understanding how to motivate to improve performance

understanding how to motivate to improve performance course handbook motivating  the  work  team     The  single  largest  investment  an  organisat...
Author: Merry Campbell
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understanding how to motivate to improve performance course handbook

motivating  the  work  team     The  single  largest  investment  an  organisation  makes  is  in  the  people  it  employs.  On  average,   two  thirds  of  the  costs  of  an  organisation  are  the  salaries  of  employees.  It  is  essential  that  the   people  in  an  organisation  are  motivated  to  deliver  the  best  possible  results  to  justify  the   investment  in  them.  Managers  have  a  huge  responsibility  to  understand  what  drives  the  people   in  their  team,  and  to  ensure  that  they  do  everything  they  can  to  encourage  and  support  them  to   do  their  best  for  the  organisation  and  themselves.        

ͻ I  believe  the  real  difference   between  success  and  failure   can  be  very  often  traced  to   the  question  of  how  well   the  organisation  brings  out   the  great  energies  and   talents  of  its  people  

ͻ Good  management  is  the   art  of  making  problems  so   interesting  and  their   solutions  so  constructive   that  everyone  wants  to   get  to  work  and  deal  with   them.  

-­‐  Thomas  J.   Watson  

-­‐  Paul  Hawken  


leading  through  motivation     The  ability  to  motivate  stems  from  the  leaders͛  understanding  of  the  individual,  the  greater   the  interpersonal  connection  and  trust,  the  more  effectively  a  motivational  approach  can  be   targeted.     Motivation  is  defined  as  the  forces  within  each  individual  that  affect  the  direction,  intensity,   and  persistence  of  voluntary  behaviour.      


  Leaders  seek  to  motivate  others  when  they  want  them  to  focus  on  a  particular  goal,  change   their  level  of  effort  or  the  time  devoted  to  an  action.       1    

motivation     Motivation   can   be   defined   as   a   conscious   or   unconscious   driving   force   that   arouses   and   directs  action  towards  the  achievement  of  a  desired  goal.     Psychologists  have  long  been  aware  that  our  unconscious  mind  (instinctive  self)  has  as  much   and   sometimes   more   control   of   our   behaviours   than   does   our   conscious   mind   (aware   self).   Both  aspects  of  ourselves  respond  to  motivational  stimulus  however  research  shows  that  our   conscious  and  unconscious  minds  find  it  hard  to  agree  on  what  gives  us  our  motivation.     Although   most   people   would   describe   their   greatest   motivators   as   being   conscious   ones   (money,  status,  reward),  research  has  shown  that  the  very  fact  that  they  are  conscious  makes   them  less  effective  as  motivators  and  the  things  that  work  to  motivate  us  on  an  unconscious   level  (opinion  of  our  peers,  our  fellings  self  worth,  felling  valued)    can  prove  more  effective.       In   order   to   get   the   best   out   of   any   individual,   an   understanding   of   who   they   are   and   what   motivates   them   is   essential.   No   leader   can   afford   to   ignore   a   tool   set   that   can   unlock   the   potential  in  the  most  important  resource  an  organisation  has  ʹ  people.    

͞>ĞĂĚĞƌƐŚŝƉŝƐƚŚĞĂƌƚŽĨŐĞƚƚŝŶŐ somebody  else  to  do   something  you  want  done;   ďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞLJǁĂŶƚƚŽĚŽŝƚ͘͟ Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  






  Intrinsic  motivation  is  an  important  means  of  motivating  employees.  It  is  often  more  effective   than  extrinsic  motivation,  which  is  often  based  upon  rewards  and  punishments.  Knowing  how   to  effectively  use  intrinsic  motivation  will  help  make  your  employees  more  effective  and   increase  their  job  satisfaction  at  the  same  time.       Intrinsic  motivation  occurs  when  a  person  finds  a  task  interesting  and  derives  satisfaction   from  performing  it.  The  motivation  comes  from  within  you  rather  than  being  imposed  upon   you  by  external  forces  such  as  rewards  or  punishments.       Psychologists  argue  you  can  only  be  completely  effective  if  you  feel  autonomous  and   competent.  In  other  words,  you  will  only  be  intrinsically  motivated  if  you  feel  you  are   competent  at  the  task  and  have  autonomy  or  control  over  it.  A  third  component  necessary  for   intrinsic  motivation  is  having  satisfying  relationships  with  others  at  work.    

  Extrinsic  motivation  is  an  important  tool  an  organisation  can  use  to  motivate  members  of  an   organisation  to  accomplish  organisational  tasks.  Knowing  its  advantages  and  disadvantages   will  help  a  manager  decide  when  it's  effective  to  use  and  when  it's  not.       Extrinsic  motivation  is  a  means  of  encouraging  an  activity  based  upon  external  consequences   resulting  from  performing  the  activity.  The  most  common  examples  of  extrinsic  motivations   are  rewards  and  punishments.       3    

Extrinsic  motivation  will  often  be  used  in  situations  in  which  the  activities  are  uninteresting   and  provide  little,  if  any,  internal  satisfaction.  Stuffing  envelopes  is  a  good  example  of  the   type  of  task  that  probably  requires  extrinsic  motivation.  You  also  need  to  consider  the  level  of   control  that  will  be  necessary  in  developing  extrinsic  motivators.       Some  extrinsic  motivators  provide  the  organisation  more  control  over  motivation  than  others.   The  classic  motivators  of  reward  and  punishment  are  considered  the  most  controlling  and  are   often  referred  to  as  external  regulation.  In  other  words,  your  task  performance  is  completely   controlled  by  the  related  rewards  and  punishments.  For  example,  if  you  exceed  your  sales   quota,  you  may  get  a  bonus,  but  if  you  miss  your  sales  quota  by  a  significant  amount,  you  may   be  fired.    

