UNDERSTANDING YOUR LEADERSHIP STYLE

UNDERSTANDING YOUR LEADERSHIP STYLE A workshop presented at the APA 2009 National Leadership Conference By Benard Dreyer, MD And Fred McCurdy, MD, P...
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UNDERSTANDING YOUR LEADERSHIP STYLE

A workshop presented at the APA 2009 National Leadership Conference

By Benard Dreyer, MD And Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

February 12-13, 2009 New Orleans Louisiana

 

Table of Contents NOTES ON LEADERSHIP STYLES ..................................................................................................................... 1  Sources: ..................................................................................................................................................... 9  JUNGIAN TYPES OF LEADERS ...................................................................................................................... 10  COMMUNICATION STYLES AND PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES .................................................................. 12  EXAMPLES OF COMBINATIONS OF JUNGIAN STYLES (TEMPERAMENTS) ................................................... 12  Rational NT .............................................................................................................................................. 12  Idealist NF ............................................................................................................................................... 13  Artisan SP ................................................................................................................................................ 13  Guardian SJ .............................................................................................................................................. 14  READING LIST .............................................................................................................................................. 15  Classic Titles ............................................................................................................................................ 15  Really Important Titles ............................................................................................................................ 16  Additional Titles ...................................................................................................................................... 19  Peer Reviewed Literature ....................................................................................................................... 24  Internet Resources .................................................................................................................................. 26  Selected Myers‐Briggs Type Inventory Materials On The Web .............................................................. 28   

 

NOTES ON LEADERSHIP STYLES Authored by Fred McCurdy Leadership essentially takes two different forms – formal and informal. Formal is based on being granted a title, a position or some other bestowed upon authority. Informal leadership is based on the ability to influence others. Formal leaders may possess informal leadership abilities, but this is not guaranteed by the awarding of positional authority. In the past 100 years, a tremendous amount of work detailing leadership has been published. From this, two basic styles have emerged – a leader who focuses on the task at hand (task leader) or a leader who focuses on the welfare and satisfaction of the people doing it (person leader). The “task leader” is concerned with what, how, where, when and by whom the task is accomplished. He/she is characterized by activities such as goal setting, job assignment, information seeking, problem solving, etc. The “person” leader concerns himself/herself with group cohesion, member satisfaction, conflict resolution, empathy, and other “maintenance” activities. Interestingly, “task” and “person” leadership are readily decomposed into various component roles, a fact that tends to support the “process” theory of leadership. Leadership is something that is done by the group as a whole not always by one person. Indeed, most modern leaders could not possibly handle the diverse demands for leadership thinking and strategizing. Therefore, most modern leaders employ a cadre of specialists with whom they may consult. Physician leaders are challenged by a tension between the demands placed on them to continue active clinical practice and the demands that comes with being an administrator. A widely articulated and presumably strongly held belief is the physician leader must maintain an active clinical practice. This may be a myth or it may have a factual basis. To further characterize this tension, those factors that reinforce the belief that a clinical leader must maintain an active clinical practice are: 1. Maintain credibility with colleagues 2. Real time experience as to how decisions impact practice 3. Reinforce the perception that they are leading from the “front” 4. Reinforce the perception that they are also in the midst of service delivery (we’re all in this together) The arguments that I offer to counter these strongly held beliefs are: 1. Knowledge is increasing more rapidly than the physician leader can keep up with in the areas of both medical science as well as organizational management, making it almost impossible to be effective at both due to erosion of skills in one or both areas. 2. Medicine is seductive and demands full time attention (It cannot be turned-off” at will.) 3. Physicians can be burned out (killed) in the process. (Specific argument against leading from the front – military stories abound on both sides of this “argument”) 4. Being in “service” creates conflicts (e.g., patient vs. the practice or process). Organizations change constantly. Currently, much of what I see in academic departments is organizational paralysis. To keep an expanded organizational structure under control, manager

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

and leaders focus on control as the predominate management strategy (impedes the entrepreneurial leader). The result is an inward focus on the bureaucracy. What these managers and leaders do not see is the outside competitive forces for change. The result is a loss of competitive “edge”. Played to the end, this will result in the death of the organization. Also, I see attempts at changing an academic health science center (AHC) that behave similar to what is clinically seen with a convulsion. Outside pressure for change becomes unbearable (pre-excitation). The organization makes changes – some good, some not (excitation). The organization lurches forward (external seizure is manifest). Managers and leaders see that there is expansion or change. The “task” oriented response (successful in the past) is to “freeze” the organization (treat with anticonvulsant to shorten the duration and magnitude of the seizure). Why? To manage change by not letting it get too far out of control. Within AHCs, new bureaucracies are built to protect “turf” (maintain the status quo – prevent another seizure). This insures positions and positional power. It stifles change as well as the results that change could bring that would be beneficial to the organization. After a while, the process starts all over again. Typical leaders today understand the idea of empowerment and they think it is a good idea. But command and control is what got them “here” and they fail to recognize that it will not get them “there” (What Got You Here Won’t Get You There by Marshall Goldsmith). It will not take them from where they are to where they need to be. This requires a different type of leadership. What I see as our current situation is that many of our healthcare leaders eventually undermine their own efforts to delegate or allow participation - actually empower people. They just cannot let go of those old ideas and behaviors that are so comfortable and reassuring. This is really due to ignorance, inertia and intransigence. They are transactional leaders. There is a theory of leadership that compares and contrasts the features of two types of leaders - transformational and transactional. An organization needs both of these types of leadership but they have quite different functions. Transactional leaders deal with maintaining organizational stability, consistency and regularity. Transformational leaders deal with the difficult business of organizational change and growth. Transactional leaders are good at motivating followers to pursue their own self-interest. They recognize what followers need and provide satisfaction of these needs in exchange for what it is that the organization needs. Rewards are made contingent upon achievement of organizational goals and getting work done. If necessary, the transactional leader will use his or her political skill to persuade others to cooperate, especially if an appeal can be made to selfinterest. Such a leader will make good use of “legitimate” and “reward” power, using “coercive” power only when it is absolutely necessary. Transactional leaders often adopt the philosophy of management by exception, only intervening when needed. Transactional leaders rely on a sort of mutual dependence – leaders lead and followers follow. Loyalty and longevity are recognized over skills and expertise. Followers follow because it is in their best interests. Risk taking is discouraged; being compliant and following the rules is what is rewarded. This leadership style has served medicine reasonably well as long as third parties (i.e., insurance companies and government) assume all of the financial risk. However, the market-place for health care is much more competitive and risk is now being “shared”, frequently by force, not by choice. Another factor that I have not heard actively 2 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

