UNIT3: HOW MUCH IS IT? 3.1. Introduction. Welcome to the unit HOW MUCH IS IT?

UNIT3: HOW MUCH IS IT? 3.1. Introduction Welcome to the unit HOW MUCH IS IT? The vocabulary in this unit is related to: food, parts of the body and h...
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UNIT3: HOW MUCH IS IT?

3.1. Introduction Welcome to the unit HOW MUCH IS IT? The vocabulary in this unit is related to: food, parts of the body and health. And the grammar that we will revise is: the countable and uncountable nouns, some/ any, how much/how many, much/many/, a lot of/a lot and a little/a few; also, the irregular plurals, the Imperative and the modal should to express advice. You can practice the theory doing exercises in the Practice section and the listening and the reading in the sections named Listening and Reading sections. Finally, I am sure you will improve your English, too, playing some games and learning a little about the city where Susan and I are spending some days. Please read and listen carefully all the unit and try to learn as much as possible.

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3.2. Listening In this part of the topic we will practice the listening skill. It’s important to pay attention and understand. Now you are going to listen to two dialogues. 3.2.1. Listening 1 In this conversation that you are going to listen I am phoning to a restaurant to book a table for two people. Susan and I want to go to have dinner tonight. Listen and pay attention! Matthew: Good morning, this is Matthew Penner. Am I calling to Ethip Restaurant? Waiter: Yes, you are. Can I help you? Matthew: Yes, please. I would like to make a reservation for two for tonight at 7 o’clock. Waiter: Yes, I think so, just a moment. …Smoking or nonsmoking area? Matthew: Non-smoking, please Waiter: Ok, there is a table for two people in the second floor. Matthew: Right! Does the restaurant have a parking? Waiter: Yes, it does. But I’m afraid, we charge money for it. Matthew: Then, I want to know how much you charge for the parking. Waiter: Just two dollars, sir. Matthew: Ok, thank you. We will be there at 7 o’clock. Bye!

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Waiter: Thank you for calling, good bye! 3.2.2. Listening 2 IN THE RESTAURANT Susan and I are in the restaurant. We are very hungry, so I hope we enjoy the dinner. Listen carefully what and how we are ordering our dinner to the waiter. Matthew: Susan, do you like the restaurant? Sit down, please. Susan: Thanks Matthew. Yes, this is a nice restaurant. Waiter: Good night! Matthew: Good night! Susan: Good night! Matthew: Can we see the menu, please? Waiter: Sure, here you are. Would you like any thing to drink? Matthew: Can I see the wine list? Waiter: Certainly. Here you are. Matthew: A bottle of red wine and water, please. (The waiter leaves -el camarero se va-) Let’s see the menu…Yes, I think I know what I will order Waiter: Here is the red wine, sir. Are you ready to order the food? Matthew: Yes, I think we are. For me roasted chicken with some house salad. And for you Susan? Susan: I want meat crab cake and cole slaw, please. Waiter: Ok, roasted chicken with house salad and meat crab cake and cole slaw. Would you like to order some dessert?

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Matthew: Yes, do you have strawberries and cream? Waiter: Of course, and they are delicious. We have also apple tart, would you like some, madam? Susan: I love apple tart! Waiter: Excellent choice! Have a nice dinner! Matthew: Thank you! (Later -más tarde-) Matthew: Waiter! Can I have the bill, please? Waiter: Certainly. Matthew: How much is it? Waiter: $120.75, please. Matthew: Here you are. Thank you very much. Waiter: You're welcome. Have a good night. Matthew: Thank you, the same to you. Good bye! 3.2.3. Exercise Exercise 1. Now it is time to practice your listening. Listen to the second conversation and complete the table: Write the food they order

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Write the drinks they order

Write the dessert they order

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3.3. Vocabulary Let’s study vocabulary! When we are in an English speaking country, it’s very important to know the name of foods and drinks, the body, and health. For that reason here you will learn vocabulary related to that. 3.3.1. Food and drinks DAIRY Eggs Cheese

