Unit: Science with Toys Sternberg Task Energy of Toys

One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student ...
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One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are available by using the Search Standards feature located on GeorgiaStandards.Org.

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Unit: Science with Toys Sternberg Task Energy of Toys Note to Teacher - This task will work well at the beginning of the Science with Toys Unit. Energy is re-introduced in this unit. Subject Area: Physical Science Grade: 8 Standards (Content and Characteristics): S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy. b. Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy. c. Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, and sound) and their characteristics. S8CS1. Students will explore the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works. a. Understand the importance of—and keep—honest, clear, and accurate records in science. b. Understand that hypotheses can be valuable even if they turn out not to be completely accurate. S8CS2. Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations. b. Demonstrate appropriate techniques in all laboratory situations. c. Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations.

Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools Physical Science y GRADE 8 y Science with Toys 07/27/2007 y Page 1 of 7 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

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Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

S8CS4. Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating equipment and materials in scientific activities utilizing safe laboratory procedures. a. Use appropriate technology to store and retrieve scientific information in topical, alphabetical, numerical, and keyword files, and create simple files. c. Learn and use standard safety practices when conducting scientific investigations.

Enduring Understanding: •

Energy appears in different forms such as mechanical energy, gravitational energy, heat energy, and electric and magnetic energy.

Essential Questions: • • •

Where do toys/machines get their energy and what do they do with it? How do toys/machines gain potential energy and turn it into kinetic energy? Why can’t toys work without having to replace the batteries?

Pre-Assessment: Survey students' familiarity with traditional motion toys and technology toys/games such as computers and play stations. Use fourcorner place mats. Have students write down their four favorite toys. This will give an idea of where their interests are with toys.

Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools Physical Science y GRADE 8 y Science with Toys 07/27/2007 y Page 2 of 8 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

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Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

ANALYTICAL

PRACTICAL

CREATIVE

Outcome/ Performance Expectations

Identify what forms of energy exists and what type of energy is being transferred to another form. Students will understand that energy must be conserved; therefore it is being transferred from one form to another according to the Law of Conservation of Energy. Students can demonstrate their understanding by creating an energy flow chart to show energy conservation.

Using knowledge of energy, demonstrate how energy is converted from one form to another while riding a bicycle, scooter, roller blades or skateboard. Students will understand that energy must be conserved; therefore it is being transferred from one form to another according to the Law of Conservation of Energy. Students can demonstrate their understanding by creating an energy flow chart to show energy conservation.

Develop a toy that takes one form of energy and converts that energy to another form of energy. Students will understand that energy must be conserved; therefore it is being transferred from one form to another according to the Law of Conservation of Energy. Students can demonstrate their understanding by creating an energy flow chart and schematic diagram of their creation to show energy conservation and transfer.

Performance Task: (Detailed Description)

Note to teacher: For students that do not remember the forms of energy, have them watch Getting to Know Energy - Unitedstreaming. Students will group toys according to the form of energy they possess. The students should describe where potential energy is being converted to kinetic energy.

Note to teacher: For students that do not remember the forms of energy, have them watch Getting to Know Energy Unitedstreaming.

Note to teacher: For students that do not remember the forms of energy, have them watch Getting to Know Energy Unitedstreaming. Students will be given a collection of objects (batteries, gears, wheels, rubber bands, small pieces of wood, bell, light bulb, wires, etc) that can be used to construct a toy.

Using a bicycle, scooter, roller blades or skateboard, students will demonstrate energy transformation and describe how the energy is being transferred. Students should describe where potential energy is being converted to kinetic energy.

Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools Physical Science y GRADE 8 y Science with Toys 07/27/2007 y Page 3 of 8 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Teacher role?

Student role?

Resources

Students are able to investigate the toys and take them apart. For this reason, toys should be inexpensive. Have students discuss if energy is conserved and justify their answers. Students will record experiment and observation notes in their science journals (consider S8CS1a). Students will create a one of the following forms: images on a paper flip chart, poster, or online photo album to organize the toys that possess similar forms of energy.

Have students discuss if energy is conserved and justify their answers. Students will record experiment and observation notes in their science journals (consider S8CS1a). Students will produce a presentation to demonstrate the energy transformations and conservation that occurred while participating in their chosen activity using their flow charts and a choice of one of the following: podcast, multimedia presentation, poster, brochure, or advertising campaign.

