monoply of the land mortgage business of France, 1s a semipublic institution, the ca ital being supplied by pnvate shareholders, a h o u h originally the government gave it a subsi8. The overnor and two sub-governors are appointef by the government. I t is allowed to receive a limited amount of deposits and these are invested in commercial bills, but its principal business is lending upon, mortgage, ac~eptingeither urban o r rural . estate as security. Apainst these mortgages in its own possession it Issues bonds. These are issued in series without date fqr payment, but are called yearly as the amort1zatlon payments allow. They are called by a lottery


-TYPm (S)


and prizes are given with the drawings, the first prize being as much as 150,000 francs. This lottery feature is a factor in the distribution of the bonds, and accounts for the low rate of interest, usually 3 per cent, which they bear. In ~ e k a n ythere are. about 40 mortgage banks which pursue a simrlar business but the bulk of their loans are u n urban property. These hanks are requirerby law to deposit their mortgages with a state comptroller, who then gives permission for the issuance of bonds against them. These banks operate upon an exceedingly small mar 'n, the difference between the rate r e c e i v 8 upon mortgages and the rate paid upon bonds being only about onefourth of 1 per cent Besides these joint-stock mortgage bank3 there are the Landschaften, o r mutual c r e d ~ t associations, which receive mortgages from their members a d . holding them as security, issue their own bonds to the borrower which he may negotiate upon the investment market. This system was established Frederick the Great In 1769, and originally eslgned for the benefit of the large estate-holders only, but it has been developed to include a branch for small properties and also provide subsidiary companies which write insurance and grant t e n rary credits to members. and C O - o p i t i v e so+etior -These are known in a the countnes of Europe, but are most hi hly developed in Ger-y, where they are t%e common source of banking accommodations for small tradesmen and farmers. The SchuboDelitzsch souetxes, so called f o t ~h founder +d the town-in which the first one was established, constrtute the leading system. They receive deposits and pay interest upon thun, and-make short loans upon the promissory notes of members. The extend personal c r e h t only .to members but tEey may receive deposits from others and employ their surplus funds outside the membership. A t their inception they were purely mutual societies with unlimited liability for the members, the theory of their organization being similar to that of the mutual insurance societies, o r orders, now prevalent in many countries. The unlimited liability of all members helped them to get depos~ts,but was a deterrent to membership for those who did not want to borrow. Later, societies were organized which issued shares and in which the liability of shareholders was limited in various degrees. I t might be double the par value of the stock, o r greater, aa determined by each society for itself. The societies are independent in their management, but have an association and a central clearing agency. The Schulze-Delitzsch societies do ractically a cqmmercial banking business. The Raifieisen societies are upon much the same plan, and lend money upon several years' time, but the membershi is chiefly among farmers. There is a centrar bank in Berlin for these societies, to which the state of Prussia has subscrjbed a capit+ 0.f 50,000,000 marks. I t is strlctly a state mst~tubon. There are similar societies in other states of Germany. The total membership within the empire is nearly 2,000,000; paid-in capital and surplus funds, approximately 350,000,000 marks ; deposits, about 2,335,000,000 marks. The Schulze-Delitzfcb,





and Raiffeisen systems have an extensive development in Austria. In France the Credit Agricole ,Mutual . r e p resents a development of the Ra~tFusentdea. Small local societies had been doing business with moderate success, but the movement was given recognition and encouragement in 1897, when, upon a renewal of the charter of the Bank of France, a gratuitous loan of 40,000,000 francs, and also a certain share in the annual earnings of that institution, was exacted from it and diverted to the use of the agricultural banks. The law provided for the organization of district banks, which lend the available funds to the local societies, the distribution being made by a committee of public men, including the governor of the Bank of France. The peculiarity of the system seems to be that it T d s chiefly upon the funds received from the ank of France, which it is allowed to use gratuitously. These funds are loaned bebw the ordinary market rate, but as they are limited in amount the growth of the system is restricted. It lends only to provide temporary credit to farmers. There are mutual credit associations in Russia, of limited liability, whose capital is created by the payment on the part of each member of a sum equal to onctenth of the credit granted them. Association$ of this kind may be established by the Zemsttros. In 1907, the sum total of these loans and discounfs was approximately 245,000,000 rubles. A project is pending for the establishment of a central bank for these associations. See Coorrm~rrv~ BANKING; FWBULFARM LOAN ACT; LAHDCREDIT. Srtringr Banks, Municipal, Pasta1 Private. -A system of municipal savings banks has its most important development in Germany and Russia. In both countries the banks are public institutions, supported by the credit of the municipalities and conducted under their su erc vtslon. The profits go to the surplus f u n 1 of the banks, o r ma be in part expended for public urposes, s u d as the sapport of has tals, par&, etc. In Russia the municipal b a z s do a general banking business and also lend money on real estate security, but in Germany the investments are confined to tmstee securities, as fixed by law, and to the urchase of a limited amount of commercial b i d . The municipal savin S bank is to be found in other countries of !&rope, and there are atso stock company savings banks, but they a n without special features. Mutual societies s u p ply, to a great extent, the facilities for saving. Postal savings banks have been established in many countnes, Germany bein an exception, due to its high development o f the mun~cipal savings banks. Public Loan Banks.- In Prance, in 1830 and in 1848, in P r u s s ~ ain 1848. 1866 and in 1870, and in the German empire in 1914, the governments resorted to the establishment of public loan banks or, more properly, loan offices, as a means of facilitating In an emergency the flotation of public loans. The function of these banks was to serve in a subsidiary capacity to the central banks, by making loans upon collateral security. In Germany, in 1914, one of these banks was established in every city where there was a branch of the Reichsbank. They were authorized to make loans upon collateral


o r goods, and, in doing so, to issue notes t o the maximum aggregate of 3,000,000,000 marks. These notes were not 1-1 tender but were acceptable at the Reichsbank and made good a s basis for note-issues by the latter. I t was an emergency measure, designed to aid in mobilizing the financial resources of the nation. These banks are known as "Darlehnskassen., Bibliogra hy-Conant, Charles A., 'Modern Banks o?bsue' (New York 1911) ; Dunbar, Charles F., 'The Theory and History of Banking' (New York 1909) ; Pubtications of National Monetary Commission (Washington 1910). G ~ o a oE. ~R


Assistant to the President, Notional City Bank,

New York. 4. INTERNATIONAL BANKING. Prior t o the enactment of the Federal Reserve Law (gv.) under which National banks have obtained authority to establish branches in foreign countries international banking upon the art of the dnited States had been malnly conKned to investment banking, and efforts to lace American securities in Great Britain a n t the countries of western Europe. T h e most ambitious effort to enter the commercial field had been made by the International Banking Corporation, chartered in 1902 by the State of Connecticut, which began business with a paid-up capital of $3,000,000 and surplus fund of $3,000,000. I t had at that. time 15. offices abroad, most of them in Asiatlc countnes. T h e Need of Foreign Banking Facilities. -Although the slow development of American banking operations in the foreign field may be attributed in part to the fact that the national banking system, to which most of our large banking institutions in the past have belonged, until recently made no provision for such extension, it is also true that there has been little inclination among American bankers to so extend their business. The fact that branch banking has had small development within the United States will partially explain the seeming lack of interest in branches abroad. The comparatively few branch establishments that are maintained in this country, with few exce tions, are located in the same clty with the heaJoffice, and the great bulk of the bankin business is done b independent, locally o w n e t institutions which Kave but a single office. Our people have been inexperienced in branch banking, and not accustomed to entrusting large powers to scattered officials a t great distances. The chief explanation, however, for the indifference of American bankers to international opportunities is to be found in the same general situation which accounts for the slow development of American interest in foreign jnvestments and foreign trade, to-wit : the all-absorbing needs and attractions of the home field. There has been no inducement for banking capital to go from the United States to other fields for the mere profits of commercial banking. All foreign fields are already occupied by domestic banking institutions, which are likely to have fhe preference for purely domestic business, and by British o r European bankin corporations which are more or lels a l l i e l v i t h other important investments In the same countries, and with interests that are active in trade with these countries. I t has been evident



that American banks abroad would have little reason ior . their existence unless they were serviceable to American trade and American upital in the same manner that British and German banks have been serviceable to the trade and investments of those countries. With t h ~development of this country, the growth of ~ t smdustnes and the accumulation of capital, the attitude of its people toward trade and investments abroad has been chang-' ing. Our exports no longer consist almost exclusively of natural and u u d e products. The United States has become the leading, producer and a hea exporter of steel and machinery, and is r a p z y increasing its exports of a great variety of manufactdres. At tbis stage banking facilities abroad become a factor in the development. If American banks in fdreign countnes require for their prosperity that there shall be American trade with those countries, so does American trade have need for an extension of its own banking facilities. . The services which a banker can render for his client in foreign countries are in most particulars the same that he renders a t home, but obviously there is greater de endence upon them abroad than at home, a n f there are S dal services incidental to the fact that g o o 8 a r e delivered and collections are made in foreign countries. The distances are $reat, mails are slow and cables cost1 ; the hab~tsand customs of the people are Jfferent, trade conditions are different, the language is usually different, and the chances of misunderstandings and disagreements are more numerous than in trade at home. There is great he1 to the exporting house in having an interestefrepresentative on the ground where deliveries and collections are made, and next in tffitiency to his own exclusive agent is the branch office of an American bank. Collections may be, indeed, made through a domestic bank, o r through a branch office of one of the Euro ean banks but it is not to be expected that tlese institutions will feel the same interest in promoting the trade that will be felt by an American bank, which realizes that its own future is involved in the development of American trade. I t is more than possible that the interests of the American exporter may clash with the interests of older and closer clients of a European bank, and in such instances the invoices and terms of important transactions may become known to competitors. In an event, there is a. lack of the alert, interestedYattentlon that arlses from a vital common interest, and from the direct connection through the home bank There is likely t o be a clearer presentation of the exporter's case through the latter channel. One of the most important services that a bank can render is that of supplying information relative to credits. In many countries this information is difficult to obtain, and those who have it give it up with reluctance, especially in reply to written inquiries. Replies are vague, elusive and unsatisfactory. I t cannot be expected that this class of information will be given frankly and accurately by mail to strangers. No other source can be so trustworth as a locally established. bank which is l i n k e l up in eyery interest with the trade which it 1s servlng. Credits are changing constantly; information which is good at one time may be misleading a few months later; the exporter in -3-11


another country requires an allied advisor upon the spot who will not wait for inquiries but volunteers his counsd. Moreover. he wants a banker with a knowledge of the credits who will give him assistance in carrying them. In short, he wants the service which his own banker is accustomed to render a t home extended to the foreign trade. The service of the Americq bnnch bank does not end w ~ t hattention to busmess placed in its hands; it is equally interested, .h crcatin new business. I t makes itself familiar with a f lines of trade; it studies the imprt and export trade of the country in which ~t is located. with a view to developing trade with its home country; it takes note of opportunitim and .mports them to the home institution, which places the lnformatron where it will be likely to promote. action. The unport trade of growing o r developing countries consists to a great extent of equip ment and construction materials, for use in new works designed to increase the production of the count o r to improve its facilities for hsndliq products. These purchases represent Investments rather than consumption, and very often they represent an investment of foragn capital, as in the construction of railways and other ublic utilities, o r manufactunng plants. investments of Great Britain and Germany in South America are very large, and they have been made usually by sending out machinery and equi ment which were the product of their home saops. Their manufacture supplied work for the home people and when converted into investments abroad they not only yield good returns but they create new demands for repairs, replacemeutb extensions, etc. These investments abroad have not in years past been attractive to the peo le of the United States, because there were agundant opportunities, as good as any in the world, for similar investments at home. No other country was r w i n g so fast in population as the Uni!ed tates, and so long as there were extensive natural resources to be opened up here it was doubtful polic to place investments abroad. But the ~ n i t e i ~ t a t iessn o Ion er a new country; the main railway lines gave been constructed, every section of the country is undergoing development, the more easily tilled lands are now under cultivation, the timber lands have advanced greatly in value, the mineral resources are being worked. Both po ulation and wealth are increasing rapidly, gut the country has reached the stage where raw materials, once cheap, are becoming dear and affecting the cost of manufactures and the cost of living. The manufacturing industries are affected both by the increasing cost of raw materials and by the mcreasing cost of food, clothing and other necessities which affect wages. Alrea$y.the .United States- has become one of the principal importrn nations of wool and hides, and it is probable %at our coasumption of these articles will steadily increase faster than the home supply. We are also consumers in vast quantlt~es of many articles which we do not produce at all, among which are coffee, rubber and tin, which are obtainable in South America. In short, we have reached the point in our own development where we can advantageously spare some of our capital







to develop the dormant resources of countries not so far advanced as ourselves. There will be an economic gain to ourselves and to the world community in doing so, just as there was an economic gain to New England and the United States from the use of New England capital for the development of the Western States of this country. This investment of United States capital in other countries will be guided and stimulated by the development of international banking facilities with headquarters in this country. Short Loan and Commercial . Bills.There is et another class of international banking wgich is comparatively new in this country but which is developing, and that is the class of banking which has made London the chief market of the world for short loans and commercial bills. Here again the defects of our national banking in the past have militated against us, National banks not being p a mitted to accept drafts for future payment. Even our own foreign trade, both exports and imports, has been financed through bills upon London. Most of the time there has been no real loss to this country by t h ~ process, s because it has been ssible to carry the drafts at a lower rate o c n t e r e s t in London than in New York. In the future, however, this situation is likely to be different, not so much because of a probable change in the London situation as because of the changes effected here by the Federal Reserve system. In the past the financial banking reserves of the United States have been kept in the large National banks of New York city, which, by custom and as a result of corn titive conditions, paid a uniform rate of F p e r cent upon them. This interest burden made it incumbent upon them to keep the funds employed upon the most favorable terms possible, and this employment was common1 found m loans on stock exchange collateral The Federal Reserve system transfers the banking reserves to the Federal Reserve banks, and forbids their employment in loans U qn stocks o r bonds. They can only be u s e t In rediscounting paper arising out of commercial transactions. Coincident with the creation of this great fund, restricted to commercial aper, has come permission for National banis to accept paper arisin out of international trade, a permission whicf extends not only to our trade wltH other countries but to trade between all countries. These acceptances are the most desirable paper available for the Federal Reserve banks, and as they pay no interest on deposits, and large earnin S with them are subordinated to the policy of t a v i n g li uid assets and developing a great discount ma&et, it may be expected that the rate on this class of paper will hereafter be as low in New York as in any market of the world. The availability of the New York market for trade bills ultimately payable elsewhere will of course be affected by other factors as well as the discount rate, and particular1 by the general position of New York in t i e world's exchanges, but it is and can be confidently predicted that with the resources of the Federal Reserve system behind it, and with the United States developing as a creditor country, New York in the future will play a much more important part in international banking than in the past.

As a result of the European War, and the closing of European markets to foreign loans, an important aggregate of loans to foreign governments has been made in the American market. Since there is reason to believe that capital will continue to accumulate rapidly in the United States, and there will be less difference in interest rates between New York and European markets than in the past, it is probable that New York will continue to be a factor in transactions of this dess. The develop ment of any country in international banking is dependent finally upon the relations of its people to international affairs. There must be an important body of traders and investors with international interests and cosmopolitan news. See CO-OPERATIVE BANKING;FEDERAL RESSRVE SYSTEMarticle 12) ; F ~ ~ ~ ExIGA e m n m (article 15) ; WORLDSYSTEMS (article 3). FRANK A. VANDERLIP, Presideut National City Bank, New York. 5. FOREIGN EXCHANGE. Foreign exchange may best be descr~bedas the system by which ayments are made between countries having different monetary systems. The terms "Exchange" and ExchangeB are also used as meaning drawn by merchants and bankers resident in one country upon merchants and bankers resident in another. Qrigin, Concerning the origin of the foreign exchange system as it exists at present there is a good deal of doubt. The best opinion is that the system as we now have it came into existence early in the Middle Ages as a result of the commercial dealings between the northe m Italian republics and the Levant. Venetian merchants, for instance, purchasing goods in Alexandria, found that on account of the prevalence of piracy in the Mediterranean payment for such goods in gold was extremely hazardous. I t being the case that the merchants of Alexandr~awere also purchasers of goods in Venice, a system was devised whereby, instead of actual gold being shipped back and forth, merchants in Venice hav~ng money owed to them from Alexandria were able to receive it from other merchants in Venice who had payments to make in Alexandria. Gradually it came about, as a result of these arrangements. that Alexandria kept balances in Venice and vice-versa. Payments instead of being made by means of actual gold shipments came gradually to be paid by drafts drawn on such balances. T h e Pnnci le Stated- A clear understanding of $e basic principle underlying foreign exchange transactions ma probably best be had from consideration . o r an actual international transaction. A merchant in Memphis, Tenn., we will say, has sold a hundred bales of cotton to a spinner in Liverpool, England. For the merchant in Memphis the important thing is to realize upon his sale, at the earliest possible op ortunity, United States currency o r credit at tank. This payment he can receive in two ways. Either he can draw a draft upon the buyer of the goods in Liverpool in sterlin the currency of the buyer) and sell such t r a i t in Memphis o r New York at the current rate of exchange for American dollars, or (2) the buyer of the cotton in Liverpool can send to the merchant in Memphis a draft drawn on some point in the United States


BANKS AND BANKING -FOREIGN EXCHANGE (5) and payable in United States currency. Whichever way the transaction IS arnnged, the &sired result will be obfained that the seller: 'of the goods in Memphls immedmtely recelves payment in bankable funds. The banking machinery requisite for the conversion of sterling drafts drawn, for instance, in Memphis, into United States dollars, o r for the fulnishing of drafts drawn in sterling to American merchants who have payments to make abroad, is relatively simple. It consists simply of a number of banks and bankers with the necessary facilities for purchasing the drafts drawn on foreign points in foreign currencies offered them, and for selling to their clients such drafts drawn on foreign points in foreign currencies as may be desired. I t must, however, be clearly understood that the foreign exchange banker is not merely a broker in bills, buying bills from parties who have them to sell and selling the same bills to other parties who want to buy them. Having bought exchange d a w n in a foreign currency on a foreign point, the foreign exchange banker does not resell those same bills, but instead sells a draft made by himself upon his correspondent bank abroad The balance abroad out of which these bankers' drafts are paid is being continually replenished by remittances from this side, exchange which the banker buys m $ef:$gr course of business. The foreign exchange banker, in other words, maintains a depositary abroad with whom he deposits the bills of exchange he buys and upon whom he draws the drafts which he sells hls clients. Daily these balances are being drawn upon and replenished. At all times they are maintained at a certain point,. that, of course, depending upon the standing of the banker and the extent of the foreign exchange business in which he is engaged. Some foreign exchange bankers carry balances at only one o r two of the more important foreign money centres. Others carry balances at as many as 20 o r 30 foreign th have A s a result of%t?arrangements with their foreign correspondents and balances they carry abroad, foreign ex&angp bankers at primary points are always in a tion to bu any exchange which may be % &o them, andrto sell any exchange which may be required. A large packing house in Chicago, for instance, may have made a shipment of meat to Amsterdam and as a result be offering its drafts drawn in guilders at 15 days' sight upon the buyer of the goods in Holland, o r upon some Dutch bank designated by him. Of these drafts the acker, if his standing is good, will have no d c u l t y in disposing at whatever happens to be the current rate of exchan a t the time for bills of' this character. g m e banker will readil take them off his hands, knowing that he, t i e banker, can send the bills t o his correspondent bank in Amsterdam for credit of his account, later drawing his own bills upon the balance thus created. Very possibhr at the time that he buys the bills drawn against the meat shipment, the foreign exchange banker knows of a place where he can sell drafts drawn by himself at a rate of exchange which will show him a profit on the transaction. Nor does it make any difference whether the drafts he buys are drawn against

meat or wheat or copper o r whether they are payable a t , sight o r at 15 days' sight o r at 90 days' sight All is grist that comes to the foreign exchange banker's mill. His account with his foreign correspondent is a melting pot into which he can put bills of exchange of every variety, the whole appearin after collection and discount as a cash bafance upon which he can draw his own drafts. The profit made by the foreign exchange banker comes from the fact that he can regularly secure a better rate of exchange for the drafts drawn by himself, which he sells to his clients, than he has to pa for the mercantile bills of exchange which ge buys from ather clients and with which he is continually replenishing his balance abroad. Between bankers' bills and mercantile bills, however good the latter may be, there is always a difference in the rate of exchange. Between the bill drawn b the banker of good standin and the mer& n t of good standing this difference is comparatively sli t, but as between the bill of the banker and t e merchant whose paper is not so well known, although it ma be erfectly good, there is a very considcrabre diiference in the rate. I t is just here that the foreign exchange banker makes the bulk of his profits. The bill of this mercantile house he knows is perfectly good, but because the paper is not particularly well known it does not perhaps command the full market price. This aper the banker bu s knowing that it is g o o l and that it will paid upon maturity, and against this pa r he sells his own bills at a considerably Egher rate of exchange. Aside from the trading on rates described above, there are, of course, great speculative possibilities in the forei exchange market for those who choose to them up. By buying bills, for instance, and accumulating a large balance @broad without selling his own drafts against such balance, the banker puts himself m a sition where he will greatly profit t h r o u c n y rise in rates which may take lace -or nce-versa. Foreign exchange banters, too, sell exchange for future delivery and contract to purchase drafts a t fixed times in the future, a t rates which they figure will show them a profit. These, of course, are only one o r two examples. The opportunities for speculative operations in foreign exchange are practically unlimited The par of exchange between two countries having different monetary standards as, for instance, Great Britain with the pound sterling and the United States with the dollar, is the price of the gold unit of one country expressed in the currency of the other. In a new gold pound sterling (sovereign) for instance, there is an amount of gold which, a t any sub-Treasury in the United States, is worth $4.8665. This sum is, therefore, the par of exchange between Great Britajn and the United States. From thls a r of exchange the rate fluctuates upward and g w n w a r d accordin to the supply and demand If American merclants or bankers have large payments to make on the other side and drafts d a w n in foreign currencies are in great demand, it naturally follows that the price in dollars which m k t be paid for each und sterling, mark o r franc, as the case m* will increase (that the rate of exchange will








rise). If, on the other e d ,a large amount of drafts drawn on fore~gn points in foreign currencies are being offered for sale to bankers enga ed in the foreign exchange business, it s t a n z to reason that less American dollars will be paid for each pound sterling, mark o r franc. as the case may be (that the rate of exchange will decline). The principal influences having a cause the rate of exchange at any given polnt to rise are as follows: Heavy Imports o f Merchandise.- Merchandise imported must be paid for- usually by means of a draft drawn in the currency of the country from which the ods are coming. If, thus, imports run heavy, t8:re is nece~wrily a big demand for drafts to send over to the shippers from whom the goods are coming. T h e natural effect is to cause a rise in the rate a t which bankers are willing to sell such drafts. Heavy Imports of Securities.- Exactly as merchandise imported into the country must be paid for, so securities imported into the country must be paid for. The moment a market begins to repurchase on a large scale its securities held abroad, or to purchase foreign securities, there is set up a strong demand for bills of exchange drawn on the market where the buying is being done to settle for these securities. A time whet? New York, for example, is buying stocks heavlly in London, is apt to be a t h e when the demand for sterling drafts is so great as to give the sterling exchange market a strong upward tendency. A Decline iu Money Rates Below the Level Prevdiling at Other Important Foreign Centres.-As money ratss decline there is a strong tendency for capital to seek points a t which a better rate is offered for its use. Transfer of capital can be effected only through-re mittances of exchange to points where the capital is to be .employed. A period of extremely low money rates a t a point like New York, for example, with London offering a better rate for captal, IS likely to ,be a time when there is a big demand for bllls of exchan e with which to make remittances to ~ongn. The principal influences tending to cause a declise at any given point in exchange rates are as follows: Heavy Exports o f Merchandise.- Payment for merchandise exported from the United States is made largely by drafts'drawn in the currency of the country to which the goods are shipped, upon the buyer of the goods or upon some bank abroad designated by hlm. A tlme when merchandise is moving freely out of the country is a time when a large amount of such drafts are being offered to foreign exchange bankers. The result is, naturally, to cause a decline in the rate which bankers are willing to pay for such drafts. Heavy Exports of Secwn'ties.- Securities shipped out of the country, as is the case with merchandise, are generally paid for by means of a draft drawn by the seller upon the buyer. A time when, for any reason, large amounts of stocks or bonds are being shipped out is naturally, a time when large amounts of exckange are being drawn and'offered, with a consequent decline rn the rate of exchan e. A Rise in the Rate for bfoneg Above Thai


Prevailing d Other Primary Pbints Abroad.Just as ban capital tends to flaw out of a market where e money rate is declining, M it tends to flow into a market where the money rate is rising. Let money rates a t New York, for instance, rise considerably above those prevailing in Lpndon o r Paris, and ~mmediately f o m g n capltal begins to flow this way and American bankers begin to recall to this market f o r their own use a substantial art of the funds the have been carrying abroad This recalling of ialances is effected by drawing drafts on correspondents abroad and by offering .these drafts for sale In h s market, the effect b a n g to lower the rate of exchange. There is, however, a limit beyond which, under normal circumstances, the rate of exchan e between two countries having the gold s t a n g r d cannot rise, and a limit beyond which it cannot fall. The extent to which the exchange can rise is limited by the point. a t which rt becomes cheaper for parties, havlng payments to make abroaq to send the actual gold than to send a banker S bill drawn in the currency of the place where the payment is to be made. If, for instance, a merchant in the United States having a payment to make in Great Britain finds that each pound sterling of the draft he wants to buy will cost him $4.89, he can go to any United States sub-Treasury, purchase the exact amount of gold which when l a ~ ddown abroad will yield one pound sterling, and send it to the other side at a total wst'to him of considerably less than $4.89. The American merchant's idea bein to discharge his obligation abroad with the feast possible expenditure of American dollars, he will elect to send the actual gold rather than to purchase and send p banker's draft. The extent to which the exchange can fall at a point like New York, for instance, is limited b the point at which a new gold sovereign laid Jown m N'ew York yields net a greater amount of dollars and cents than each pound sterling of a prime banker's draft drawn on London would yield. A New York bank, for example, has mon on deposit in London which it wishes to withedIaw to New York. I t will sell its drafts on1 down to the point a t which that process yielis more dollars than if gold were imported. Below that point the rate of exchange cannot fall. The above, however, applies only where there is a free interchange of gold between markets. If for any reason the natural flow of gold one way or the other is obstructed o r restricted, exchange may rise far above o r fall far below what would be the normal gold export or gold import point. By interfering with the natural outflow of gold from London through raising the discount rate and .through buying up all available supplies of gold bull~onin the market. the Bank of England, for instance, has on numerous occasions brought about a condition where the rate of exchange in N.m York on London fell far below the gold Import point without any gold being shipped to the United bpth States. Similarly the rate of exchan at Berlin and at Paris not infrequent! nses far above t h e r i n t at which gold a n be profitably exporte for the simple reason tha through the interference of the governments authorities, no gold for export can be obtained.





Under such circumstances those who have remittances to make can m l e them only by means of bills of exchange and must pay whatever price is asked. Gold exports and imports, it must be bome in mind, are exdusivelj in the hands of the bankers because it is only the banker who has the facilities necessary for dealing in bullion. Upon the exchange rate risin for instance, to the gold ex rt point, the sfipments of gold which take pcce are not made by merchants but by bankers who through thus replenishing their balances abroad keep themselves in a position to sell to merchants the needed bilk of exchange. The F t e on London at New York. for example, nses to $4.88, a t which rate conditions a t the time h a w to be such that a remittance made IIJ the form of gold and a remittance made by means of a bill of exchange cost the sender exactly the same amount of dollars and cents. At h s point bankers will begin to ship goM knowing well that they will be able to sell their st the balances thus created at a :E&rher rate than $4.86, for the simple reason that merchants, having no facilities for handling bullion, a r e willing to pay, say, a quarter of a cent in the pound sterlin in order to avold the necessity of having to S&I the actual gold themselves. The rise m the exchange to the gold export point thus means the shipping of gold on thc part of bankers, and the consequent creation of a fresh su ply of bills of exchange out of which mercantife needs are satisfied. What has been said above applies only to the exchange relationship between .countries having the gold standard o r the gold exchange standard, i.e., where the government, as in the case of the PhiIi pines o r in India, guarantees a old value to &e silver medium of exchange. h%ere the exchange relationship is between a country on the gold standard and a country on the silver standard, the dominant factor in the rate of exchange is the rice of silver. A rise in the price of silver in China, for instance, overshadows everything else as an influence upon the rate of exchange on London, and invariably causes a fall in the price at which the pound sterling will exchange for the local silver currency. Conversely a fall in silver invariably brings about a rise in the exchange. Bibliography.- Barbour, D. M. 'Standard of Value) (New York !912) ; kscher F., (Foreign Exchange Explained) (New k o r k 1917) ; Goschcn, G. J., 'Theory of Foreign Exchange' (London 1894) ; Mar~raff,A. W., (International Exchange' (ib. 1912) ; Withers, H., 'Money Changing) (London 1913). FRANKLIN ESCHER, Lecfu?er on Foreign Exchanges. 6. INVESTMENT BANKING. Investment banking is the system by which investment capital IS made available, (1) for the uses of industrial enterprise; (2) for civil loans, i.e., loans to municipalities, states and countries. An enterprise is in need of capital, or a state or county, for instance, needs money for the construction of roads or public buildin S. I t is the function of the investment banger to stand between his clients who have money to lend and the corporation o r municipality which wants to borrow, and to see that the needed capital is provided.



The whole s stem of investment banking as constituted t o - d y presupposes the ability on the part of those en aged in it to draw capital from their clients f o r whatever purpose required The X Y Z Railroad, w e . will say. which operates a system of electric lines, decides to spend a mlllion dollars on certain improvements which, it feels, will greatly increase ~ t srevenue. The road not having that much free cash on hand appeals to sqme investment banking house for the money, offering to pay for it such-and-such a ratc of interest and, as security, to give to the lenders a mortgage on the pro erty to be acquired. This proposition having t e e n made, the investment banker proceeds to make an independent examination, and, his engineers having satisfied themselves as to the safety and productivity of the loan, informs the railroad that .he stands ready to advance the capital requlred - in other words, that he will purchase from them at a certain price such-and-such an amount of bonds or stock issued under such-and-such conditions. I t is not, of course, his own money which the investment banker figures on advancing. Familiarity with the markets the price of capital and the standing of the concern which. wants to borrow enables him to estimate at just about what price he will be able to dispose of the securlties to be issued. For a certain type of stock or bond issued by a certain type of borrower, he knows his clientage will be, willin to pay just about such-and-such a pnce. figures, for instance, that, counting all costs of retaihng, he will be able to parcel out a million dollars worth of high grade bonds at a net price to him of 98. A price somewhere between 90 and 95 would, therefore, be about what he would offer the railroad for the bonds. The difference between what he paid f o r the bonds and what he got for them b distnbuting them among his clients wouldr constitute his net profit on the transaction. In theory, a corporation wanting to borrow money by selling new securities advertises in the investment market for bids and sells the securities to the highest bidder. In practice, nearly every large railroad or industnal concern has its own bankers to whom' the business is invariably given. For this there is good reason. The investment house which is going to interest its clients largely in the securities of a corporation assumes a certain moral obliation. T o be safe, in other words the banker gas got to be close to the property he is financing and to remain close to it and in close touch with its affairs. H e cannot, therefore, spread his efforts in too many directions. Gradually, m consequenc each investment banking house gathers aroun% itself a certain number of enterprises with whose affairs it is particularly familiar and whose securities it becomes particularly fitted to handle. The methods by which the investment banking house, havlng purchased and paid for a block of new securlties, proceeds to distribute these securities and thus reimburse itself,-vary according to the nature and size of the Issue. I f the issue is a very large one, the chances are that the bonds will be resold not to the individual investment public direct, but rather to a syndicate of smaller investment houses. by whom the final distribution will be effected. I f , on the other hand, the issue is a moderate









one in size, the chances are.against its passing through any other bankers' hands. The house purchasing the bonds In that .case is far more likely to offer the bonds ctrect to ~ t sown clients. There are. a number of ways in which this is done. Circularizing and direct. personal salesmanship are the two most Important. Every investment banking house of any account has a laree list of actual and prospective clients. T o this list (which in the case of some of the larger houses runs up to 20,000 o r even 30,000 names) the new securities are offered. By .no means, however, is the offerin necessanly limited to the existing list. ~ j v e r t i s i r f , both in newspapers and m a p zines, to- ay plays an important part in mvestment banlnng. Throu h it countless new names are each year afded to investment bankers' lifts and throu h it vast amounts of new securities are eac% year being actually sold. In the investment banking business the day of large profits is a thing of the past. It used to be the case.that, for the banker bringing out the secunties even of a corporation of established credit, there was a rofit running often in excess of 10 per cent. !'he establishment of public service commissions all over the country and the greater degree of supervision now exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission over the railroads' finances has put a stop to that. Industrial and manufacturing concerns, n'ot being subject to such supervis~on,are in some Instances snll bang made to pay heavil for their money, but even here the. profits o r the investment banker are nothing like what they used to be. Investment bankine is by no means to be confused with promotion-that is to say the providing of capital for new and untried enterprise. T o the investment banker of reputation and who is in the business to stay, the primary consideration is by no means the amount of the profit he is goin to make, but rather the safety and desirabifty of the investment he is offering his clients. A clientele financially strong, and which can be relied u p on at the banker's suggestion to absorb any issue of securities offered, is an asset which can $e acquired only b years of careful, patient and intelligent eJort. T h e true investment banker, having established such an outlet for any new securities he may want to handle, takes the greatest care that no securities reach clients which may impair their opinion of his own inte rity and judgment. L., 'The Bibliogra hg-. fhamberlain, Work of a Eond House' (New York 1912). Escher, F., (Practical Investing' (New ~ o r 1914) ; Lownhau t, F., 'Investment Bonds) (New York 1 ~ 5 .


ciple of off set - the application of credits to debits and the settlement of any balance remaining-as applied to banking IS defined as the clearing principle. Economically it is an evolution of the ancient S stem of barter by which goods were exchangeBfor goods, the trade being made even by giving something 'to bootn; that is, to equalize any difference in the value of the goods exchanged. In money exchanges this principle is not involved since the amount of


money given can always be made to equalize the value of the goods taken. As soon as ncgotiable instruments or substitutes for value are employed, this inequality of exchange must again be provided for as is the case with original barter, except that money instead of some other commodity is used to make the trade


Histo .-The clearing principle now in OperationTetween and among banks must have been employed as early as the general introduction of bills of exchange into the commercial world. The origin of the first clearing house in the modem sense is, however, clouded in some obscurity. London claims the distinction of having the original bank clearing house, which was organized about the year 1773. I t was the custom of the early London banks to send messengers irom one to the other, presenting checks and other bills payable a t their respective counters for payment in money. Two of these messengers, so the legend goes, formed the habit of meeting dail at a convenient coffee-house where they w o d d exchange their items, paying the difference with cash which they had brought along for the purpose. Although this plan saved considerable time and the handling of much money, the characteristic dislike of the conservative En lish banker for anything varying from establisfed custom asserted itself and the offending clerks who had thus violated precedent were r o p r l disciplined. $The merits of the idea having inally prevaile the Londqn Bankers' Clearing House was esta l~shedand is said to be the first such exchange conducted in a building set aside exclusively for that purpose. Owing to the unsettled state of finance and the lack of a coherent banking system, it was not until 1853 that the first clearing house was established in the United States, the New York Clearing House having been founded in that year. Albert Gallatin, an eminent finander, had pro sed such an organization many years earlier, e t without success. Following the example of New York similar associations were formed in other large cities and immediately after the National Bank Act had taxed State bank note issues out of existence (186344). the de~sit-and-check system of banking brought into general use so large an increase of personal checks that clearin houses multiplied very rapidly. The so-callerf~uffolksystem used by the Boston banks from 1818 to 1864 was a clearingblan adopted to facilitate the exchange and re emption of New England State bank notes, but its functions and methods were not those of the true clearin house in the i generally accepted meaning of t t e term. T h e W o r k .of the Clearing House.- The clearlng house is a plan, rather than a tangible entity, although in one sense the term is used to designate the buildin in which the actual exchanges take place, a n 1 in another the voluntary association of the banks which comprise the membership. As between any two banks, there will be a. simple offset of checks which each holds agatnst the other, paymmt of the difference or balance W i g either deferred and included in the following day's transactions or else settled daily in cash. When three or more banks are involved, and the offset is accomplished through a clearing house, the operation



of exchange is identical, except that each member bank assumes in accounting that all checks payable by its .neighbors are drawn upon but one fictitious institution - the clearing house and the bank in turn receives all checks on itsdf from the same source. This result is accomplished by putting a l l c h e c k on each other member of the d e a n n house ln S a n t e packages, Listing each totak on the ?re% side of a sheet opposlte the name o r clearmg house number of the bank on which they are drawn. The grand total is then recorded on the bank's books as gExchanges for the Clearing HouseP A t a fixed time all the banks meet at. the clearing house through them representatives, who .exchange the packages, one clerk moving around the outside of a series of desks, each of which is occupied b another clerk from the bank whose clearin gouse number is shown on a brass plate. %his clerk records in the debit column the amount of each package of checks received from the distributing messen. The result is that while each messenger f z c o m e to the clearing house with checks on every other member, he returns with cheeks on his own bank only, and this without having made a visit to each ~nstitution. The difference between the total amount brought to and taken away from the clearin house is the balance, and since the mere e x g a n g e of the items does not alter the sum of them, the total debit balances due to the clearing house by the members who have brought less than they have received must equal the sum of the credit balances which the clearing house owes the members who have brought more than they have received. This casting of total debit and credit balances is done by the manager of the clearing house and is the proof of the correctness of the exchange. With the exception of the mana er, who ma be an officer of one of the memfer bank?, a 6 the clerical work at the clearing house is done the bank clerks who make the exchanges. e exchange of the packages and the subsequent accounting consumes very little time, 10 to 15 minutes being suflicient to list the totals and strike the balances. A few hours are allowed the banks after the exchange has taken place for the settlement of balances. The general hour for the exchange is 10 A.M. and at noon all debtor banks must pay their balances in acceptable funds to the manager of the clearing house. At 1 o'clock all creditor banks send to the clearing house and receive payment for their credif. balances. Unpaid items are accounted for directly between the two banks involved and are not returned through the clearing house. The clearing house acts merely as the agent for the debtor banks and is not liable in any way for the ayment o r genuineness of the checks which gave been exchanged. Thus in a few minutes' time vast numbers of checks representing millions of dollars are presented and later settled f o r with very little actual money being necessary. The ratio of balances to clearings depends upon the relative size of the banks makin the exchanges and as a neral average set down at f o r ale clearing houses it may about 10 per cent. In New York city, which has the most notable clearing house in the country, the average extending over a period of years is less than 5 per cent.





Various methods are used in settling balances, the object being to avoid as far as possibk the use of money. Thus drafts may be used by the debtors which the manager of the clearing house deposits with one member, drawing his own drafts against this deposit in favor of the creditor banks. I n many clearing houses actual currency is used, but in others, gold and other money is deposited in the vaults of the clearing house and certificates similar in nature to warehouse receipts are issued in denominations of $5,000 or more. By using these certificates, which cannot be negotiated except by member banks, countin and recounting large sums of money is avoigd, nor is there danger of loss in carrying the money through the streets. In acting as clearing houses for their members as the Federal Reserve banks are required to do under the terms of the Federal Reserve Act, the same accounting principles are employed, with due allowance for the fact that the member banks are separated within their own districts by at least one day's mail time from their clearin house, in t h ~ sinstance the Reserve Bank f i e checks are sent by mail instead of by messenger as in the case of a local clearin house and the balances are adjusted by d%ts and credits to accounts with the Reserve Bank The 12 Federal Reserve banks also use the clearing principle in making settlement with each other through the operations of a Gold Settlement Fund held a t Washington under the supervision of the Federal Reserve Board. Each reserve bank keeps a portion of its gold reserve in the form of United States gold c a tificates on deposit in the Settlement Fund. Once a week each reserve bank telegraphs the amount owing by it to every other reserve bank. These totals are then offset and the balances are adjusted by debits and credits in the f u n d Settlements representin the exchange transactions between the d i k r e n t sections of the country are thus effected by a change in ownership of the gold which is not in any physical way disturbed. Before the establishment of this National Clearing House i t was necessary to transfer large amounts of gold and currency from one sectlon of the country to the other as the trade balance varied in accordance with the seasons Government--In order that the transactions of the clearing house may be properly conducted, certain regulations are adopted. Rules govern the nature of items which ma be passed throu h the exchanges, h o y they slall be endorse$ the hour of dearlng and settlement; fines are imposed for lateness or errors; and the k i d s of money which may be used in paying debit balances are agreed upon. This necessity f o r regulation has led to further clearing house development in whi+ the banks act as an association for uniformity and the common good. Man clearing houses receive out of town checL from their members and make collection. In this way better terms and quicker returns can be secured than if each bank acted independently. Country checks handled by a clearing house are collected and not cleared. The clearing house in this case operates as the agent of all its members and deals with the out-oftown banks much as the member banks do in


168 .




collecting checks through individual arrangement with their country correspondents. Several of the larger clearing house associations employ their own examiners who work independently of State o r Federal officials. These loci1 examiners not only make the usual audit and examination of the cash and books of the member banks, but t h y also make a careful invesbgation of the banks loans and discounts from the viewpoint of the credit risk I n this way each member bank is assured that other banks in the city are being carefully managed and in position to secure expert advice if it is needed. The records of the clearing house examiner are confidential and cannot be secured by any of the banks. All detail reports are glven to the officers and directors of the bank examined and their attention is called to any assets which are of questionable value. The judgment of the clearing house examiner is usually to be depended upon in this connection, since indirectly he represents the combined credit skill of the officers of all the banks which he mvestlgates. I t 1s a matter of record that no depositor has lost a dollar through the failure .of a bank subject to clear~nghouse examlnatlons. This s stem of examination was first adopted by the 8 k i c a g o Clearing House in 1906 I t is expected that many of the activrties of clearinq houses in the United States will radually e v e way in favor of the Reserve fanks as these in?trtutions develop in their supervlsory capau The clearing function, however, for which a% clearing houses are primarily established, is of sufficient impo~tancein banking to insure the continued existence of bank clearing houses under any present o r future banking system. B i b l i o g r a p p - Cannon, l a m e s G., 'Clearing Houses) ( ew York 190 ) ; Hallo& James C, 'Clearing Out-of-Town Checks) (Saint Louis 1903) . American Bankers Assoclation, New York. &era1 Reference Library. 0. HowWouq Carkier Philadelphia Nationd Bank; formerly S e c r e t a ~Clearing House Scctron, Amencam Bankers Associatwn. 8. BANKING I N THE UNITED STATES. Prior to the adophon of the Constitubon In 1787 there was but little banktng done, because one of the chief elements of that business - a sound and stable monetary system -was lacking, the Continental currency having; depreciated to the point of practical worthlessness. With the enactment of the law of 2 April 1792, establishing a mint and regulating the coins of the United States, a new situation was created. The Constitution itself prohibited the States, from coining money, emitting bills of credit and from making anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts. Upon .Congress was conferred, by the same instrument, sole authority to coin money and to regulate the value thereof. Early Bankin$ in the United StateaThe first banks m the United States owed their ongtn to Robert Morris and Alexander Hamilton. As early as l763 Morris had conceived the plan for establishing a bank to assist in developing American trade, and in 1779 Hamilton had proposed the organization of "The Company of the Bank of the United state^.^ Before their plans were put into



execution, however, a bank was organized, conceived in a patriotic spirit, but destined to be short-lived. I n 178Q moved by the disiessing situation m which Washin o d s army was then placed, was a clerk in the assemThomas P i n + bly of Pennsylvania, wrote to Mr. Blair .MCClenachan, m d n g a subscri tion to support the army rwitf%txessanes, a n d enclosed $500. A t a mee&ng In Philadelphia on 7 June 1780 subscriptions amounting to 5400 in specie and f103,360 in Continental money were raised. On l7 June another meetin was held, and it was resolved to increase t f e subscription to i300.000 Pennsylvania currmcy, and the fall amount was soon subscribed by 92 persops, Robert Morris and Blair McClenachan each subscribing f 10,000. This association was called the Pennsylvania Bank. I n the prqmble !o the of .Congress acceppng t h s patriohc offer of asststance it was reuted that the subscribers had Q:.a.tablisbeda bank f o r the sole purpose sf o b t u w g and trvsportlng the said supplies with the greater facllrty and despatch, And, whereas, on the one hand, the assoaators, animated to this laudable exertion by a desire to relieve the public necessities, mean not to derive from it the least pecuniary advantagq,' etc. The directors were authorized to borrow money on the credit of the bank and to issue notes bearing 6 per cent interest. All the money borrowed or received from Congress was to be used for purchasing supplies for the Continental army and otherwise aiding the patriots. Congress it was expected, would reimburse the bank for these expenditures. The bank commenced business 17 July 1780 and continued open for about a ear and a half. Its affairs were finally woundlup in the latter part of 1784. This bank was of great assistance in procuring supplies for the army that could not have been procured otherwise without the greatest difficulty. It furnished the arm 3,000,000 rations and 300 barrels of rum. h e first bank, as we have seen, had its origin in patriotic impulses, and its establishment ap ears to have been due to the suggestion of h o m a s Paine. This institution was not a modern commercial bank, however, and it was reserved for Morris and Hamilton to become the founders of the bank whose career was to be perpetuated and that was to live in the history of the country as the first regularly incorporated commerike its predecessor, it was estabcial bank, L lished to aid the cause of American independence. Years after its president, writing to the Com troller of the Currency, referred to this fact g y saying: %S bank was created avowedl to aid the United States.' L r l y in 1780 Hamilton wrote to Morris strongly urging the establishment of a national bank as one of the steps necessary to ut the country on a sound financial footing a n t to aid in carrying on the war. Hamilton was then but 23 years old, but his views revealed the possession of unusual financial talents which were to win him distinction in later years. His purpose in forming the bank was to unite the moneyed classes in the support of the government credit. The bank was to be a great trading and bankin corporation in rivate hands, but backed andpartly contro~lefby the


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BANKS AND BANKING -BANKING ernment. Hamilton's suggestions were r e newed in later letters to James Duane, a m m ber of Con ess from New York, and to Isaac Sears of X w York. T o the latter Hamikon wrote: " W e must have a bank on the true principles of a bank.B In the spring of 1781 he again wrote to Robert Morris renewing his suggestions for a national bank. Morris was then Superintendent of Finance, having been elected to that position 20 Feb. 1781. Hamilton favored a bank with a capltal of not less than $3,000,000. Morris, while coinciding with MS views in the main. thought a more modestly capitalized institution would better meet the requirements of the times. H e accordingly drew up a plan w h i i he presented to Congress on 17 May 1781. It rovided for the esbblishment of the Bank o? North America. for which a subscripbon of $400,000 was to be raised, payable in gold o r silver. Its bank notes, payable on demand, were to be receivable for duties and taxes in every State. The plan havin been approved b y Congress, the Superinten&nt of Finance published it on 28 May, accompanied by an address, in which he said: #A depreciating paper currency has unhappily been the source of infinite private mischief, numberless frauds and the greatest distress. The national calamities have moved with an equal pace, and the public credit has received the deepest injury. The exieencies of the United States require an anticlpation of our revenue; while at the same time, there is not such confidence established as will call out, for that purpose, the funds of individual citizens. The use, then, of a bank, is to aid the Government by their moneys and credit for which they will have every. proper reward and security, to gain from individuals that credit which property, abilities and integnty never failed to command, to supply the last of that paper money which, becoming more and more useless, calls every day more loudly for its final redemption, and to give a new spring to commerce, i n the moment when, on the removal of all its restrictions, the citizens of America shall enjoy and possess that freedom for which they contend" The facts above referred to in regard to the depreciation of the paper currency are substantiated from the following extracts from a newspaper of that period : "The Congress is finally bankrupt. Last night a large body of the inhabitants. with paper dollars in thelr hats, by way of cockades, paraded the streets of Philadel hia, carrying colors flying, with a dog t u r J and instead of the usual appendage and ornaments of feathers, his back was covered with the Congress paper dollars. This example was directly fob towed by the jailer. who refused accepting the bills i n purchase of a glass of rum, and afterwards by the traders of the city, who shut up their shops, declining to sell any more goods but for gaM and silver.' T h e purchasing power of government paper was a t an end, and Congress turned to a bank, oqpnized on a specie basis, for relief from the evils of a depreciated currency. O n 1 Nov. 1781 the Bank of North America was organized. Thomas Willing being chosen president, and a few days later Tench Francis was elected cashier. I t began business 7 Jan.



1782, and has continued from that time until the present, a worthy memorial to the genius and wisdom of its founders, an honor to the city of Philadekphia and always a strong s u p porter of the public credit. The Bank of North America had a charter from the Federal Congress and from the States of Delaware and Pennsylvania. I n 1864 it entered the national banking system. I n view of its age, and other circumstances connected with its hstory, it was permitted to retain its original title. All other national banks are required to have the word aNationalP as a part of their name. I n the early financial history of the United States no two names occupy a more distinguished place than those of Morris and Hamilton. The contributions of the former to relieve the sufferings of the patriots attest alike his patriotism and humanity, and he also possessed financial genius of a high order. Alexander Hamilton, as the first Secretary of the Treasury under the Federal Constitution, laid the foundations of our financial system and firmly established the public credit. On his accession to this high office it was to be expected that he would soon attempt to carry into effect his news in regard to a government .bank. Hamilton's first aim was to strengthen the Federal Union, and one of his plans for doing this was to put the public c r e h t beyond question and thus gain wnfideace f o r the new overnrnent. H e favored the payment of the foreign and domestic debt and the assumption of the State debts by the Federal government. The first proposition was readily agreed to, the latter was carried with some difficulty, and the proposal to assume the State debts was a t first defeated, but was afterward carried by an alliance formed between Hamilton and Jefferson, by which Hamilton agreed to use his influence to secure the permanent location of the capital on the P o t o m x in return for Jefferson's assistance in getting votes in Congress for the debt assumption plan. This compact was effectual. Hamilton did not consider the location of the capital as a question involving any essential principle, while he regarded the financial polic he had marked o t ~ tas being necessary to $e welfare of the country. Jcfferson and he were both members of the c a b inet, and the differences which were to divide them in later years had not yet developed. The Bank of New York, located in N m York city, is another histonc institution. I t commenced business on 9 une 1784. The constitution of the bank, Wl!ich was written by Alexander Hamilton, provided that the capital stock should consist of $500,000 gold o r silver. Though the bank commenced business in 1784 i t did not get a charter from the New York legislature until 21 March 1791. The Massachusetts Bank was 'incorporated at Boston 7 Feb. 1784 and commenced business on 5 July of that year, $253,500 of its capital , of 00,000 being paid In. ?he i n c o r y a t i o n of these banks marks the change rom the period of depredated Continental and State currency to a system of bank notes redeemable in specie. This is the beginning of an important epoch in American banking history.



FIRST BANK OF TEE UNITED STATES Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury proposed a national bank in his report for 1790. Contrasting the superiori of the proposed bank to an emission of % n i t d . States notes, Hamilton pointed out that the nght to issue paper of this character was %o certain of being abused that the wisdom of the government will be shown in never trusting itself with the use of so seducing and dangerous an experiment.P The roposed plan was arranged under 24 heads. %he capital of the proposed bank was fixed at $10.000.000: one-fourth of all the private and c o b r a t e subscriptions was to be paid in gold and silver and three-foufths in Unitrd States stock bearing 6 per cent laterest. Two million dollars were to be subscribed by !he United States, a loan of equal amount being made in return by the bank. which was to be reimbursed in 10 equal annual instalments in money or in the bonds of the government in a manner similar to that pursued by the British government u on the or anizabon of the Bank of ~ n g l a n 8or as 8 r . Hamilton described the operation, by aborrowin with one hand what is lent with the other.' %he board of directors of the bank was to consist of 25 persons, not more than threcfourths of them to be eligible for re-election in the next succeeding year. The bank had authority to loan on real estate security, but could only hold such real estate as was requisite for the erection of suitable banking houses o r should be conveyed to it in satisfaction of mortgages o r judgments. No stockholder, unless a citizen of the United States, could be a director and the directors were to give their services without compensation. The bills and notes of the bank were made receivable in payment of all debts to the .United States. T h e total amount of debts which the corporation might at any time owe in any wa except for moneys actually deposited in t k bank for safe-keeping, was never to exceed ,$lO,OOO,000 and if this limit was exceeded the d~rectorsunder whose administration the excess might occur were to be personally liable f o r the amount. T h e corporation was allowed to sell the evidences of the public debt subscribed to. its stock, but was not to purchase any publrc debt whatever. Notes were allowed to be issued, payable to any person or persons, assignable and negotiable, or to bearer assignable by delivery. The directors were permitted to establish offices for discount and deposit on1 , wherever they should think in the u n t t e i s t a t e s . A report of the conhhon of the bank was t o be furnished whenever the Secretary of the Treasury required it, but not often- than once a week The charter was to expire 4 March



Although the bill for chartering the bank was op osed by Madison and Jefferson, as well as by flandolph, the Attorney-General, Hamilton's wishes prevailed and the bill for chartering the bank became a law 25 Feb. 1791. Operation of t h e Bank-The bank went into operation very soon after the act authorizing it became a law, and before the government subscription of $2,000,000 was paid; a dividend of 4 per cent was declared in July 1792. The manner of paying the government subscription was as follows: The President

drew bills of exchange on Holland, where money borrowed in that country under the laws of 4 and 12 Aug. 1790, was lying available. These were handed to the bank and the latter issued $2,000,000 in its stock. Immediately the bank loaned 000,000 in its own bills to the Treasury anpreceived $2000,000 of United States stocks bearing 6 per cent interest, and payable in 10 equal annual instalments beginnin in 1793. The bank was very well managed a n t w a s of great benefit to the government a n d the people a t large. It assisted the Treasury with loans whenever called on and it forced the State banks to keep their Issues within reasonable bounds. I t received and disbursed more than $100,000,000 of public moneys without t h e loss of a dollar. Under the requirement that a report of the condition of the bank should be furnished to the Secretary whenever required by him, but not oftener than once a week, the Treasury records do not show that any formal reports were ever made to the 'department. The only balanced statements to be found showing the condition of the bank are two, which aFe c9ntained in letters of Albert .Galktin, Secretary of the Treasury, commumcated to Congress on 2 March 1809 and 24 Jan. 1811, respecbvely. The reports are as follows: WIIST BANK OW UNXTQ




Ra*nuaa J.nuUy. 1809 LOUMSnd d&t... ...... $15,000,000 United Statea 6 par ant. rtock ...................

2,230,000 0 t h United Stater indebb &em . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Due from o t h a W...... 600,000 Rep1 atate.. ..............


No& of other b a n h on lund ........... S W . ................... 5.000.000 Total................. $23,510,000

United Statu deposits.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Due to other b u h . .................. Unmid drafts outrtpndina. . . . . . . . . . . . .




January. 1811

$14,578,294 2,750,000 57.016 894.145



5.009.567 $24,183,016


634;YrS 171.473 .- -


The average dividends of the bank from i t s organization to March 1809 were at the r a t e of 8% per cent per annum. The 5,000 shares of $400 each owned by the United States w e r e disposed of in the years 1796 to a c o n siderable profit, 2,220 shares having been s o l d in the last-mentioned year at a premium of 45 per cent. According to the treasury records the government subscription, with the addition of the interest which was paid by the United States on stock issued for it, amounted to $3,200,000, while there was received by the treasury in dividends and from the sale of t h e bank stock at various times $3,773,580, t h e . profit realized by the government being $573,580, or nearly 28.7 per cent upon the original investment. In addition to the Act of December 1791, chartering the bank, four supplementary a c t s were passed by Congress In reference varied t h e to it: one on 2 March-Ul&-hich manner in which- the capital stock was to be subscribed for and paid in; assed in 1798 and 1807, respectively, h a v i A 3e r e n a to


BAYYO AND BhblYwa-- BANK1N G IN T#E UNITED S T A T m (8) counterfeiting its notes and a ers o r otherwise defrauding it; and one in permitting the establishment of o l k e s of deposit. and discount in the Territories and dependenc~es. Application for a renewal of the charter of the bylk was made in 1808. Secretary Gallatin, m I s annual report for 1809, favored the renewal, with certain modifications, but after a protracted debate in both Houses of Congress the application of the bank was rejected. The banlang house and most of the assets of the Bank of the United States, including over $5,000,000 in specie, were purchased by Stephen Girard, of Philadelphia, who at once started the G i r a e Bank, which, converted to a Nat~onalbank In 1865, contmues to t h s day. The purchase and transfer came about in this way. In 1810 Girard had b. e balances with the Barings, amounting to f 11301. I n 1811 the indebtedness of that firm to him was nearly fM0,000. The difficulties in trade with the Continent were great and the Barings were in danger. Mr. Girard sent two agents to L o n b n to do what they could to w~thdrawthe amount due and transmit it to America, Part of the funds were invested in goods and art in American 6 per cent stocks and u n i t e t States Bank shares, then at about $430% (B8 10s.) per share. The Barings, it will be remembered, had purchased a lar e amount of the bonk stock from the unite8 States government in 1804. The stock Girard had purchased gave him a large interest in the bank; and, in the spring of 1812, he found by consultation with George Simpson, the cashier of the old institution, that the bank building and cashier's house could be purchased for $120,000, less than one-tlurd of ~ t cost. s The purchase was made, the proper was transferred to Girard, and his new b m l commenced operations on 12 Ma 1812, with $1,200,,000 capital, which was aAerward increased to $1,300,000. Much of the business of the Bank of the United States war transferred to Girard's Bank, together with $5,000,000 in specie. The o f i n r s and employees of the old bank were retained a t the same salaries. Girard bought the stock expecting the charter of the Bank of the United States to be renewed. If this had occurred he would have made a fortune by the rise i n stock. But, as it was, he saved himself by the purchase of .the old bank. H e did not use the old circulabng notes, but pald out notes of State banks till his own were printed, which bore the device of a ship under full sail and an American eagle. The stockholders of the Bank of the United States received, on the final winding up of the institution, $434 per share, which, wlth dividends averaging about 8 per cent per annum, made it no bad investment. Many, however, had bought and sold at much higher rates some years previous to the expiration of its charter. T h e United States government sold to the Barfor a premium of 45 per cent in 1802, o r per share. I n vitw of the success of the bank, it is interesting to quote some of the expressions in regard to it, appearing in the debates in Congress. Mr. Boyd considered the bank aa great swindlg; Mr. Desha referred to the recharter proposed as one to 'foster a viper in the bosom of our countryB; Mr. Wright said the charter



was 'a cancer upon the bo$ politic.' I n the ress it was referred to as an hydra,' aa cer&rus,' a ugoqon,B a avulture? and a 'viper.' These expressions typify the preju.dice then existing. and which still e j s t s , m thls country against concentrated bank~ng power, and all the denunclat~onsabove quoted can be matched from debates and newspaper artides on banking at the present day. SECOND BANK OF THE UNITED STATES.

Early in 1814 pro sals were made to organize a national b a n r a n d on 10 February of that year a bill was introduced in the House for the incorporation of such an institution with a capital of $30,000,000, but the bill failed, and other attempts were unsuccessful also, u n t ~ l finall a bill based upon the suggestions of Mr. hallas. the Secretarv of the Treasurv. became a law' by the signat& of President ~ a d i son 10 A ril 1816. Mr. A l l a s on 6 Dec. 1815, sent to the speaker of the House a proposition relating to the national circulatin medium. H e considered four questions : d h e t h e r it was practicable to renew the circulation of gold and silver coins; whether the State banks could be successf ully employed to furnish a uniform currency; whether a national bank would be more advantageously employed for the urpose; and, la4f whether the government itseqf could supply and maintain a paper medium of exchan e. In regard to the State banks, while acknowle&ing the valuable services and liberality of some of them, he said: aThe truth is, that the charter restrictions of some of the banks, the mutual relation and dependence of the banks of the same State, and even of the banks of the different States, and the duty which the directors of each bank conceive they owe to their immediate constituents upon points of security o r emolument, interpose an insuperable obstacle to any voluntary arrangement upon national considerations alone for the establishment of a national medium through the agency of the State banks.' H e concluded against the possibility of specie alone, against government issues, and finally that a national bank was the best and perhaps the on1 resource. At the request of the National zurrency Committee of the House, Mr. Dallas, on 24 Dec. 1815, enclosed an outline of a plan for a national bank. H e pr osed now a bank for 20 years with a capital o f ~ 5 , 0 0 0 , ~ ~ ) . $7,000,000 of which was to be subscribed by the government. This might be augmented to $50,000,000 by Congress, the increase to be divided amon the States. I t was to be located in ~hiladelpaia,and could establish branches o r employ State banks as branches. I t was to pay specie at all times, and not to suspend without authority of Congress. In lieu of the loan, It was to pay the government a bonus of $1,500,000. A b ~ l lwas introduced embodying Mr. Dallas' suggestions on 26 Feb. 1816. The debate was chlefly u n a motion to reduce the capital , to @O,000,oaB" In this debate Mr. Cla spoke in favor of the bank. Two reasons gave for changing his position were that, in 1811 when he voted aga~nstthe recharter of the old bank, he was instructed by the legislature of his State to do so, and at that time he did not deem a national bank as necessary in a constitutional sense. H e then relied upon the State banks as being able to meet all the wants of




the government finandally; it now appeared that the general government could no longer depend upon them. A national bank seemed to him now not only neceksary, but indispensable. At one time Philadelphia was struck out and New York selected as the principal seat of the bank by a vote of 70 to 64, but this was reconsidered and Philadelphia replaced. The bill finally passed the House without important amendment, on 14 March 1816, by a vote of 80 to 71. I t was introduced in the Senate on 22 March and passed on 3 April with one o r two ainendments that, when the bill came to the House next day, Mr. Calhoun pronounced to be slight Upon 5 April the were concurred in and on 10 April the b i g received President Madison's signature. P r o g s i o n s of t h e Char+-.: The charter was lirmted to 20 years, expinng on 3 March 1836. The ca ital was fixed at $35,000,000, $7,000,000 of w P i d was to. be subscnbed by the Evernment, payable in coin o r m stock of the nited States bearing interest a t 5 per cent, and redeemabje a t the pleasure of the government. The remaining stock was to be pubscribed for by individuals and corporations, one-fourth being payable in coin and threefourths in coin o r in the funded debt of the United States. Five of the directors were to be appointed by the President, and all of them were re uired to be resident citizens of the Un.ited gates, and to seme without compensation. The amount of the indebtedness, exclusive of deposits, was not to exceed the c a p ital of the bank The directors were empowered to establish branches, and the notes of the bank, payable on demand, were receivable in all payments to the United States. The penaty for refusi to pay its notes o r deposits m coln, on d e m a n z was 12 per cent per annum until fully paid The bank was r uired to give the necessary facilities, without e%arge, for transferring the funds of the government to $ffer ent portions of the Union and for negotlatlng public loans. The moneys of the govenunent were to be deposited in the bank and its branches, unless the Secretary of the Treasury should othemise direct. No notes were to be issued of a less denomination than $5, and all notes smaller than $100 were to be made payable on demand The bank was not directly or indirectly to deal in anything exce t bills of exchange, gold o r silver bullion, g d s pledged for money lent, o r in the sale of goods really and truly pledged for loans, or of the roceeds of its lands. No other bank was to establi!hed by authority of Conpess during the continuance of the corporation, except such as might be organized in the District of Columbia with an aggregate capital not exceeding, $6,000,000; and, in consideration of all the grants of the charter, the bank was to pay to the United States a bonus of $1,500,000 in three annual instalments. Mr. Dallas, whose first lan for a national bank was so unceremoniousg rejected was a p pointed Secretary of the Treasury by b r . Madlson In February 1814. HIS predecessor, Mr. Gallatin, who had been appointed Commissioner to Russia to negotiate a treaty of pesce and commerce with Great Britain and treaty of commerce with Russia, left the country in May 1813, and ,the Treasury without a head.


I n June the Senate refused to confirm Mr. Gallatin as commissioner, and Madison still regarded him, though absent, as head of the Treasury. Under these circumstances Mr. Mason moved a resolution in the Senate on 24 Jan. 1814, declaring the secretaryship of the Treasury vacant, but the subject was postponed inasmuch as it was authoritatively announced that the President would appoint a secretary in a few days, whiih promise was fulfilled. The Bank Commences Business.- Section 22 of its charter requrred the bank to commence operations by the first Monday in April 1817. The bank went into operation on 7 Jan. 1817. This was at the worst stage of the monetary troubles, beginning with the suspension of specie payments in 1814 and continuing until the eneral crash in 1819 and 1820. At this time Tands and agricultural products had fallen to one-half the prices which were readily obtainable in 1806 and 1810, and to one-third of the value they possessed when the excessive indebtedness of the people was incurred namely, during the inflation years of the State banks. The contraction of the circulation and the general failures of the State banks began in 1818. T h e second United States Bank, therefore, came into existence on the very verge of a great monetary crisis. When it commenced business the first instalment of capital, amounting to $1,400.000 in specie and $7,.000,0(i0 in U n ~ t e d States stocks, had been pald. The subscription had been opened 7 July 1816. The payment of the second instalment of capital became due on 7 Jan. 1817. The law required this to be paid $10 in specie and $25 in United States stock o r specie. I t appears, however, that instead of requiring the stockholders to pay in this instalment from outside sources, the bank on 7 January began to discount the notes of stockholders upon the pledge of their stock to the amount required to pay the specie part, and in some cases to the full amount of both specie and United States stock required to m+ce up the whole instalment. After a time discounts were made to the full value of the stock, which enabled the stockholders not only to pay up in full, but even to draw out what they had first advanced. The discounts were made in the bank's bills, which were considered equal to specie. Of the

appears to have actually received nearly $2,000,000 in S e d e and $13,872,610 in public stocks. The didrence represents about the amount made up by stocks. The bank, therefore, was forced to import the coin it neede and up to govember 1818, had thus ac uire $7,311,750 e at an expense of $ 5 2 ? ~ 7 . m S G u i a t i o n in Bank's Stock- The directors of the new institution appear to have made every effort to boom the stock in the market. Not only did they afacilitate" the payments of the instalments by discounting to the full amount of the stock, but they also encouraged trading in stock by authorizing the renewal of stock notes as they fqll due and by permitting the purchaser to substrtute his note, secured by the purchased stock, for that of the previous holder. Further than this, they soon began to authorize discounts on pledge of stock to its




full market value. One could purchase bank shares without the advance of a cent. I t was only necessary to apply for a loan upon the security of the shares to be bou ht, and pay for the stock with the proceeds. b h e n the price of shares rose sufficiently a sale could be made and the difference pwketed It appears that the president, William Jones, and a number of directors and officers, especially those connected with the Baltimore branch, had direct personal interest in these transactions, which they did not pretend to conceal, but considered as lawful rivate concerns. The stock rose as bigh uJl% per share ln Au ust 1818, but loon after f to about $110. w k l e there were no doubt gross irregularities in its management, for which the bank was soon to suffer, it did much good even under these disadvantages. I t received upon deposit from the United States Treasury the notes of State banks, and in return furnished a uniform currenc . I t transferred funds whenever needed, a n d t h e amouot paid in in United States stocks had its effect m enhancin the credit of the government loans. I t exert.$ sufficient influence upon. the currency to make itself very unpopular wlth the State banlrs during the financial crisis of 1818, although those even who were hostile to it admitted its policy toward the State institutions had been marked by great consideration and lenity. In fact, on this point its enernles were obliged to fall back on the.charge that by this and conslderabon ~t had led the State ba S to unduly extend their business, had drawn them into temptation and made them unfit to meet the financial storm. I t did not accustom the local banks to pay specie soon enough, and by utting off the evil day found them unprepared'at last. Up to ~ u g u s t1818 the bank redeemed its notes, both of the parent bank or its branches, at any of its offices where the might be resented, but after that date redemed its bil& only at the office which put them in circulation. This chan e was made because the bills were largely usef for purposes of remittance, and in the localities where a sound local currency was most needed the bills were gathered up and sent off, leavlng the field to the inferior State bank circulation. A more important reason was that the change enabled the bank to realize a profit by the sale of its d r a f t s This change was persevered in and afterward afforded the basis of President Jackson's assertion that the bank did not furnish a uniform currency. Although some losses were sustained by the Baltimore branch of the bank, the ins~fution went along without encountering any particular political hostility until 1829, when President Jackson in his annual message to, Congress raised the question of the constitutionality of the bank, claiming at the same time that "it has failed in the great end of establishing a uniform and sound currency." He suggested that if a national bank was necessary one might be devised founded upon the credit of the government and its revenues, thus avoiding the question of constitutionality. At the beginning of the administration of General Jackson, says Mr. Parton, the Bank of the Umted States was a truly imposing institution. Its capital was $35,000,000. The public money deposited in its vaults avenged




six o r seven millions; its private deposits six millions more; its circulation twelve millions; its discounts more than forty millions a year; its annual profits more than three millions. Its capital was, therefore, about one-quarter, and its loans, circulation and deposits about onefifth of the whole amount held and issued by all the banks of the country. Besides the parent bank at Philadelphia, with its marble palace and 100 clerks, there were 25 branches In the towns and cities of the Union, each of which had its president, cashier and board of directors. The employees of the bank were more than 500 in number, all men of standing and influence, all liberall salaried. In every State of the Union a n d m man foreign nations of the globe were stockhorders of the Bank of the United States. One-fifth of the stock was owned b foreigners. One-tenth of its stock was heldr b women, orphans and trustees of charity funis. Its bank notes were as good as gold in every part of the country. From Maine to Georgia, from Georgia to Astoria, a man could travel and pass these notes at every point without discount, and it is said that in London, Paris, Rome, Cajro, Ca!cutta, Saint Petersburg' and other prominent cltles, the notes of the Bank of the United States were within a fraction more o r a fraction less than their value a t home, according to the current rate of exchange. They could actually be sold a t a premium at the remotest commercial centres. I t was not uncommon for the stock of the bank to be sold a t a premium of 40 per cent. The directors of the bank were 25 in number, of whom five were appointed by the President of the United States. The bank and its branches received and disbursed the entire revenue of the nation. The first real attack upon the second Bank of the United States originated in a political controversy. eremiah Mason had been elected president of e branch of the bank at Portsmouth, N. H. On his accession to this position he instituted some reforms in the management which rendered him unpopular. This gave to Levi Woodbury, a political antagonist, an opportunity to demand his removal. The charges against Mason and others of like nature affecting the branches in Kentucky and Louisiana were transmitted by Secret'a Ingham to Niehobs Biddle, president qf bank The attacks upon Mason and the Portsmouth branch continued and grew more violent, and the politics! hostilit of President Ja+n was lncreaslng. I n iis message for 1831 he again called the attention of Congress to the question of recharter. A bill with this object in view passed both Houses of Congress in the following year, but was vetoed by President Jackson



l0 &lyJac on's inconsistency in his message and in his veto are thus summed up. In 1829, when the charter had yet seven years to run, he calls attention to the necessity of prompt action as to the recharter in order to avoid precipitancy. I n 1830 when the charter had yet six years to run, he advocates timely action. In 1831, there being five years more, he reiterates his previous advice; but, in his veto in 1832, when four years only remain to the bank, he says there IS no need of haste. But although the veto was exceedingly d-




nerable from almost every standpoint, it served its purpose in arousing the popular feeling against the bank and in favor of Jackson. Benton, .who in the Senate defended the veto against the attacks of Webster, Clay, Calhoun and Ewing, voiced the whole spirit of the party he represented when he said: UYou may continue to be for a bank and for Jackson, but you cannot be for this bank and f o r Jackson. The bank is now the open, as it has long been the secret, enemy of Jackson. The war is now upon Jackson, and if he is defeated all the rest w ~ l l fall an easy prey. What individual could stand in the States against the power of that bank, and that bank flushed with a victory over the conqueror of the conquerors of Bonaparte? The whole Government will fall into the hands of the moneyed power. An oligarchy would be immediately established, and that oligarchy in a few generations would ripen into a m ~ n a r c h y . ~ The bill for the recharter could not secure the necessary two-thirds vote for the passage over the veto. Nor did the supporters of the bank full7 realize, even then, the effect of the Presidents op sition. They thought the disgusted at Jackson's unpeople would reasonable attitude. Nicholas Biddle wrote to Clay that he was delighted with the veto. The campaign of 1832 was fought on the bank issue. I t was the hero of New Orleans against the 'monster monopoly.' I t was Jackson like a hero of romance fighting against UOld Nick's M o n e r and aClay's Rap.) The bank, having foolis ly gone into politrcs, was defeated and Jackson again elected. The support of the people was at once claimed for all past and future warfare on the bank, and the result of the election sealed its doom. The attack promised on the stump began at once. I n his message in 1832, after his re-election in November of that year, the President a p i n fulminates against a recharter of the instituhon, recommending that the seven millions of stock of the bank held by the United States should be sold, and going further intimates that the United States deposits in the bank were not safe. H e either was o r affected to be impressed with the idea that so long as the bank was the holder of the public funds it might use them to corrupt Congress to secure an extension of its existence. In consequence of the message bank stock fell from 112 to 104. A Treasury agent who made an examination of the institution reported it solvent and the stock went back to 112. Congress did not coincide with the views expressed by the President, and refusing to sell the bank stock, passed a resolution, by a vote of 110 to 46, of confidence in the safety of the deposits. The President had made up his mind to cripple the bank b taking away from it the public deposits, andl the then Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Duane, refnsing to carry out his wishes, he was superseded by Attorney-General Taney, who on 26 Sept. 1833, issued the order for the removal. In consequence of this act, the followin resolution was introduced in the Senate by J r . Clay: uThat the President, in the late executive proceedings in relation to the public revenue, has assumed on himsdf authority and ower not conferred by the Constitution and k s but in derogation thermf.n


This, known as the acensure' r e s o l ~ t i o n ,was ~ passed by a vote of 26 to 20. On 28 March, 1834, this resolution was expunged from the records of the Senate. Jackson's opposition, on one ground o r another, continued, and the bank gave up all hopes of obtainin a new lease of life, but on 13 Feb. 1836, 13 faYs before the expiration of its charter, obtained a charter from the legislature of Pennsylvania. The subsequent career of the bank was short and disastrous. A constantly increasing amount of loans on stocks gradually tied up its resources, so that by 1840 it was found that the assets of the institution consisted chiefly of all kinds of internal improvement stocks and bonds as well as of State stocks and bonds and bank stocks. But the United States was not a loser by the bank's failure. The $7,000,000 of stock held by the United States, previous to the change to a State charter, was paid back in full, and the government realized a handsome profit on its investment, a s will ap ear by the following statement derived from tKe records of the Treasury Department: Bonu mid b y , h k to the United States. . $1.500.000 00 Dividends recerved from the bank.. . . . . . . . 7.118.416 29 Proasds of .tack .old and other money6 received fr- the banL.. . . . . . . . . 9,424,750 7 8




Total ............................$18,043,167 07 9uhscriprionto capital atoclC paid in United ' Stata. S ,ant h&. . . . $7,000.000 Interest m d by Unrted St.on same .................. 4.950.000

. .


11.9!iO.006 00

The history of the United States Bank under its Pennsylvania charter, subsequent to the crisis of 1837, was a most disastrous one. I t suspended specie payments during the ticklish period from 1837 to 1841 as often as other State banks, and finally went down under circumstances that might, with prudent management, have been turned to a successful result. I t made three several assi ments in 1841 to secure various liabilities. .the E t and final assignment bein on 4 September of that year. l%e final result of the liquidation of the bank was briefly stated in a letter from Thomas Robins, Esq., then president of the Philadelphia National Bank who was the last survivor of its numerous assignees : aAll the circulating notes of the Bank of t h e United States, together with the deposits, w e n paid in full, principal and interest, and the accounts of the assignees were finally settled m 1856. There were no funds, and no dividend was paid to the s t e q l d e r s of the bank; the whole twenty-elght nullions of dollars were a total loss to them.n Nicholas Biddle was president of the bank from January 1823 to Mareh 1839, being president of the Bank of the United States until its charter expired in 1836, and for the next three years president of the United States Bank. of Pennsylvania. At the tlme of h ~ sreslpatxon the shares were selling at 111, having In 1837 sold at 137; but, in 1843, after the failure, its shares were quoted at 1% per cent. Both the first and second Banks of t h e United States were killed by the prejudice against banks which exists m an even greater




1 First H a t i d Bank, Y o n g t o m , 0. (Albert Irhn. &eh&) 2 Saond N a b o d Bank, Borton. Mm. (Parker. Thomu and Rice. Archb.)

Digitized by


a.; -1: 1 -..-' -



I ? h t National B m k ol Dsnwr, Dearer Cob (We & AUmd CO Archta.) ~ m s CO., t W d. C. '(B.&fey mmmam, h t )

t ~nitm~



r P n c * D L -









extent to-day. T h e fall of the latter institution was hastened by bad management.

,000,000 in 1834 to $24,RN,000 in 1836. These ater receipts were almost altogether in bills of State banks; and thus the consequent difficulty in securing specie, and the losses incurred from bank failures, impelled the President (Jackson) to cause the Secreta of the Treasury to issue, on 11 uly 1836, x e celebrated specie circular forbi ding the recei t of anything but specie in payment of the pubyic lands. H e also pocketed a bill passed by Conpess to com el the receipt of the notes of speue-paying d s .


The order for the removal of the ublic deposits from the Bank of the United h a t e s was dated 26 Sept. 1833. After this date the money collected from customs and other sources of revenue was. no longer paid into the Federal bank, but was deposited with selected State banks. called 'bet banks' bv the o ponents of the Adkinistratibn The payment INDEPENDENT TREASURY SYSTEM. of the ublic debt and the reat increase in the Following experiences with the Bank of the sales o f public lands causedthe surplus of revenue over expenditures to increase in an un- United States and the State banks as cusprecedented manner. . The Bank of the United todians of public funds, the Independent TreasS tem, by which the government might States in its most prosperous days had never had n! its vaults much over $8,000,OWof the ;ze c g r g e of its own funds, &me into existthough the law public moneys at any one time; but by 1 Nov. ence by the Act of 4 July 1W, 1836, 88 State banks in 2+ States with a capital was repealed in the following year, and was of 7,576,449, held pubhc deposits amounting not aqain re-enacted until 6 Aug. 1846. T h e to g9,377,!)86. Their ordinary individual de- . o eratlons of this law were substantially sits at the same time were only a little over J a n g e d by the National Curremy Act of 1861, &,CKXl,@. That there was any very clear and the latter in turn by the Federal Reserve apprehms~onof the extent to which -this ac- Act of 1913. . The method of handling the Treasury recumulation of wealth would take place may be doubted, but it is certain that as early as 1829 ceipts has been the sub'ect of much criticism. there were calculations made upon an antici- Instead of depositing the public funds in the pated surplus of revenue as an aid to party banks in the ordinary course of business, to be advancement, either by means of the bank o r drawn against as needed, it has long been the in spite of it. The financial stringency of 1834 practice of the Secretary of the Treasury to indicated that the removal of the ublic funds make large withdrawals and deposlts in bulk. t o the State banks had seriously 8sturbed the Very often the deposits have been made for the usual course of loans, and the consequent sufurpose of affording relief to the money marfering started a demand for the distribution of {et or for assisting in moving the crops a d the accumulating surplus among the several sometimes- in the attempt to prevent States. The S b t e banks had thrown their in- That the system has worked badly is the Ei'zi flumce ag;unst the Federal bank in aid of the of those most com etent to judge. I t has been Administration, apd they were allowed to reap remedied in part y! the Federal Reserve Act their reward by the use of the public moneys (q.v.), but the Secretary of the Treasury is still entrusted to them as a basis of extending their clothed with large discretionary powers in loans and for enormous issues of their own handling the public funds. Charges have been notes. Banks were started for the sole pur- made at times that the surplus revenues were pose of issuin notes that mi ht be turned in being employed for the benefit of Wall street a t the land A c e s for public E n d Good land y l a t i o n , and a t others that they were being office money was the test of the credit of a bank eposited 1n banks in certain localities for bilL Speculators thus obtained vast tracts of political effect. Whatever truth there may be valuable land. The notes appeared to go In these charges, it is certain that the alternate through the hands of innocent third arties. deposit and withdrawal of large amounts of When the bank failed, as it usually d?d, the ublic funds have exercised an artificial inTreasury bore the 10s. Even in Iess flagrant Ruence on the money market. This would be cases the bank credit enabled immense territory obviated were the receipts of the government to be held for speculation, keeping out actual deposited in the banks and withdrawn in the settlers. Under this stipulation the receipts ordinary course in accordance with usual busifrom the sales of public lands rose from about ness practice. Banking p w e r of the United States, 20 June 1917:


(Money columrrs in rnilliona)



Capital pud in

Surplus and profits

circulat~on and ~edetal raarve mte4







Grand total... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.765 $2.649.7 $28.281.1 $1.160.9 $34.473.1 Includa &+den& unpeid, p t a l rnvingr and United Stata deponit.. but not amounts due to b a t h . in cue of r a a ~ r e d y m t r m hF d d r r r m b u r b , w h i c h b . n h u r r s q d t o - t . i a h g o M ~ d h M m o n e y arrsavcdnot ~iA%Z't&oP&!%tc.,

of reporting p + a





Banking Statistic8.- Statement of the principal items of tesource~and liabilities of 27,935 reporting banks, including the Federal reserve banks in the United States and island possesdons June 1917: 27.923 reporting b a n b June 20. 1917

M u c m

Lonna and discounts.. ..................... OwTdrdta ................................ Inventments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Banking home, furniture and fixtures.. . . . . . . Other d ratate owned.. .................. Duefmm h k s ........................... Checks and other cnsh items.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exchangca for clearing h o w . . .............. Caah on hand.. ........................... Other remurces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total rmourcos.. ....................


$20,594,228,088 47,199,175 8,003,819,982 709,065,343 155,901,863 4,793,167,162 272.608.629 486.082.803 1,502,502,076 564.188.012

l 2 Federal raem bsnka I June 22. 1917

91 92 W SS 77 83 09 20 06 08

$435.287,0q0 00

.................... .................... '198,381,000 00 .................... ....................

S37.126.763.138 31

S1.999.642.000 00

.................... 117.362.000 00

1,247,698.000 00 908.000 00


Capital stock paid ~n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,274,200, 153 48 1,945,543,680 73 h $ u s .................................. Un 'vided profit... ........................ 674.190.643 25 National bank circulation. ................. 660,431,000 00 D u e t o b a nks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,913,944,423 51 Fsdenrl werve pote circulation. ................................ Dividend8 unpud. ........................ 4.585.947 01 Deposib ................................. 26,289,708,159 14 Unded States deposit.. .................... 132.W5.000 M P d - s a v i n p d d t s . . ................... 101.873.406 56 16T,470,882 78 N o t a and brlb r d b m u n t e d . ............... B i b payable.. ............................ 317.853.113 00 Other liabilitia. .......................... 643,996,726 85 Total liabilities. ....................... 1



S21,029.515.088 47,199,175 8,121,181,982 709.065.343 153.901.863 4.991.554.162 212,608,629 486.082.803 2,750.200.076 565.096.012

91 92 90 55 77 83 09 10



W 08

2,377,000 00

$2.331,371.153UI 1.945.543.680 73 674,190.643 25 660.431.000 00 4,857,734,423 51 500,497,000 00 4.585.917 01 26.289.708.159 14 628,772,000 00 101.873.406 56 167,470,882 78 317.853.113 00 646,373,728 85

S1,999.642.000 00

$39,126,405,138 31

.................... ....................

.................... a943JW.000 M 1500,497,000 M

.................... .................... 495,807.a)O 00 .................... ....................


$37,126,763,138 31

Toas 27,9JS banks

Unmllectcd itenu and due from other Federal reserve banka. Due to members-reserve account $=209.000, and collection items. (137.581.MX). Includa $766,000 Federal rc*en;e bank notra

Number of savings banks in the United States, number of depositas, amount of s a wd y t s , average amount due each depositor in the years 1903 to 1917, and average per capita in the mted States in the years given




1903 1904 ...................................... 1905.. .................................... 1906.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1907.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1908. ..................................... 1909 ...................................... 1910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1911 ..................................... 1912 .................................... 1913 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1914 ...................................... 1915.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



1916 1917



Mutual savings banks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stock savinp banks 1 . . ............... Mutual savings banks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stock savings banks l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.078 1,157 1.237 1.319 1.415 1.453 1.703 1,759 1,884 1.922 1.978 2.100 2.159 1.242 622 1 1.185

7,03s.zzs 7,305,443 7,696,229 8.027.192 8,588,811 8.705.848 8.831.863 9.142.908 9.794.647 10,010,304 10.766.936 11.109.499 11,285.755 8,592,271 2.556.121 8,935.05.' 2,431.958

$ 3,412,137,198 3,690,078,945 3.660.553.945 3.713.105.710 4,070,486,246 4,212,583,596 4.451.818.522 4,727,105,950 4,936,591, M 9 4,997,706,013 4,186,976,600 901,610,694 4,422,489,381 905,532,890


AT in the Un~ted States

A ~ e r a g c per cap'ta

due each depositor

$417 418 423 433 429 420 420 445

21 89 74 79 64 47 45 20 430 09 444 72 439 07 4 U 35 44283 487 30 352 72 494 96 109 35

~6 37 39 41 42 41 41 45 44 46 48 49 49

52 52 17 13 87 M 75 05 82 53 56

a5 91

......... ......... ......... .........

The relatively small amount of deposit. reported for stock savings banka k due to the fact that the returns from many

States indude t h i clam of banks m t h commercral banb. 3 Includes time degositq. $9,889,107, and mmmercial deposits amounti to $47 374 709.. 169 b a n b with eposlta ting $41:8?6.000 and depositon n u m x i n g i34.670. ~ncludedwith figurea for +ck savings banks in 1916, an inc-th daturtrcs for State b a n h for the c t year for the repson that State h n h n p

departments did not compile the returns separately. No~p.-,In the assrmblin of data in relation to pavings banks the cloasification of bpnks an made by the State bankinn departments P closely followuf, in m n s q u m a of whlch a number of -1led State sanngn b s n h formerly treated by the comptroller of the currency o h arr savings b a n k , are n o r regarded u oommercid banks. and &a ratthadrwa us combined with the latter. In the forrgoin t a b k the 6gutw for l 9 W to 1908. incl*ve, +t not a h q a e n t l y , include the number of d u a n d the amount of !-its in the State banks of Illino~shasavings department. tmt n* the numberof such b a n k by reof the fact that general returns from these institution. am boorpatadin &a& hnh'returns.





rred for business on 16 Nov. 1914. Stataments of their assets The 12 Federal reserve banks and liabilities are issued week1 e d d a t e d statements of the banks for the stated date in November 1914, 1915, 1916 andr 1917 are as follows:


27 Nov. 1914

24 Nov. 1916

26 Nov. 1915

16 Nov. 1917


&Id. ......................................... $227.840.000 $321,068,000 $459,935,000 S1,584,328,000 17,974,000 O t h a h w f u l m o n ey ............................. 37.212.000 52,52S,000 34,650,000 122,593,000 Bills d i t a l and bought.. .................... 681,719.000 48.973.000 1.3133.000 United Sta- bonds.. 1 241,906,000 39,427,000 12.919.000 11.167.000 .............. h e - y e u t r m m a r y n o ten ................................................... 22,166,000 27,308,000 avrontr .......................................... 1,273,000 15,414,000 .............. ---net. .................................. 19.176.000 43.263.000 D u e f n n n ~ ~ ~ h ......................... - w t .............. 14.053.000 Mother ................................. 165,000 22.111.000 2.121.000 4.633.000 128,544,000 Uncnllsteditanu......................................................................


F22 Totd





................................. 'S18,a50.800


$485.342,000 ~!i4,&S.000


...................................... 26.319.000 15.000.000 r+ -net. t.hrrbonk. ................... 249,268,000 397,952.000 637,072,000 .................................................. Dnstomsmberand non-

Goscmmat de



~ c m bank k

14,296,000 F e d d r r r r v s n o t a - n e t , ...................... 13.38S.000 2,700.000 Federal b.nk mta m ckadarion.. ................................... 1,028.000 M o t h a l i n b i l i t i a ........................................... 634.000 4.159.000 Collstionitemr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$66.691.000 218.887.000


1,S01.423.000 1972.585.000 8,000.000 4.383.000 240,437,000

Total.. .................................... S270.018.000 $185,342,000 $735,060,000 S3.012.106,000 1 In . c L d ckcddom. UPitsd S W p-mart bq#and chcrt tann m o d t i a .


COMPARATIVE S T A ~OF~~ ~N S O~ U P C EAND S L I A B I L ~ EOF S ALL BANKS 1914-1917. The following statement shows the princi 1 items of resources and liabilities of national and other banks (Federal reserve banks not included) g r the years 1914 to 1917 : C~&srna~~ox 1914 (26,765 h h )1 1915 (27.062 b b )j 1916 (27.513 banh) 1 1917 (27.923 h n h )


Rm0vna.S b a n s and discount.. . . . . . . . . . . . $15,288,357,283 O d dts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51,120,621 Bordsstoch.ndotheraeuritia.. 5,564,924,886 Due from 0 t h and h n k e n . 2.872.697.225 Real estate, furnttun. etc.'. ...... 739,679,596 C h s h d o t h r a u h i t e n u .... ~ 520.995.362


Capital stock paid i n . . ......... slrpl~ fund. ................. Other undivided profits..


Circulation (notional hub).... Dividmdr unpaid.............. Individual d o e t . . ............ Piutal-cnvinpl depqib. United Stata de Due to other b a n r , " d . & i & ; ; . : Other liabilities................


Total.. ................... .l~26.971.398.030% l~27.804,129.67756 I$ 93 1 Indnda

other d eatate 04.Includa ~ b m p far a clarinp house.


Editor The Bonkers' Mogarine. g. THE NATIONAL BANKING sysTEM. At the outbreak of the Civil War the statesmen of that epoch were confronted .with financial problems of first magnitude. Should they m e t them by the usual expedient of r e sorting to lar e issues of paper money o r adopt some safer method? In his annual report for 1861 Secretary Chase declared against the issue of legal-tender paper and proposed a banking system whose principal features would be a circulation of notes bearing a coma a n impression and authenticated by a cornmon authority; sesond, the redemption of these notes by the assouations and institutions to which they may be delivered for .issue; and, third. the security of that redemphon by the -3-12


$37.126.763.138 31

Includes discounts.

pledge of United States stocks and an adequate provision of specie. The Secretary declared that the proposed notes would, in his judgment, 'form the safest currency ~ h l c h this country has ever enjoyed; while their receivability for all government debts, except customs, would make them, wherever payable, of q u a l value as a currency in every part of the Union.. The statesmen of the Civil War epoch in formulating the financial policy that was to assist the nation through this perilous period ve full weight to the inborn American p r t Eection against concentrated banking power, and instead of establishing a powerful bank of issue, which might have been of inestimable service in steering the lumbering ship of state through the stormy waters, and whose cur-




rency based upon commercial transactions and gold might have stayed the ruinous rise in prices and vastly reduced the war outlay, d e liberately committed the country to a system of small scattered banks and to the shifting sands of government paper currency. The po!icy then decided upon has continued to domlnate the banking situation for the past 50 years. All attempts to substitute a bank currency for government paper have proved futile. No subject connected with the Civil W a r finances has been more fiercely debated than the departure from what many regarded as sound financial policy in refusing to depend upon the banks and in resorting to the issue of legal-tender Treasury notes. Yet the latter policy was not the one originally contemplated by Secretary Chase and others who had the !ha 'ng of the finances of the war. Mr. Chase in 6 s report of 1861 h a d recomnpded a system of nat~onalbanks wlth note Issues based upon the public stocks, and Mr. Spaulding had been asked to draw a bill to carry out this recommendation. H e fulfilled this duty, but before the measure was introduced in the House it became evident that it could not be enacted in time to be of service to the government in the dire straits in which it was A section of Mr. S aulding's /$$oviding for the incidentar issue of Treasury notes was substituted for the banking bill and, in a form slightly altered from the ori 'nal draft, became a law. Tn his introduction to the 'Financial History of the War,' p. 1, Mr. Spaulding says: %e first materid mistake in the management of the finances occurred when Secretary Chase discarded the use of the bank check and the clearing-house in the fall of !%l. This mistake occurred under the following circumstances : 'Two important loan acts were passed at the extra sessions of Congress in July and August 1861. The first act was approved 17 July and the second 5 August. By section six of the last-mentioned act, the Sub-Treasury Act, assed in 1846, was so far suspended as to a l b w the Secretary of the Treasury 'TO deposlt any of the mone s obtained on any of the loans now authorizediby law, to t h credit ~ of the Treasurer of the United States, m such solvent specie-paying banks as he may select; and the said mone S, so deposited, may be withdrawn from su& deposit, for deposit with the regular authorized depositories, or for the payment of public dues, or paid in the redemp tion of the notes authorized to be issued under this act, or the act to which this is supplementary. payable on demand, as may seem expedient to or be directed by the Secretary of the Treasury.) UThe primary object, which Mr. Appleton and myself had in view, in preparing this section, was to relax the rigid requirements of the Sub-Treasury Act in regard t o the receipt and disbursement of coin and instead of paying solely from coin deposits in the Treasury, to allow all the money obtained on these loans to be deposited in solvent banks; the United States Treasurer to draw his checks directly on such deposit banks in payment of war expenses, which ch* would be paid in State bank notes then redeemable on demand m gold, o r in the ordinary course of business, to


a large extent, they would pass through the New York Clearing-House and the clearinghouses of other citia and be settled and cancelled b;y offset without drawing large amounts of specie. This mode of payment would have enabled the Secretary more easily to effect such b a n s and make his large disbursements without materially disturbin the coin reserves held by the banks, were then well protected by these reserves in their vaults. 'This mode of making the disbursements for the large war expenses was regarded by me at that early period of the war as of vital consequence to the stability of the finances of both government and ople; hence the preparation and adoption o E h e sixth section of the Act of 5 Aug. .1861, giving the Secretary of the Treasury Qscret~onary power to suspend the Sub-Treasury Law in respect to these loans. 'After the battle of Bull Run, which occurred on the twenty-first day of July of that year, the necessities of the government in clothing, arming and feedin troops - in providing munitions of war a n t building a navybecame so urgent that-the banks in New York, Boston and Ph~ladelph~a most patnotically came forward and made arrangements in several negotiations with Secretary Chase to loan the governmant $150,00,000 under the provisions of the two loan acts passed at the extra session. Of this sum $105,000,000 was ap ortioned to the associated banks in the City of Rew York, payable by instalments. The banks were. then in good condition, transacting their buslness on a S ecie basis, and paid coin for all balances at Qe clearing-house, and redeemed their circulating notes in coin, and the loan to the government was made with the expectation that the money would be deposited in the banks, and be checked out under the direction of the Secretary, in pursuance of the sixth section above referred to. The Secretary of the Treasury refused to use the discretionary power conferred upon him by that section, and would not check on the banks for the expenses of the war, so that current bank notes could be paid o r balances settled through the clearing-house, but insisted that the banks should pay the money loaned into the Sub-Treasury in gold o r gold Treasury notes, and from thence it was distributed for war purposes and scattered in different parts of the country. B far the greater part of this loan was p a d in gold coin; taken from the reserves of the banks, commencing on the nineteenth of August 1861. This unnecessary mode of r uiring the payment of the loans so weaken3 the banks that it brought on a general suspension of specie payment$ during the last days of December 1861.' Notwithstandin the banks commenced making advances to t%e government about 19 Aug. 1%1. yet none of the securities to be issued by the government for the loans was turned over to them until 14 Jan. 1862. 'The banks having been committed to making the loans, and having made partial advances on account of the same, were obli ed to complete the loan notwithstanding the &cretary of the Treasury deemed it incompatible with his views of duty, and the traditions of the Sub-Treasury Law, to use such banks as disbursing a w t s of t k government even under the extraor%nary exigency under which the loans were made. The call upon the banks for




payment into the w r n m m t de ository of he remaining instagents of the fban, either in coin or gold Treasury notes, was pcrsistently urged by the Secretary until the final closing of the transaction on the third of February, 1862. 'This was the first material mistake of the Secretary of the Treasurv. and was the first step in -the wrong direction, which combined with other important events, led to the necessity of passin the Legal-Tender Act. .The %metary, in breaking the banks, a t the same time bmke the Sub-Treasury, and both were discreted. ether.P p. Yr. Sherman m hs%ecollections,) says : aThe Secretary of the Treasury had ample and complete authority given him by the act of July l&%, to borrow money on the credit of the government, but he could not .de+ with the system of State banks then existm In the several States. H e was forbidden by t i e SubTreasury Act of 1846 to receive notes of State banks, and was required to receive into and pay from the Treasury only the coin of the United States; but by the Act of 5 Aug. 1861 he was permitted to deposit to the credit 01 the Treasurer of the United State?, in such ht select, solvent S ecie-paying ban+ as he any of &e moneys obtained frommlf;oans, the money thus deposited to be withdrawn only for transfer to the regularly authorized depositories, o r for the payment of public dues including certain notes payable on demand, as he might deem expedient. H e h a 4 however, no authority to receive from individuals or banks any money but coin. T h e only coin received from the Bostotl. New York and Philadelphia banks, in payment of their subscription to the overnment loans, ~ , to to the amount of nearly ~ f 0 , 0 0 0 ,had be sent to every point in t e United States to meet public obriations, and when thus scattered was not readily returnable to the banks, thus exhausting their resources and their ability to loan again.' Mr. Sherman is very sitive regarding the necessity of the legal ten&% as a war measure. In his (Recollections' (p. .- 281). he makes this statement : T h e Legal-Tender Act, with its provision for coin receipts to pay interest on bonds, whatever may be said to the contrary by theorists, was the only measure that could have enabled the government to carry on successfully the vast operations of the war." Hugh McCulloch, the first Comptroller of the Currency and twice Secretary of the Treasury, in his (Men and Measures of Half a Century' (p. 135), has this to say of the failure of Secretary Chase to make use of bank checks in disbursing government funds : aFor a considerable time, even after the war had begun, the specie standard was maintained, and hopes were indulged that the war might be prosecuted on a specie basis. These hopes were dissipated by the action of Secretary Chase in his dealings with the New York, Philadelphia and Boston banks, which had agreed to advance to the overnment on ~ t s 7.3 notes $150,000,WO ($50,&,000 in August, $50,000,000in October and $50,000,000in November, 1861) under the expectat~onthat the Treasury drafts for the money would be presented



through the clearing-houses and be aid without large reductions of their coin. #he Secretary did not, however, feel at liberty to m q t t h u r expectations, and the drain upon their coin reserve xwn h a m e so heavy that they were forced to saspend speae yments. Their y p e n s i o n was s a m follow.eFby h sus a900 of nearly all the banks in the country. When Chase, as Spaalding said. broke the b a d s and the sub-Treasury a t the same time a d discredited both, an urgent necessity arose f o r strengthening the weakened credit of the country. I t soon became apparent that the issue of 1 h d e r notes alone would not snffic as T e frightful de nciation of these force1 in~tnrmurtsof cred:t foreshadowed a time when they would approximate the same degree of worthlessness reached by the Continental currency in the struggle for indepurdmce and made it incumbent upon Mr. Linekient coln's financial advisers to devise -e means for holding this depreciation in check by a resort to the borrowin6 powers of the gvcmment. The prccanous ?~tuationin which e country was involved injuriously affected its credit abroad, and made it desirable, if kPdo were to .be. sold in large volume without nunous depreciation, to create a home demand tor t h u n The device of udng the public debt as a basis f o r currency iswed thro banks y u an old one. I t had been proposed? Ham+ton who when asked by. Washi 'W" 1s to be done with our terrlble debt answer aBank on i t as our only available ca ital an the best in the world.' Many of t& States +d tried the a p e n m e n t of chartering banks to issue currency against a ple e of State stocks, often with disastrous res3ts. There were other States-of which New York was a conspicuous example- where the bank laws It were good and the banking S stem well known that the law o f the State named was relied on large1 in framing the act creating the national ban&ng system. More than two years before the bill providing for the organization of national banks became a law, the b a n b of the country had suspended s cie yment, not to be restored again effect of this suspension was until 18$? to link the national bank notes to the legal tenders, in which they were redeemable rather than to gold. Of course] the bank notes were no better and no worse than the money in which they were payable. They were not as good as gold, but neither were the le a1 tendernotes, the latter and the bank bil& substantiall ke ing together as compared with gold. re%tyl thou h nominally issued by banks and bearing on t%eir face the name of the bank emitting them, the national bank notes are overnment paper money. They are secured bonds of the United States, deposited with t i e Treasurer at Washi on, in which city they are redeemed in Y w f u l money and though the law provides for redemption of the notes at the counters of the issuing banks this is almost totally unknown in practice. They are not redeemed through the clearings as are 'the notes of the Canadian banks. The government guarantees the payment of the notes, running no risk whatever in so doing, since it always has in hand an amount of its own securities equal to the face of the notes issued. Devised as the national banking system


vn."% somy






to give the country sound and uniform currency and to aid in replenishing the Treasury, i t hardly succeeded in either of these aims. The national bank currency has been of uniform value and a vast improvement on a great deal of the State bank circulation which it displaced, but it has through its inelasticity developed serious defects. In so far as the new bankin system was .relied on to furnish currmcy luring the Civll War, the result was not very satisfactory. When the war closed the national bank notes were in the ne-dborhood of $100,000,000 in amount--only a small fraction of the loans placed to carry on the war. Had the channels of circulation not been so well supplied by legal-tender notes, the national bank notes a t the close of the war would have been much greater in volume. After the war, when the government was still for a long time heavily in debt, the national banks were of immense help in sustaining the public credit. But it is as a system of discount and deposit banks that the national associations have won their greatest success and established themselves finnly in the public confidence. I t was, of course, one of the aims of Secretary Chase to su plement the somewhat inharmonious State &inking systems then existing with something havin at least uniform laws to govern them and a71 watched over from Washington, yet he could hardly have foreseen how surprisingly large proportions the national banks were to attain through discount and deposit operations in the first half-century of their existence. Marvelous as has been the record of national banking growth, it might easily have been much greater had Congress earlier entar ed the functions of the banks, thus forestating the rapid rise of the trust company and the tremendous accretions of deposits in savings banks. The history of the national banking system contains few important dates -points that mark any striking growth. There are two exceptions to this statement, however. After the or~ginalact was passed in 1863, the growth of the banks was slow until. the 10 per cent tax was imposed on State bank notes in 1865. But the real impetus to national banking was in 1900, when the minimum ca ital was ; :er from $50,000 to $25,000, and tge issue of drculation placed upon a somewhat more liberal basis. Another landmark in the history of the system was the passage of the Federal Reserve Act (q.v.), 23 Dec. 1913. This. act changed completely the method of redepositing reserves provided for rediscounting and accepting and for a system of note issues based on coin and commercial paper. It also made other important changes in the Banking Law. Perhaps the strongest feature of the new law was in linking 2 1 the national banks together for their common defense; that is, a centralization of the reserves whereby they become, in a sense, the common property of all the banks so far as relates to their use. Elements of safety in the national banking s stem have been the requirement in regard to t l e actual paying in of capital, the supervision exercised by the govemment and the admirable features of the law w:th regard to loans, and the double liability of shareholders. Compared '

to the colossal sums handled by these banks, their losses have been trifling, and they are growing proportionally smaller year by year. The national banks have furnished a remarkably safe and eMcient system of banking, and have been factors of immense benefit in local develo ent and in the augmentation of the nationaP"wea1th and prosperity. If they have fallen short, it has been due to the slownew of the national legislature in adapting the law to meet changing conditions. EL YE^ H. YOUNCYAN, Editor The Bankers' Magazine. 10. STATE BANKING SYSTEM. Banking, in the early history of the United States, was the prerogative of the privileged few. Charters were obtained by subterfuges of one kind or another, by favoritism or by . Familiar examples of the devices employe to get bankin under some ank of New other guise are the York, chartered as a chemical company; the Manhattan Company Bank, also of New York, chartered as a water company; and the Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Com Bank, whose original business is indicater;; the title, the word BankD being an afterthought. But with the enactment of the .Free Banking Law of New York in 1838, banhng by speclal charter radually disap eared, for the proviconferring banking sion of 8 e New York powers on all associations of persons complying with the terms of the act was generally copied in the banking legislation of other States, as it was later in the National Banking Act. From bein a monopoly enjoyed by only a favored few, Lnking became so free as to encourage the rapid multiplication of banks until their number has grown to lar er proportions than in any other country. ~ f absolute e freedom which was long given to any body of r n o n s complying with the laws in organizing anks has been somewhat restricted in recent years, and the Comptroller of the Currency, m the case of national banks, and the supervising officers of State banks, are generally showing a dis osition to discouraqe the organizatlon of tanks where they w ~ l ltend to cause undue competition, and to refuse altogether aoolications for authoritv to orzanize Lanks by-ihe professional bank p;omoter.While in the earl banking. history of the country some of the {tates dwlsed sound banking systems, a great many did not. There was, in many localities, a lack of banking capital or of capital of any kind. Attempts were made to remedy this lack of capital by starting banks for issuing notes, a favorite device being to decide on an extensive polic of public improvements, to issue bonds &r this purpose, the bonds being ourchased bv the banks and notes emitted -a - 'nst them, These efforts nearly all proverdisastrous. but the States adhering to sound principles of banking and to correct methods of emitting notes had different ex eriences. (See BANKNOTE ISSUES, article 19y. Indee when the national banking system came to established it was based, in important respects, on the banking laws of New York Massachusetts and other States whose legis\ation had been wisely planned. In turn, the National Banking Act itself became








the model for banking legislation in many of that a definite surplus fund- so much in prothe States, until to-day, with rare exc t~ons, portion to ca ital shall be accumulated and hese-banks, unlike the private the standards of banking ?S formulated&. the maintained. bankin acts of the vanous States are sub- banks, must submit to frequent official visitas-ntiafiy identical with those of the national tion and examination and must make and p u b bankinq system. The State banks, in fact, lish detailed re rts of condition one or more found n advantageous to maintam a pos~tion times a year. g m e of the States have found of safety at least approximating that of the it ex dient to prohibit private banking national banks, otherwise their growth would a~togetReer. have been checked. The could, on the other As against the objections to private b3nking hand, transact some kin& of business denied as above set forth it may be stated that where their Federal competitors, and this, perhaps, the State and national bank stockholders are made &em better adapted to the needs of rural only liable in case of insolvency of the bank, communities. This hfference in the functions for an additional amount equal to their shares, of the two classes of banks was greatly modi- the private banker is liable for the debts of his fied by the Federal Reserve system (q.v.), in- bank without limitation. (The adoption of augurated in 1913. The State banks outnumber the principle of limited liability in England grew out of some disastrous bank failures the national banks more than'two to one-a fact due partly to the larger capital required where the stockholders were heavily assessed, of the latter (before 1900 it was fixed at a losing in some instances their entire fortunes). minimum of $50.000 and is now $25,000) and Furthermore, the restrictions on the investments and operations of incorporated banks, to other causea Massachusetts has no State banks of dis- while tending to greater safety, yet restrain count and deposit; New York has such insti- the banks from opportunities of making profits tutions: California and Texas and some other which may be taken advantage of by the States, -in their banking laws, authorize cor- shrewd private banker. Now, as in the earliest days of banking in porations to transact discount and deposit banking, savings bank business and trust com- Europe, some of the greatest transactions of pan business all under one charter. Substan- domestic and foreign finance are carried on tial& this principle (department-store banking by private bankers; but they are not, in the it is sometimes called) has been embodied in orhnary sense, doin a discount and deposit y rather the skilled the Federal Reserve Act. Prior to the enact- banking business. ~ % e are ment of the law referred to, relauons between intermediates of governments and of great National and State banks were e n e ~ l l yami- corporations, representing their interests cable, their lines of business &erw m- among the banks and the rnvesting public, and siderably. With the removal of these differ- as such perform a highly useful service. I n ences, at least to an extent, it becomes a integrity they compare most favorably with question as to whether the State banks may the largest of the incorporated banks, while not find it less easy than heretofore to com- their operations are not infrequently greater than even the largest of such institutions taken F e with the National institutions. singly. The private banker, in arranging loans T h e distinguishing feature of t h e b d system of the United States, .co"trasted w i g for governments and CO rations, does not use that of nearly all other countnes 1x1 the world, his own funds, but by%s standing arid skill is that we have a very lar e number (between is able to mass together the resources of 20,000 and 30 000) of smalf independent banks, various banks, often in numerous and widely locally owned and managed. In the Euro can separated localities. H e has to do with forcountries, and in Australia and Canada, %ere eign exchange, the handlin4 of specie on inare a few large banks with head offices and ternational account and prov~desthe capital for numerous branches. In the United States the the immense industrial and transportation enpermission to establish branches of either Na- terprises which constitute such an important tional o r State banks is limited in scope, ~ u t part of the country's business life. The pfivate banker of to-day is a financial it has shown a tendency to extension of late expert wrthout whose servlce the operations years ELMERH. YOUNGMAN, of trade and finance could hardly be c a r r i 9 Editor The Bankers' Magasine. on, but in performing this service he uses h ~ s reputation and skill rather than his own funds 11. PRIVATE BANKS. For the ordi- or even tpe funds of others accumulated in his nary functions of deposrt and dlscount the own partrcular office. H e selects, anal zes and private banker in the United States is bein classifies the various lines of soundr investrapidly superseded b institutions organize8 ments and brings to their support, not his own under S a t e and ~ e E r a llaws. The private funds alone nor yet those of indrviduals combanker might engage in business with l~ttleo r mitted to his care, but the funds of many no capital, and what he had he was at liberty groups of investors and of banks that have to invest as he chpse, and this freedom in the confidence in his integrity and judgment. manner of invest~ng h s capital extended to ELMWH. YOUNGMAN, the investment of deposits entrusted to his Editor The Bankers' Magasine. keeping; these he might employ e ~ t h e rin his 12 FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM, own business o r embark them in any enterprise which appealed to his fancy. The incor- The. The Federal Reserve Act, passed 23 porated bank, on the other hand, enjoys no Dec. 1913, is the underlying measure upon which such license. I t must have a prescribed ca i- the Federal Reserve system depends. The t& which must be paid up in money, and J i s system itself consists of (a) the 12 Federal capital must be maintained ummpared; and, Reserve banks and their branches, sr.tuated rn in addition, the banking laws generally require districts defined as in the accompanpng map;




FEDERAL R88EBVIP BYITEM f1Z) of quiet it was unable to exert any control

(b) the national banks which, by the terpls of the law, are requrred to be stockholders m the Federal Reserve banks; and (c) such Statechartered banking institutions as may comply with the requirements for membership and may apply for and be granted such membership. The bankin S stem of the United States at the time o f t i e adoptron of the Federal Reserve Act included three distinct elements (a) the national banks created under charters ranted by the Federal overnment and numL i n g some 7 , y ; (b) %e State banks, existing under specral o r general charters granted b the States and r a t b r more numerous than d e national banks; and (c) the trust comnies and savings banks also created by the tates but doing a broader business than the State banks so-called. Only loose restrictions as to capitalization controlled any of these banks,. while their reserves might be kept at home m their own vaults, o r partly there and

over the devdopmmt of credit o r t o regulate the country'# gold supply, in relation to that of other nations. Although there had been much discussion of the banking question, no definite legis&tiin designed to improve conditioas had been adopted since the Civil War, except only the so-called Aldrich-Vreeland Act of 1908 T h e ((Gold Standard Act of 1 W had dealt almost cntirejy with the monetary, and only inciden+] y with the banking: problem. I n the Aldnch-Vreeland Act, provlsron was made for informal unions o r associations of banks to ba known as %ational currency associationsn whose function it w s to issue notes secured by specified collateral on request of their members. Practically no such associations h a 4 however, been organized under the law until after the adoption of the Federal Reserve Act, so that when the latter measure became bw

artly with other banks. Under the National ank Act, three classes of banks had been created -country, reserve city, and central reserve city; therr reserves varying from 15 to 25 per cent Only central reserve city banks were requrred to keep all of their reserves in their own vaults. Particular complaint had Ion been made of the bank currency furnished by Sational institutions. The banks bought government bonds, deposited them in trust with the Treasurer of the United States, and received from the Comptroller of the Currency notes for circulation. These notes were =inelasticv- i.e., could not be expanded o r contracted at will in response .to business r e quirements, because they depended upon the volume and price of bonds as determining factors governing their own amount. Due to lack of elastic currency and to wide diffusion of reserves the banking system was liable to disorder in times of financial pressure. In times

the nation was still on the old basis of banking. T h e F e d e t a Reserve Act, however, sought not only to provide the improved and responsive currency which had been called for in the older measures of banking reform, but went much deeper. I t recognized that the essential difficulty in American banking lay in its undue decentralization and consequent dissipation of strength. Fundamentally, therefore, it sought to give relief by changing the organization of banking so as to provide for combination of reserves and for joint control of and oversight over banking. T o this end it provided for district organization~,which were essentially to be bankers' banks, dealing chiefly with their own members -the commercial banks of the district. The number of such districts to be created was the subject of much difference of opinion, but ultimately Congress set the number a t not


BANK6 AND BAblJULJ6 -.F= mRAL RESERVE SYSTEM (11) less than eight nor more tbpl 12, wbilr i t placed in the hands of an organization committee, consisting of the Secretary of the Treasury the Secretary of Agriculture and the ~omptroherof the Currm tfie duty of d v tvmining how many s h o a first be established and of dnwlng their outlines. This organization committee was, under the act, to establish in each district a Federal Reserve bank to whose capital natioml banks must become subscribers in an amount in each case not less than 6 per cent of their own capital (3 per cent to be aid in and 3 per cent to be subject to call). %very such Federal Reserve bank was to have a minimum capitalization of. $4,4,000,000 of which one-half was to be paid up. The central feature of the act was found in the plan it presented for changing the reserve organization of the country. The old reserve requirements were to be abolish reserves being transferred, during a period o three ears, to the new institutions. Event"all t i e y were to be held only in the member own vaults o r in the reserve banks. By the Act of 21 June X917 all reserves were transferred t~ the reserve banks and cash on hand with members was left to the latter's discretion. I t was provided that reserve credits with reserve banks could be obtained not merely by depositing money, but b discounting paper of specified kinds with d e new mstitutions. The act made full provision for foreign exchange business, clearance of checks, regulation of commercial paper and other essentials. I t was provided that the governing body of the new system be entitled the Federal Reserve Board and consist of five members (two of them bankers) to be named by the Presldent and confirmed by the Senate, together with the Comptroller of the Currency and the Secretary of &e Treasury ex officio. This body was dul a inted and took office on 10 Aug. 1914. l% e acretary of the Treasury had been authorized by the act to name the date for the opening of the banks and after p r t liminar~es of organization had been completed by the Board the Secretary accordingly opened the banks on 16 Nov. 1914. Prior to this date the capital of the banks had been duly paid in, largely in gold, and the transfer of a first instalment of reserves uickly followed. T h e act had offered to $te banks and trust compan~es the o an of membership, but only a few a v a i g themsel~es of the o portunity until after the entry of the u n i t 2 States into the European War. The movement then became much more rapid and by the end of 1917 between $4,000,000,000 and $j,000,000,000 of banking assets belonging to State institutions had been brought into the system. In each Federal Reserve banklthe control and o ration of the institution rs entrusted to a c a r d of directors consisting of nlne members. Of these nine, three ('Class AD) are representative of the member banks and three (aClass B') are business men (nonbankers), although chosen by the member banks. I n voting f o r these directors the k n k s are divided according to capitalization into three groups, so that each group is represented on the Board by one Class A and one Class B director. The remaining directors, three in





number (uClass CB), are choaen by the Federal .Reserve Board. Each director is chosen for three years and their terms are so arranged as to have three such terms expire a t the close of each year. Of the three government directors one, under the law is designated by the Federal Reserve ~ o a r das aFederal Reserve Agentw and as chairman of his local board of directars. As chairman, he presides over meetings and as Federal Reserve Agent he discharges all local duties assigned him by the Board in the opemtion of the bank. The actual management and conduct of the institution is left to the ,Boar of Directors which names such execntlve o ccrs as it sees fit. Of these the chief, corresponding to the president of a commercial bank, is called agovernor., Under his direction there is developed at each bank the usual staff. including administrative, accounting and credit officers. The Federal Reserve Agent has a separate department under his own jurisdiction, including one or mare assistants and a clerical force. H e takes charge of the function of note i s s ~ eand is entrusted with the custody of commercial paper and gold held to protect notes. Regulations issued from time to ,time by the Federal Reserve Board, and binding upon all reserve banks, constitute the operabng basis of the system and ensure harmony of practice. Under the terms of the act each local board proposes rates of discount which are passed upon by the Federal R e s e m Board and godinto effect only after bein ap roved b it. Full reports are transmittef d a i k by each bank and the Board issues a weekly condition report Every Federal Reserve bank has its own office arranged much like that of an ordinary bank; and several have purchased o r are erecting buildings of their own. Six Federal Reserve banks have established branches equipped like a Federal Reserve bank Some of these are assigned a sub-district o r part of the Federal Reserve district, while others have no definite assignment of territory, but are merely offic6 for the convenience of membor banks. The accompanying tabulation shows the location, cap~taland chef items of resources of the several banks at a recent date. The outlines of the 12 districts into which the system is divided are presented in the foregoing map which shows the condition at the close of the year 1917. During 1915-16 several changes in boundaries were made by the Board upon petition of member banks and the lines at first drawn by the Organization Committee were accordingly altered ; bat none of these changes was of much importance to the eneral structure of the system. ?he earliest work of the Federal Reserve system, like so much of its later operations, was of an unexpected nature. The system had not yet been organized when the breaking out of the European War brought unexpected d e m n d s to bear upon the country. There was a heavy drain of gold to Euro and Congress hastily revised the Aldrich-Geeland Act in an effort to prevent panic. Many currency associations were organized and about $400,000,000 of n q e s were issued during the autumn. When the reserve banks came into formal existence in November they







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found themselves aHed upon to asgist in the operation of retiring these notes -an important function, but one that brought little actual profit to them. Moreover, the abnormal movement of gold out of the country which had occurred during the first davs of the Euroman W a r was folmovement of lowed by & equally abn-a1 gold into Qis country. Very great sales of our raw materials and manufactured goods abroad were paid for krgdy in gold and bank reserves were thus much raised. The change in reserve requirements made by the Federal Reserve Act had also set free a large balance of lending power. Due to those two factbn, the demand for accommodation a t Federal Reserve banks was not great. I t was only after the ent of the United States into the European J a r that they really b e c a ~ eactive in their rediscount operations. E a m ~ n g sfor the first two years, 191415, were only 2.7 per cent above expenses; f o r 1916 about per cent; but in 1917 they reached about 18 per cent. The law requires that the Federal Reserve banks, after paying all necessary expenses, together with 6 cent cumulative dividends to their s t o c k h o l ~ shall , carry one-balf of excess profits remaining to their surplus fund until the surplus amounts to 40 per cent of the capital, and shall pay the other half of excess profits to the United States government a s a franchise tax, the entire excess profits to be paid to the government after the surplus of a Federal Reserve bank reaches 40 per cent of its ca ital. The Federal Reserve banks of Boston, hew York, Chicago, Atlanta, R+mond and Minneapolis have paid t h a r drvld m d s to stockholders to 31 Dec. 1917 and at the same time paid into the treasury of the United States as a franchise tax the sum of $1,134,234.48, the amounts being paid by the banks as follows: Boaton.. .. ... . .. $75 100 W Atlanta.. .... ... $40.000 00


New York.. . . . . 649:363 57 Richmond., . ... 116.471 73 Chiapa.... . . . .. 215.799 18 Minnrapoho . . .. 37,500 00

These banks have also established on their books a surplus fund in amounts equal to the sums paid the government. I t IS to be noted, however. that practically since their opening the banks have been subject to very abnormal conditions,-first, in consequence of tack of demand and h t c r b e cause of the existence of unusual and exceptional demand for accommodation based on a very special kind of paper --that secured by government obligations. ' h e banks have not, therefore, had full opportunity to exert their influence upon the commercial p a p of the country or to do more than take the preliminary steps toward the creation of an open discount market. I t was with a view to the creation of this discount mark& that the act gave to the Federal Reserve Board power to regulate the conditions under which commercial paper should be made and discounted at reserve banks. Pursuant to the emission thus given, the Board early definecf the chief types of commeraal paper, including the bill of exchange accepted and unaccepted, the promissory single-name note and the commodity note -with warehouse receipts as collateral. In all

cases the paper was required to be the result of genuine commercial norr-speculative transactions and to have a specified short maturity. Acting further in accordance with the terms of the law, the Board authorized the Reserve banks to buy discountable paper in the "pen marketB-that is without member bank endorsement, should they desire. This open market power was availed of by the Reserve banks dullng .their first two years of slack earnings. They bought widely of acceptances and also of government and municipal obligations and a t one time had thus invested more than $200,000,000 as a means of caming needed revenua The first two years' development in commercial paper was, however, notable for the introduction of t h acceptance o r accepted bill of exchange into American bankin practice. Unusual stimulus to our foreign tra%e gave to the foreign bill o r bankers' acceptance in such trade a degree of recognition it could not otherwise have attained. Although only .a moderate amount of this paper was obtained by reserve banks, .the fact that it had entered the market as a dlstinct type of paper for gmera1 investment was rendered possible by the new system. The bankers' acceptance may be drawn either as a foreign o r as a domestic bill, No satisfactory data are as yet available concerning the development of the domestic acceptance, a n 4 whatever the volume in existence may be it is probably small. The foreign bankers' acceptance has had about two years for development, and we may roughly estimate' that at the present time the acceptances of all American banks, whether members of the Federal Reserve system o r not, are about $250,000,000 $300,000,000. Evety member bank has the right to accept such paper up to 50 per cent of its capital stock, and the Federal Reserve Board has granted to banks the power to accept up to 100 per cent. While the Federal R e s e m Act as originally passed gave to the Federal Reserve Board authority to define commercial paper eligible for rediscount at Federal Reserve banks, and the Board in its initial stages desired to discriminate in favor of the two-name paper, it never went so far as to commit itself definitely in that way., Sin lename paper has always formed the bulk of %at discounted by the Federal Reserve banks, and this has been a parently the result of necessit The Federal keserve Act, however, clear& . intended to stimulate the "bill of exchangP whether that of the commercial enterprise o r of the banker, and the Board has, therefore, very properly endeavored by favoring rates and by special regulations to encourage the development both of the commercial bill of exchange (designated by it as the '"trade acceptance) and of the bankers' acce ted 'bill of exchange.P The quantity of tra& acceptances o r commercial bills offering in the New York market has been lately described by a practical banking authority very friendly to the acceptance as '"negligible.)' A novel element in the Federal Reserve Act not found in any of the various banking bills by which it had been receded was its treatment of the so-called acfearing question.' In the past, small banks, the country over, had carried balances with city acorrespondents,B ,






usually of considerable amount. These city correspondents were frequently members of a local clearing house and here and there country clearing houses had been established, but there was no nation-wide S stem of clearance. The country banks sent sueh chesks OII distant points a s th might receive to their correspondents a n y the latter collected them, crediting the proceeds to the remitting banks. This was a wastehl and slow method. The Federal Reserve Act sought to substitute the idea of district clearance on .the books of each reserve bank and that of national dearance by creatiog a central clearance system for the l 2 reserve banks at Washington. The national system was first established, each bank de ositing $1,000,000 in gold with the Board, wiich at oqce placed it with the Treasury for safe-keeping. A set of books was opened in the offices of the Board and on Wednesday night of each week every Federal Reserve bank telegraphs to Washington the amount of its balance in dealings w ~ t hother reserve banks. A corresponding entry is made in the books and each bank notified on Thursday of the balance remaining to rts credit. Billions of dollars of transfers are made in this way without gold shipment and practically without ex The introduction o P " 2 district clearance plan was not so easy, but b the middle of 1916 eve reserve bank unier orders from had established a system of practhe tically uniform character. Under this plan as modified by the Act of 21 une 1917, banks not members of the Reserve ystem as well as the regular members may deposit with reserve banks checks on other banks for collection. Such checks are not credited a t once, but only after the lapse of a period usually two to four da S, estimated to be long enough. to permit cogation. After that perlod the proceeds are credited and may be drawn upon. Banks which receive such checks for payment must remit without deduction (at par) o r else send actual money, but in the latter case the Reserve bank pays the cost of shi ping the coin o r currency in settlement +he member bank which deposits the checks for collection is item charged a small fee (1s-2 cents) and may in turn make a moderate E r g : e to its deposlitor if he desires immediate payment without waiting for the collection of the check to be completed The district colle~tion system now includes some 16,000 banks, State and National, and is slowly increasing in numbers thowh it can probably never become complete until the banking system of the country has been entirely unified. Some banks continue to collect throu h correspondents as heretofore, although the fact that balances with correspondents no longer (Act of 21 une 1917) count as reserve, has discouraged t e practice. The new district system has tended strongly to unify exchange charges and to reduce those that were formerly unduly high, though such charges will persist where competition is absent owing to the fact that given localities contain no banks that are members of the Federal Reserve system. Taken with the gold clearing system at Washngton, the dlstrict system has, however, immensely improved and simplified exchange conditions the country over.



As seen at an slrlier int, thg chief trouble A m e r ~ i i nbank note Currently recognized in S stem prior to the e Federal L e r v e ~ c was t ainefs"2&.pf ttus was meant that there was no way of enlarging the circulation except through the purchase and deposit of bonds, or the importation of actual money. Prior to 1908 the national bank notes had so great1 increased In amount as to require almost all ?£ the f l ~ t i o go r "free' supply of bonds for thelr protection, except those held by investon and trustees, so that the limit imposed upon their issue was almost absolute. I t was currently proposed to relieve the situation by extendrng the kinds of bonds r d v able as deposits to protect note issues and the Aldrich-Vreeland Act had taken steps in that direction. As agalnst this plan or proposal ~t was pointed out that both the practice of other countries and the general, theory of banking mdiated that the protecuon properly to be accorded to notes was identical with that t o bc to deposiq The abstract theory of ban ing, moreover, Indicates the liquid shortterm assets of b a n k as tbe safest and best protection for bank liabilities. This point of view-the so-called "asset currencyD theory -was accepted as the basls of the original draft of the Federal Raserve Act Provision was accordingly made for the issue of notes bared on the general assets of the reserve banks; while it was sought to protect the old note-issuing banks (the owners of t h e bonds held to secure the notes) by authoruing the radual retirement and redemption of the bon& they had purchased. T h e s ~bonds f o r the most part bore 2 per cent interest, a n d as government obligations were then selling on a 3 per cent basis it was ordered that the new refunding bonds should bear 3 per cent So-called asset currency has always been the subject of criticism from a certain school of thinkers who have contended that there was serious danger in the use of such paper because of its possible unsoundness. In order to guard against any such danger the Act therefore defined 'ellgib12 paper with great care, placing stress upon the requirements of short maturity and relation to genuine commercial transactions. Inasmuch as it had been urged by some that the supply of two-name paper available would be too small to serve as a basis for notes it was left to the Federal Reserve Board to determine eligibility of form within the g e n e d limits laid down by t h e Act itself. The view o r theory of currency issue which had been embodied in the original draft of the act was maintained throughout its various changes of fonn and appears in the final statute. The chief note changes introduced in the course of discussion were as follows: (1) The Federal Reserve notes were made eventual obli tions of the government a n d it was *rovi% that they could be obtained only from the government through the Federal R e s e m agent of the bank desiring to issue them; (2) provision was made for a new type of note to be called a ((Federal Reserve Bank noten secured by honds on the same basis as the old national bank notes; (3) t h e redemption of the bonds held by the national banks was fixed at $25,000,000 a y t a r and t h e





Federal Reserve Board was authorized to disbibute this m o u n t of old bonds among the reserve banks. At. that rate it would have required about 30 years to retire the rlotional Inink notes and issue either Federal Reserve notes o r Federal Reserve bank notes in their place. Durirrg the first three years' life of the system, d a n p t i o w proceeded at about t h k rate, but after the entry of the United States into the European War, 2 per cent bonds fen to a low level and the Reserve Board ceased to cad upon rcsewe banks to take them over at par as bcfore. In the original act of 1913, the outstanding notes had to be covered by gold and paper to 140 r cent of their face bat by the act of 21 E n e 1911, this figure was cut to 100 per cent. Due to this and othur causes the issue of Federal Reserve noter rapidly increased during 1917 and at the close of the year was near a billion and a quarter of dollars. As things stand to-+y, therefor.% the Federal Reserve Act prondes m elast~ccurrency based on business paper, apd susceptible of Increase as business operatrone increase and require a larger note issue. Reserve banks discount the per presented to them by memhave themselves discounted ber banks it for business men. Such a r may be turned over to the local ~ e d e r a f g s e r v eagent who will issue an equal amount of notes in exchange. The Federal Reserve bank must, however, car a gold reserve amounbng to 40 per cent the notes it issues, and of this 40 per cent 5 per cent is de sited with the Treasury as a redemption End, the other 35 per cent is retained in the Reserve bank's own vaults. The expansive power of the currency thus depends on. and is limited by, the gold holdings In the Reserve banks. Granting the presence of the necessary gold there is no limit to the volume of notes that may bc issued except the limit set by the needs of business and the dictates of sound banking. The question whether to call for notes or to take the proceeds of rediscounts in the form of book credit depends on the decision of the member banks. Federal Reserve banks could, however, if they desired issue their notes in exchange for aper bought in the open market with bank en$orsements. The questlon of foreign bankin facilities is dealt with in several ways in t f e Federal Reserve Act: (1) Federal Reserve banks may established agenues abroad or name agents and correspondents. They have thus designated the Banks of England, France and Italy and others, but thus far operations have been small owing to the War and its effects. (2) Member national banks possessing capitals of $1,000,000 o r more may apply for, and under specrfied conditions receive, permission t o estab lish foreign branches of their own. In this way, a considerable number of branches have been developed in South America. (3) By the act of 7 Sept. 1916, member banks are allowed to subscribe to the capital of banks formed to en ge on their behalf in the foreign trade. &era1 such banks have been in-

WE& 07

the introduction of approved banking methods. Foreign practice had long since recognized the banke!'s acceptance as the staple method of financm movements of goods. This teaching was emfodied in the Reserve Act which pro7 vided that paper resulting from commercia! transactions in foreign trade and of proper maturities might ba acce ted by national banks to 100 per cent of capitarand surplus. Federal Reserve banks were empowe~edto rediscount o r buy such acceptances; while by later lepslatian domestic acceptance paper wes given similar privile es up to 50 per cent of capital and surplus. %inally Congress adopted a provision permitting national banks to accept drafts, drawn in countries needing a means of remittance to the United States, intended to create a suppl of dollar exchange. An integral erment i? most of the plans of recent years for banking reform has been the reorganization of relations between the Treasury of the United States and the banks of the nation. As is well known, the subTreasury system (dating from 1846 in its present form) and, requiring the actual holdmg of public funds in cash, is obsolete, being employed by no other count Deposits of public funds i n national banyi protected by S ecial security have been made since the Civll 8 a r but were only a partial remedy for the evils of the sub-Treasury system. The Federal Reserve A a sought to change the older system by constituting the reserve banks =fiscal agents,D m d mak~ng them also depositones, thus permitti the government to do business a t and t h r o u g the reserve banks just as their banking members may. When the act was passed the balances of the government were small and there was no haste in carrying into effect this phase of the law. Early in 19M, however, the banks were made depositories of all Treasury balances then on deposit with national banks in the cities where the reserve banks were located, other funds outside these cities being kept as before. During 1916 and the beginning of 1917, the Reserve banks thus became habituated to methods of transacting Treasury business, and so made themselves read for the great and unexpected ex ansion o? their functions in this field whi& was to follow, when, at the entry of the United States into the European W a r in 1917, this small business suddenly assumed new and im rtant proportions. The Secretary of the. E e a s u r y had determ~ned to employ each Federal Reserve bank as the head of a district organization designed for the distribution of the bonds whose sale in unprecedented amounts was necessa to the conduct of the war, and in each ~ e x r a Rel serve district such an organization was quickly developed about the local reserve bank as a centre. Local bankers and financiers free1 gave of their time and assistance to the furtlerance of the work, and in each case the Federal Reserve bank proved an efficient basis of organization. The several banks, under instructions issued by the, Secretary of the Treasury, received subscr~ptions to the loan and carried on the immense work of detail resulting therefrom, besides taking charge of the deposits in banks and eneral banking relationships growing out of &e operation. '




The Federal Reserve Board itself, besides co-operating closely with the authorities of the Treasury Department in efficiently conducting the loan operations of the Federal Reserve banks, further sought to. develop a general policy that would support and aid the banking community at large m taking and &Stributing the new issue of bonds. For this purpose it first established a special rate of 3 P;r cent per annum for the discount at Federal eserve banks of the direct 15-day obligations of member banks secured b the temporary certificates of indebtedness wkch were issued in order to anticipate the proceeds of the sale of the new bonds. Carrying further this same policy, it later established a 3% per cent rate of discount at Federal Reserve banks intended for the 90-&ay paper of ord~narybank borrowers, thereby enabling the member banks of the system to extend accommodation to bond buyers in the assurance that they would be able to obtain accommodation from the Federal Reserve banks b discounting these notes. In order to aid J e customers of banks not members of the Federal Reserve system, it further authorized the member banks to act as agents for nonmember institutions by rediscounting the notes of bond buyers who desired to obtain assistance from their own banks without being obliged tb transfer their business to member banks. Savings banks and trust companies were assured that the Board would in eve way co-operate with them in avoiding shm? o r disturbance to existing conditions, and that the Federal Reserve system stood ready to extend to them reasonable accommodation in the event of necessity resulting from withdrawals made by depositors in order to purchase o r invest in government bonds. On the night of 2 May the Secretary of the Trcasu issued to the ress a statement ing s u x details of the grst #Libe.rty loana:; had been agreed u on up to that tlme. At the same time he a%vised the Federal Reserve banks that he had decided to use them as the central agencies for handling the issue. On 10 May t6e full rospectus W& telegraphed the banks to be rna& public on Monday, 14 May. The subscriptions were to close on 15 June, so that the Federal Reserve banks had but one month in which to perfect an organization for the sale of the proportion of $2,000,000,000 of .bonds allotted to the respective districts, and for the handling of details of the subscriptions. The working out in 20 days of a prospectus covering so large an issue, without a precedent in thls country to guide, and the placing of $2,000,000,000 of bonds oversubscribed approximately a billion in a month's time, was a remarkable achievement, but the second loan operation, carried through in October, resulted in the sale of nearly four billions of bonds, the amount offered being three billions, and the total subscriptions nearly five billions. Not on1 was there no disturbance to interest rates &ring either loan operation b ond the necessarily gradual increase which f x o w s upon the withdrawal of such great quantities of funds from the market, but the process was accomplished with reat technical ease In former times under &e old sub-Treasury system, the withdrawal of subscribed funds in

-SAVINGS BANKS (13) various parts of the country, o r even the operations incident to the transmission of these funds from one part of the country to another, created unavoidable and serious difficulties, due or plethora of money at various l h a e rates and mditims were seriously distuxed. An this has been avoided through the operation of the central gold settlement fund, conducted under the supervision of the Federal Reserve Board at Washington. By the use of this fund, the thousands of millions of dollars involved in current government operations have been received in the form of local bank credits, and the proceeds have been transferred to the point where government payments had to be made. As these ayments have been effected, local banks at J o s e places have increased their deposits and the proceeds have again been gradually shifted to different parts of the counby where production and manufacture were in rogress and where payments for material and Pabor had eventually to be liquidated. The Federal Reserve system has thus succeeded in its first and most immediate objects -the establishment of a co-operative o r centralized system of united bank reserves with rediscount arrangements desi ed for the relief of hard-pressed banks and g r the furnishing of an elastic currency. I t has further supplied the demand for an tfficicnt and nation-wide system of check collection. The establishment of a genuine discount market is necessarily a much slower process and time will be required . for its com lete success. The advent of the European d a r and the entry of the United States into it as a participant have naturally tended to retard the normal development of the system and in some ways to divert it into unexpected channels. The growth and experience it is obtaining in the financing of the war will, however, serve it in good stead when the time comes for a more normal development of its powers. Meantime, it has proved itself the country's banking mainstay and support in the necessary operations incident to the financing of the strungle. H. PARKER WILLIS, . Secretary Federal Reserve Board, Washington. 13. SAVINGS BANKS. Savings banks are of two kinds, stock and mutual. Stock b a n l r ~ - T h e stock savin bank is to all intents and purposes quite l g e a bank of discount, having capital stock, and is therefore, owned and controlled by the stocdolders. to whom the profits belong after paying the agreed rate of Interest to the depositors. Such banks are to be found largely in the West and South, there bein no such institutions in the Eslstern States. ~ % e yare essentially banks of discount with the word Qsavings' In their title. They transact chiefly a commercial business and carry comparatively few savin accounts. According to the report of the g m p troller of the Currency, there were 1,529 of these institutions re rting as of 23 June 1915, with capital stock 0P"~,982,798, loans amounting to $850,304,207, deposits of $1,047,039,650.93, of which $754,443,330 were savings deposits. The depositors numhered 2,977,968, of which 2,380,4% were savings depositors. Mutual banks.-The mutual savin S bank with which this article has mainly to is of --



BANKS AND BANKI[#G an entirely different type. I t is, as the above tern indicates, a mutual institution, without stock and therefore without stockholders, being owned by the depositors collectiv* and controlled by a body of trustees who m law rep-. resent them, but are not elected o r appointed by them. The depositors are, in a sense. ms, in that the profits h l o n g to tlrm anr;; losses, if any, are legally assessable upon thun, the latter process h g , however, a rare occurrence. We can best obtain a clear idea of the savings bank b dsknguishing i t from a bank of discount. $he latter is a stock corporation, organized to receive fun& on dcposi it may treat as its own upon the im lie agreewhich ment to return the same upon &mand. I t loans on promissory notes, buys commercial paper, bonds and other securities, issues bank notes and operates quite largely through the checking system, b which the bulk of its funds are dispersed. the profits belon to the stockholders, upon whom losses falf should there be any. I t is the business man's bank The savings bank caters to the small saver. It receives funds on deposit as trustee for the depositor, to invest for his account. I t does not, as a rule, make any discounts; buys no commercial paper; issues no bank notes, and honors checks only when accompanied by the passbook of the depositor. It is permitted to ask notice of withdrawal as a rotective measure in times of stress, while t i e bank of discount must pay on demand o r suspend The contract of the savings bank with the depositor is in essence this: That it will accept the funds offered for deposit, invest them according to law in certain prescribed securities, repay the same upon notice (which is, as a rule, waived, although in some instances is enforced in very large banks as a daily procedure), apportion the earnings among the depositors after paying expenses and establishing a surplus o r guaranty fund for their protection against losses. Out of the foregoing c o m ~ r i s o n swe may evolve the followin as a fair definition of a mutual savines ba3: .A savings bank is a mutual institution conducted for the benefit of the depositors, without profit to the managers o r trustees, for the purpose of receiving o n deposit, for safe-keeping and investment, such sums as shall be offered by the depositors, repaying the principal on demand or upon legal notice, and distributing the earnings among the depositors as interest-dividends, after paying expenses and setting the remainder aside as a surplus fund for the protection of all.' The savings bank has well been likened to a reservoir into which pour the little streams for the purpose of combining them into a larger stream for mutual investment purposes. The savings bank makes ca jtalists by the welding power it possesses, m a k n g the small sums effective by working them together. Origin of Sa+gs B a n k k T h e origin of savings banks IS in doubt, there beinq various claifnants for the honor of first conceiving the bank idea. Daniel Defoe, of "Robinr u s o g fame, is mentioned as the first to conceive the savings bank, in a plan whereby the government was to receive the deposits of the people. A Fren* writer has asserted that




the idea dates back to one Hugues Delestre in 1610. Such institutions were also formed in Brunswick in*1765 ; Hamburg in 1778; Berne, Switzerland, In 1787; Base1 in 1792; Geneva in 1794. But so far as is known, the savings bank as we know it to-day was the out rowth of none of these. The movement in Agland had its inception in the schemes of the Rev. Joseph Smith and Priscilla Wakefield The former in 1798 conducted a plan whereby it was agreed to receive sums for safe keepmg, repaying the same a t Christmas-time with a boun subscribed by his rich parishioners. The %posits could be withdrawn a t any time. Mrs. Wakefield's plan (1799) was a sick and aid society rather than a bank. The members paid a certain sum per month, according to age, and received a pension after 60 years of age. Sick and funeral benefits were also paid. There was the 'Sunday Bank' (1808) at Hereford, which was also in the nature of a charity and open Sunday mornings only. Jercmy Bentham established his UFrugality BankB in 1797. I t is obvious that none of these lans had in them the true savings bank idea. ?hey were all essentially charities, which the savings bank is not. The first man to conceive the proper idea and work it out to a practical conclus~on was the Rev. Henry Duncan, a Scottish clergyman, who in 1810, a t Ruthwell, Scotland, established the first savings bank that o erated along business-like lines and dependet upon the earning power of the money received on deposit to carry on the bank. I t was his conclusion that from the earnin s of the bank the depositors should receive g e i r interest and the bank should pay its expenses, the correct savings bank plan. T h e result of Duncan's practisal lan was the Edinburgh Savings Bank, organuec! in 1814, 'which is still a prosperous institution. Following Duncan's plan, savings banks soon sprang up all over Europe. The savings bank movement in this country naturally followed the movement in England and Scotland I t .is admitted that during the early part of 1816, almost simultaneously, the movement began in New York, Boston and Philadelphia. Sometime during that year a letter reached Thomas Eddy of New York from a London magistrate named Patrick Colquhoun in which he outlined the English plan of savings banks. The idea also came to the attention of James Savage of Boston and Condy Raguet of Philadelphia. The result of this simultaneous information was the establishment of the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, which opened for business 2 Dec. 1816, being the first bank of its kind to receive deposits in this country; the Provident Institution for Savings in the Town of Boston, which incorporated 13 Dec. 1816, being the first to receive legislative sanction; and. the Bank for Savings in New York, being, it is highly probable, the first to be conceived but the last to o n for business owing to the anti athy of New York legislature toward b a n g ip general. I t was chartered 26 March 1819 and opened for business 3 July 1819. The historical sequence is, therefore: New York the first to conceive, Philadelphia the first to receive money on deposit, and Boston the first to become a legal entity.