 In  a  perfect  world  everyone  would  be  intrinsically  motivated  and  every  task  would  be   ĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞĚǁŝƚŚƉĂƐƐŝŽŶĂŶĚĞŶƚŚƵƐŝĂƐŵ͘/ŶƚŚĞƌĞĂůǁŽƌůĚǁĞŬŶŽǁƚŚĂƚǁŽŶ͛ƚĂůǁĂLJƐďĞƚŚĞ case,  and  so  we  augment  the  levels  of  intrinsic  motivation  an  individual  has  with  the  required   level  of  extrinsic  motivation  to  get  them  to  act.     A  leader  has  to  be  aware  that  there  may  be  some  tasks  that  an  individual  has  a  strong  moral   or  cultural  objection  to  which  gives  them  an  intrinsic  motivation  not  to  act.  Attempting  to  add   extrinsic  motivational  is  more  likely  to  make  the  situation  worse  than  to  help.  If  the  task  is  a   key  part  of  the  persons  role  and  no  accomodation  can  be  reached,  the  best  solution  may  be   for  them  to  seek  a  role  that  aligns  with  their  intrinsic  motivation.  




A  feeling  that  the  tasks  you  complete  matter  adds  to  our  intrinsic  motivation.  Setting  work  in   context  to  show  how  it  contributes  to  the  organisation  is  the  first  step,  going  further  to  show   how  the  organisation  contributes  positively  to  the  wider  world  is  better  still.  If  the  work  we  do   matters,  we  matter  and  as  a  result  we  become  more  committed  to  doing  a  good  job.     Making  the  work  interesting  and  challenging  for  the  individual  is  another  route  to  intrinsic   motivation.  Routine  means  boring,  when  people  get  bored  their  minds  wander.  When  their   minds  wander  their  motivation  wanders  with  them.     Full  time  workers  will  spend  more  of  their  time  in  work  than  they  will  with  friends  and  family,   which  means  an  unhappy  workplace  is  the  same  as  an  unhappy  life,  soon  all  of  their  get  up   and  go  will  have  gone.  If  work  is  a  place  we  enjoy  going  and  we  get  satisfaction  from  the  tasks   we  complete,  we  have  the  intrinsic  motivation  to  do  our  job  well.     Development  of  our  knowledge  and  skills  along  with  the  growing  feeling  of  competance  and   confidence  it  brings  can  add  to  intrinsic  motivation.  A  company  that  exploits  the  abilities  of   employees  devalues  them  and  demotivates  them,  investing  in  the  development  of  the  team   shows  commitment  and  makes  us  an  employer  of  choice.     Trusting  people  to  have  a  little  control  over  what  they  do  and  how  they  do  it  is  a  great   method  of  building  their  intrinsic  motivation  and  breeds  a  sense  of  ownership  of  their  job   role.      


ŵĂƐůŽǁ͛ƐŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚLJŽĨŶeeds     Abraham  Maslow  developed  the  Hierarchy  of  Needs  model  in  1940-­‐50's  USA.     Maslow's  Hierarchy  of  Needs  remains  valid  today  for  understanding  human  motivation  and   for  management  training.       Abraham  Maslow's  key  book,   Motivation  and  Personality,   was  first  published  in  1954   (second  edition  1970).  Maslow   was  born  in  New  York  in  1908   and  died  in  1970.  Maslow's   PhD  in  psychology  in  1934  at   the  University  of  Wisconsin   formed  the  basis  of  his   motivational  research,  initially   studying  rhesus  monkeys.     Each  of  us  are  motivated  by   needs.  Our  most  basic  needs  are  inborn,  having  evolved  over  tens  of  thousands  of  years.   Abraham  Maslow's  Hierarchy  of  Needs  helps  to  explain  how  these  needs  motivate  us  all.     Maslow's  Hierarchy  of  Needs  states  that  we  must  satisfy  each  need  in  turn,  starting  with  the   first,  which  deals  with  the  most  obvious  needs  for  survival  itself.     Only  when  the  lower  order  needs  of  physical  and  emotional  well-­‐being  are  satisfied  are  we   concerned  with  the  higher  order  needs  of  influence  and  personal  development.       physiological  needs       These  are  biological  needs.  They  consist  of  needs  for  oxygen,  food,  water,  and  a   relatively  constant  body  temperature.  They  are  the  strongest  needs  because  if  a   person  were  deprived  of  all  needs,  the  physiological  ones  would  come  first  in  the   person's  search  for  satisfaction.       safety  /  security  needs       When  all  physiological  needs  are  satisfied  and  are  no  longer  controlling  thoughts  and   behaviours,  the  needs  for  security  can  become  active.  Adults  have  little  awareness  of   their  security  needs  except  in  times  of  emergency  or  periods  of  disorganisation  in  the   social  structure  (such  as  widespread  rioting).  Children  often  display  the  signs  of   insecurity  and  the  need  to  be  safe.          


needs  of  love,  affection  and  belongingness       When  the  needs  for  safety  and  for  physiological  well-­‐being  are  satisfied,  the  next  class   of  needs  for  love,  affection  and  belongingness  can  emerge.  Maslow  states  that  people   seek  to  overcome  feelings  of  loneliness  and  alienation.  This  involves  both  giving  and   receiving  love,  affection  and  the  sense  of  belonging.       needs  for  self-­‐esteem       When  the  first  three  classes  of  needs  are  satisfied,  the  needs  for  esteem  can  become   dominant.  These  involve  needs  for  both  self-­‐esteem  and  for  the  esteem  a  person  gets   from  others.  Humans  have  a  need  for  a  stable,  firmly  based,  high  level  of  self-­‐respect,   and  respect  from  others.  When  these  needs  are  satisfied,  the  person  feels  self-­‐ confident  and  valuable  as  a  person  in  the  world.  When  these  needs  are  frustrated,  the   person  feels  inferior,  weak,  helpless  and  worthless.       needs  for  self-­‐actualisation       When   all   of   the   foregoing   needs   are   satisfied,   then   and   only   then   are   the   needs   for   self-­‐actualisation  activated.  Maslow  describes  self-­‐actualisation  as  a  person's  need  to   be  and  do  that  which  the  person  was  "born  to  do."  "A  musician  must  make  music,  an   artist  must  paint,  and  a  poet  must  write."  These  needs  make  themselves  felt  in  signs  of   restlessness.  The  person  feels  on  edge,  tense,  lacking  something,  in  short,  restless.  If  a   person  is  hungry,  unsafe,  not  loved  or  accepted,  or  lacking  self-­‐esteem,  it  is  very  easy   to  know  what  the  person  is  restless  about.  It  is  not  always  clear  what  a  person  wants   when  there  is  a  need  for  self-­‐actualisation.      


herzberg's  2  factor  theory     To  better  understand  employeeƐ͛  attitudes  and  motivation,  Frederick  Herzberg  performed   studies  to  determine  which  factors  in  an  employee's  work  environment  caused  satisfaction  or   dissatisfaction.  He  published  his  findings  in  the  1959  book  The  Motivation  to  Work.     The  studies  included  interviews  in  which  employees  where  asked  what  pleased  and   displeased  them  about  their  work.  Herzberg  found  that  the  factors  causing  job  satisfaction   (and  presumably  motivation)  were  different  from  those  causing  job  dissatisfaction.  He   developed  the  motivation-­‐hygiene  theory  to  explain  these  results.  He  called  the  satisfiers   motivators  and  the  dissatisfiers  hygiene  factors,  using  the  term  "hygiene"  in  the  sense  that   they  are  considered  maintenance  factors  that  are  necessary  to  avoid  dissatisfaction  but  that   by  themselves  do  not  provide  satisfaction.  The  following  table  presents  the  top  six  hygiene   factors  causing  dissatisfaction  and  the  top  six  motivating  factors  causing  satisfaction,  listed  in   the  order  of  higher  to  lower  importance.  

  Herzberg  reasoned  that  because  the  factors  causing  satisfaction  are  different  from  those   causing  dissatisfaction,  the  two  feelings  cannot  simply  be  treated  as  opposites  of  one  another.   The  opposite  of  satisfaction  is  not  dissatisfaction,  but  rather,  no  satisfaction.     Similarly,  the  opposite  of  dissatisfaction  is  no  dissatisfaction.  While  at  first  glance  this   distinction  between  the  two  opposites  may  sound  like  a  play  on  words,  Herzberg  argued  that   there  are  two  distinct  human  needs  portrayed.  First,  there  are  physiological  needs  that  can  be   fulfilled  by  money,  for  example,  to  purchase  food  and  shelter.  Second,  there  is  the   psychological  need  to  achieve  and  grow,  and  this  need  is  fulfilled  by  activities  that  cause  one   to  grow.  


From  the  above  table  of  results,  one  observes  that  the  factors  that  determine  whether  there   is  dissatisfaction  or  no  dissatisfaction  are  not  part  of  the  work  itself,  but  rather,  are  external   factors.  Herzberg  often  referred  to  these  hygiene  factors  as  "KITA"  factors,  where  KITA  is  an   acronym  for  Kick  In  The  A...,  the  process  of  providing  incentives  or  a  threat  of  punishment  to   cause  someone  to  do  something.  Herzberg  argues  that  these  provide  only  short-­‐run  success   because  the  motivator  factors  that  determine  whether  there  is  satisfaction  or  no  satisfaction   are  intrinsic  to  the  job  itself,  and  do  not  result  from  carrot  and  stick  incentives.     implications  for  management     If  the  motivation-­‐hygiene  theory  holds,  management  not  only  must  provide  hygiene  factors  to   avoid  employee  dissatisfaction,  but  also  must  provide  factors  intrinsic  to  the  work  itself  in   order  for  employees  to  be  satisfied  with  their  jobs.     Herzberg  argued  that  job  enrichment  is  required  for  intrinsic  motivation,  and  that  it  is  a   continuous  management  process.  According  to  Herzberg:   x The  job  should  have  sufficient  challenge  to  utilise  the  full  ability  of  the  employee.   x Employees  who  demonstrate  increasing  levels  of  ability  should  be  given  increasing   levels  of  responsibility.   x If  a  job  cannot  be  designed  to  use  an  employee's  full  abilities,  then  the  firm  should   consider  automating  the  task  or  replacing  the  employee  with  one  who  has  a  lower   level  of  skill.  If  a  person  cannot  be  fully  utilised,  then  there  will  be  a  motivation   problem.     ,ĞƌnjďĞƌŐ͛ƐƚŚĞŽƌLJĚŝǀŝĚĞƐDĂƐůŽǁ͛s  Pyramid  into  two  sections  with  hygiene  factors  relating  to   the  lower  levels  and  true  motivators  occupying  the  higher  levels.  Later  interpretations  of  the   theory  allow  for  movement  in  what  may  be  seen  as  an  hygiene  factor  and  what  a  motivating   factor  is  based  on  the  current  economic  and  social  climate.  What  may  be  taken  for  granted   and  considered  a  hygiene  factor  in  times  of  plenty  may  seem  more  of  a  motivating  incentive   in  harder  times.      


clark  hull͛s  drive  theory     ,Ƶůů͛ƐƚŚĞŽƌLJŝƐƉƌĞĚŝĐĂƚĞĚŽŶƚŚĞĂƐƐƵŵƉƚŝŽŶƚŚĂƚŚƵŵĂŶŵŽƚŝǀĂƚŝŽŶŝƐĚĞƌŝǀĞĚĨƌŽŵƚǁŽ linked  but  separate  sources;     drives  and  needs     ‡ drives  (primary  needs,  fundamental  needs,  innate  motives)   ± Outward  manifestation  of  our  cognitive  process  (the  way  we  think).   ± Defined  by  our  values,  beliefs  and  experience.   ± Prime  movers  of  behaviour  by  activating  emotions.   ± May  evolve  over  time  or  through  sudden  psychological  event.     ‡ needs   ± Goal-­‐directed  forces  that  people  experience.     ± Drive-­‐generated  emotions  directed  toward  goals.   ± Goals  formed  by  self-­‐concept,  social  norms,  and  experience.   ± Can  change  quickly  in  response  to  circumstances.     Hull  viewed  our  drives  as  our  fundamental  self  and  the  source  of  our  long  term  motivation.   Needs  are  deemed  more  immediate  in  nature,  sometimes  linked  to  our  drives  but  also   triggered  by  external  circumstances.     E.g.  A  ƉĞƌƐŽŶ͛Ɛ  upbringing  and  experiences  may  lead  them  to  have  a  drive  to  value  social   interaction  over  financial  gain  which  would  make  monetary  rewards  a  poor  source  of   motivation.  However,  if  they  are  facing  a  costly  car  repair  bill  at  the  time;  money  can  become   an  excellent  short  term  motivator.    





In  Hull͛s  model,  we  have  a  concept  of  self  which  defines  our  values,  beliefs  and  ethics.  This  is   described  as  an  evolving  entity  that  builds  on  our  experiences  through  life.  This  drives  our   primary  needs  which  combine  with  present  life  circumstances  to  produce  our  immediate   needs.  Those  needs  lead  us  towards  the  decisions  we  make  and  behaviours  we  exhibit  (Hull   points  out  that  our  concept  of  self  will  act  as  a  filter  to  ensure  that  our  needƐĚŽŶ͛ƚůĞĂĚƵƐƚŽ make  unethical  choices),  these  then  become  experiences  which  further  evolve  our  sense  of   self.       Hull  notes  that  this  process  can  lead  to  a  gradual  change  in  our  drives  and  that  sudden  change   can  be  brought  about  by  psychological  trauma.  However,  ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐĂŶŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů͛ƐĚƌŝǀĞƐ gives  a  leader  the  best  long  term  motivational  strategies.     Interpersonal  bonding  and  trust  can  give  the  leader  insights  into  the  immediate  needs  of  the   individual  when  short  term  injections  of  motivation  are  needed.     lŽĐŬĞ͛Ɛgoal  setting  theory  of  motivation       Edwin  Locke  considered  motivation  to  be  a  natural  extension  of  the  goals  an  individual  strives   to  attain.  He  considered  poor  motivation  to  be  a  symptom  of  goals  which  were  neither  robust   nor  challenging  for  the  individual.     >ŽĐŬĞ͛ƐƚŚĞŽƌLJĂƐƐƵŵĞƐƚŚĂƚďĞŚĂǀŝŽƵƌŝƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚŽĨĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐŐŽĂůƐĂŶĚŝŶƚĞŶƚŝŽŶƐ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ goals  influence  behaviour  (performance).     motivation  is  a  function  of  goal  attributes:     1. Goal  difficulty.   2. Goal  specificity.   3. Goal  acceptance:  the  extent  to  which  a  person  accepts  a  goal  as  his  /  her  own.   4. Goal  commitment:  the  extent  to  which  a  person  is  interested  in  reaching  a  goal.          


Once  motivated,  the  level  of  performance  will  then  depend  on  the  innate  skills,  knowledge   and  abilities  of  the  individual  coupled  with  the  support  offered  by  the  leader  to  develop  the   individual  further.     The  rewards  for  performing  well  and  achieving  goals  should  then  be  intrinsic  (sense  of   achievement  and  self-­‐worth)  and  extrinsic  (the  nature  of  which  should  be  specified  as  part  of   the  goal).  Reward  for  performance  provides  job  satisfaction  and  renewed  commitment  to   further  goals.     >ŽĐŬĞ͛ƐŵŽĚĞůŝƐĐƌĞĚŝƚĞĚĂƐƚŚĞďŝƌƚŚof  modern  performance  management.     management  by  objectives  (MBO)     ± A  collaborative  goal-­‐setting  process  through  which  organisational  goals  cascade  down   throughout  the  organisation.   ± Requires  customising  to  each  organisation.   ± Can  be  effective  for  managing  reward  systems  where  the  manager  has  individual   interactions  with  each  employee.       dŚĞĨŝƌƐƚĨŽƵƌƐƚĞƉƐŝŶ>ŽĐŬĞ͛ƐƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶĨŽƌŵĂůŝƐĞĚŝŶƚŽŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂůƚŽŽůƐ of  performance  management.      

    The  simplest  method  of  motivating  an  individual  is  to  provide  them  with  clear  and  specific   explanations  of  what  is  expected  of  them  and  to  collaboratively  set  objectives  that  the   individual  takes  ownership  for.       12    

the  right  approach  for  the  right  person  

  Everyone  needs  feedback  in  order  to  understand  what  they  are  doing  well  and  what  they   need  to  improve  upon.  The  skilled  leader  varies  the  type  of  feedback  behaviours  they  use  to   match  the  person  who  they  want  to  discuss  performance  with.  The  root  of  a  personal   performance  can  be  attributed  to  how  willing  and  how  able  they  were  to  complete  the  task.    

  The  leader  needs  to  provide  feedback  in  each  case,  but  the  feedback  approach  should  tackle   the  root  of  the  behaviour  and  have  the  best  chance  of  ensuring  positive  future  performance.  


  vary  the  approach      




abc  of  behaviour     Human  beings  are  born  with  very  little  instinctive  behaviour;  we  learn  our  behaviour  from   observation  and  experience.       Psychologists  break  this  process  down  to  the  ABC  of  human  behaviour.     A  -­‐  Antecedents.  This  is  the  sum  of  all  our  knowledge  and  experience  about  a  course  of  action.   We  start  with  what  we  observe  and  what  we  are  told  by  others  and  as  we  gain  experiences  of   our  own,  we  draw  up  on  those  more  heavily.  This  is  the  guide  to  all  our  chosen  behaviours.     B  -­‐  Behaviours.  The  actions  we  take  and  the  ways  we  choose  to  behave.  Confidently   approached  when  we  have  built  up  enough  knowledge  (antecedents)  to  be  certain  of  the   ŽƵƚĐŽŵĞ͘DŽƌĞĐĂƵƚŝŽƵƐůLJŝĨǁĞĂƌĞŶ͛ƚƐƵƌĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ͘     C  ʹ  Consequences.  The  results  of  our  actions,  either  positive  or  negative.  We  focus  most  on   how  our  actions  impact  ourselves  and  to  a  lesser  extent  the  effect  on  the  world  around  us.   The  consequences  of  our  chosen  behaviours  or  actions  then  become  experiences  that  are  the   antecedents  of  future  behaviours.    

    An  effective  leader  must  give  their  team  as  much  information  as  they  can  to  ensure  they   understand  which  actions  and  behaviours  will  lead  to  positive  rewards  and  which  will  have   negative  consequences.     They  must  ensure  they  are  aware  of  the  actions  and  behaviours  of  the  team  members  and   that  the  consequences  reinforce  only  the  positive  actions  and  behaviours  of  team  members.     For  example:  I  am  late  to  site  every  day  by  15  minutes.  I  should  be  reprimanded  but  no-­‐one   says  anything.  The  only  consequence  of  my  actions  is  positive  for  me  ʹ  I  gain  15  minutes  every   morning.  As  a  result  I  am  likely  to  repeat  this  behaviour.     If  on  the  other  hand  I  have  stayed  on  after  my  shift  to  finish  my  work  everyday,  I  am  expecting   to  be  praised.  If  my  leader  fails  to  notice  and  fails  to  praise  me  I  see  no  positive  results  from   my  efforts  and  I  quickly  learn  not  to  waste  my  effort.         14    

types  of  reinforcement  

  positive  reinforcement     Positive  behaviour  should  be  rewarded  every  time  and  negative  behaviour  should  be   punished  every  time.  Consistency  leads  to  reinforcement  of  behaviour.  Positive  reinforcement   is  the  surest  way  to  move  team  members  towards  the  kinds  of  behaviours  you  want  to  see.   Letting  them  know  when  they  have  done  a  good  job  and  what  specifically  you  thought  was   good  about  it.  It  should  never  be  over  the  top  or  appear  to  be  less  than  heart  felt  or  the  team   member  will  learn  to  discount  the  praise.  The  aim  is  to  let  the  team  member  know  that  you   noticed  and  valued  their  actions.     negative  reinforcement     Negative  reinforcement  is  a  dangerous  area  for  a  leader.  If  the  actions  or  behaviours  of  the   team  member  are  deserving  of  comment,  they  will  know.  A  leader  that  deliberately  finds  fault   ƚŽ͚ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ͛ƚŚĞŵĞŵďĞƌƐŽĨƚŚĞŝƌƚĞĂŵǁŝůůĨŝnd  resentment  and  demotivation  as  a  result.  If   there  is  a  need  for  negative  reinforcement,  make  sure  that  the  team  member  understands   that  it  is  the  behaviour  that  you  take  issue  with  and  that  they  are  still  valued.     no  reinforcement     The  worst  form  of  reinforcement  is  none  at  all,  even  the  most  competent  of  team  members   needs  reassurance  and  guidance.  Ignoring  poor  behaviour  encourages  more  poor  behaviour,   ignoring  good  behaviour  makes  it  much  less  likely  to  continue.  Organisations  have  had  many   good  people  leave  because  they  either  feel  undervalued  through  lack  of  feedback  or  because   ƚŚĞLJĚŽŶ͛ƚůŝŬĞƚŽƐĞĞŽƚŚĞƌƐďĞŚĂǀŝŶŐƉŽŽƌůLJĂŶĚŐĞƚƚŝŶŐĂǁĂLJǁŝƚŚŝƚ͘  


employee  engagement  

Engagement  is  a  combination  of  commitment  to  the  organisation  and  its  values  plus  a   willingness  to  help  clients,  partners  and  colleagues.  It  means  people  genuinely  care  and  are   happy  to  go  that  extra  mile  at  work.  There  is  no  need  to  stand  over  them  with  a  stick  as  they   want  to  do  their  best.  They  also  care  about  customers  and  business  opportunities  and   continually  look  for  ways  to  do  things  better.  They  like  coming  to  work  and  are  emotionally   involved  with  the  business.     Many  studies  have  been  done  into  employee  engagement  both  in  America  and  Europe.  They   all  had  a  different  focus  and  results  but  one  theme  seems  to  be  consistent:  organisations   where  people  are  engaged  are  doing  better  than  their  competitors.  That  leads  to  conclusion   that  securing  engagement  from  the  workforce  makes  sound  business  sense  and  is  worth  the   effort  leaders  and  managers  have  to  put  in  to  achieve  it.       Of  course  it  is  nice  to  be  nice,  and  most  organisations  would  like  to  be  a  workplace  of  choice,   ǁŚĞƌĞũŽďƐĂƚŝƐĨĂĐƚŝŽŶŝƐŚŝŐŚ͘ƵƚĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚŝƐŶŽƚũƵƐƚĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ͞,ZŶŝĐĞƚLJ͟-­‐  it  is   directly  related  to  the  business  bottom  line,  be  it  profit,  service  or  reputation.    It  is  a  two-­‐fold   benefit  concept,  designed  to  benefit  the  employees  by  making  them  happier  at  work  but  in   the  same  time  facilitate  enhanced  productivity  and  efficiency,  better  customer  service,   creativity,  good  all-­‐round  relations,  good  reputation  and  so  on.    

Engaged  employees  are  proud   of  the  products  of  their  labour.  

Engaged  employees   consistently  exert  themselves   beyond  their  contractual   obligations.  

Engaged  employees   continually  improve  their   methods  of  work  and   productivity.  

Engaged  employees  act  as   ambassadors  to  other   employees,  clients  and  the   wider  public.  


levels  of  engagement     A  sense  of  satisfaction  with  what   they  get  out  of  their  employment  is   what  the  individual  strives  for;  whilst   the  organisation  wants  the  highest   productive  output  it  can  get  from  its   workforce.     It  is  possible  for  each  to  achieve  their   own  aims  at  the  expense  of  the   other,  however  the  most  likely   outcome  of  the  organisation  and  its   employees  thinking  only  of   themselves  is  that  neither  will  get   what  they  want.     Research  suggests  that  the  surest   route  to  long  term  success  for  an   organisation  is  to  fully  engage  with  its   employees  and  that  employees  are   happier  and  more  successful  if  they   are  engaged  with  their  employer  and   the  work  they  do.        

ambivalent  employees  


disengaged  employees    

  burn  out  employees    


    The  UK  has  an  employee  engagement  deficit.  Survey  after  survey  indicates  that  only  around   one  third  of  UK  workers  say  they  are  engaged  ʹ  a  figure  which  leaves  the  UK  ranked  ninth  for   ĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚůĞǀĞůƐĂŵŽŶŐƐƚƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͛ƐƚǁĞůĨƚŚlargest  economies  as  ranked  by  GDP  (Kenexa   2009).     The  UK  also  has  a  productivity  deficit.  The  most  recent  ONS  survey  found  that  output  per  hour   in  the  UK  was  15  percentage  points  below  the  average  for  the  rest  of  the  G7  industrialised   nations  in  2011;  on  an  output  per  worker  basis,  UK  productivity  was  20  percentage  points   lower  than  the  rest  of  the  G7  in  2011.  This  represents  the  widest  productivity  gap  since  1995.     Evidence  from  other  countries  suggests  these  two  factors  are  related.  There  is  a  firm   correlation  between  employee  engagement  and  high  organisational  productivity  and   performance,  across  all  sectors  of  the  economy.     Analysis  indicates  that  were  the  UK  to  move  its  engagement  levels  to  the  middle  of  the  top   quartile  such  as  that  for  the  Netherlands  this  would  be  associated  with  a  £25.8bn  increase  in   GDP  (Kenexa).      


foundations  of  engagement  

    strategic  voice     Visible,  empowering  leadership  provides  a  strong  strategic  narrative  about  the   oƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƚŝŽŶ͕ǁŚĞƌĞŝƚ͛ƐĐŽŵĞĨƌŽŵĂŶĚǁŚĞƌĞŝƚ͛ƐŐŽŝŶŐ͘/ƚŝƐŶ͛ƚĞŶŽƵŐŚƚŚĂƚƉĞŽƉůĞŚĂǀĞ been  told,  they  have  to  understand  if  they  are  to  be  truly  engaged.     employee  voice     ŵƉůŽLJĞĞǀŽŝĐĞƌĞŝŶĨŽƌĐĞƐƉĞŽƉůĞĂƐĂŶLJŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƚŝŽŶ͛ƐŵŽƐƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĂƐƐĞƚĂŶĚŝƐĞƐƐĞŶƚŝĂů for  gathering  views  and  feedback  and  making  each  employee  part  of  the  solution.  Of  course,   it  is  essential  that  the  organisation  listens  and  is  seen  to  act  on  what  people  have  to  say.     management     Engaging  managers  focus  their  people  and  give  them  scope,  treat  them  as  individuals,  coach   and  stretch  them.  They  care  for  their  employees,  recognising  that  a  healthy  and  happy   employee  will  connect  with  their  workplace  and  be  most  productive.     shared  trust     Shared  trust  means  that  the  values  people  can  see  on  the  wall  are  reflected  in  the  way   people,  and  particularly  leaders,  behave  on  a  daily  basis  -­‐  ŝ͘Ğ͘ƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJ͚ǁĂůŬƚŚĞƚĂůŬ͛͘       20    

  what  does  an  empowered  worker  look  like?  