debated in AHC’s is the need for AHC’s to compete effectively with organizations that have much leaner bureaucracies and much more willingness to act quickly as well as assume some risk. This results in a loss of competitive advantage for the AHC’s. According to others, and from my experience, leaders have to “walk the talk”. While this is a much overused phrase, I believe it illustrates another key principle of leadership – particularly when we begin to look at styles of leadership. There have been numerous times I have heard leaders say “the right thing” and then go off and do just the opposite (e.g., “I value our staff and believe they should be rewarded for their hard work.”; throw them a party and then pay thousands of dollars to physicians as a bonus without regard to the fact that many staff are amongst the “working poor”.) When leaders actually do “walk-the-talk”, they are termed post heroic leaders. Synonymous terms are servant leader, transformational leader, empowered leader, and distributed leader. These are important terms that you must understand as you begin to develop your own leadership style(s). Transformational leaders lead thorough a shared vision, inspiration, cooperation, and persistence. This type of leader uses their ideas to influence those they lead; they stimulate the intellect; they speak to others on an individual level; they make the impossible seem quite plausible; they expand their followers’ “needs” to include the need for growth and selfactualization. Transformational leaders will actually overhaul the entire culture of an organization, changing its mission and changing its philosophy of management. Instead of narrow, territorial self-interest, followers are challenged to go beyond themselves and realize a new level of achievement, a new level of excellence. The driving force for change becomes a vision that is shared jointly. Workers develop a pride in their achievements, a shared identity, and a deep commitment to the organization. Many transformational leaders emphasize personal and group learning as well a personal and group development - a tendency that leads to high levels of intellectual challenge and stimulation. This type of leader also becomes an excellent mentor. They tend to give people individual attention. Transformational leaders must possess strong “people skills”. Why? Because at the heart of transformational leadership is the ability to change (transform) an organization. Being an effective and facile change agent requires strong emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is comprised of five (5) different attributes as first described by Goleman. In his early work, he emphasized that these attributes could be learned as well as strengthened. After reading many of Goleman’s books and journal articles, I have concluded that transformational leaders are “high” on the emotional intelligence scale. There are five attributes a person must possess if they are going to be described as having emotional intelligence: 1. Self awareness 2. Self regulation 3. Motivation 4. Empathy 5. Social skills. The definition and hall mark of each component of emotional intelligence is in the accompanying table. 3 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

Self-awareness

Self-regulation

Motivation

Empathy

Social Skills

Definition • the ability to recognize and understand your moods, emotions, and drives, as well as their effect on others • the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods • the propensity to suspend judgment to think before acting • a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status • a propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence • the ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people • skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions • proficiency in managing relationships and building networks • an ability to find common ground and build rapport

Hallmark • self-confidence • realistic self-assessment • self-deprecating sense of humor • • • • • • • • • • • •

trustworthiness and integrity comfort with ambiguity openness to change

strong drive to achieve optimism, even in the face of failure organizational commitment expertise in building and retaining talent cross-cultural sensitivity service to clients and customers effectiveness in leading change persuasiveness expertise in building and leading teams

It seems intuitive that leaders need to manage relationships effectively - no leader is an island. Leaders have to get work done through other people, and social skill makes that possible. A leader who cannot express empathy may as well not have it at all. A leader's motivation will be useless if this passion cannot be communicated to the organization. Social skill allows leaders to put their emotional intelligence to work. Now, I would be disingenuous if I did not acknowledge that IQ and technical ability are also very important ingredients to being a strong leader, but, having a highly refined set of emotional intelligence skills makes the “package complete”. Emotional intelligence used to be regarded as just "nice to have" in business leaders. This viewpoint has changed. It is now believed that high-performance, transformational leaders must have emotional intelligence. It is fortunate, then, that emotional intelligence can he learned. While emotional intelligence is not easily learned, persistence and commitment make learning these skills very possible. The benefits that derive from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and for the organization, make it worth the effort. 4 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

Goleman goes on to illustrate that executives use six leadership styles, but only four of the six consistently have a positive effect on climate and results. Let us look then at each style of leadership in detail: • The Coercive Style - This style demands immediate compliance o Underlying emotional intelligence competencies – 1) drive to achieve; 2) initiative; 3) self-control o Works best in a crisis, to kick start a turnaround, or with problem employees o Overall impact on the organization is negative. • The Authoritative Style - This style mobilizes people toward a vision o Underlying emotional intelligence competencies - 1) self confidence; 2) empathy; 3) change catalyst o Works best when changes require a new vision, or when a clear direction is needed o Overall impact on the organization is usually strongly positive. • The Affiliative Style - This style creates harmony and builds emotional bonds o Underlying emotional intelligence competencies: 1) empathy; 2) building relationships; 3) communication o Works best to heal rifts in a team or to motivate people during stressful circumstances o Overall impact is positive • The Democratic Style - This style forges consensus through participation o Underlying emotional intelligence competencies – 1) collaboration; 2) team leadership; 3) communication o Works best to build buy-in or consensus or to get input from valuable employees o Overall impact on the organization is positive. • The Pacesetting Style - This styles sets high standards for performance o Underlying emotional intelligence competencies – 1) conscientiousness; 2) drive to achieve; 3) initiative o Works best to get quick results from a highly motivated and competent team o Overall impact on the organization is negative. • The Coaching Style - This style works best to develop people for the future o Underlying emotional intelligence competencies – 1) developing others; 2) empathy; 3) self-awareness o Works best to help an employee improve performance or develop long-term strengths o Overall impact on the organization is positive. Many studies have shown that the most effective leaders possess the ability to use more than one style. Effective leaders use combinations of emotional intelligence competencies to accomplish whatever it is that they must accomplish. They are not entirely focused, however, on transactions nor are they entirely focused on people. Rather, their modes of operations

5 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

focus on the desired outcomes and use “task” and “person” focus when the time is right for one or the other or both. Leaders who have mastered four or more of Goleman’s six styles – specifically the authoritative, democratic, affiliative, and coaching styles - have the best results in creating a productive work environment and getting high performance from their employees. Furthermore, these very effective leaders switch easily between styles as needed. They are not mechanical in matching their style to fit some checklist of situations - they are far more fluid. They are exquisitely sensitive to the impact they are having on others and seamlessly adjust their style to get the best results. They can “read” in the first minutes of conversation that a talented but underperforming employee has been demoralized by an unsympathetic, “do-it-my-way-or else” manager and needs to be inspired through a reminder of why her work matters. Alternatively, this type of leader may also choose to reenergize the employee by asking about dreams and aspirations and finding ways to make the job more challenging. This is not to say that the initial conversation may also signal to the leader that this employee needs an ultimatum: improve or leave. Few leaders have all six styles in their repertory. There are even fewer that know how and when to use them. In fact, many leaders have only one or two styles; they refuse to consider that there are other styles that would be helpful to learn. They are uncomfortable in hearing that there are more styles than they are currently using. They believe that learning any new style would be unnatural. When this happens, the emotionally intelligent leader realizes that he/she needs a “team” with members that employ styles that the leader lacks. Leadership will never he an exact science – easily studied and understood using a doubleblind placebo controlled research design. But neither should it be a complete mystery to those who practice it. In recent years, research has shown that leaders can get a clearer picture of what it takes to lead effectively. They begin to see what it takes to be more effective. They are more aware that the business environment (Yes, medicine is a business and academic health science centers are businesses.) is constantly changing. Thus, the truly effective leader must respond in kind. Every moment of every day, executives must play their leadership styles like a pro-using the right one at just the right time and in the right measure. The payoff is in the results. The art of leadership is really two things. First, to empower people – to inspire them so much that they lose all sense of time spent in the task. And second, being aware of your inner self (your inner theater – what drives your behavior). When our current leaders fail, it is frequently in this area – failure to develop strong interpersonal skills in combination with a deep and elaborated self-understanding (emotional intelligence). Firms that are profitable put people first. They are wise managers of their intellectual capital. There are four signs to measure the health of an organization. 1. Employee empowerment 2. Employee identification with the organization as a whole 3. Successful conflict resolution 4. An organizational ability to learn Learning organizations change and adapt based upon learning from their successes and failures. The primary role of a leader in a learning organization is to: 6 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

1. Design the social architecture 2. Teach reality 3. Be stewards of human resources (people). This style results in both a shared vision as well as systems alignment (Senge). Organizational learning transforms the organization and gives strategic advantage. The reason is the organization learns and adapts. This social transformation is powerful. The transformation hardly describes a transactionally lead organization where there are individuals, working in a hierarchy that are rewarded as individuals for commodity–driven transactions (e.g., number of RO1’s, grant return dollars, RVU’s, special bonuses). An organization that focuses on developing high degrees of social capital will develop new corporate intellectual capital that will in turn lead to a better market share. These more competitive healthcare organizations will be: 1. Adaptable 2. Creative 3. Relationship oriented 4. Communicative 5. Team Driven 6. Flattened 7. A retainer of employees 8. High in customer loyalty A learning organization will also be led by individuals that understand some very basic principles of leadership. Leaders that understand they are in a mutual relationship with the other members of their organization. They are not independent actors; they have followers. They understand that the context of their organization shapes the way they behave. They search for multiple answers to the challenges their organization is faced with because there is no single best answer that will cover the wide range of possible challenges they must face. As Collins and Porras point out in their book Built To Last, successful leaders over the past few decades have been “clock-builders”. Their entire focus has been on constructing organizations using social principles resulting in an effective organization. This behavior is markedly different from other leaders who have focused on corporate strategy or delivery of a service. In Good To Great, Collins assigns this type of leader the title – level five leader. A level five leader transforms the organization by going beyond individual exchange (transaction) and moves the organization to a corporate culture sustained by “commingling of [the] needs and aspirations and goals in a common enterprise.” A level five leader builds greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will. He/she also embodies the four other levels of leadership described by Collins: level 1 – highly capable individual; level 2 – contributing team member; level 3 – competent manager; and level 4 – effective leader. This description of a level five leader – a person who takes an organization from being simply good to great – sits in direct contradistinction to the conventional wisdom of the type of individual that builds greatness. So often I have heard that great leaders are charismatic, larger-than-life, great saviors with large personalities and egos to match. But Collins and his research team did not find that type of leader at the top of 7 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

exceptional organizations. What they found was a person who was modest, humble, willful and fearless. The implications for healthcare are profound. Most AHC’c that I have worked in are in turmoil. The external threats are enormous. The internal dilemmas seem insurmountable. I was engaged in a conversation recently about the appointments, promotion, and tenure process our organization is “hell-bent” on changing. There is pressure from the Board of Regents to become more academic. This mantra is echoed by our current President. The faculty feel vulnerable and frightened of change. Our Dean wants this to be resolved quickly. He is truly caught between the clinicians who generate large sums of money that keep the “lights” on but truly do little else and the faculty who love to teach but do not bring in the “cash”. Both constituents, and this is just two of many, are vying to be in control of the entire outcome. There is no easy answer and there is no “quick fix”. In fact, it appears that the best answer lies in between all of the competing interests. To resolve this dilemma requires great skill on the part of our leaders as well as a willingness of all stakeholders to “give” something in order to get what they need – not what they want. This entire scenario describes change in a “low trust” organization – not an easy “sell”. Adding further to this local turmoil, and probably we are not the only organization that is experiencing this type of angst, is changing titles and reorganizing the bureaucracy will only result in cynicism (see Senge, The Fifth Discipline – dynamic tension that creates cynicism) and further organizational dysfunction. Corporate outcomes (that most academics and in particular medical academics eschew), tell us that politics happen when power is centralized by autocratic leadership. This behavior leads to poor financial performance. One resource that I read refers to this as the cesspool syndrome. Ineffective leaders “float” to the top of the organization, the organization inevitably declines, and mediocre leaders are threatened by talented subordinates. The end result is a brain drain and further organizational decline; played to the absolute end – death of the organization. Unfortunately, this is exactly what is happening in large universities and AHC’s. The “eroding” archetype of medicine, (prototype; inherited idea or mode of thought) is characterized by delivery of healthcare without regard to patient satisfaction or employee satisfaction. This leads to decreased profits by way of a decline in employee loyalty and customer loyalty. Employee loyalty/customer loyalty is the organization’s profit chain. Poor profitability is directly related to poor customer satisfaction as well as employee dissatisfaction. There are ways to avoid organizational decline. How? First, get the employees intimately involved in the organization’s business; second, encourage complete candor (straight talk); third, anticipate and manage the future; fourth, use failures (setbacks) as a chance for breaking with the past; fifth, make accountability an integral business practice (be inventive in this regard); sixth, understand that all employees are deserving (not entitled) to share in the profitability with commensurate returns based upon effort (not title or position); and seventh, never rest on your laurels – fight relentlessly against the status quo. Relating this to all of what you have just read, there are a panoply of different leadership styles based on the particular challenge faced by the leader. Current leaders in AHC’s have to conduct transactions working within a bureaucracy. This is unlikely to completely change. However, it is my conviction that current leaders within AHC’s must employee a multilevel strategy; matching the fierce resolve of a primary organizational leader (e.g., the level 5 8 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

leadership outlined by Collins) targeted to a discreet department or specialty area. The result will be change at multiple levels within the organization. I also believe that these leaders must become the agents of change that gain insights from their counterparts in other non-academic disciplines (thinking outside the AHC “box”). There is a large body of literature outside academic medicine that can inform us about organizational behavior and organizational change. We just pay attention and not be so dismissive of the wisdom of people who have spent their entire professional careers studying and understanding complex organizations. As I said earlier, this is hardly an exact science. On the other hand, there is much about medicine that is far from exact. Level 5 leaders can really make a difference for healthcare. We need to encourage those kind of people to stick around our AHC’s long enough to be effective agents of change.