FRUIT Apple Banana Cherry Grapes Lemon Mango Melon Peach Pear Pineapple Plum Strawberry Watermelon

MEAT

SEAFOOD

Meat Beef Pork Chicken

Fish Sardine Octopus Prawn Crab Tuna

VEGETABLES Peas Corn Potato Tomato Carrot Green pepper Red pepper Onion Mushroom Garlic Olive Lettuce Pumpkin Cauliflower Spinach Cucumber

COOKED FOODS Sandwich Salad Soup Fries/Chips

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BAKERY Bread Biscuit Cookie Cake

DRINKS Water Milk Beer Soda Wine Coffee Tea Juice Milk shake Soft drink Spirits/Liquor

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3.3.2. The body Head Face Eye Eyebrow Eyelash Nose Ear Forehead Chin Neck Hair Mouth Lips Tongue Tooth Button

cabeza cara ojo ceja pestaña nariz oreja frente barbilla cuello pelo boca labios lengua diente trasero

Shoulder Arm Elbow Hand Finger Nail Chest Waist Belly Back Hip Leg Knee Foot Ankle Toe

hombro brazo codo mano dedo uña pecho cintura ombligo espalda cadera pierna rodilla pie tobillo dedo del pie

3.3.3. Health HEALTH PROBLEMS When we want to say that something hurts us, sometimes we use the following structure: Part of the body + ache. E.g.: neckache, stomachache We can say: I have a…

Headache dolor de cabeza

Backache dolor de espalda

Toothache Earache dolor de dolor de dientes oído

There are also illnesses. Here we are some of them: Cold resfriado

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Fever fiebre

Cough tos

Flu gripe

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Asthma asma

Let’s see some useful vocabulary dealing to health: VERBS Hurt Feel Sneeze Break

doler sentir estornudar romper

Healthy Unhealthy Well Ill

ADJECTIVES saludable no saludable bien enfermo/a

EXPRESSIONS To To To To To To To To

feel good/bad catch a cold feel sick be tired have a temperature get burnt take a medicine be ill

sentirse bien/mal coger un resfriado tener nauseas estar cansado tener fiebre quemarse tomar medicinas estar enfermo

3.3.4. Exercises Exercise 1. The intruder word. Can you find the word that doesn’t belong? 1. tea milk 2. banana meat 3. meat 4. chicken 5. bread 6. cauliflower 7. salad soup 8. milk shake 9. onion 10. olive tea

apple water melon pear beef pork fish sardine crab fish plum biscuitcake pumpkin spinach tuna coffee chips soft drink garlic liquor crab mushroom garlic wine beer

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Exercise 2. Match the sentences that mean the same, related to health problems. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

My ear hurts My head hurts My back hurts My stomach hurts I have a fever My tooth hurts

a) I have a toothache b) I have a temperature c) I have a stomachache d) I have an earache e) I have a backache f) I have a headache

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3.4. Grammar Now let’s see some explanations related to Grammar. In this unit we will study: countable and uncountable nouns; indefinites; irregular plurals; the imperative; advice. If you are ready, let’s start! 3.4.1. Countable and uncountable nouns It is important to know if a noun is countable or uncountable in order to express quantities correctly. Let’s study that! (Be careful because it is not the same that in Spanish. There are some nouns which are countable in Spanish and not in English) Countable nouns Countable nouns are those things that we can count, and put a number before them. E.g.: (two) pencils, (four) oranges, (three) bottles, (ten) cars Here we are a more complete explanation of countable nouns (those that we can count) and uncountable nouns (those that we can’t count)  They can be singular or plural. E.g.: The car is red. The cars are red.  They can have the indefinite article (a/an) before, when they are singular. E.g.: A bus is a vehicle. I eat an apple.  They can have the definite article (the), a demonstrative (this, these, that, those), a possessive (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their), etc. E.g.: I need the pen. This is the table. Where is my bike?

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 A plural countable noun can be alone, without articles. E.g.: I like strawberries. Books are important.  We can also use some, any, a few, many, etc. with countable nouns. E.g.: I have got some coins. Do you have any brothers? He has a few friends. Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns are those that can not be counted, and we can not put a number before them. Here are included abstract things, substances, concepts, etc. E.g.: salt, sugar, water, poverty, music, money As we have said before, we can not count uncountable nouns. Here you are a list of some nouns that are uncountable in English, and some examples Money Butter E.g.: I have some money E.g.: Give me some butter Music Water E.g. : I love music E.g.: Is there any water? Electricity Furniture E.g.: There is some electricity E.g.: You need some furniture Rice Luggage E.g.: Add some rice E.g.: Have you got any luggage? Sugar Advice E.g.: There isn’t any sugar. E.g.: She gave me some advice Information News E.g.: There is some information over there. E.g.: I have listen to some news Art Love E.g.: I love art E.g.: Love is essential Happiness Plastic E.g.: She gives us some happiness. E.g.: We need some plastic. Salt Rain E.g.: Can you pass me some salt? E.g.: Some rain is important Tennis Oil E.g.: I hate tennis E.g.: We need some oil.

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 Uncountable nouns go always with the verb in singular. E.g.: Rice is very important in weddings. Your furniture is very heavy.  The indefinite article (a/an) can not be used with uncountable nouns. But we can use: “a….of” E.g.: a piece of cheese, a piece of music, a glass of water, a bowl of rice, a cup of tea, a bottle of milk, a game of tennis, a can of coke, a bar of chocolate, a grain of rice. E.g.: I want a bottle of water. I listen to a piece of news.  We can also use a little, much, with uncountable nouns. E.g.: I have got a little milk. There isn’t much money Nouns that can be countable and uncountable Sometimes the same noun can be countable and uncountable, but with different meaning in each case. Here you are some of these names, and some examples to understand the meaning: Hair E.g.: There are three hairs in that chair = countable I have blonde hair = uncountable Fish E.g.: I have a fish in a glass= countable We have some fish for dinner = uncountable Paper E.g.: I read a paper (= newspaper) everyday = countable I need some paper to draw = uncountable Glass E.g.: Can I have a glass of water, please? = countable There is some glass in the floor. = uncountable

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Careful! We say, for example, that salt is uncountable, but a package of salt is countable. And the same happens with water, for example. “A glass of water” is countable, but “water” is uncountable. 3.4.2. Quantifiers They are used to talk about indefinite quantities of something. SOME

ANY

MUCH

MANY

HOW MANY

A LOT (OF)

(A) LITTLE

(A) FEW

HOW MUCH

Some and any We can use some and any to talk about a certain, not exact, amount of something. They can be used both, with countable and uncountable names. Let’s see when we can use each: Some  We use some in affirmative sentences. E.g.: We need some eggs to make an omelette.  We normally use some when we offer things. E.g.: Would you like some coffee?  We use some in questions, when we expect the answer “yes” E.g.: Can I have some orange juice, please? Any  We use any in negative sentences. E.g.: There isn’t any butter in the fridge.  I most questions we use any. E.g.: Have you got any books about History?

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Much/ many They mean “a great quantity of something”. They are usually used in questions and negative sentences Much  It’s used with uncountable nouns. E.g.: I don’t have much time to do my homework. Many  It’s used with countable nouns. E.g.: Do you know many people? How much/ how many They are used for asking about the quantity of something. How much  It’s used with uncountable names. E.g.: How much money do we have? How many  It’s used with countable nouns. E.g.: How many books are there in the shelf? A lot (of)  It means “a big quantity of something”, as well as much and many. But “a lot (of) is more usual in affirmative sentences. E.g.: He drinks a lot of coke.