0 r ~ a t i o n . - The organization of a mutual savlngs bank consists of a body of m s tees, named in the original articles of incorporation, the charter being in former days issued by special act of the State legislatures; but under the free banking idea, the statutes now prescribe the process necessary to organize a savings bank, and any body of men who may care to do so may form a savings bank by complying with the statutory requirements and obtaining the sanction of the State official in charge of banks usually termed "Banking Superintendent.P ~fiankingCommissioner,D aSta*e Auditor,= aState Bank Examiner,' etc., the distinction being in the title and not in the official duties. Tmatees.-The trustees are a self-perpetuating body, vacancies being filled by their own votes, and the qualifications are moral rather than financial. Unlike a bank of discount. where stock ownership carrtes voting power, money power carries no weight with savings bank elections, the trustee being elected for life, the vacancy caused by his death being filled by vote of the survivors. As a rule these trustees serve without compensation, even the attendance at board meetings being without remuneration, except in a few States where the fee is lim~tedto about three dollars. They are permitted to recave fees as appraisers of real estate in making mortgage loans, and as examining members of the board and for other special services, bpt these fees are in lieu of service and not In payment of their trusteeship. The duty of the trustee consists in attendance at board meetings, service on committees; such as real estate valuation committees, examining committees, and finance committees, the latter having charge of .the investments of the bank In the early da s of the savings bank the trustees also actedras tellers. clerks, etc. The relation of the trustee to the depositor is that of a cestui que tnrst-one acting f o r the benefit of another. The relation of the corporation to the depositor, however, is one of contract. Accounts.-On the openin of an account, the depositor receives a pass%ook which not on1 is evidence of his deposit but @e terms unakr which it is received, and constitutes the contract betwein him and the bank Thiq contract, briefly stated, is, that the bank will invest the funds lawfully, manage wisely, repay the same on demand or on a stated notice and use due care in making payments. The contract of the depositor is that he will take good care of the book and promptly inform the bank of its loss, for its protection against wrongful payment, and abide by the bylaws, copy, or part, of which is always embodied in the passbook, and the mere acceptance of the book evidences his compliance with this contract. Savings bank accounts are of three kin*: (1) single-name accounts, payable to the inchvidual named in the book and at death to his legal representative; (2) the joint account payable to either of the parties during life, and at death to the survivor; (3) the trust account, payable to the trustee during life and at death to the party named as beneficia Bookkeepmg.- The bookkeeping o y a sav-


BANKS (13)

in S bank is simple. A single transaction will inlicate its character. Upon making a dewsit the depositor signs his name and gives information concerning his age, birthplace, arents, etc., for the purpose of identifying k m in future ayments. The book is then nsued .to him a n 8 a deposit ticket made out, the m e indexed, and the airnature card filed numerialiy for reference in makin payments. Books a r e ahvays num+red and for every book there is a correspondlng ledger account or card. T h e accounts are kept in groups of one o r two thousand o r by ledgers for proving purposes. The deposit tickets of the day are sorted accordhg to groups, and entered on a distribution sheet by number and name, with the amount carried to a perforated column a t the side. The postings are made directly from the tickets to the card o r ledger space. When all postings have been made the proving clerk checks the distribution sheet, from which the stub has been detached, leaving only the number and name as a guide. Turning to the number he verifies the name and inserts the amount posted for that day. The total amount must agree with the detached stub, thus showing that the right amount has been posted to the right account. Drafts are put through the same process, but in paying, the signature is compared.with the one on file and as a rule the test uestions are asked, the purpose of this process Being to show in a court of law, if necessary, that due care has been used to identif the depositor. The savings bank is absoged, in a measure, from the general rule of forgery. If the bank can show that the depositor has written a signature comparing favorably with the original and answered the test questions properly, it is protected against wrongful payment. I t is obv~ously impossible f o r a savings bank to know personally all its depositors who, being infrequent atrons, are liable to change handwriting, and $e test questions act as a measure of protection both to the bank and the depositor. The big events of the savings bank year are: First, the trial balance, whlch is a total of all the accounts, which must agree with the general books and in well-organized banks are kept absolutely in agreement by these periodic tests, made as a rule quarterly or semi-annually. In a bank where the transactions run into the millions this is no light task Secon terest computations, which involves ethelabor inof ascertaining the periods for which the various deposits are entitled to interest, computing and posting the same to the various accounts within a period of a few weeks. Interest.- Savings banks as a rule pay interest from quarterly periods, o r from the first of the month following the deposit, allowing a certain nulfiber of days' grace: thus money deposited on o r before 10 ~ u I yand remaning In the bank until 1 January, will draw six months' interest; between 10 July and 3 October -three months' interest. Some banks pay from the first of each calendar month if the money is on deposit at the close of the interest period. Inreetmenta, Savings banks are large investors in mortgage loans and municipal and railroad bonds. The law as a rule prescribes the character of bonds which may be purchased






but in all States, vernmenf State, city, town, of several States, ndably New York and village and schoordistrict bonds are Iegal in- M a s s a c h ~ s ,.have legalized method of vestments. Railroad securities are legal if t procedure, rt bang deemed unwlse to allow the movement to spread without adequate =fa conform to the statutory requirements, whic for instance in New York are, that the bonds guards as to the disposition of the money reshall be a first mortgage on the property and ceived on deposit When the deposits on the that the corporation shall have paid at least 4 pupil's card reach one dollar or more, the per cent diwdend on aH classes of stock for 10 amount is transferred to a regular savings bank years preceding the inveetmat. The State acwunt in the depository bank, in the pupil's laws differ as to the detailed requirements, a name. Withdrawals from the general fund review of which would be impossible within the and from the pupil's individual accounts are limitations of this article. As a ruk the bond pumitt.ed,. but not encoungrcd, the signature of and mortgage loan is limited to 60 per cent of the pnncrpal and parent bang required for the appraised value of the property and moot statistical iod testt.lctive reasons. (2) The second method contemplates usingl be a first mortgage. The proportion of mortb g e loans to the total assets is generally the pupils of the higher grades u the active stipulated in the law, as for instance in Mew mamagem of the bank. Some schools have a York, not over 65 per cent of the deposits may regularly orgaoized bank, with president, the school cashier, clerks, etc, who m be loaned on such secu*. Posbd Sawingm Banks.- The postal savings bank, receive all deposits, k e c p T m c o r d s and bank is in operation in all large countries ex- render proper reports to a supervising head, cepting Germany. The system in this country usually one of the teachers. One of the most dates from 25 June 1910. The fundamental popular plans consists of a duplicate card with idea of the postal savings bank is the receipt amounts p h t d in multipks of five cents. As by the government through the post-offices of depoeitr are m& the cards are placed together deposits, the paymat of which is guaranteed and the amount by the government. For detailed description two records simuytanwusly. This plan was dw vised by a school principal in B d y p and has SAVINGS BANKS,article 14. see POSTAL School Sapingm Banks.- The school sav- met with great favor wherever instituted ings bank in this country is the result of the Large cities likc New..York and Chicago have s+ool savlngs bank plan, the banks work of the late John K Thiry, a Belgian, wh6 taken up in connection with his work as trustee of the CO-opntmng wrth tbe s c h d authorities in propublic echools of Long Island City became im- mobng the spread of the movement. According to recent statistics gathered by pressed with the improvidence of the American savin~sbank section of the American Bankchildren and desired in some way to combat the the tendency to spend. As a m u l t the first school ers Association, for the Comptroller of the t h e n were 280 atide operating the savings bank was opened in connection with Currency, the public schools of the above named place in school savings bank in one form or another the late eighties. Mr. Thiry wrote and traveled extensively in connection with his pet scheme, with the result that other banks were fomed in various parts of the count after his original ew York 1910) ; Keyes, 'Hisplan. For many years, Xe was the only tory of Savings Banks) (New York 1874) ; statistician in the movement, and annualky is- Knfip, H..Jr., 'The Savings Bank and Its sued a report giving the growth of the system. PrachcalW.Work) (New York 1912). It was not until the matter was taken U by the WII.UAMH.K N I ~ NJR. , savings bank section of the American kanken Association in the year 1911 that the movement Vice-President Bank of Rockville Centre, Formerly Secretary Savings Bank Section reached the aggtessive stage, and under the enAmerican Bankers' Association. couragement of the bankers has grown to large oromrtions. 14. POSTAL SAVINGS BANKS. Defih e Woman's Christian Temperance Union nition.-A governmental a ency, operating Young Men's Christian Association and through the post-&ces, for t f e encouragement kindred organizations have loaned their support of thrift among the masses of the people by also. the first-mentioned organization being providing widely distributed and convenient departicularly active in spreadin the idea. Mrs. positories wherein small sums may be placed S. L. Oberholtzer (qv.), of %%&del ia, has at a comparatively low rate of interest, with given much time in promoting the sc ool sav- the faith and credit of the government pledged ings bank and has published periodic statistical to the repayment of principal and interest on matter in connectton therewith. The school dauand. savings bank is as a rule conducted along one History.-((The prcfpositian to use postof two lines: (A) Deposits are made through dfices as depositories for savings was first the medium of the teacher who acts as receiv- made in England as long ago as 1807. Mr. ing agent for the school. Deposits are per- Whitbread, a member of Parliament, introduced mitted as low as one cent, but in some cases during that year in the House of COmmms a stamps are isswd for penny deposits until 10 bin for the benefit of the working classes, the cents has been accumulated on a card. The gvidi princi I t of which was that of selfpupil is given a pass card as a receipt for the help.%r. itbred considered it wiser to deposit. The deposits from each class are asust people to advance their own interests turned in to the principal and by him deposit& than to extend help by the giving of alms. His in a mvings bank to the credit of the s c h l meritorious scheme, however, was received with savings bank or himself as trustee. The laws ahnost universal disfavor. The press of the







time ridiculed his. ideas and treated them as altogether impract~cableand vtslonary. There were then very few savings banks, only eleven being in existence throughout the civilized world. 'In December, 1838, the practice of transmitting mon by means of postal money orders throughout %e United Kingdom was authorized By that time the advocates of postal savings banks had become quite numerous, and they found in the successful worhngs of fhe money-order system one of thar .most -t arguments. 'It is interesting to note that the plan of postal savings banks which finally was adopted was proposed by one engaged In commercial banking- Charles W. Sikes, a bookkeeper of the (joint-stock' bank of Hudderffield, Yorkshire. He presented his composrtlon on the subject to that eminent statesman, W. E. Gladstone, then Chancellor of the Exchequer. He cited many pertinent facts tending to show the need of postal banks, amon them being that, private savings ba&s had greatly mcrease in number and d sits, they did not come within the reach of common or most numerous classes of the people. This, - he stated, could be done only by the post-offices, which were accessible to every workman. Mr. Sikes was encouraged, .and seconded in his efforts by Mr. Rowlqd Hill, who had bem appointed general secretary of the post-&ce for life in recognition of his valuable services as a postal reformer. Mr. Gladstone also eloquently supported the bill, which became a law in May. 1861, and on 1 September of the same yearethe British Post-Office Savings Bank came mto bein aft is well known that Mr. Gladstone was before the English public prominently as a conHis structive statesman for many opinion of the importance and M ue of postal savings banks is best given in his own words, uttered in the House of Commons in the year 1888 amid universal applause. He said:


'Wpat-o5ce madnga l?ank,uthe

m a t important inb u bean crated m the last 50 y a n f a the d the people and the Stap. I consider ths act d 1 8 6 1 which cnl ed the lnatitution lntp axmtcllcenr the m a t

mritutron whrch


d u I d ~ o f m y l ~ a u s a .

aCharles Sikes, actively concerned in the adoption by Great Britain of the postal savings bank, was not unrewarded. He was knlghted in 1881 upon the recommendation of Mr. Gladstone, then Premier. He was appointed to an important office under the government, and public subcriptions even were made and a valuable gift tendered him in a preciation of his good workn (United States 8enate Report No. 125 61st Congress, 2d Session). +he Movement for Postal Savingm Bank8 in the United States.- Following the lead of England almost every considerable nation with the exception of Germany, which has a splendid system of municrpal savings banks, established postal savings depositories. The movement for the establiehment of postal savings banks in the United States extended over a period of nearly 40 years. The subject was first bronght forward officially in this country by PostmasterGeneral Creswell in 1871, and met with the immediate approval of the press and the people. Eight succeeding Postmasters-General recom-

mended the artablishmmt of such honks and 80 bills were introduced in Congress between 1873 and 1910 to effect the purpose. The bill which eventual1 became the law was introduced on 26 1918 by Senator Thomas H. Carter. of ontaha, and was referred to the Committee on Post-OffiCesand Post Roads, of which Senator Carter was a member. It was reported back by the committee on the foliowing b y . The bill with various amendmenb passed the Senate on 5 Match. It was referred to the House of Representatives on 7 March,where it was extensively amended and was finally passed on 9 June. The Senate concurred in the House amendments on 22 June, and the bill. was signed by the President on 25 Junc Principal Featurn of the Postal Savings Law and Rey W o ~ . - T h e organic Postal Savings Act o 25 June 1910 created a board of trustees for the control, supervision and administration of the postal savkr de sitory othcu designated and establisher the provisionr of the act, and of the funds received on deposit consisting of the Postmaster-Gcneral, the h r e t a r y of the Treasury, and the Attorney-General, acting as ex h c i o . The board was empowered to make all necessary and proper lations for the receipt, transmittal, custodyI% sit, mvestment and repayment of the funds deposited at postal savings depository offices. This provision of the original act was somewhat modified by the Act of 4 March 1911. As the matter. now stands the Postmastcr-Gcnenl is charged with the desienation of post-offices as postal savings deposltories, the supervision of postal savings business transacted at depository post-offices and the conduct of the central admmistrative office at Washington The board of trustees is charged with the management and investment of postal savings funds after they leave the custody of postmasters. The Treasurer of the United States is treasurer of the board of trustees. Any person 10 years old or over may open a p t a l savings account in his or her own name y depositing one or more dollars in any postoffice authorized to accept deposits. No person may at the same time have more than one account either at the same office or at different offices. The account of a married woman is free from any control o r interference by her husband Post-office employees are forb~dden to disclose to any person except the depositor the amount of any deposits. A person may deposit any number of dollar and at any time, until the balance to his crejit amounts to $l,MXI, exclusive of accumulated interest. Accounts may be opened by the intending depositor in person, or through a representative. A person residing at a post-office not authorized to accept postal savings deposits m a open an account at a depository office by mail through his local postmaster. After an account has been opened deposits may be made either in person. through a representative, or by mail. Deposits are acknowledge by certificates, issued in fixed denominations which are made out in the name'of the depositor and serve as receipts. These .certificates are not negotiable or transferable. .

u tr


' 1 1


B A N K S AND BAWXING -- POSTAL S A V I N G S A depositor may at any time withdraw all any part of his deposits, upon demand, from the post-ofice where the deposits were made. Withdrawals may be made in person, through a representative. o r by mail. Postal s a w certificates bear simple interest at the rate of 2 per cent a year. Interest begins on the first day of the month following the month in which the certificate is issued and becomes due and payable at the ex iration of each full year from the day interest legins as long as the principal remains on deposit. No interest is paid for a fraction of a year. Amounts less than $1 may be saved by purchasing postal savings cards and stamps a t 10 cents each. A savings card with nine stam S A x e d will be accepted as a deposit of P1 either in opening an account or in adding to an existing account, o r it may be redeemed in 01


A depositor may exchange the whole o r a part of his deposits for registered o r coupon United States postal savings bonds, bearing 2% per cent interest, issued in denominations pf $20 $100 and $500. When bondseare issued in exchange for postal savlngs deposlts the balance to the credit of the depositor is reduced accordingly, and he may make further deposits until his account reaches $1,0110. Postal savings bank funds In most countries are invested in the public debt I n establishing postal savings depositories in the United States a radical departure was made in this respect. The organic law, as amended by the Act of 18 May 1916, prescribes that the funds received at postal savings depository offices in each city, town, village or other locality shall be deposited, in the order of precedence hereinafter specified, in solvent banks located therein, whether o r nized under National o r State laws, and s u g c t to National o r State supervision and examination, willing to receive such deposits under the terms of the act and the regulations made by authority thereof, and the sums deposited shall bear interest a t the rate of 2% per cent. The law requires that 5 per cent of the postal savings funds shall be withdrawn by the board of trustees and kept with the treasurer in lau~fulmoney as a reserve. The word "bankD as used in the law includes savings banks and trust companies doing a banking business. If one or more member banks of the Federal Reserve System exist in any city, town, village o r locality where postal savings deposits are made, such deposits are required to be .placed in the member banks, provided they qualify to reccive them, substantially in proportion to the capital and surplus of each bank, hut if the member banks fail to qualify, then pther elidble banks located therein may ~ u a l ify. If no bank eligible to qualify exists in any city, to*, village o r locality, o r i f none where such deposits are made will receive them on the terms prescribed, then the funds are deposited under the terms of the act in the bank most convenient to the locality. If no bavk in an State o r Territory is willing to receive the &posits on the terms prescribed, then thev a r e required to he deposited with the treasurer of the board of tmstees, and counted as a part of the reserve. VOL.




The board of trustees is required to take from the banks such security in public bonds, or other securities, authorized by act of Congress or supported by the taxing power, as the board may prescribe, approve and deem sufficient and necessary to Insure the safety and prompt payment of such deposits on demand If a t any time the postal savings deposits in any State o r Territory exceed the amount which the qualified banks therein are willing to receive under the terms of the act, and such excess amount is not required to make up the reserve fund of 5 cr cent, the board of trust a s is authorize8 to invest 111 o r any part of the excess in bonds o r other securities of the United States. When, in the judgment of the President, the general welfare and interest of the United States so require, the board of trustees is authorized to invest all o r any part of the postal savings funds, except the reserve fund of 5 er cent, in bonds or other securities of the e'nited States. The board of trustees is authorized to purchase from the holders thereof bonds which have been issued to postal savings depositors in exchange f o r thew d o posits. The board of trustees is authorized at any time to dispose of bonds held as postal savings investments and use the proceeds to meet withdrawals by depositors. Interest and profit accruing from the deposit o r investment of postal savings funds is required to be applied to the payment of interest due to postal savings depositors, and the excess thereof, if any, is required to be covered 'into the Treasury of the United States as a part of the postal revenues. Statmticr f o r United States System.- The postal savings banks were opened In the United States on 3 Jan. 1911, a t 48 second-class postoffices, one in each State of the Union. Following is a statement showing the growth of the system and givin a summary of its transactions at the enrf of each six months' period :





June 1916. . . .


Daamhr 1916.

June1917 .....

Statistics f o r Foreign Countries, Following is a statement e v i n g the principal numerical facts in connection with postal savings bank systems of countries other than the United States as shown by Statistical Abstract of the united States for 1916, based on the official reports of the respectwe countries.




................ .................

Aus* l . . Bebum 9 . ................ Bulgaria. EWpt ....................

Rance ................... Tunis. ............... Hllneary 1. ............... Itply. .................... apan .................... etherlndm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dutch +t Indies.. ... Dutch Gurpnn.. ....... Roumania S . .............. R u i a 1. ................. Finland. ............. Sweden. ................. United Kingdom 4 . ........ British India.. ........ New Zealand.. ........ Canada. ............. British South Africa 8 . . British W a t India 8 . .. British Colodm. n. e. d Philipwe Idands. . . . . . . . .

Dec. 31,1913

Dec. 31. l912 Dec. 31,l911 D s 31.1914

Dec. 31.1914 Dec. 31,1914




uly 1. 1910 une 30.1916 i l ec. 31,1913 Dec. 31,1914 Dec. 31,1914 Mar.31.1916 DSc. 31,1915 Mu.31. 1916 1914-1915 1914-1915 1914-1915 Dec. 31,1915

Exclusive of check department. Covers government ~vingabanks. State, including postal savings banks. 4 Includcs 4.017.659 accaurt.. averaging 51 antr each. which have been dorm~ntfor five y w or mora 8 Coven government and postoffice nviaga banks. 1



capital and the number of shares. (4) The names and residences of the stockholders, and 15. BANS ORGANIZATION AND the number of shares for which each has subMANAGEMENT. There are three classes of scribed. (5) That application is being made to banks in the United States-National, State and. enable the bank to operate under the National private. The National banks were organized Banking Law with its privileges and adto be strictly commercial banks, but some of vantages. them acquired large lines of savings deposits, The National Banking Law was originally even thou h the law did not authorize them to enacted to make a market f o r the bonds of the do so. #he act of December 1913, however, United States governfnent, and thou* aPPartheir action. By the same act the ently selfish its provis~onsaccomplished a great banks may obtain permission to conduct a trust benefit for the business public by placing the department The State banks include four bank notes on a safe basis and by driving from kinds of banks-commercial, savings, trust the market the 'wild cat4 notes. The Act of companies, and the three functions combined in 30 June 1864 first imposed taxes on circulating one institution. Private banks, in some of the notes of State and private banks; and the laws States where they are allowed to o erate, con- were changed at various times until 3 March duct their business apart from l e g d restriction 1865, when the tax was made 10 per centand it is still the same. and protection. By the average person the National banks The law could not properly prohibit the issue are considered the safest and most important. of circulating notes by State and private banks, The State banks, as a class, are by many not because note-issue is an absolute function of a considered so safe nor so importapt. The bank, but it could make the issue prohibitive private banks are frequently considered as by high taxation - and it did that. questionable. Such conclusions, however, are Bank notes are now issued only by National not in accordance with the facts. Whether a banks, and as security for these the banks must bank be a National, a State o r private bank is deposit United States government bonds with not the vital point; but the character and the Secretary of the Treasury at Washin on, . D. C., and a cash deposit of 5 per cent o the quality of its management is vital. National Banks.- The national banking vutstanding notes to provide for their r e d e m p system was organized under the Act of Con- tlon. The Federal Reserve notes are issued by ress of 25 Feb. 1863, since which time there the Federal Reserve banks. ave been many amendments to the original act. National banks are frequently organized A National bank (legally known as a na- men who make a business of fbnning su tional banking association) may be organized organizations. For this service they charge the by five o r more persons. Appl~cationmust be stock purchasers, o r the organization, a commismade to the Comptroller of the Currency for sion or percentage. This IS uivalent to paypermission and charter, apd L e a plication ing a premium on the stock. ?he must state specifically concerning %ese five can, however, be perfected w~thout e aid of points: (1) The name of the association. (2) a professional organizer, but can seldom be acThe place where ~t is to conduct the banking complished without involving some legal or business, g i v i n ~names of State, county and city organization expenses. (or town o r v~llage). (3) The amount of the The capital required depends on the size of A. S. BURLESON, Postmaster-General, United States.