Sources: 1. What Got You Here Won’t Get You There by Marshall Goldsmith (see annotated Reading List below for complete citation) 2. Goleman D. Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review. 2000; 78 (2): 78-90. 3. Schwartz RW, Pogge C. Physician Leadership: Essential Skills in a Changing Environment, Am J Surg. 2000; 180: 187-192 4. Schwartz RW, Tumblin TF. The Power of Servant Leadership to Transform Health Care Organizations for the 21st-Century Economy, Arch Surg. 2002; 137:1419-1427 5. Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap... and Others Don't by Jim Collins 6. Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies by James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras 7. The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of The Learning Organization by Peter M. Senge

9 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

JUNGIAN TYPES OF LEADERS People are all “wired” differently. We each have a wide variety of personal preferences, personal likes and dislikes, personal idiosyncrasies. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) uses the psychoanalytic theory of Carl Gustav Jung and is a personality questionnaire designed to identify certain psychological differences according to the typological theories. The original developers of the indicator were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, who initially created the indicator during World War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering the industrial workforce for the first time identify the sort of war-time jobs where they would be "most comfortable and effective." While many academic psychologists have criticized the indicator in research literature, claiming that it "lacks convincing validity data," proponents and sellers of the test cite un-blinded anecdotal predictions of individual behavior. In a similar way to left- or right-handedness, the principle is that individuals also find certain ways of thinking and acting easier than others. The MBTI endeavors to sort some of these psychological opposites into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible combinations. None of these combinations is 'better' or 'worse', however Briggs and Myers recognized that everyone has an overall combination that is most comfortable for them: in the same way as writing with the left hand is hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to find using their opposite psychological preference more difficult, even if they can become more proficient (and therefore behaviorally flexible) with practice and development. For the purposes of this workshop, we are using a modification of the MBTI that most of you should have already taken ‘on-line’. We will, be using tis information throughout this workshop, principally to illustrate that knowing your personality preferences will inform you as a leader particularly when you are working with others. The MBTI personality preference dichotomies are listed in this table. Each line represents a single dichotomous ‘choice’. The principle characteristics of each of these ‘choices’ are also listed below the major headings. Therefore, your preference is either E or I, S of N (for iNtuitive), T or F, and J or P. You can take the four letters provided to you and compare the information provided to how you perceive yourself. Is this accurate or inaccurate?

10 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

EXTRAVERT Like action and variety Like people around Greet people Act quickly Prefer talking SENSING Step-by-step Established way – repetition Work steadily Do not trust inspiration Prefer practical matters THINKING Analyze the problem Firm and tough-minded May hurt people’s feelings Need fair treatment Reprimand or fire if needed JUDGING Get things settled May decide too quickly Usually satisfied with decision Don’t like to interrupt a project

INTROVERT Likes quiet Works best alone Trouble remembering names Thinks before acting May prefer writing INTUITIVE Burst of energy Dislike repetition Leap to conclusion Trust inspiration Prefer imagining the possibilities FEELING See effect of choices on people Like harmony Enjoy pleasing people Need occasional praise Dislike telling unpleasant things PERCEIVING Leave things open May have trouble deciding May postpone tasks Accomplish much at the last minute

11 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

COMMUNICATION STYLES AND PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES E or I is where we get our energy while J or P is how we organize our life, how fast we like to make decisions. The four middle letters tells how we process information – take in information and make decisions. SENSING

INTUITIVE

Organized Lists, bullets, handouts details Time table Life, picture albums, people - all organized Don’t tolerate the unknown very well

See the big picture Entrepreneurs Tolerate and embrace the unknown What are the possibilities? How will this improve the future? Give me the big picture FEELING

THINKING Realistic – not dreamers Facts - who, what, when, where, why Costs Examples with numbers Bottom line

Personal stories Sensitive How will harmony be restored? Examples about people

EXAMPLES OF COMBINATIONS OF JUNGIAN STYLES (TEMPERAMENTS) Rational NT These leaders communicate preferentially in abstract terms. They are utilitarian (use determines the good and the value) in implementing goals. They are highly skilled at strategy and in particular strategic analysis. Thus, they are most practiced and comfortable with marshalling resources and planning (NTJ organizing), or inventing and configuring (NTP engineering). And they would, if they could, be wizards in one of these forms of rational operation. They are proud of the degree to which they are competent in action, respect themselves in the degree they are autonomous, and feel confident of themselves in the degree they are strong willed. Ever in search of knowledge, this is the "Knowledge Seeking Personality" - trusting in reason and hungering for achievement. They are usually pragmatic (concerned with practical results) about the present, skeptical (tend to not accept of question things) about the future, solipsistic (solipsism – belief in self as only reality) about the past. Educationally they go for the sciences, avocationally for technology, and vocationally for 12 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

systems work. Rationals tend to be individualizing as parents, mind-mates as spouses, and learning oriented as children. Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Bill Gates, Margaret Thatcher, Walt Disney, Camille Paglia, Ayn Rand, Thomas Jefferson, Richard Feynman, and General Ulysses S. Grant and President Dwight D. Eisenhower are examples of Rationals.

Idealist NF These leaders also prefer communicating in the abstract. They are cooperative (seek to build consensus) when implementing goals. They tend to be highly skilled in diplomacy and diplomatic integration. Thus, they are most practiced and comfortable in teaching and counseling (NFJ mentoring), or conferring and tutoring (NFP advocating). And they would, if they could, be sages in one of these forms of social development. The Idealist temperament has an instinct for interpersonal integration, learns ethics with ever increasing zeal, and sometimes become diplomatic leaders. They often speak interpretively and metaphorically of the abstract world of their imagination. They are proud of the degree to which they are empathic in action, respect themselves in the degree they are benevolent, and feel confident of themselves in the degree they are authentic. Idealist types search for their unique identity, hunger for deep and meaningful relationships, wish for a little romance each day, trust their intuitive feelings implicitly, aspire for profundity. This is the "Identity Seeking Personality" – credulous (gullible – too easily convinced that something is true) about the future, mystical (having a divine meaning beyond human understanding) about the past. Educationally they go for the humanities, avocationally for ethics, and vocationally for personnel work. In their family interactions they strive for mutuality, provide spiritual intimacy for the mates, opportunity for fantasy for their children, and for themselves continuous self-renewal. Princess Diana, Joan Baez, Albert Schweitzer, Bill Moyers, Eleanor Roosevelt, Mohandas Gandhi, Mikhael Gorbachev, and Oprah Winfrey are examples of Idealists.

Artisan SP These leaders are again concrete in their communications. They are utilitarian in implementing goals. But, when it comes to tactical variations, they are highly skilled. Thus, they are most practiced and skilled at promoting and operating (SPT expediting), or displaying and composing (SPF improvizing). And they would, if they could, be virtuosos of one of these forms of artistic operation. Artisans are proud of themselves to the degree that they are graceful in action, respect themselves in the degree they are daring, and feel confident of themselves in the degree they are adaptable. This is the "Sensation Seeking Personality" - trusting in spontaneity and hungering for impact on others. They are usually hedonic (of pleasure) about the present, optimistic about the future, cynical about the past. Educationally they go for arts and crafts, avocationally for techniques, and vocationally for operations work. They tend to be permissive as parents, playmates as spouses, and play oriented as children. Ernest Hemingway, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Bruce Lee, Amelia Earhart, Bob Dylan, Barbra Streisand, Elvis Presley, Elizabeth Taylor, Madonna, and President John F. Kennedy are examples of Artisans. 13 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

Guardian SJ These leaders are again very concrete communicators and cooperative in implanting their goals. They are highly skilled in logistics. Thus, they are most practiced and comfortable with supervising and inspecting (SJT adminstering), or supplying and protecting (SJF conserving). And they would, if they could, be magistrates watching over these forms of social facilitation. They are proud of the degree to which they are reliable in action, respect themselves in the degree they do good deeds, and feel confident of themselves in the degree they are respectable. In search of security as they are the "Security Seeking Personality" - trusting in legitimacy and hungering for membership. They are usually stoical (uncomplaining, enduring) about the present, pessimistic about the future, fatalistic about the past. Educationally they go for commerce, avocationally for regulations, and vocationally for materiel work. They tend to be acculturating (take on the culture of others; absorb and assimilate) as parents, helpmates as spouses, and conformity oriented as children. Presidents George Washington, Harry S. Truman, and George HW Bush, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth I, Mother Teresa, Martha Stewart, and Sam Walton are examples of Guardians.

14 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

READING LIST Classic Titles – Considered by the workshops leaders as Must Reads The Leadership Challenge (4th Edition) by James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner • • •

Hardcover: 416 pages Publisher: Jossey-Bass; 4 edition (August 3, 2007) ISBN-10: 0787984914

Book Description When it was initially written in 1987, few could have predicted that The Leadership Challenge would become one of the best-selling leadership books of all time. Now, faced with the new challenges of our unpredictable global business environment, Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner-two of the country's premier leadership experts - have completely revised and updated their classic book. Building on the knowledge base of their previous books, the third edition of The Leadership Challenge is grounded in extensive research and based on interviews with all kinds of leaders at all levels in public and private organizations from around the world. In this edition, the authors emphasize that the fundamentals of leadership are the same today as they were in the 1980s, and as they've probably been for centuries. In that sense, nothing's new. Leadership is not a fad. While the content of leadership has not changed, the context has-and in some cases, changed dramatically. Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap... and Others Don't by Jim Collins • • •

Hardcover: 300 pages Publisher: Collins; 1 edition (October 16, 2001) ISBN-10: 0066620996

Book Description Five years ago, Jim Collins asked the question, "Can a good company become a great company and if so, how?" In Good to Great Collins, the author of Built to Last, concludes that it is possible, but finds there are no silver bullets. Collins and his team of researchers began their quest by sorting through a list of 1,435 companies, looking for those that made substantial improvements in their performance over time. They finally settled on 11 - including Fannie Mae, Gillette, Walgreens, and Wells Fargo - and discovered common traits that challenged many of the conventional notions of corporate success. Making the transition from good to great doesn't require a high-profile CEO, the latest technology, innovative change management, or even a fine-tuned business strategy. At the heart of those rare and truly great companies was a corporate culture that rigorously found and promoted disciplined people to think and act in a 15 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

disciplined manner. Peppered with dozens of stories and examples from the great and not so great, the book offers a well-reasoned road map to excellence that any organization would do well to consider. Like Built to Last, Good to Great is one of those books that managers and CEOs will be reading and rereading for years to come. Good to Great and the Social Sectors: A Monograph to Accompany Good to Great by Jim Collins • • •

Paperback: 42 pages Publisher: HarperCollins; 1 edition (November 30, 2005) ISBN-10: 0977326403

Book Description Jim Collins Answers the Social Sector with a Monograph to Accompany Good to Great. This monograph is a response to questions raised by readers in the social sector. It is not a new book. Jim Collins wants to avoid any confusion about the monograph being a book by limiting its distribution to online retailers. It is based on interviews and workshops with over 100 social sector leaders. The difference between successful organizations is not between the business and the social sector, the difference is between good organizations and great ones.

Really Important Titles – Considered by the workshop leaders as what to read next Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies by James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras • • •

Paperback: 368 pages Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers; 1st edition (January 15, 1997) ISBN-10: 0887307396

Book Description "This is not a book about charismatic visionary leaders. It is not about visionary product concepts or visionary products or visionary market insights. Nor even is it about just having a corporate vision. This is a book about something far more important, enduring, and substantial. This is a book about visionary companies." So write James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras in this groundbreaking book that shatters myths, provides new insights, and gives practical guidance to those who would like to build landmark companies that stand the test of time. Drawing upon a six-year research project at the Stanford University Graduate School of Business, Collins and Porras took eighteen truly exceptional and long-lasting companies - they have an average age of nearly one hundred years and have outperformed the general stock market by a factor of fifteen since 1926 - and studied each company in direct comparison to one of its top competitors. They examined the companies from their very beginnings to the present day - as start-ups, as midsize companies, and as large corporations. Throughout, the authors asked: "What makes the truly exceptional companies different from other companies?" What separates 16 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

General Electric, 3M, Merck, Wal-Mart, Hewlett-Packard, Walt Disney, and Philip Morris from their rivals? How, for example, did Procter & Gamble, which began life substantially behind rival Colgate, eventually prevail as the premier institution in its industry? How was Motorola able to move from a humble battery repair business into integrated circuits and cellular communications, while Zenith never became dominant in anything other than TVs? How did Boeing unseat McDonnell-Douglas as the world's best commercial aircraft company - what did Boeing have that McDonnell-Douglas lacked? By answering such questions, Collins and Porras go beyond the incessant barrage of management buzzwords and fads of the day to discover timeless qualities that have consistently distinguished outstanding companies. They also provide inspiration to all executives and entrepreneurs by destroying the false but widely accepted idea that only charismatic visionary leaders can build visionary companies. Filled with hundreds of specific examples and organized into a coherent framework of practical concepts that can be applied by managers and entrepreneurs at all levels, Built to Last provides a master blueprint for building organizations that will prosper long into the twenty-first century and beyond. Leading Others, Managing Yourself, by Peter McGinn • • •

Paperback: 67 pages Publisher: Health Administration Press; 1 edition (November 2004) ISBN-10: 1567932355

Book Description Leadership is more than having a knack for predicting trends, a head for numbers, or years of experience to draw upon; it is also about intuition. This book is for managers and executives who are looking to sharpen their leadership capabilities, and who have the courage to learn more about themselves and how to use their instincts to lead others. The core of this practical book is comprised of ten "laws" of leadership that author Peter McGinn, a healthcare CEO, has developed in his more than twenty years of experience. Leadership in Healthcare: Values at the Top by Carson F. Dye • • •

Paperback: 234 pages Publisher: Health Administration Press (January 24, 2000) ISBN-10: 1567931146

Book Description In short chapters and concise language, this book defines leadership, describes its importance in healthcare today, and addresses the essential qualities of leadership. For each quality, the author provides a succinct explanation and a list of suggestions for actually improving or applying this leadership quality.

17 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

"Today more than ever, physicians find themselves working in groups: clinically and group practices; administratively with health systems, payors, or as consultants; and finally in policy and management. [This book] is a primer that correctly avers personal values to be the bedrock of success as one progresses from group member to leader. A personal value system consistent with the culture of the organization is absolutely necessary for personal success. Physicians would do well to understand and heed the information put forth by Carson Dye." Donald L. Mellman, M.D., CHE, Tampa, Florida Learning to Lead: A Handbook for Postsecondary Administrators by James R. Davis • • •

Hardcover: 272 pages Publisher: Praeger Publishers (February 28, 2003) ISBN-10: 1573564974

Book Description This is a book about leadership for college and university administrators, written by a professor of higher education who has also had a long administrative career. As Dr. Davis explains in the preface, leadership has been recognized recently as an activity that not only is associated with formal leadership roles, but also can bubble up in various places within the organization. Given that understanding, the author has written this book for a broadly defined audience of higher education administrators, including presidents, provosts, deans, and department chairs, as well as myriad administrators who work in student affairs, athletics, finance, admissions, funded research, development, and alumni relations, for example. The book also addresses the needs of those who facilitate leadership workshops, serve as mentors to potential leaders, and teach courses on higher education leadership and administration. While presenting all sides of key issues, the author calls for the reader to define his or her own position through a series of provocative questions in "Reflection" sections scattered throughout each chapter. Thus the book invites interaction and teaches administrators not what to think about leadership, but how to think about it. A directory of selected resources helps readers expand their learning through professional associations; key journals, magazines, and newspapers; and useful Web sites dedicated to postsecondary education. Notes at the end of each of the ten chapters list critical texts for further reading on the book's concepts, theories, and models. Valuable summaries of the best works on leadership and administration drawn from both higher education and business literature make this book an indispensable desk reference for the busy administrator. It may also soon be regarded as the best text available for leadership training for college and university administrators.

18 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of The Learning Organization by Peter M. Senge • • •

Paperback: 464 pages Publisher: Currency; 1 edition (March 21, 2006) ISBN-10: 0385517254

Book Description (Completely Updated and Revised) This revised edition of Peter Senge’s bestselling classic, The Fifth Discipline, is based on fifteen years of experience in putting the book’s ideas into practice. As Senge makes clear, in the long run the only sustainable competitive advantage is your organization’s ability to learn faster than the competition. The leadership stories in the book demonstrate the many ways that the core ideas in The Fifth Discipline, many of which seemed radical when first published in 1990, have become deeply integrated into people’s ways of seeing the world and their managerial practices. In The Fifth Discipline, Senge describes how companies can rid themselves of the learning “disabilities” that threaten their productivity and success by adopting the strategies of learning organizations - ones in which new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, collective aspiration is set free, and people are continually learning how to create results they truly desire. The updated and revised Currency edition of this business classic contains over one hundred pages of new material based on interviews with dozens of practitioners at companies like BP, Unilever, Intel, Ford, HP, Saudi Aramco, and organizations like Roca, Oxfam, and The World Bank. It features a new Foreword about the success Peter Senge has achieved with learning organizations since the book’s inception, as well as new chapters on Impetus (getting started), Strategies, Leaders’ New Work, Systems Citizens, and Frontiers for the Future.

Additional Titles – Considered by the workshop leaders as also important to understanding how to become a leader On Becoming A Leader: The Leadership Classic--Updated And Expanded by Warren G. Bennis • • •

Paperback: 256 pages Publisher: Perseus Publishing; Revised edition (April 1, 2003) ISBN-10: 0738208175

Book Description Bennis, author of the popular Leaders: The Strategies of Taking Charge (LJ 4/1/85) and also coauthor of The Unreality Industry , reviewed in this issue, p. 00.-- Ed. , has interviewed hundreds of leaders over time, and he uses 30 of them to illustrate his points. He does this by quoting 19 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

them, as appropriate, in the various chapters of the book--"Understand The Basics," "Operating on Instinct," "Knowing Yourself," etc. He still sees vision as an essential ingredient for leadership, but in this work stresses how to find the vision. "The point is to become yourself, to use yourself completely--all your skills, gifts, and energies--in order to make your vision manifest." Recommended for all business collections. Enlightened Leadership: Getting to the Heart of Change by Ed Oakley and Doug Krug • • •

Paperback: 272 pages Publisher: A Fireside Book (July 15, 1994) ISBN-10: 0671866753

Book Description Being able to change to keep pace with a rapidly changing world is the key to business success in the '90s. Enlightened Leadership is a practical, hands-on guide to breaking through the barriers to organizational change. Doug Krug and Ed Oakley show why most efforts at change fail - and they provide leaders with proven methods for getting their people moving in the right direction. The key lies in showing those who would be change agents how to capitalize on their organization's greatest asset: the under-utilized talent, expertise, and energy of its existing staff. The authors' program is based on maximizing the contributions of all employees - by sharing information, decision-making, and planning with them - creating a shared culture of organizational goals, strategies, and methods. Managers and leaders at all levels - from small business owners to corporate strategists - can use Oakley and Krug's proven techniques, including planning, communication, and motivational tools, to support their employees in effecting the positive changes that will make the difference in achieving their organizations' bottom-line goals. Principle Centered Leadership by Stephen R. Covey • • •

Paperback: 336 pages Publisher: Free Press; 1st edition (October 1, 1992) ISBN-10: 0671792806

Book Description How do we as individuals and organizations survive and thrive amid tremendous change? Why are efforts to improve falling so short in real results despite the millions of dollars in time, capital, and human effort being spent on them? How do we unleash the creativity, talent, and energy within ourselves and others in the midst of pressure? Is it realistic to believe that balance among personal, family, and professional life is possible? Stephen R. Covey demonstrates that 20 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

the answer to these and other dilemmas is Principle-Centered Leadership, a long-term, insideout approach to developing people and organizations. The key to dealing with the challenges that face us today is the recognition of a principle-centered core within both ourselves and our organizations. Dr. Covey offers insights and guidelines that can help you apply these principles both at work and at home - leading not just to a new understanding of how to increase quality and productivity, but also to a new appreciation of the importance of building personal and professional relationships in order to enjoy a more balanced, more rewarding, more effective life. Emotional Intelligence: 10th Anniversary Edition; Why It Can Matter More Than IQ by Daniel Goleman • • •

Hardcover: 384 pages Publisher: Bantam; 10 Anniversary edition (September 26, 2006) ISBN-10: 055380491X

Book Description Everyone knows that high IQ is no guarantee of success, happiness, or virtue, but until Emotional Intelligence, we could only guess why. Daniel Goleman's brilliant report from the frontiers of psychology and neuroscience offers startling new insight into our "two minds" - the rational and the emotional - and how they together shape our destiny. Through vivid examples, Goleman delineates the five crucial skills of emotional intelligence, and shows how they determine our success in relationships, work, and even our physical well-being. What emerges is an entirely new way to talk about being smart. The best news is that "emotional literacy" is not fixed early in life. Every parent, every teacher, every business leader, and everyone interested in a more civil society, has a stake in this compelling vision of human possibility. Primal Leadership: Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman, Richard E. Boyatzis, and Annie McKee • • •

Paperback: 336 pages Publisher: Harvard Business School Press (March 2004) ISBN-10: 1591391849

Book Description Business leaders who maintain that emotions are best kept out of the work environment do so at their organization's peril. Bestselling author Daniel Goleman's theories on emotional intelligence (EI) have radically altered common understanding of what "being smart" entails, and in Primal Leadership, he and his coauthors present the case for cultivating emotionally intelligent leaders. Since the actions of the leader apparently account for up to 70 percent of employees' perception of the climate of their organization. Goleman and his team emphasize the importance of developing what they term "resonant leadership." Focusing on the four 21 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

domains of emotional intelligence - self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management - they explore what contributes to and detracts from resonant leadership, and how the development of these four EI competencies spawns different leadership styles. The best leaders maintain a style repertoire, switching easily between "visionary," "coaching," "affiliative," and "democratic," and making rare use of less effective "pace-setting" and "commanding" styles. The authors' discussion of these methods is informed by research on the workplace climates engendered by the leadership styles of more than 3,870 executives. Indeed, the experiences of leaders in a wide range of work environments lend reallife examples to much of the advice Goleman et al. offer, from developing the motivation to change and creating an improvement plan based on learning rather than performance outcomes, to experimenting with new behaviors and nurturing supportive relationships that encourage change and growth. The book's final section takes the personal process of developing resonant leadership and applies it to the entire organizational culture. What Got You Here Won't Get You There: How Successful People Become Even More Successful by Marshall Goldsmith and Mark Reiter • • •

Hardcover: 256 pages Publisher: Hyperion; 1 edition (January 9, 2007) ISBN-10: 1401301304

Book Description Goldsmith, an executive coach to the corporate elite, pinpoints 20 bad habits that stifle already successful careers as well as personal goals like succeeding in marriage or as a parent. Most are common behavioral problems, such as speaking when angry, which even the author is prone to do when dealing with a teenage daughter's belly ring. Though Goldsmith deals with touchy-feely material more typical of a self-help book—such as learning to listen or letting go of the past—his approach to curing self-destructive behavior is much harder-edged. For instance, he does not suggest sensitivity training for those prone to voicing morale-deflating sarcasm. His advice is to stop doing it. To stimulate behavior change, he suggests imposing fines (e.g., $10 for each infraction), asserting that monetary penalties can yield results by lunchtime. While Goldsmith's advice applies to everyone, the highly successful audience he targets may be the least likely to seek out his book without a direct order from someone higher up. As he points out, they are apt to attribute their success to their bad behavior. Still, that may allow the less successful to gain ground by improving their people skills first.

22 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

From Marshal Goldsmith’s Blog: Effectively Sucks Up 7:13 PM PST, February 6, 2008 After reviewing over 100 custom-designed leadership profiles for major corporations – helping write over 50, I can say that one item I have never read is “effectively fawns over executive management.” While almost every company says it wants people to “challenge the system,” “be empowered to express your opinion,” and “say what you really think,” there sure are a lot of people who are stuck on sucking up! Almost all of the leaders I have met say that they would never encourage such a thing in their organizations. I have no doubt that they are sincere. Most of us are easily irritated - if not disgusted - by derriere kissers. Which raises a question: If leaders say they discourage sucking up, why does it happen so often? Here’s a straightforward answer: Without meaning to, we all tend to create an environment where people learn to reward others with accolades that aren’t really warranted. We can see this very clearly in other people. We just can’t see it in ourselves. The Everything Leadership Book: The 20 Core Concepts Every Leader Must Know by Bob Adams • • •

Paperback: 311 pages Publisher: Adams Media Corporation (July 2001) ISBN-10: 1580625134

Book Description Being in charge can be intimidating, even for the most seasoned leaders. The Everything Leadership Book helps you focus on your strengths and goals, so that you can take the reins with confidence. Whether you're already the boss or still climbing the ladder of success, The Everything Leadership Book gives you the tools you need to take charge! In order for any group to run smoothly, it needs a strong, capable individual at the helm. Whether you are a senior executive, the captain of your softball team, or just a team player, you know that there is always room to enhance your leadership skills and strengthen your group as a whole. The Everything Leadership Book teaches you all you need to know to effectively direct and manage people both in and out of the workplace. The book includes practical advice on leadership techniques and how to maintain professional composure, as well as tips on what separates the leaders from the followers. You'll learn how to exude self-confidence, become a role model, and make a difference at work and in your community.

23 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

Peer Reviewed Literature 1. Schwartz RW, Pogge C. Physician Leadership: Essential Skills in a Changing Environment, Am J Surg. 2000; 180: 187-192 ABSTRACT: Precisely because they are at the center of clinical service delivery, physicians, especially surgeons, are the ideal leaders for health care in the 21st century. Although most physicians possess the traits essential for leadership, the vast majority lacks the technical skills necessary for major leadership/management roles that will both change and empower the local healthcare service delivery environment. Such skills include strategic and tactical planning, persuasive communication, negotiation, financial decision-making, team building, conflict resolution, and interviewing. Just like surgical training, these skills too require systematic training. With patients beginning to demand value-added service, it is important for healthcare executives to identify those physicians best suited to serve as leaders within the larger healthcare system and to deliberately nurture their growth in these administrative competencies. 2. Schwartz RW, Tumblin TF. The Power of Servant Leadership to Transform Health Care Organizations for the 21st-Century Economy, Arch Surg. 2002; 137:1419-1427 ABSTRACT: Physician leadership is emerging as a vital component in transforming the nation’s health care industry. Because few physicians have been introduced to the large body of literature on leadership and organizations, we herein provide a concise review, as this literature relates to competitive health care organizations and the leaders who serve them. Although the US health care industry has transitioned to a dynamic market economy governed by a wide range of internal and external forces, health care organizations continue to be dominated by leaders who practice an outmoded transactional style of leadership and by organizational hierarchies that are inherently stagnant. In contrast, outside the health care sector, service industries have repeatedly demonstrated that transformational, situational, and servant leadership styles are most successful in energizing human resources within organizations. This optimization of intellectual capital is further enhanced by transforming organizations into adaptable learning organizations where traditional institutional hierarchies are flattened and efforts to evoke change are typically team driven and mission oriented. 3. Bottles K. Leading in a chaotic health care environment. The Physician Executive. 2000; July-August: 56-61. ABSTRACT: How can physician executives be effective leaders during a time of such upheaval in health care? How does anyone lead in a confusing environment where planning seems impossible? Is effective leadership even possible when no one seems to understand what is going on? These important questions are addressed in this 24 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

article. Health care is a confusing field. But it still needs effective leadership. Even though nobody really knows what is going on, physician leaders can play a beneficial role by encouraging everyone they work with to experiment and innovate with ways to make health care work better for patients. Physician executives can insist on accountability and on implementing what really works in their given context, rather than what the latest theory states should work. 4. Goleman D. What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review. 1998; 76 (6): 93-102. ABSTRACT: Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence - especially at the highest levels of a company - is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, hut he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence - self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather, it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort. 5. Goleman D. Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review. 2000; 78 (2): 78-90. ABSTRACT: According to the author, although effective leadership eludes many people and organizations, new research has determined six distinct leadership types that appear to have a direct and unique impact on the working atmosphere of an organization. Research shows that leaders with the best results do not rely on only one leadership style. The six styles are coercive, authoritative, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting and coaching. Findings indicate that the more styles a leader exhibits, the better. This can be accomplished by building a team with members who employ styles the leader lacks. An alternative approach is to expand one's own style repertoires.

25 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

6. Rowley J. Academic leaders: made or born? Industrial and Commercial Training. 1997; 29(3):78-84. ABSTRACT: Leadership is essential in all organizations and educational institutions are no exception, but the concept of academic leadership is unique in higher education and, arguably, is concerned with leadership that extends beyond the organization into the wider world that higher education institutions seek to serve. Traditional concepts of academic leadership are closely associated with individual excellence. This article explores the importance of the contingency model of leadership, which suggests that leadership style might change to accommodate changing and differing environments. The way in which teams function in higher education could be closely matched with the concept of the self-directed team. The concept of the learning organization as an organization which knows how to transform itself to meet changing circumstances defines specific roles for leaders.

Internet Resources Leadership http://www.prismltd.com/influen.htm How do you lead without power? This article provides a good overall description of the role of power in leadership. http://www.prismltd.com/leader.htm This article discusses leadership as an interpersonal influence process from the perspective of the well-known Hersey-Blanchard framework. http://www.hardatwork.com/Stump/RA/Uncooperative.html A page of advice on how to influence those who are somewhat resistant to direction. If you don't find the advice useful, there's an opportunity to ask for more info from an expert. http://www.tms.com.au/wothot.html By Richard Aldersea. The synopsis of this page includes the following questions: What are the unique qualities required to lead the organization of tomorrow? What are the actions, skills and strategies that leaders will need to sustain a competitive advantage in tomorrow's fast paced world? How do you develop leaders from where they are to where they will need to be? These are timely questions to ask in the course of learning about leadership skills. The following two links are to different sections of a leadership guide for new supervisors, managers, and anyone wishing to move up through the ranks as a leader. The entire website is full of excellent ideas and many very useful links to additional information.

26 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leader.html Big Dog Leadership This leadership guide is for new supervisors, managers, leads, and anyone wishing to move up through the ranks as a leader. The first chapter, Concepts of Leadership, provides a basic background on leadership. The following chapters provide the skills and knowledge needed to implement effective leadership. The appendixes contain a basic lesson plan for implementing a leadership development program with several learning activities, definitions, quotes, references, and other tools. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadlnk.html Big Dog's Leadership Link Page http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm Another leadership styles website – much expanded http://www.lhup.edu/leadership/ Online textbook on leadership http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_goleman_leadership_styles.html Website on leadership styles Motivation http://www.hardatwork.com/Stump/ME/ME.html Advice on eight common motivational problems. http://www.adv-leadership-grp.com/articles/motivate.htm In this article, an expert management consultant examines qualities of managers who motivate, providing proven techniques to inspire those who work for you. The article is written by Diane M. Eade. Time Management http://www.adv-leadership-grp.com/articles/energy.htm Article by Diane M. Eade on time management relating to energy and success. http://www.adv-leadership-grp.com/articles/time.htm Article written by Diane M. Eade on improving your performance and managing your time. Pot Pourri http://www.fastcompany.com/homepage/index.html Launched in November 1995 by Alan Webber and Bill Taylor, two former Harvard Business Review editors, Fast Company magazine was founded on a single premise: A global revolution was changing business, and business was changing the world. Discarding the old rules of business, Fast Company chronicles how changing companies create and compete, to highlight 27 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA

Notes to accompany the workshop “Understanding Your Leadership Style”

new business practices, and to showcase the teams and individuals who are inventing the future and reinventing business. Today, the business world continues to change, and Fast Company continues to evolve as well. http://www.healthleaders.com/ HEALTHLEADERS INC. HealthLeaders is a leading multi-platform media company dedicated to meeting the business information needs of healthcare executives and professionals. As an integrated media company, HealthLeaders consists of the following entities: HealthLeaders Magazine, Online News, HealthLeaders Research, HealthLeaders Healthcare Market Overviews, and California HealthFax.

Selected Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Materials On The Web http://www.personalitypathways.com/type_inventory.html MBTI Personality Test: Understanding Your MBTI or Myers Briggs Type Inventory (The link to the MBTI on the site takes you to a test that is not free.) http://www.myersbriggs.org/ The Myers-Briggs Foundation (informational mostly) http://www.humanmetrics.com/ Human Metrics – The Jung Typology Test can be found here (Get your “free” version of the MBTI here.) http://www.keirsey.com/ Keirsey Temperament Sorter (Kiersey took the MBTI results and determined that there were sixteen different temperaments. You can use your MBTI results to explore more about your temperament and famous people who share your temperament.)

28 Presented at the 2009 APA National Leadership Conference, February 12-13, 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana by Benard Dreyer, MD and Fred McCurdy, MD, PhD, MBA