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(A) little / (a) few We use (a) little and (a) few to refer to “a small quantity of something, some but not a lot” (A) little  It is used with uncountable names. E.g.: I drank a little wine. (A) few  It is used with plural countable nouns. E.g.: I have a few books at home. 3.4.3. Irregular plurals In English there are some plurals which are irregular. Some of them are the following: SINGULAR PLURAL man

men

E.g.:

woman

women

child

children

She is a nice person. They are nice people

foot

feet

tooth

teeth

mouse

mice

sheep

sheep

fish

fish

person

people

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I have a mouse.

E.g.:

He has four mice.

There is a child in the There are ten children in park. the park. She is a woman.

They are women.

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Do you know…? Remember the rules for the plural:  es: after –s/-sh /-ch /-x/-o E.g.: bus- buses/ dish- dishes/ church- churches  consonant +y ---> -ies E.g.: baby- babies  vowel + -y --->-s E.g.: day- day  f/-fe --->-ves E.g.: shelf- shelves 3.4.4. The imperative The imperative is a verbal tense used to give orders. We can put “please” before or after the imperative. Imperative’s form It is formed with the verb without the subject. We can add an exclamation mark at the end, if we want to express emotion. E.g.: Stop! Sit down! To do it negative we put “Don’t” before the verb. E.g.: Don’t smoke here! Don’t speak so loud! Other uses of the imperative  to give a direct order E.g.: Be silent!  To give instructions. E.g.: Add sugar and marmalade to the cake.

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 To ask for things, and invitations. E.g.: Come to my birthday party. 3.4.5. Advice We use should and shouldn’t to give advice. -If you say “you should…” you mean that you think it is a good idea. If you say “you shouldn’t” means that it is not a good idea. So should is similar to say “I think”, because it expresses the opinion. E.g.: You should study more You should visit your grandfather You shouldn’t smoke. You shouldn’t eat sweets Should and shouldn’t are followed by the main verb in infinitive form. E.g.: You should be careful. You shouldn’t shout. 3.4.6. Exercises Exercise 1. Write “some” or “any” in these sentences: 1. I haven’t got _____ sister. 2. You have ______ notebooks on the desk. 3. Could I have ______ water, please? 4. There isn’t______ orange juice in the fridge. 5. We need _____eggs to have dinner. 6. Put ______flour in the cake. 7. Would you like _____ tea? 8. Have you got _____ pet? 9. No, I haven’t got_____ pet. 10. They bought _____ ice-creams.

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Exercise 2. Complete this table. It is about plurals. SINGULAR

PLURAL men

woman child feet tooth mouse sheep people Exercise 3. Make the following sentences negative: - Open your book - Sit down - have a piece of my cake -be quiet -Insert a coin -Eat more fruits - Go home -Speak to your mother - Study -Come with me

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Exercise 4. Make the following sentences affirmative: -Don’t be late -Don’t be silent -Don’t rely on him - Don’t eat sweets -Don’t paint the walls -Don’t clean the kitchen -Don’t go to bed -Don’t make questions -Don’t cook there -Don’t walk on the grass

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

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3.5. Reading Now it is time to read two easy texts. Remember it is very important to understand the reading and do correctly the comprehension exercises. 3.5.1. Text The first text gives us some recommendation of how to take care and be healthy. Read and enjoy it! Take care and be healthy We need to take care of our body and mind. Eating well and practising exercise is the key to be healthy. People say, ‘I don’t want to be overweight’ or ‘I want to go to the gym’. But we should be careful. Many people do exercise without control and it is very dangerous. Other people eat little food and they think they don’t put on weight; but it depends on what you eat. We should go to specialists and they can show us the correct way to do exercise or eat the food we need to be healthy. The United States have big public education campaigns emphasising the importance of preparing for exercise and of exercising carefully. Many patients in hospital and emergency departments have sports-related injuries. And be careful! Fast food (hamburgers and hot dogs) is now very popular, but it is unhealthy. 3.5.2. Reading Comprehension 1.

Read the following sentences. What do you think? Are they true or false? a) People like getting fat. b) We should eat unhealthy. c) We should do exercise with control. d) Eating little is healthy. e) People that eat little food can put on weight.