BANKS AND MNIUNG- OR6AHIZATIO# AftD the place where the bank is to operate, and ranges from $25,00 to $200,000 or more. If the population of the town is less than 3,000 the ca ital must be 625,000;if between 3,000 and 6,& then $50,000 capital will be required; if more than 6,000 and less than 50,000 the capital must be $ 1 0 0 , ~and in every place with a population above 50,000 the bank's capital is to be $200,000 or more. At least 50 per cent of the capital must be Paid in before the bank is authorized to open or business, and this must be in cash or its immediate equivalent, not by promissory notes. The balance may be paid in mont instalments duxin the n u t five m o n t h s 3 u t it is advisable to %ave all paid in before opening f o r business. No surplus is required b law to be paid in by the subscribers, but it gas become the custom for new banks to start with a paidin surplus and by doing H) the new .+& receives the confidence of the publlc more q u i d . Ten or 25 r cent of the capital shoull be sufficient. ? f b u g h 100 per cent h paid in on some occasions. Each stockholder of a National bvrk is liable to an assessment of 100 per cent of the par value of his stock for the liabilities of the bank. The law reads: aThe .e r e h o l d e r of every natronal bankrng aswxlauon shall be held individually responsible, equally and ntably, and not one for another, for the contracts, debts, and engagements of such -association, to the extent of the amount of their stock therein, at the par valw. thereof, in addition to the amount invested m such shares.' The shares of certain State h& entering the National system are exempt from this liability. State banks can be converted into National banks,and many banks now in the National system were originally organized under State laws. To enter the National system the State bank must comply with practically the same requirements that are imposed on a new organization There are, however, certain advantages offered to the State banks, but not so many now as in the early da S of the operation of the law. These are d e advanta es if the bank has branches it ma retain g e k ; the stockholders of such a bang are exempt from the 100 per cent liability on their stock if the capital of thc bank is not less than $5,000,000, actually p a d in, and if the bank at the time of conversion has a surplus of 20 per cent of the capital, but the 20 per cent surplus must be maintained. State W a - T h e s e are organized under the laws of the States where they are to operate, and as the laws of each State differ in some respects it would be impossible in this article to give specific statements regarding the organization requirements of the various States. Forms for application to organize such banks and copies of the laws governing the banks can be obtained from the Banking Department of any State, or from the Secretary of State, in such States where there is not a banking department. In many States the laws have been modeled after the National Bank Law, and in some States the laws have been made more advantageous to the bankers than the national law, and thus give the banks a greater scope in lines o f business that ri htfully belong to them. If a bank is restrictet in the lines of business in




which it can operate it is limited in its earning power as well as in its utility to the w m mumty. As the National banks were organized originally, to serve the Federal government and mercantile interests, so the State banks in many States have laws that were formed with the purpose of ailowin the banks to serve the genenl public, and fecause of these laws they are better public utility institutions than the National banks, If a bank is not a public utility institution in its practice, it becomes narrow in its views and unaccommodating to its c u e tomers, and so limits its usefulness. Private B+a are usually organized by one man, but sometunes by several men as a firm. In many States laws have been passed prohibiting any one doing the business of bankin without the Federal or State authority. ~ucff lawa wtre enacted because of men who opened bvlkin o&es with the apparent purpose to defraut the public. Their success in their evident purpose led the authorities to try to rotcct the innocent public against such men. d e w laws, however, are a restriction against private business and prevent honest men from going into the banking business privately, as they can do in any other business. In this respect the laws are unjust. Some of the very best banking institutions in the country arc private banks, and some of them have for many years been d u c t i n g their business in a manner above reproach and criticism. See PRIVATE BANKS, article 11. The Management of B.nb is divided into two main departments supervisory and active. The supervisory is that of the vernments, which coxmists mainly of p e r i o g examinations and requests for statements of condition with more o r k s s explanation of the items included in the statements. Each National bnnk, accordin to the law, is required to be examined Qat feast twice in each calendar year,' bat this law is not fully complied with by the examiners The Comptroller bf the Currency and his assistants are responsible for these examinations. In some cases it is known that more than 12 months have ela sed between the examinations of certain bat&. In some States the laws require two examinations a year, but the makers of the laws, in many States, do not provide sufficient funds for the de artment havinq oversight of the work to maie the examinattons. Both the National and State laws are therefore not complied with in regard to the governmental supervision. But let it be said to the credit of those in charge of the various departments, that even with their handicaps they have, in quite a few cases, prevented dangerous .and questionable practices from arising and continuing in banks that otherwise would alinost certainly have resulted in heavy losses to or complete failures of the banks. The active management of a bank is lodged in its board of directors. The National Banking Law requires five or more directors for each bank. The position of director is not simply an honor, or a recognition of success as a business man; neither is it for the sole putpose of giving the bank prestige by the use of the director's name. The directors are in-






Bibliography.- Knox, John Ja 'Histoty tended to be the real and actual managers of C W., the banks. But here also is failure to comply of Banlung) (New York); with legal requirements. Probably not one 'Literary Remittances by a Banker1 (New York bank in 10 is really managed by the directors. 1910) ; Banking Laws of New York, Ohio and Experience with failed banks. has proved that Other States.; 'National Bank Organization' Nauonal City Bank, New York); (U. S. if the directors had done thelr legal duty the reasury Department, National Bank Act' banks would not have faded. The directors dele te certain duties to the (Washington, D. C. 1915). CHARLE~W. ~ H L , president, vice-presignt, cashier, assistant cashier, treasurer and assistant treasurer, or F o m n Bank amd C1ewis.q Hmse Exminer. other officers, and then in too many cases pay 16. BANK SUPERVISION. About 1no more attention to the details. The men so it became evident that some means must be appointed'must be trusted but the trust reposed adopted for repressing the mixed banking sysin them should not lead the directors to allow tem then in vogue and to provide a un~form them to perform their duties without the active and safe system in its stead. Federal enactsupervision of the board o r special committees ment soon provided for a uniform system, and of members of the board. the. provisions subjecting National banks to exThe president is the head of the bank, r e p ammation by representatives of the Comptroller resenting the directors to the other officers, em- of the Currency increased the safety of the ployees and customers of the bank, and on the system. In many States the State banks are other hand is their representative to the board. examined by officials of the State Supervisor The vice-president is the assistant of the of Banking. National banks are examined president, if he has any active duties in the every six months. The examiner comes unbank, and usually has a certain-part of the announced and the bank is for the time being executive work under his S U ~ M S I O I L under his control. He is obliged to examine The cashier o r treasurer has special over- the books, verify the cash and examine the sight of the cash resources of the bank and of investments and securities. The diflicul its records, as well as its staff of employees. passing judgment on the qual~tyof all oans The assistant cashiers and assistant treas- is the loophole through whrch many impruurers are to assist in the care of the details dent, o r worse, operations are carried on despite of the daily work. the vigilance of the examiners. Private banks In addition to the different kinds of bank- are now, in many States, subjected to special ing institutions mentioned above, as bebeing in State supervision. the United States, there are two other lands, Benefits of Banking .Institutions.These the Federal Reserve banks (see FEDERAL institutions afford a permanently safe place RESERVESYSTEM,article 12) and the Farm where the individual may deposit his moneys. Land banks. These have not been dealt And this is much more of a privilege than may with because they are government institu- appear on the surface. For not only is the tions and the public has practically no voice in secure place of deposit supplied, which otherthe organizatron and management of such wise would be wanting, but the bank practically banks. There are 12 Federal Reserve banks insures the safety of the funds commrtted to and their urpose is to serve the overnment it: if in any way loss is sustained by robbery and the d t i o n a l banks, and the !%ate banks or fire or b some other cause, the bank is that join the Federal Reserve system. All bound to ma%e good the loss, and this regardmember banks must be stockholders and de- less of the fact that the depositor may not be a positors in these banks-they have no choice rofitable customer, as many dealers are not. in the matter. These Federal Reserve banks i n fact, the number of depositors who simply are to furnish aid in the way of loans of use a bank as a convenience, whose deposits are currency to member banks when th need it. not large and whose multiplicity of small checks There are to be 12 Farm Land b a x . Their are a trouble, as they are the despair of the purpose is to loan money secured by mortgages individual bookkee er, is legion. Nevertheless on farm lands, and the banks are to issue bonds the bank takes S U C ~accoynts, holds the money secured by the mortgages. The interest rate subject to innumerable lrttle drafts which are on the bonds is not to exceed S per cent. made good by new deposits equally numerous In addition to these banks there are to be and small; and thus the active little account National F a h Loan Associations formed by is maintained from year to year, often only a men who will borrow from the banks. These source of trouble and expense to the bank, associations are stock companies and each appli- which actually receives no adequate return for cant for a loan must subscribe for stock equal its services as warden and agent. I t is to be to 5 per cent of the amount of the loan. The noted, too, that in this country the services par value of the stock is to be five dollars-a rendered the individual by the banks differ greatly from those afforded by like corporations share. The Federal Reserve banks are managed in some other countries, notably in France. by the Federal Reserve Board and the local T o cite one instance: In that country wery officers of each bank. The Farm Loan banks note when due must be paid to the bank officer are to be managed by the Farm Loan Board and in hard cash; a check on that o r some other by the registrars and other officers at the local bank, duly certified, would received. In banks. fact, the bank's messenger visrts the payer of The value and utili of these banks have the note and demands the paynients of the not been demonstrate2 and some bankers exact amount in cash, or protest and 1-1 question both the value and utility of both of proceedings follow. Relation of Banks t o the C o m r n ~ n i t ~ . these government institutions, while other But leaving this phase of the subject, a glance bankers consider them of great value.










responsibilities are not will show how vital is the relation of a bank charge of his hea to the community doing business with it. In many at the most. rom the time he assumes a word, it may be said to receive all the money the direction of the affairs of a bank to the time that comes to that community and to disburse when his own ledger must be closed, a very few it zs desired by the customer. Not only so, decades intervene. When that hme has come but when he cannot command the money re- and he either passes from all work o r puts quired to tramact his business, the bank may down his pen and vacates his chair for a supply the desired amount. Thbs it is, estates younger man, it becomes evident that the superare cared for, income in the shape of interest vising banker - be he president, or cashier is psi$ vast sums a r e committed to its keeping, whoever he may be and whatever his official while y its loans made at times of emergency deslgnat~on- should be able t o hand over the bank enables the business of the community to his successor not only the assets of the to be transacted; and this principle extended , bank unimpaired, but an intelligible working stands for the business of the world. I t is system such as will enable the new manager to asy to see that a misfortune to such an insti- familiarize himself with the details of the busitubon means a calamity to a community, and a ness and discover the exact situation with the series of them means panic, with its c o n s t least delay. But this can only be accomplished. quences of impoverishment and distress, and by the inauguration of a system as nearly sometimes rain to countless thousands. How perfect as may be, which, with its comprehendisaster in this direction has been wrought in sive method of safeguardng checks, will rethe past those familiar with the history of quire of him less devotion to such details as it bankin in the earlier days, when banks were iq the rovince of his subordinates to supernot sufject to the restrictions of the present vise. !'hat is to say, the more perfect the time, and when the failure of a bank often . system in practice the more time will the rable loss to innocent holders of manager have for the exerclse of his judgment their a r c u ating notes, are fully aware. But upon the most important questions comlng b e when we go farther and take the most super- fore him. I t is here that the test of the most ficial glance' a t the great industries of the d c i e n t bank official lies. Take, for an illuscountry, w e obtain some conception of what tration the work of supervising the loans madeq banks and bankin mean. I s it too much to say on real estate. that without cr&t and banking facilities the Expert Examination8.- I t has been held, unparalleled facilities of our ggantic railway and is indeed held by many knowing no other systems, stretching from ocean to ocean and method, that to ascertain the value of propg the enormous crops of the count erties submitted as collateral for loans recourse WC are enabled to feed the worlx must be had to some qualified expert, enerally would be in vain? I n the last analysis we shall some one enga ed in buyin and s e l h g real find that i t is not car wheels, but it is money, estate. The jutpent of an authority has that moves tke great harvests of a continentbeen, and is, accepted a s conclusive o n the as for that matter, of the world. And the security offered, and determinative as to money would be lacking but for the banks; whether the report shall be favorable or adverse these, and not steam o r electricity, stand bc to the loan. But here the question arises, Who tween the nations and starvation. shall guarantee the ex ert? for experience rding Depositore.- I t would seem has too often shown J a t his 'udgment may d t d E t h e circumstances no argument was fail, o r it may be discovered d a t the ex ert required t o estabIish not only the necessity for was consciously o r unconsciously interestcl in adequate safeguards in the shape of stringent advising the loan; the applicant may have been statutes, but that measures should be prov~ded a friend of his, o r and such cases have been to insure strict conformity on the part of the -it may be his own device for getting a loan bank officers and directors to the requirements by a plylng through the concealed interest of of the banking laws, thus safeguardink the a n o J e r party. But suppose a more excellent depositor against abuse of privilege or c n d n a l way is to be found by which the bank can be carelessness. The attainment of this object is rendered reasonably certain as to the value of sought by the rovision in national and State the property, that a clear title can be given, that legislation, as J e case may be, requiring official it has real existence as described, both as to examination and the publishing of a statement environment and prospective value; if he be a of a bank's condition from time to time as the wise banker, will he not take advantage of authorities may deem expedient. There is but that safer and saner method? And let us s u p se, further, that in this way our banker 1s one proper bank supervision, and this inchdes ept informed regarding specific localities, as to mental alertness to discover the very best methods for despatching business with celerity, whether they are advancing or retrograding in for insuring correctness, for guarding most ef- value, whether the interest 1s kept up -is it not fectuall against errors, and to render tamper- clear that a banker who has such expert advice ing witK the books most difficult and detection is not on1 freed from duties that would othermost easy. I t means, too, economy in the use wise ncc$d;clsly weigh upon him, but that his of time - the article which so many squander services are to just thls extent made more lavish1 as if, like the waters that pass out valuable in that with less time expended in from $etwFn the mute lion lips of the Nlle searching for details and technicalities he has fountalns, ~t was to flow on forever. Super- more time to devote to other important duties? vision means, also, such oversight as makes the Needless to say, we are not pleading for a title manager thoroughly familiar with the business guarantee compan o r other corporation ; we of the bank, so that he can upon occasion com- only say this-tiat where the services of mand the fullest information regarding a new these or kindred institutions are warranted by department of the business at a moment's no- the business of the bank -and it must be small tice. The years of a banker's work in the ds institutions where the volume of business does











not warrant than - such facilities car guarantee of perfect safety should be u t i a by the prudent banker. Systematic Examinations Eeacntial.- But be supervision ever so thorough, it cannot serve its proper purpose without a system of ri amlnatlon - rather of examinations. nceasing watchfulness can only be maintained through proper investigations, not only to detect fraud but errors of judgment. The usual examinations of books are of but two bnds, those of the directors, and those of the official examiners of the National o r State government as the case may be. Of these two methods $at of .the directors, when nghtly conducted is most important, and for the obvious reason that the directors are better informed as to the value of aper and local securiues than the official b a d ex-ner, as a rule, can b e That the examinations made by directors are too often superficial and erfunctory goes without saying. Of course, in J e eia+itio?s by the directors, the revision of loans is most unportant, enabling the. board .as it does, when conducted m a buslness spir~t,to detect lmpro er advances on an i n s a c t e n t collateral o r lnaiequate endorsement. I t is here the examination should be most thorough, so that the presence of ' w e a r paper, which often becomes such after the loan has been made, may be discovered and remedied Obviously in such an examination every piece of paper must be one over as to time pf m?turity and collateraf which latter should Invanably be produced Collaterals should all be carefully examined with reference to their proper assignments to the bank so that there may be no question about its abili to exercise a legal ownershi if necessary. %he ticklers, to thp discoupt b o o e and all books p r t a i n i this most Important branch of bank, s h o u 8 be carefully investigated, and the recise facts ban? its ascertained. The liabilities of deposits and cash on hand, the character o the sitors and borrowers the condition of the ?&dual ?nd geperal le&ers, the bad debts of the ban? rncludmg espawll notes p u t du over-dra ts whep permittd- all these an3 more should be lnvestlgated by the board, and this without bias to any officer or employee of the bank; all of them who discharge their duties faithfully will be glad of an examination which will result in enhancing the appreciation and increasing the confidence of the board as to the value of their services. T o insure the correctness of balances on the individual ledgers it would be well to render a monthly statement to depositors having active accounts, and to others at short intervals. A reconcilement blank, stating that the balance is correct, should accompany the same to be signed by the de ositor and an enveiope addressed to the ca%ier. i f there are errors, the depositor may note them, to the end that they may recelve official attention immediately; these reconcilements to be filed by the auditor and checked back by the examining committee Surplus Nominal and Rd.- In some instances it would be advisable for the directors, when making an examination, to em loy a trustworthy upen accountant m aid tfem in their investigations, because such an exqert may be able to make a more complete analyas of the condition of the bank than can the directors. Here we venture, in the interests of justice to




all, to express the conviction that while banks may continue to fail, shortly after they have secured a certificate of soundness from the National o r State bank examiner -as they have failed in the past - no such failure should take .place following a like verdict of a board of &rectors of a bank, though there have been such cases. The officral examiner of the National o r State government may not be p r e sumed to know the rtandiog of many of the promisors or endorsers of notes. I t may be impossible for h i to detect worthless paper. though it is supposed to represent thousands upon thousands in value. But no such lea can be accepted for the directors of 1 b a d , some if not a l l of whom should have knowledge 01 the value of the paper upon which they lend their depositors' money. And what are the directors but trustees of the moneys of others committed to them in perfect confidencq and to whom no language can too severely be applied, who fail to direct? Here it seems pro r to emphasize a practice which is becoming %r too common in the management of b a n k k g institutions, namely, the practice of ca on the general ledger a lar e surplus f u r : ? undivided profits, tbmugh t t e fai1u.w to charqe off bad paper w k h is known to be such. T h s is a matter to whic 5 their. examinatio3 directors should give eir attention, that t h a r bank statement may represent the exact condition of the institution; just s u e a statement, in fact, as every right-mnded brcctor would furnish were the bank .his own prope But let us be just to the &rectors, many ?whom are prominent business .m?, ?ome of them directors in several other mstltutmns and otherwise enga ed in business occupations which take all J e i r timq and which make it impossible always for the director to direct and examine, as he would be .glad to do. This fact has obtalned recognition among leading bankers, who have inaugurated another system of examination, name , the practice of having the books of the a+ examined as often as may be deemed expehent b a committee appointed by the presidplt from the competent clerks, includin a chairman of consrderable experience. ' d e committ~e bdog notified assemble immediately. Wlthout a moment's warnin all the affars of the bank are put in their %andS. They count the cash on hand, examine balances, count all securities, examine and com are the sum total of all discounted bills a n B their collaterals, verify all accounts in the ledgers-in short, they ngidly scrutinize the conbtion of the bank. No one -no officer even-is allowed to make any transaction without the knowledge of the committee, who take due account of it. Where, as in the lar e cities, branch banks exist, the affairs of eacf branch are also examined in the same manner and at the same moment, that there may be no collusion by shifting of ballances, borrowing money o r securities to make good a deficiency. H o w Some Bankm Examine Themselves. -The following from a circular letter, convening a committee of examination, will give some idea of the character of the work performed. The first line of the instructions to the committee may read as follows: On presentation of this order you will at once take charge of the bank, and will not allow




any officer or d e r k to do mything without your knowledge. Then follow specific instructions to the committee: Count the cash m detail. Examine the cash items, and all items composing exchan a,and see If any are irregular, and make fulfreturns to the president. Test all discounted bills, their endorsements and collateral~, and pKove the amounts and accomylng secunues. Check up all the loans. E f i f y all extensions and balances of ledgers. Prove all certificates of deposlt . and cerufied checks as well as all outstankng vouchers. Prove the cashier's account. make a record of all outstanding vouchers and see that all checks . drawn on the barik have two signatures. Verif the expense account. Ascertain whether a i charges are initialed by an officer. Prove the teller's difference and submit all items to the president Lit all amounts due from banks and verify them, noting any irregularity. Report on amount due from ach concern. Scrutinize and report upon clearing-house accounts and margin accounts of the Consolidated, Produce and Cotton excha List all dividend checks unpaid. Check 3 2 1 stocks, bonds and mort ages Descnbe all overdrafts, and see w h e x e r ihe books are properly kept Report all suspended debts and balances d u e Check off, a month back, the discount book and see if all amounts are duly entered. Examine exchange account; see if the entries a pear suspi~ously.low and if there are any &bits. Investigate Interest account; see if all c h a r g e are in~tialed by an officer. All insurance policies and bonds should be scrutinized and a corn lete record made of the same Report on all Qfferences caIkd for on general ledger and whether they are all known to the odcers. State a t length your views as to the condition of the bank; report any departure from the method of our system as you understand it; Report any suggestions that may o r m r in connection wlth e method of bookkeeping looking toward their improvement. Finally state errors made in the methods pt~rsued in the handling of bills discounted, loans or any other d e t a l of the bus~ness. The fact that the bank's investigating committee enter into possession and assume e n t i e control of the bank's affairs, which they retain without interference or interruption until they have thoroughly satisfied themselves that the books of the bank are correct and its affairs precisely as represented, affords assurance against fraud and clerical errors. I t would seem. wise that all banks should ca-use such exammatsons to be held; where ,this is not expedient the same methods should be pursued b the directors. If any illustration were desired showing the necessity for rigid supervision and t h o r o q h examination it may be found ip the astonishing story which has appeared m the public journals. The fact is d ~ s closed that a woman not engaqed in business a n d not known to possess tangrble assets was able to obtain from at least one bank, with a reputation for conservatism, loans of four times the capital stock of the institution I t is a good lan, when an investination is being made by 8ational o r State bank examiners, to appoint a committee of the clerks to co-operate with such officials for the purpose o f verifying the investigation.

A theft which had wide newspaper publicity both because of the very large sum.stolen and the rominence of the b+ tn the uty of New was where a recelvlng teller was found to be the thief, although the directors had absolute confidence in his integrity. H e used part of the recei ts of one day to cover the shortof the recekng In one bye two lidividual bookkeepers were m conspiracy with a dealer. They allowed the depositors to draw out more money than they had deposited by covering up the defalcations by false entries. The officer in charge of the exchange deartment in one case entered drafts issued by k m for a less amount than the face. T o 11lustrate: A $5,000 draft was entered by him as $1,000, and, as he had charge of the %econcilement,P the dsffercnce was transferred from one account to another. I f a ledger is manipu!ated, or a certificate oJ deposit re 'ster falsified, it is kflicult to dscover the k u d I t is a wise proceeding to compel all employees to take a vacation without notice each year, so that others may become acquainted with fheir duties. I n @is way, sometimes, defalcauons .have been dscovered. I n past experience there has been found no more satisfactory preventive against fraud than the changing of employees, without previous notice, for a short time, from one department to another, a t least once a year. A constant inquiry should be made as to the conduct and habits of all persons employed by the banlc Such inquiry may not make a weak man strong, but ood resolutions may be strengthened by t h e k o w l e d g e that the penalty of wrong-doing will be surely and promptly inflicte.d. I t IS only a truism to say that good bank management and thorough, examination are wholly im ossible in the absence of a definite S stem w k c h enters into every phase of in&stry:. W e find it everywhere. The manufacturer who does not know in detail his stock on hand a t any time is in as dangerous a position as an engineer without a steam gau e. His steam may be low- the machinery of &S business will sudden!y stop. His pressure perhaps 1s high -all his capltal tied up in stocks means a n explosion -and the receiver gets the piew. Necessity of Method.-To a right and safe banking system method is a necessary rot o . Unrystematic buJling. lnot onf paradox, it IS a contra&ct~onm terms. ~ o s t o n 1912) ; %a er$ 'Mercantile Credits' (New York 1914) ;%f'Commercial Paper and .Analyfin, W. H.,,Jr., sis of Cre it Statements) (New York 1918), 'The Practical Work of a Bank) (Chap. XIII, New York 1916) ; Prendergast, (Credit and .Its Uses' (New York 1910). WILLIAMH. KNIFFIN,JR., Vlce-Presidetlt Bank JO Rockville Centre; Formerly Secretary nvings Bank Section American Bankers' Association. --

ia BAN# AND TRUST COMPANY ADVERTISING. . +deavoring, by forceful,

well-planned advertwmg, to secure new depositors and customers for a banking institution, pr to increase the dealings of present customers with it, i s a comparative1 recent development of the business. both in d e United States and abroad. Formerly, about the only advertising considered pro er for a bank and trust company was the puilicatioh of its financial statement and a %card' with the names of the management, together with the barest statement of the services rendered by the institution. But of late years, partly on account of the great advances made in general advertising and partly because of increased competition in the banking business, many institutions have gone into the matter of advertising Inore fundamentally, either puttin that branch of their activities into the hanfs of agencies specializing in that kind of work, o r employing a publicity o r advertising manager to devote his entire time to the advertising of the institution. Naturally, it is only the larger banks that can afford such an arrangement. Smaller institutions must either turn the work over to one of their officers o r employees or make use of the services of some agency supplying a ready-made o r specially prepared advertising servlce for financial institutions. Banks and trust companies which are most successful in their advertising usually make an annual appropriation in advance to cover all advertisin expense, and this item of the budget i? subdivifed to meet the cost of these various &visions : Munagemcut.- Salary of advertising manager, if one is employed. S#ace.- Newspapers, street can, billboards, moving picture theatre, etc. Copy.-To pay for the servicts of an advertising writer or for the work df advertising agencies in the preparation of the subject matter of the advcrtismg. Mechanical.- Under this head are included the printing, engraving, lithogra ing, art work, etc., reqaixd in produang the nk's advertis* , ing matter. I t is difficult to lay down any hard-andfast rule concerning how much a bank o r trust Fompany can legitimately spend for advertismug. The trustees of mutual savings institutions feel that they have no right to spend m y




19. BANK NOTE ISSUES. In principle of th&r depositors' money' for this purpose. S o they do practically no advertising at alL a true bank note does not differ from a bank But other banks are s ending a good deal of check. The purpose of either is to transfer money in advertising. $he sum hffers accord- credit. The granting of credit on the books of notes by ing to the amount of competition, the size of of the bank precedes the iss the bank and other local conditions. Investi- the bank o r the drawing o z e c k s by the gation has brought out the fact that the average depositor; or, a t least, the bank ays out a advertising expenditure probabl is about in note in discharge of an obligation o?some kind, the proportion of $1 for every $& of deposits, and this is the usual way in which a depositor that is, a bank with $2,000,000 deposits will employs a check. H e may, of course, use it as a means of obtaining currency from the spend $10,000 a year in advertising. The facts concernine; a bankin o r fiduciary bank f o r his own needs; but here, again, there institution and the serv~cesit re,nSers the ub- has been on1 a transfer of credit from the lic that ma properly be advertised ingude bank to the drcpositor in circulating form. If capital a n 8 surplus, governmental super- checks were certified, issued in convenient devision, personnel of directorate and manage nominations and so engraved and printed as ment, physical protection, age and experience, not to be easily counterfeited o r raised, they be substantially the same as a bank note, interest on deposits, business or investment would for a certified check becomes an obligation of counsel, care of property, trusteeships, execu- the certifying bank. But a bank note ought to tion of wills, loans, discounts, cemficates of be somewhat better secured than a check, and deposits, banking by mail, foreign and domestic for this reason: a check is acce ted or not business information, business refer- as the person receiving elects; put a bank " c h a n ~etters of credit, travelers' checks, col- note, ences, a legal tender, must be taken lections, courteous service, the necessi and in the o r l n anot v course of trade by merchants rewards of thrift, the use of safe ?epodepo?itand other busmess men who cannot discrimboxes co-operation with the government in inate between different h n d s of money in cirwar knancing, etc. culation. Therefore, the notes should be given The tried and approved media of bank some extra security as a first lien on assets o r advertising include daily and weekly news- by a guaranty f u n d papers, financial journals and magazines, bank Experience in the banking history of the directories, street cars, billboards, moving pic- United States and other countries has shown ture theatre advertising, personal letters, fat- that by employing either of these expedients simile letters, booklets, @house organsD (1.ebank notes can be made safe beyond question. little regularly issued papers o r magazines, The best provision for current safety, and the either asyndicated" or especially prepared by best check against inflation, is the test of daily the bank for free distribution), financial state- redemption, in the standard metal, applied ment folders, calendars, bank window cards, through the clearings. and a great variety of specialties, novelties or If banks in the issue of their notes are left souvenirs. unrestncted beyond the simple safeguards Of late, a movement has been started above mentioned, the amount of circulating toward the CO-operative advertising of banks. medium in the shape of bank notes will be That is, the banks of a city or county will get determined by the wants of trade - that is, by to ther and pool a certain proportion of their the requirements of those who deal with the a8ertisiog appropriations and use the mon banks. In the larger cities deposit credits to for a campaign of popular education in t h r z be checked against will best serve; in the o r banking functions. Space is used in local farmin communities more currency will be newspapers o r other media. In some cases the called Tor. How much curren is needed in names of all the banks co-operating in the any one locality, or whether y a n k notes o r movement appear in connection w ~ t hthe ad- checks are most serviceable, must be left, not vertising. I n others, the articles are not signed to the bank nor to the government, for only but appear a, editorial matter. the person desiring to use the credit can corBanks in some communities have formed rectly gauge either its degree or kind. banking publicity associations for mutual benThe earl banks in the United States were efit, and a Financial Advertisers' Association of diverse einds, but there were two general was established in 1915 as a department of the systems of note issues, one where the notes powerful organization known as the Associated were based on bonds, the other where the Advertising Clubs of the World. notes were emitted on the ganeral credit of Bibliography.- Holderness, M. E., (Guide the issuing banks. The latter-as in Indiana, Posts to National Bank Publicity and Business Iowa, Missouri, Kentuc Louisiana, Virginia, Building) ; Lewis, E. St. Elmo, (Financial Ad- and especially in New%!ngland -were good, vertising' ; MacGregor, T. D., 'Pushing Your the notes not on1 being of great service but Business,' (2,000 Point? for Financial Adver- proving sound. other States where bonds tisin ) (Bank Advertising Plans,' (The Book and stocks were pledged as security, the notes of &rift' and (The New Business Depart- proved unsatisfacto . Generally, in those ment) ; Morehouse, W. R., (Bank Letters' ; da S, the notes exceegd the deposits in volume. Morison, F. R., (Banking Pub!i:ity' ; Rice, d e r e , as in New England, under the Suffolk August E., (Practical Bank Advertising' ; "How system of redemption, which was a plan to Increase a Bank's Deposits," in System whereby the notes were redeemed at Boston Magazine. through the Suffolk Bank, the notes showed T. D. MacG-P, a close correspondence in volume to the deVice-President Edwin Bird Wilsan, ~ n r ; ,14 mands of trade. I t was found, also, in practice that redemption was an effectual check against Wall Street, New York.