10  ways  to  spot  an  engaged  employee    

engaged  employees  are     1. Obvious  -­‐  It  may  be  an  elusive  quality,  difficult  to  describe  but  an  engaged  employee  is   more  likely  to  be  exhilarated  by  their  role.  Most  of  us  can  spot  and  will  be  drawn  to  a   genuine  smile  and  welcoming,  inclusive  attitude.     2. Authentic  -­‐  Employees  who  are  clear  enough  about  what  their  organisation  stands  for   and  are  at  ease  with  the  culture  are  more  likely  to  bring  themselves  to  work  and  to   share  stories  about  their  family  lives,  hobbies,  likes  and  dislikes.     3. Receptive  -­‐  WĞĂůůŬŶŽǁƚŚĂƚŝĨǁĞ͛ƌĞĞŶŐĂŐĞĚ͕ǁĞ͛ƌĞĨĂƌŵŽƌĞŽƉĞŶƚŽŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚŝĞƐ to  be  involved  with  new  initiatives  and  share  new  experiences.  Engaged  employees   listen  actively  and  offer  support  and  challenge,  largely  because  they  care  about  the   outcomes.     4. Involved  -­‐  They  are  part  of  the  programme  not  recipients  of  it.  They  feel  they  can   influence  their  personal  fate  through  influencing  the  fate  of  the  organisation.   /ŶǀŽůǀĞŵĞŶƚůĞĂĚƐƚŽĂŐƌĞĂƚĞƌƐĞŶƐĞŽĨŽǁŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ͘/ƚ͛ƐĂůƐŽƚŚĞǁĂLJŵŽƐƚŽĨƵƐůĞĂƌŶ best.     5. Show  initiative  ʹ  Engaged  employees  understand  the  goals,  culture  and  values  of  the   organisation  so  they  make  suggestions  or  take  initiative,  even  innovate  for  the  greater   good,  without  being  asked.  Their  primary  focus  is  on  adding  value  to  the  organisation   rather  than  obsessing  about  what  the  organisation  gives  them.     6. Energised  ʹ  Engaged  employees  have  correspondingly  high  energy  levels.  They  do   things  and  maintain  appropriate  momentum.  They  are  the  heartbeat,  rather  than  their   managers,  and  they  set  the  pace.     7. Achievers  ʹ  Because  of  enhanced  levels  of  understanding,  clear  goals  and  boundaries,   an  appropriate  mix  of  support  and  challenge  (and  in  light  of  the  characteristics  above),   they  tend  to  be  focused  and  therefore,  more  productive.  The  things  they  do  tend  to   get  results.     8. Advocates  ʹ  Whether  at  conferences  or  recruitment  fairs  even  dinner  parties  or  sitting   next  to  you  on  a  plane,  engaged  employees  are  proud  and  happy  to  recommend  the   organisation  and  to  represent  the  brand.  Want  to  know  how  engaged  your  employees   are?  As  a  starting  point,  find  out  how  many  buy  /  use  your  products.     9. Engaging  with  others  -­‐  They  inspire  others  by  example.  They  are  communication  role   models  in  all  stakeholder  engagements  whether  with  customers,  fellow  employees,   competitors  or  even  shareholders.       10. In  demand  -­‐  Take  care  of  your  engaged  employees,  given  a  chance  other  organisations   would  be  happy  to  take  them  off  your  hands.       22    

the  house  of  engagement  




making  engagement  happen     x ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝƐĞĂŶĚƉƌĂŝƐĞĞĂƌůLJĂŶĚŽĨƚĞŶ   ĨŽƌŵĂůͬŝŶĨŽƌŵĂůĂŶĚƉƵďůŝĐͬƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝƚŝŽŶ     All  employees  want  their  contributions  to  be   recognised.  Set  realistic  targets  and  reward   managers  and  employees  who  increase   productivity  and  build  enthusiasm.  Reward   commitment,  passion,  the  attainment  of  goals   and  discretionary  effort.  Customise   recognition  to  be  more  meaningful  to  different   segments  of  the  organisation.  Recognition  and   praise,  in  addition  to  physical  incentives,  promote   engagement.  

  x ĐŽĂĐŚ͕ŵŽƚŝǀĂƚĞ͕ĂŶĚƉƌŽŵŽƚĞĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ     No  one  wants  to  stay  at  a  job  where  they  have  no  room  for  growth.  Imagine  how  terrible   it  would  be  going  to  work  every  day,  knowing  that  your  position  is  stagnant  and  that   LJŽƵ͛ůůďĞĚŽŝŶŐƚŚĞƐĂŵĞƚŚŝŶŐŽǀĞƌĂŶĚŽǀĞƌĂŐĂŝŶǁŝƚŚŽƵƚƚŚĞƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJŽĨŵŽǀŝŶŐ   onward  and  upward.  Opportunities  for  growth  should  be  limitless  ʹ  employees  should   only  be  restricted  by  what  they  choose  to  put  into  their  job.  If  your  employees  know  that   there  is  ample  room  to  advance  in  the  organisation,  it  will  lead  to  a  more  motivated,   productive  workforce.  

  x ŽƉĞŶƌĞůĂƚŝŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ     Just  as  in  any  relationship,  communication  is  key.  Regular  discussions  about  job   ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ͕ǁŚĂƚ͛ƐŐŽŝŶŐŽŶǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͕ŽƌƐŝŵƉůLJƚŽƵĐŚŝŶŐďĂƐĞĂďŽƵƚĂŶLJ issues  your  employees  might  have  is  an  integral  part  of  maintaining  an  open  dialogue.   Employees  should  feel  comfortable  discussing  job  and  company-­‐related  concerns  with   their  managers  and  vice  versa.  When  employees  and  management  are  communicating   and  on  the  same  page,  it  will  help  develop  meaningful,  collaborative  relationships  with   the  shared  goal  of  driving  the  organisation  to  success.  

  x ůŝŶŬĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ͛ũŽďƐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĂŶĚŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ     Employee  engagement  and  an  awareness  of  organisational  strategy,  values  and  goals  are   strongly  related.  How  employees  interact  with  each  other  creates  a  workplace  culture   ĂŶĚŝĨƚŚĞǀŝƐŝŽŶŝƐŶŽƚƵŶĚĞƌƐƚŽŽĚŽƌĞŵďƌĂĐĞĚ͕LJŽƵƌ͞ĨƌŽŶƚůŝŶĞĂŵďĂƐƐĂĚŽƌƐ͟ŽĨLJŽƵƌ organisation  can  set  an  unhealthy  tone.  Organisations  that  effectively  brand  the   worthwhile  nature  of  their  work  stand  out  against  their  competition.  Employees  want  to   work  for  a  successful  organisation  and  feel  good  about  what  they  do.  This  is  an  important   correlation  to  employee  engagement.    Organisational  performance  should  be  shared  with   24    

the  employees  as  much  as  possible  along  with  strategy:  where  we  are  headed,  why  we   are  going  in  that  direction,  and  how  we  are  going  to  get  there.  

  x ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĨƌĞĞĚŽŵĂŶĚĂƵƚŽŶŽŵLJ     ŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐůĂƌŐĞůLJǁĂŶƚƚŽĚŽƚŚĞƌŝŐŚƚƚŚŝŶŐ͕ďƵƚĚŽŶ͛ƚĂůǁĂLJƐŬŶŽǁŚŽǁ͘/ĨLJŽƵǁĂŶƚ your  employees  to  take  action  on  behalf  of  the  organisation  with  confidence,  make  sure   ƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJŚĂǀĞƚŚĞƚŽŽůƐĂŶĚĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶƚŽĚŽƐŽ͕ĨĞĞůĞŵƉŽǁĞƌĞĚƚŽĂĐƚ͕ĂŶĚĂƌĞŶ͛ƚ shackled  with  red  tape  and  process.  Serving  clients  /  customers  and  responding  to  market   conditions  today  is  dependent  on  your  ability  to  handle  operational  problems  effectively.   Free  information  and  communication  channels  are  important  to  ensure  that  the  right   resources  are  never  out  of  reach  of  employees  who  can  make  a  difference.  Give   employees  access  to  the  latest  information  so  that  they  can  become  effective   organisational  ambassadors.  

  x ĐůĞĂƌůLJĚĞĨŝŶĞĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƌŽůĞƐ   ĂƐŬĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐŚŽǁƚŚĞLJĐĂŶĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞ     ƐĂŶĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞ͕ŝƚĐĂŶďĞĚŝĨĨŝĐƵůƚƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚǁŚĂƚLJŽƵƌƌŽůĞĂĐƚƵĂůůLJŝƐ͘tŚŝůĞŝƚ͛Ɛ important  to  allow  employees  to  chart  their  own  path  and  adjust  their  roles  to  meet  the   changing  needs  of  the  business,  certain  clarity  around  roles  is  also  necessary.  Without   ĐůĂƌŝƚLJŽĨǀŝƐŝŽŶ͕ƉĞŽƉůĞďĞĐŽŵĞĨƌƵƐƚƌĂƚĞĚĂŶĚ͞ĐŚĞĐŬŽƵƚ͟ŵĞŶƚĂůůLJ͘>ĂĐŬŽĨĐůarity  can   lead  to  uneven  distribution  of  work,  affecting  morale  and  increasing  burnout;  it  can  also   lead  to  duplication  of  efforts,  which  is  wasteful  and  frustrating.  

  x ŽƉĞŶĂŶĚĞĨĨĞĐƚŝǀĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚŝŽŶ     Engaged  employees  want  to  know  and  they  want  to  be  ŚĞĂƌĚ͘dŚĞLJĂƌĞLJŽƵƌĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ biggest  advocates  and  they  want  to  know  that  their  feedback,  suggestions,  and  opinions   are  considered  valuable  by  management.  Whether  a  company  is  ready  to  roll  out  a  new   advertising  campaign  or  they  just  need  feedback  on  the  types  of  snacks  available  for  the   ďƌĞĂŬƌŽŽŵ͕ŝƚ͛ƐďĞŶĞĨŝĐŝĂůƚŽƐŝŵƉůLJĂƐŬLJŽƵƌĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐĨŽƌƚŚĞŝƌŽƉŝŶŝŽŶƐ͘ŶĞĂƐLJǁĂLJ to  do  this  is  to  set  up  a  suggestion  box  where  employees  can  specifically  email   suggestions  and  feedback  for  any  major  company  initiative.  This  builds  good  will  and   reinforces  to  your  employees  that  they  are  a  vital  part  of  the  decision-­‐making  process   and  the  company  as  a  whole.  

  x ĨƵŶсĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ     Employees  and  Management  spend  most  of  their  waking  hours  in  the  workplace  and   routine  can  make  even  the  most  demanding  tasks  boring  and  uninteresting.  The  fun  and   ƐŽĐŝĂůĂƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨƚŚĞǁŽƌŬƉůĂĐĞĂƌĞƚŚĞďĞƐƚǁĂLJƚŽĞŶƐƵƌĞƚŚĂƚƉĞŽƉůĞ͛ƐůŝǀĞƐƌĞǀŽůǀĞ ĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞŝƌǁŽƌŬ͕ƚŚĞƌĞ͛ƐĂƌĞĂƐŽŶƐŽĐŝĂůŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŝŶŐƐŝƚĞƐŚĂǀĞengaged  so  many   people!  Managers  that  make  the  workplace  an  enjoyable  place  to  be  for  their  teams  and   encourage  strong  social  bonds  are  connecting  employees  to  the  organisation;  making  the   job  a  far  more  important  part  of  the  employees͛  life.  Changing  jobs  is  not  as  daunting  as   losing  contact  with  a  network  of  friends.   25