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f) We should be careful doing exercise. g) Fast food is not healthy. h) Many patients in hospital don’t have sports-related injuries. 3.5.3. Text We continue reading. The second reading talks about people who are not worry about themselves and don’t go to a doctor when they are ill. Read the whole text. Do you agree? When you are ill, you should go to the doctor People aren’t very worry about their health and body and they don’t take care of themselves. In general, people go to the doctor when they are really ill. People with colds or coughs don’t go to the doctor, they go to the chemist’s to buy medicine. Sometimes it is better to go to the doctor, he or she can say what is the matter or the problem you have and give you presciption for some medicine, that you really need. And in an emergency you can call an ambulance that takes you to the hospital. We shouldn’t wait when we feel bad and go to the doctor to prevent. Read the following joke, the man is at the doctor’s. Enjoy it! Man: Doctor, doctor, my ears hurt, I’ve got a pain behind my eyes, a broken tooth and a cut on my nose! Doctor: Don’t worry. The problems are all in your head! 3.5.4 Reading Comprehension 1.- Read the following definitions and write the correct word from the text. 1. 2. 3. 4.

A place you go when you are very ill. _______ A means of transport you take when you are ill._________ Something you buy and take when you feel ill. ________ A person that takes care of you when you are ill. ________

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2. Fill in the gaps to complete part of the second reading. Then check your words: Sometimes it is better to go to the ____, he or she can say what is the matter or the problem you have and give you _______ for some ______, that you really need. And in an _______ you can call an _____ that ______ you to the _____. We ______ wait when we ____ bad and go to the doctor to prevent.

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Now you have to speak to me. We will be in a restaurant. I’ll be the waiter and you will be the customer. But first, you can listen to a dialogue, and then we will have another one where you will talk to me. Let’s start! RESTAURANT Susan: Hello! Can I help you? Customer: Yes, can I have some lunch? Susan: Would you like a starter? Customer: Yes, I’d like a salad, please. Susan: And what would you like for a main course? Customer: I’d like some fish. Susan: Would you like anything to drink?

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Customer: Yes, I’d like some water, please. Susan: Can I bring you anything else? Customer: No, thank you, just the bill, please. Susan: Of course. Customer: How much is it? Susan: That’s 7.30 €. Customer: Here you are. Thank you very much. Susan: You are welcome. Have a good day! Customer: Thank you. The same to you.

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3.7. Practice 3.7.1 Vocabulary Exercise 1. Put the uncountable and countable nouns in the right box: apple banana carrot meat grape juice

tea rice water egg chicken butter orange coffee lemon

Uncoutable nouns:

Countable nouns:

3.7.2. Grammar Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with some or any: 1. My canary needs _____ water. 2. Anita wants _____ grapes. 3. Have you got _____ onions? 4. Let’s have ______ apples. 5. I need _____ money to buy food. 6. They haven’t got ____ milk in the fridge. 7. I like ______ past and rice in my soup. 8. There isn’t _____ potato at home. 9. We haven’t got _____ onions. 10. Has your mother ____ butter left? 11. I don’t have _____ jam for the toast. 12. Would you like _____ sugar for your tea? 13. We haven’t got ___ bread left.

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14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Can I have _____ chocolate, please? Are there ____ English restaurants? Please, pass me ____ bread. There are _____ people in the bar. There aren’t ___ books on the shelf. The dog has got ___ meat. He has got _____ apples.

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with much/many or a few/a little: 1. I only bring _____ water when I go shopping. 2. Do you have _____ things in your handbag? 3. How _____ do you swim in an hour? 4. How ______ apples can you eat a day? 5. How _____ money do you have 6. I only have _____ money in my wallet. 7. I like pictures, but I only have _____ at home. 8. I don’t like a lot watching TV, only _______. 9. I eat _____ vegetables a week. 10 How _______ fruit should I eat a day? Exercise 4. Complete the sentences with much and a little: 1. I want _____ cheese cake, I love it. 2. I have _____ money, I can’t give any. 3. There isn’t _____ sugar in the packet. Buy more! 4. Don’t cry! There are ______ chocolate in the box. 5. How _____ is it? 6. How _______ milk is there? 7. I only speak ______ German. 8. Give me ______ bread, I am not very hungry. 9. I need _____ more money to pay this big house. 10. How ________ does it cost? Exercise 5. Write the correct form of the plural: Vegetable. ____________ Cake. ________________ Loaf. _________________ Peach. _______________ Banana. ______________

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Potato. _______________ Tomato.______________ Cherry. ______________ Calorie. ______________ Bean. _______________ Pizza ________________ Orange juice __________ Exercise 6. Write the correct imperative in the correct sentence: put (x2)

choose

read

take

prepare

go

buy(x2)

cook

1. _____ carefully the instruction to cook the cake 2. _____ the butter and put it on the table. 3. ____ the chicken for one hour. 4. _____ the eggs in the fridge. 5. ______ the dinner tonight. 6. ______ some medicine at the chemist’s. 7. _______ your hand on the paper. 8. _____ to the doctor tomorrow. 9. ______ all the food in the new market. 10. ________ between the apple or the orange. Exercise 7. Write one of the following verb to give advice: do see drink use take buy

study practise relax move come eat smoke check help work phone enjoy worry wait

1. You should _____ a new car. 2. You should _____ less fast food. 3. You should ______ more exercise. 4. You shouldn’t ______ to other area. 5. You should ______ an aspirin now. 6. You should ______ two litres of water. 7. You should ____ your homework. 8. You shouldn’t _____ to the party without a suit. 9. You should ______ before going there. 10. You should ______ hard for your exam. 11. You shouldn’t _____ in the office. 12. You should _____ when you are in the fun fair.

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13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

You You You You You You You You

should _____, you are so excited. shouldn’t _____ about that problem. should _____ a good soup to avoid irritations. should _____ old people. should _____ that film. should _____ very hard and many hours. should _____ for the next train. should ______ your answers.

Exercise 8. Match (1-5) and (a-e). Give advice in these situations: 1. You have a headache.

a. You should have fun

2. You can't get up in the morning.

b. You should go earlier to bed

3. You are bored on a Saturday afternoon.

c. You should buy food

4. You want to get thinner.

d. You should go to the gym

5. You are hungry but the fridge is empty.

e. You should take an aspirin

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This is the cultural section. You will learn some new interesting things about Washington. Susan will talk to you about The US Capitol Building and, of course, about The White House. I hope you learn and enjoy! US Capitol Building The US Capitol Building is on a hill at the eastern end of the Mall. It is an enormous and beautiful white building (its size is 751ft/229m long and 350ft/107m wide) of classical Greek design with a large central dome, columnar porticos, grand staircase and two wings. The north wing houses the US Senate, since 1810, and the south wing houses the US House of Representatives, since 1807. When either body is in session, a flag flies over the respective wing. It is for many a symbol of the democracy and freedom. The Capitol looks smaller on TV or photographs than actually it is. In the hallways and central atrium are marble statues of great US statesmen, artists and historical figures and the building is full of unique architectural features. You can take a guided tour of the building for free Mondays through Saturdays from 9 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. The White House The White House is the official residence of every President of the United States, with the exception of George Washington. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, two blocks north of the Mall near the Washington Monument. It is the most famous building in Washington, DC and was built between 1792 and 1800 by the Irish architect James Hoban. The first residents of the White House were President John Adams and his wife

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who moved into the house in 1800. Most people think the building was first painted white after it was rebuilt in 1817, but already in 1798 it was made white by a protective lime-based whitewash. It wasn't named White House from the beginning: it was originally named the 'President's Palace', 'President's House' or 'Executive Mansion'. It was soon nicknamed 'White House' and in 1901 president Theodore Roosevelt made it the official name.

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