GUARANTY OP BANX DEPOSITS (20) -TRUST COMPANY (21) over-issue, and that thc banks did not k n p the volume of notes up to anywhere near the permissible limit. The experience in New England, as in 0th- sections .of the c o y t r y , established the fact that only slmple prwrslons were necessary to ensure the safety of the notes Inflation of bank credit -that is, the granting of more credit thzn prudence ~ M C tlons- 1s possible w h e n the coin reserves are inadqaate o r the bank mvraganent r d e s s , but mflation of bpnlc notes, under a proper system of redemptmn, is not easy. Banks cannot keep their notes in circulation any longer than they are needed Every irsuin bank receiving the notes of another bank wzl want to have that note redeemed t o make place in f o r one of its own notes on the c~rcuht~cm which it w m make a profit; moreover, it will want to have the notes of other banks r e deemed to lenish its own r e s e m s upon which its cm&1 structure is +d. Private holders of the notes will deposlt them as received in the course of trade. Bank notes save the abrasion incident to circulation of coin, and they are more economcertificata, for while the latter n l +n are ~ s s u e only against a like equivalent of the standard metal, bank notes ma be issued with safe against a much s d L r reserve. Credit notes atso have one immense advantage over notes k u e d against United States bonds, for while the latter represent an investment of an equivalent amount of capital, and a r e therefore a source of expense w e n when lying idle in the banlc's tills, a hue bank note while in the possession of the issuing bank represents no more than the coat of the paper i ~ n dt h e engraving. When it is paid out, in exchange f o r the obl~gation of others, o r against checks of depositors, and a reserve set aside against it in the vaults of the issuing bank, it then becomes of value T h e *dian and Scottish banking systems afford farmlrar examples of the issue of bank credit notes. From the imposition of the 10 Der cent tax on State bank notes in 1865 bank credit currency hu been prohibited in the United States. Prior to the adoption of the Federal Res.erve system (q.v.) notes of National banks were issued against a deposit of a like amount of United Sbbcs bonds. The Federal Reserve Act provides for the issue of notes t o member banks against specified commercial papers, the Federal Reserve banks emitting the notes to hold a r e s m o f 4 0 per cent against them. These notes, however. are not true bank notes, issued by the banks themselves, but obligations of the qovernmat, issued only through special institutions under government control. ELMER H. YOUNGMAN, Editor The Bankerd Mogasine.



20. GUARANTY OF BANK DEPOSITS. This has been effected by 1eg.lsla-

tion m some States (Oklahoma, Kansas, N+ hraska, Mississippi, South Dakota and Washington), and tndividbal banks in some cases have taken but policies of insurance to protect their depositors. (The Attorney-General of the United States has ruled that this is a legal use of the funds of a National bank). The United States Su reme Court, on 3 Jan. 1911, In cases comlng fefore it from Kansas, Olrla-


homa and Nebraska, decided that the bank deposit guaranty laws of those States were not in conflict with any revisions of the Constitution of the United 8,tatr and the c o u ~ tfurther laid down the prIncl& that the iemslat~re may not only regulate banlong but may prohlht it except under such conditions as rt may prescribe. I n rin+ple, the guaranty or insurance of bank (PIpos~tsrests upon mutual responsibili I t is objected to on the ground that it ten% to place new and perhaps recklessly managed b a s h on a par, as regards safety, with oldestablished and carefully managed banks. T o this objection the reply is m& that there ought to be no degrees of safety in banking, but that all deposits in banks should be made safe beyond question, and that in point of service the old bank will tend to have the advantage anyway through the friendships and connections created by its long existence. Experience with the laws now in force would seem to indicate that the results depend upon the character and administration of these laws. Some of them have recognized that where joint responsibility is assumed, greater stringency in the regulabon of banks is essential to prevent sound and well-managed banks from being called on to pay the losses of those imprudently managed. I n Texas, after six years' trial, the Commissioner of Insurance and Banking found that each share of stbck of the par value of $100 had paid only three and onehalf cents annually f o r deposit insurance, and he states that among depositors in guaranty fund banks the closing of one of these institutions creates no more panic than the closing of a rocery store. Some of the other States have f a d less satisfactory experiences, and the fact that after long agitation but few States have ado ted the law and that it has not yet been appEed to the kational banks, warrants the conclusion that the experiences thus f a r have not justified the general extension of the plan. A safety fund, originall designed to rotect the noteholders of the &ate banks of fim York, was later made applicable to the deposits of banks, and the system broke down, chiefly because the fund provided was not large enough to protect both noteholders and depositors. Throu h clearing-house examinations of member tanks a qualified form of de guaranty has been mstituted, although responsibility is not assumed. The ability, by careful oversight, to detect banking weakness at its inception, renders a bad bank failure almost impossible. A desire to preserve local banking reputation has sometimes led bankers to unite in the protection of depositors in failed banks- the case of the Walsh bank failure, in Chicago being the most familiar example. ELMER H. YOUNGMAN, Editor The Bankers' Magaeine. 21. TRUST COMPANY. Definition.A corporation authorized by law to act as trustee, o r to accept and execute trusts of various descriptions; a corporation empowered to act in a fiduciary capacity. This is the primary meaning of the term "trust company,. and 1s expressed in the name given to such a company in Australia,- a atrustee company..


BANKS A N D BANKING --TRUST COMPANY (31) In current usage, the term is applied to any corporation organ~zedunder the trust company laws of the several States, whether such corporation actually undertakes any trust business or not. While these laws invariably grant certain powers to accept and execute trusts, including always the power to act as trustee, they also grant other powers, of considerable variety in the different States, of which more or less limited banking powers are always a part. Except with the oldest companies, the volume of banking business usually .exceeds that of trust business; and it results that to the average person the trust company presents itself as a peckliar kind of baak In fact many of the smaller and newer truet compames do practically no trust business, and their actual functions are those of ordinary banks of deposit and discount, or of savings banks, o r of a combination of the two. On the basis of the business actually transacted, therefore, the trust company may be defined as a financial CO oration authonzcd to exercise both banking a n r t r u s t functions. Functions. 1. Trust Functions.- The function which gives the t m t cqmpany its name is that of acce brig and exccutmg trusts. In the exercise of d i s function the trust company performs the same acts and assumes tbe same responsibilities as an individual acting in like capacity. Trusts are received from natural persons or individuals, from corporations, both public and rivate, and throu h appointment or is convenient to approwd o!courts of kw. consider the trust functions under these heads: (a) Trusts performed for individuals under private agreement. Most of these trusts .involve actmg as trustee or agent, but they are of great variety as to purpose and as to duties required The most common is that of ac as trvstce or agent for the management2 property, real or personal. In this capacity the trust company takes entire charge of the property, collects income, collects principal of securities when due, reinvests capital funds if desired. If the property be real it looks after repairs and improvements, keeps the property rented and insured, pays taxes, collects rents. It remits or accumulates income, according to the contract It handles the separate estates of mamed women; looks after the investment and care of funds of educational or benevolent institutions; acts as custodian of valuable papers and sccur~ties; handles escrows; collects income which is receivable at lon intervals or at uncertain eriods and distriktes it per contract ia montR~yinstalments; acts as agent for the payment of such regularly recurring items as insurance premiums, rents, taxes, etc.; looks after property interests of professional mm, .absentee pr erty owners, women, invalids, the aged and Z e r s who, from choice or necessity, wish to avoid the care of their property e~thertemporaril or permanently. These ~llustrate some of t l e many kinds of aindividual trusts." (b) Trusts received through appointment or approval of the courts. In most States trust companies have a large volume of aprobate busines~,~ consisting of the execution of trusts received by appointment of court or by wills of deceased persons,- acting as administrator,


executor, trust& under will, gmrdian of the property (and in rare instances of the person) of minors, curator or committee for persons of unsound mind, etc As a rule trust companics are legal dcpoi@rirs for court f ~ d s and for persons a m g m fiduciary capacitus. Trust companies handle a hrm amount of %solvency business,' acting as assignees, receivers and tnrstecs in bankmptcy. (c) Trusts pufonncd fbr corporations, p r i ~ t eand public. The trust company is practically indispensable to the large corporations of to-day, as well as to many of the smaller ones. It acts ae trustee under mortgages or deeds of trust secnrin4 bond issues, as transfer agent for stock, a s rqgstrar for stock o r bonds, as custodian or minager of sinking funds, as fiscal or financial agent for various purposes, for States, municipalities, railroad and industrial and other CO rations. It pays bonds, coupons, interest ??may take charge of the disbursement of dividends and .+terest, att+ing to the publication and maal~ngof nohces, etc. For syndicate managers, voting trusts, atc, it issues and collects calls for instalment payments and computes and distributes to the proper parties the amounts of their articipations in the proceeds. ~t acts as Bcpositrry of cash and securities under vatying conditions; as depositary and trustee for underwriting synd~cates; as agent to receive subscriptions for securities and to deliver same when issued. Its acrvices: are often used in corporate financing and reorganization. I t may of course perform for corporations trusts of the kinds already described as undertaken for individuals under private agreement. 2 Bmking Fmctions.- Trust companies have always transacted a large amount of savings banlung business, and years ago became formidable rivals of the savlngs banks in this field. In more recent years they have invaded the field of commtrcial banking. While the laws of many States formerly limited t h a r functions in the fidd of commercial banking, in particular forbidding them to discount commercial er, and although they are still so r e s t r i c t f g some States, the tendency in recent years has been to remove these restrictions and in many States at present they have all the banking powers of ordinary National or State banks, except the right of note-issue. 3. Safe Deposit Bysiness.-Tmst companies very general] ma~ntamsafe deposit departments, .in whicK the rent private boxes for the safe-keeping o r securities, valuable papers, jewelrg, etc., and space for the storage valuables. Of 4. Other unction$.-The three classes of functions above described are those most commonly exercised, in varying the average trust company. % i ! Z Z i i n $ maintain bond or investment dq;utmtnts, for the purchase and sale of h i - mde securities. Trust companies ln some &ates formerly transacted fidelity or title insurance business, and a few companies still transact such business; but the tendency, both in legislation and in business practice, is to leave this field to companies organized for this special purpoee. In a number of States trust companies transact a real estate agency business. Other functions are sometimes found, the extent of pOWeR


BANKS AND BANKING-'I'RUWl' being determined by the laws of the different States. It should be noted that not all trust companies undertake all of the functions above enumerated. The functions actual1 performed by U)-tions .bearing the w o r i atrust' m their titles vary widely. There are some t r u ~ t companies which devote themselves exclusively to trust business; there are many which do no trust business, and are in fact commercial banks, o r savin S banks, o r both commercial and savings b a a s Others transact trust and savings business, but no commercial banking business. In several of the Southern States there are 'trust companies' whose business consists solely of dealing in real estate o r insurance o r of a combinatmn of the twa There are also some such companim whose business is that of dealers in real estate mortgages o r mortgage bonds Organization. Rewtion and Manago mat.-Trust comparues are creatures of State legislation, and are or ized under tbe laws of the State in which g y are tp be 10cated Formerly the were chartered In many States only by.speclracf of the L+lature and in some States under the general incorporation laws. Most of the States now have general trust company laws, which provide specially for the incorporation, powers, government and regulation of such companies. The general trust company laws in most States contain a number of provisions intended to safeguard the business. The ca ital stock required is usually much larger &an that specrfied for banks in the same locality,.and it is generally required that trust companies apply a portion of earnings each year to the building up of a surplus until it reaches a certain proportion (frequently 20 per cent) of the capital. In man States stockholders are subject to double liabiKty. Restrictions of various kinds are placed o n the making of loans and investments and the investments of the trust department are special1 restricted. Adequate reserves are required. f'ractically all of the States stipulate that trust funds must be kept absolutely separate from those of the company and of ' other departments, and also that securities beto specific estates be so marked and recor ed as to clear1 designate the owner, long? so that in case of faiLre of the cornpan the trust funds would not be affected. ~ a n y 4 a t e s forbid the transaction of any trust business pntil the company has made with State authorrhes a deposit of cash or securities in certam specified amounts as special security for the faithful performance of its fiduciary obligations. Practically all of the States require trust companies to make regular reports to State officials, varying in different States from once t o five times each year; and to submit to examination by State officials, usually once or twice each ear. T h e internar orpnization of trust companies is quite similar to that of ordinary banks, except that the variety of duties undertaken necessitates the maintenance of separate departments (required by law in many States) for the transacbon of trust, savings, general safe deposit and other lines of busiubject to the State laws, a trust company is governed by b laws adopted by the stockholders; is under t i i general direction of

:F% '



a board of directors; and is administered by a roup of officers whose number and duties are etermined by the needs of the business. I n addition to the character of its business in the trust department, the typical trust compan differs from a~ ordinary commerciPl ban[ in the +aracter of t h e deposits .which it attracts and In the r e s u h g methods 1n which it invests the funds received in such deposits. The m i c a 1 commercial .bank handles demand depos~t accounts of actlve buslness concerns whose funds are in constant use and whose balances fluctuate radically from day to day o r week to week. Such a bank must therefore invest its funds in short-time loans so maturing ihat i t *fI h a y e have ampk funds ayailable with which t o . meet the demands of ~ t sdepo+!tors, and y l l be able to reduce the a m o u ~ of r t s outstandln loans on short notice. On the other had, 8 e typical trust company does not handle deposits of active business concerns. Its dqmsits are composed of inactive fun&, of @ually accum$ati% savinas or of fm.& set a d e f o r a oonslder le penod for spcual purposes, the balances of which, as a whole, do not fluctuate greatly, and normally tend to stezdy increasc These are "time deposit9 rather than ademand deposits., The trust m-, therefore, need not confine its investments to short-time loans, but may place its fuads in long-time loans and in certain a p p d claaaes of securities,-in bonds and m real estate mortgagm. Trust funds, as already m e d , a r e kept entirely S arate from other f d s of the company. Z e i r inyestmmt is he cd about with many safeguards required by aw, by the by-laws of the company and eometimes by the provisions of the trust. Historical and Statistical.- The first company in the United States granted the power to C a trust business was The Farmers' Fire Insurance and Lcan Company (now The Farmers' Loan and Trust Company) of New York city, to which extensive trust powers were granted in 1822 Similar powers were granted to The New York Life Insurance and Trust Company in 1830. Two companies m Philadelphia,- The Penns lvarul Company for Insurance on Lives and &anting Annuities, and The Girard Life Insurance, Annuity and Trust Company (now The Girard Trust Company),- were granted trust powers m 1836. All four are still in existence. As is indicated by the names of these early companres, the trust business was at first closely associated with the insurance business, and was not regarded as of sufficient importance to require separate organizations. A few other companies of the same kind flourished for a time during the next 20 years, but went out of business for various reasons. The first company in the country organized to transact exclusivel a trust business was The United States *rust Compan of New York city, inrated in 1853. &e number of companies %&zed to exercise trust functions increased slowly down to the time of the Civil War, immediately following which a number of such companies were organized. By 1875 perhaps 50 trust companies were doine; basiness, located in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Illinois, Iowa, Georgia, all the New England States except Maine, and possibly a few other States.







Prior to 1875 no statistics r ding trust companies are available, but in %t year the Comptroller of the Currency began the publication of such statistics in his annual reports As the trust companies are State institutions and not under the jurisdiction of the comptroller he had no authority to compel the rendering of reports by them. and as a consequence his figures represent only such companies as were willing to to him . Nevertheless reveal the re atlve growth of trust companies from year t o year. and in recent years represent the great majority of such companies. For the year 1875 he reports 35 trust companies. with total resources of $122,890.175 . During the eighties there was a considerable increase in number of companies. and the trust company as an institution began to attract some attention. particularly from the banks. which saw danger of competition. I n 1890 the wmptroller's reports showed 149 companies with total resources of $503,801.336 . T h e real develop ment of the trust company began along in the nineties. though the period of most rapid growth did not begin until the first decade of the 20th century. In 1900 the comptroller reorted 290 companies with total resources of an increase in resources in 10 .1.330.160.343. .... years of 164 'per cent. At the end of the next decade. in 1910. the comptroller's report showed 1.091 companies with total resources of $4,216,850.062. an increase during the decade in num- . ber of companies of 801. o r 276 per cent. and in resources of $2,886.689.719 or 217 per cent . The 1915 report shows a further great increase. to 1.664 companies with total resources of $5.873.120.341 . The table at top of page shows leading figures of the comptroller's reports from 1875 to 1915 inclusive. Beginning in 1903. The United States Mortgage and Trust Company of New York has




L I A B M ~ ~W D R U S T Co~r*mmW W U r n STATES30 JVNE 1917. (A.reported b y The United Sta-b Mortgage and Tnut Company New York. 2009 mmpanied reporting) Rssotlras: Stochandbon ds .................. $ 90 L o ~ snotes and mo 4.779.179. 424 30 ~ ~ n h ~ n h a n d a n d i n m : : : : : : :1.606.136.907 :: 89 R e d estnts banking house furniture m d f i a u ~ a n d m f e & & t ~ ~ l b 250.134.18212 Othm rrsowces.................... 291.003. 843 37 m









Total ......................... $8.958.5 11 837 58 Libiiitim: Capital ........................... Surplus and undivided profits ....... ~tr..., . ....................... . er hb111tles....................


$567.865.547 682.519.108 7.362.030,982

published each year a compilation of trust company statistics which include a great majority of the trust companies of the country. For the year 1915 its fi res cover reports from 1.777 companies. besigs which it lists over 250 companies from which reports were not received. This indicates that the total number- of trust companies in the United States 30 June 1915 was in excess of 2.000. The accompanying tables show the total figures for the 1.777 reporting companies. and the distribution of companies by States.

A l r b

STATB .............

Arirana .............. Arhnsnu ............



Colo+odo............. Connecticut.......... ........... District of ColumbL Florid0

.. .............. Idaho ............... I l l i d ............... pllla: .............

Georgia ..............


Ranau .............. Keatdw ................ LOuiaLmI ................ Maine ................... Maryland ................ Murachursttr Michigan ................ Minn............... Mkimippi ............... Mimotul .................


Montana ................

Nebrsslrn ................ NCVldp


N a n H~mphin.......... New erscy ........... NW L e & ........... New York ............... North Cprolina........... N*h Dakota............ Oh0 ....................


oklahouu................ omgon .................. Pennsylvania ............. Rhode I h d .............

8outh ~ L ........... M South D h ............ Tmn................ Tups ................... Utah .................... V-nt ................. Virginia .................

warhingron ..............


wat Vl*

Winern ................



................ . . . . . . . . . ........


83 29

36 345.276.199 10





Compiled from " Thlsr Companies of the Unihd S a t S . 1917." publirbsd by the United Stata MotteDOI m d Trud Company New York



BANKS A N D BANKING-.BANKERS' The Federal Reserve Act.- The Fedoral Reserve Act, as construed by the Fe&ral R e serve Board. directly affects trust c o r n p k e s in two ways: it makes trust c anies eligible to membership in the ~ e d e r a g e s e r v ebanks, and it permits National bank members of the Federal Reserve system,- if in conformity with local State laws-to undertake certain trust functions. Up -to the present time few trust companies have joined the Federal Reserve system, largely because that system is designed wholly for commercial banks. National bank members to exercikY%:R2 tions applies only to those members which arc located in States whose laws permit them to exercise such functions. Some of the States grant that permission, while others have distinctly refused to 'do so. If the exercise of trust functions by member banks of the Federal Reserve system becomes general, the fact will doubtless have a marked effect upon the growth of t n u t companies as separate institutions.--. CLAYH , Author of (Trust Comparucs.) 22. BANKERS* ASSOCIATIONS I N THE UNITED STATES. American Bankers' Assodation.-Prior to 1875 there was no national organization of American bankers. I n that year the American Bankers' Association was organized at a convention held in Saratoga on 20, 21 and 22 July. By 1916 the Association had become the largest or anization of bankers in the ~vorld,with heafquarters at 5 Nassau street, New York. Its membership of 16,000 includes half the total number of banlts in the country, and comprises National, State and private banks, trust companies and clearin houses. Annual dues range from $10 !o for banks and trust com anies according to capital and surplus investe8 The governing body of 'the Association is the convention, which meets annually. Administrative details are in charge of a general secretary and an executive council composed of members appointed from State bankers' associations on the basis of State representation. In 1894 the Association began the rotection of members against crime and f r a u l and developed a protective department which works with the W. J. Burns International Detective Agency in' the pursuit of offenders against banks. Through its general counsel and a Federal legislative committee, the Association has initiated and romoted laws relating to unifonn bills of laing, negotiable instruments, credit practice, currency reform, taxation, the safeguarding of bank depositors and the improving of banking practice. T h e interests of S ecial classes of member banks are in charge o f secretaries of a Savings Bank Section, a Trust Com any Section, a National Bank Section and a Rearing House Section. Through these sections the Association has made efforts to standardize banking practice and check collection; has conducted a national thrift campaign; given publicity to the functions of trust companies; collected statistics of bank transactions ; developed country clearing-house organizations ; improved cfearing-house examinations, and effected closer Rlations between the banks and the public. I t has also compiled a cipher code; c o p y r i g b d 3-14

standard forms of fidelity and bank burglary bonds; devised a numerical system to facilitate check collection, and perfected the. A. B. A travelers' check. Atfiliated with the American Bankers' Association is the American Institute of Baakkg, an educational section which, since 1880, h?s given instruction to bank employees. Courses of study in banking law and practice and in elementary economics are given by correspondence as well as in local chapters. The members of the Institute number more than 16,000 and its certificate has become the recognized standard of American banking education. The Association maintains a reference and travelhg library service for its members, and kee S records of American experience in money anabankin A monthly publcation called the loumal-~w8ctinis issued by a department of public relations, which also acts as a bureau of publicity and edits the printed proceedings of the Association's annual convention. The Association has always been active in urging currency reform. Since 1906 its efforts in that direction have been expressed through a currency commission, which has worked with other agencies in bringing about and ded o p i n g the Federal Reserve system. The Association has also done much for the national development of agriculture through its currency commission, which publishes a monthly magazine called the BankctcFawnw. P d n t s of contact with State bankers' associations are maintained throu a section known as the Organization of tate Secretaries, and through joint efforts in agricultural extension, the tevision of banldng legislation, the apprehension of bank criminals, and through co-operation between committees. State Bankers' Ass~i$ions:There a r e 49 State bankers' assoeiatlon, including the District of Columbia. The first to organize was Texas, in 1885; while Illinois, with a members+ of 1,755, is the largest. These State organizahons have more than 2/000 members, and most of them maintain paid secretaries to further the interests of members through correspondence, protective features, bond and burg!ary insurance, group meetings, State conventions, legislation and the publication of monthly bulletins. Many associations also. have paid attorneys, and most of them are active in agricultural and good roads' development. The Investment Bankers' Association.The Investment Bankers' Association of America was organized in New York in 1912 :in order to r m o t e the general welfare and influence o investment banks, o r bankers, likewise banking institutions operating bond departments, and to secure uniformity of action, both in legislation and methods of handling securities.D 'Any national or state bank, trust company o r private banker, banking firm o r corporation, in good standin havin a paid-in capital of $50,000 or more, w k c h maEes a prattice of buying bonds or investment stocks, and publicly offers the same, as dealers therein' is eligible to membership, but #those who are exclusively brokers' are not admitted. The Association has headquarters at 111 West Monroe street, Chicago. A Bvlletin of information is published frequently and the proceedings of the annual convention are




The associated activities of nearly 500 members are carried on through a board of governors which meets quarterly, through a secretary, a legal counsel and committees. The Association is prominent in legislation relating to the issuance, standardization and safeguarding of securities and the improvement of the ethics of stock and bond trading. It has given special attention to raising the status of municipal and other bonds, and to reforms in methods of taxation. Farm Mortga e Bankera' AssociationI n May 1914 the f a r m Mortgage Bankers' Association of America was or anized. It has a membership of more than 1% farm mortgage firms operating in 25 agricultural States, representing outstandin farm mortgages of more than $600,000,000. 'fh e offices of its secretarytreasurer are at 112 West Adams street, Chicago, where a quarterly Bulletwa is ublished. Its convention is held annually. ~ g r o u g ha board of governors, committees and the secretary-treasurer, the organization is directing special efforts toward .the standardization of m o y g e forms and u n ~ f o r m ~ tof y practice among arm mortgage dealers. Other Bankem' Aseociations.-New York State. Massachusetts and Connecticut have savings bank associations, while New York, New Jersey and Massa.chusetts have State-wide trust company associations. I n Oklahoma and Kansas the State banks have separate organizations. Bank examiners are organized into what is known as the National Associatipn of the Supervisors of State Banks; there 1s an A s s w a tion of Reserve City Bankers; bank credit men are organized into a Robert Morris Club; and there are numerous local associations of related banking interests, as well as clubs of city banke r s The Bankers' Club of America has headquarters in the Equitable building in New York cl and limits its resident membership to l.%,. MARIANR. GLENN. B A N N A T Y N E CLUB, instituted by Sir Walter Scott in 1823. Its object was t6 print and publish in a uniform manner rare works of Scottish history, topography, poetry, etc. BANNEKER, Benjamin, American negro mathematician : b. Maryland. 9 Nov. 1731 : d. 1806. At the age of 50 he k g a n the study of mathematics for astronomical purposes. H e published annually after 1792 an almanac devised by himself, and aided in determining the boundaries of the District of Columbia. BANNERET, an abbreviation of knight banneret; a member of an ancient order of knighthood which had the privilege of leading their retainers to battle under their own flag. A banneret was entitled to display a banner instead of a pennon. They ranked as the next order below the Knights of the Garter, only a few official dignitaries intervening. This was not, however, unless they were created by the King on the field of battle, else the) ranked after baronets. The order is now extinct, the last banneret (John Smith) created having been at the battle of Edgehill, in 1642, for gallantry in rescuing the standard of Charles I. BANNOCK, a cake once much eaten in Scotland I t was made of oatmeal, barley-meal o r peasemeal baked on an iron plate or griddle

over the fire. From a supposed resemblance the turbot is sometimes called in Scotland the bannd-fluke. BANNOCK. See BANAK. BANNOCKBURN, Scotland, village about two and one-half miles southeast of St~rling,on Bannock Rivulet. Here on 24 June 1314 Robert Bruce, with 40,000 Scotch, infkcted a great defeat on Edward I 1 at the head of 60,000 English troops. The victory was in large measure due to the clever dev~ceof Bruce who had caused the ground in front of his sition to be undermined in all directions. English cavalry stumbled onto the hidden pits, were rendered helpless and the army was thrown into confusion. The English are said by historians to ' have lost 10000 to 4,000 of the Scotch. B this victory firuce made his throne secure a n B also assured the independence of -HISTORY. Scotland. See SWTLAND BANNS, the announcement of intended marriage, requiring the hearers to make known any cause why the parties should not be united in matrimony. By the publication of these banns is meant the legal proclamation o r notification within the pa+sh, district o r chapelry, of the names and descnpt~onsof the persons who intend to be there married; the object being to secure public knowledge of intended marriages, and that all who have objections to the marriage may be enabled to state them in time. If 'the bridegroom live in a different parish from the bride, the banns must be proclaimed also in that parish, and a certificate of such proclarnation must be produced before the celebration of the marriage. According to the old English canon law, the publication of banns might be made on holidays; but a chan e was made to Sundays by Lord Hardwicke's $Marriage Act in 1753, and although that act was afterward superseded by the 4 Geo. I V chap: 76, the-regulation as to Sundays has been slnce conbnued. Seven days' notice at least must be given to the clergyman before ppblication of banns. Banns were customary In various places before they were prescribed by the entire Church in the Fourth Council of Lateran. The Council of Trent ordered pastors to publish them at the principal mass in the parish church, or churches, of the parties, on three successive Sundays or festivals. This publication should be made within two months preceding the marriage. For grave reasons the bisho can dispense from this obligation. By the lish Prayer Book the announcement IS require3 to be made in the words of the rubric on each of the three Sundays preceding the ceremony. If objections are offered by anyone resent, the clergyman cannot proceed further. Except in the Roman Catholic Church the custom of thus ublishing the banns of marriage is practically ogsolete in the United States. BANQUETS. I t ' was the famous Mr. Boswell who first defined man as a cooking anipal, and yet, agpropriate as the definition still IS, neither myt ology nor tradition offer any clue to aid the student in discovering when it was that the human animal first learned to cook Of course, it is highly improbable that this secret was known to prehistoric man. Instead of knowing how to cook he undoubtedly ate his food raw, washing it down with pure