Students will describe their toy and the energy forms to the class. The students should describe where potential energy is being converted to kinetic energy. Have students discuss if energy is conserved and justify their answers. Students will record experiment and observation notes in their science journals (consider S8CS1a).

Teacher Role: Safety monitor

Teacher role: Monitor and listen

Teacher role: Monitor and listen

Student role: Recorder, Engineer, Construction worker, Quality Control

Student role: Rider, presenter, audience (rest of class), safety monitor - Rider will wear helmet while performing experiments on bicycle, scooter, rollerblades, or skateboard.

Student role: Presenter, designer, recorder, builder, Audience (rest of class)

Yo-yo, Matchbox/Hot Wheels cars, Frisbee, hula hoop, jump

Bicycle, scooter, roller blades, skateboard, video camera or DVD cam

Rubber bands, wood, batteries, gears, light bulbs, bell, wires,

Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools Physical Science y GRADE 8 y Science with Toys 07/27/2007 y Page 4 of 8 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Homework/ Extension

Instructional Tasks Accommodations for ELL Students

rope, Glow Bracelets, handheld video games, slinky, paddle ball, motorized cars/trains, etc, and a small hammer, screwdriver, pliers (to disassemble toys) Getting to Know Energy. 100% Educational Videos. 2000. Unitedstreaming.com 14 June 2007

(may be used to collect evidence), computer,

wheels, glue, small hammer, screwdriver, pliers

Getting to Know Energy. 100% Educational Videos. 2000. Unitedstreaming.com 14 June 2007

Unitedstreaming video: Getting to Know Energy. 100% Educational Videos. 2000. Unitedstreaming.com 14 June 2007

Students will be given a table (see attached) to take home and complete. The student is to find examples of toys that possess kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy.

Students will develop their presentation that will be given to the class.

Students will create a brochure, advertising campaign, or podcast advertising their toy. Suggested free resource can be found at http://www.mybrochuremaker.c om/mybrochuremakerfun.html)

Gather a few pictures from catalogs/magazines that provide visual demonstrations of how to use or interact with the various toys. This could also be requested on a teacher blog or by other classroom communication methods for students in general to bring in supplies. Alternative: keep the box/packaging the toy arrived in which may demonstrate with visual images people interacting with the toy. Students may need flashcards with them that contain key concepts for referral (concerning each of the types of energy) while grouping toys as a classroom activity. Teachers may need to prepare a class set of flashcards with key concepts in advance. FlashCardExchange (see http://www.flashcardexchange.com/) is a website that creates flashcards for students/teachers. Distribute a copy of specific written directions about why the student is interacting with toys or taking toys apart. Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools Physical Science y GRADE 8 y Science with Toys 07/27/2007 y Page 5 of 8 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

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Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Instructional Tasks Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

For classrooms with behaviorally challenged students, the teacher may consider supplying all toys. If behaviorally challenged students are required to bring toys in for the homework assignment, set limits on inappropriate toys when giving out the homework/extension (including bringing in pricey items or violent items). Students with processing difficulties may need flashcards with them that contain key concepts for referral (concerning each of the types of energy) while grouping toys as a classroom activity. Teachers may need to prepare a class set of flashcards with key concepts in advance using Scholastic's online flash card generator: http://www.scholastic.com/kids/homework/flashcards.htm

Instructional Tasks Accommodations for Gifted Students

Gifted students will determine the best type of energy that will cause a car to move ten meters at the lowest cost. They are to justify their reasoning. Note to teacher: Students will be studying different forms of energy and could consider solar (thermal to kinetic), hydrogen (chemical to kinetic), battery (chemical to kinetic), gear/spring (potential to kinetic), or other types of cars.

Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools Physical Science y GRADE 8 y Science with Toys 07/27/2007 y Page 6 of 8 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved

One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – GRADE 8

Table for the Analytical Students ENERGY

EXAMPLES

Kinetic Energy Thermal (Heat) Energy Electric Energy Magnetic Energy Sound Energy Chemical Energy Light Energy

Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools Physical Science y GRADE 8 y Science with Toys 07/27/2007 y Page 7 of 8 Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved