understanding how to motivate to improve performance course handbook
motivating the work team The single largest investment an organisation makes is in the people it employs. On average, two thirds of the costs of an organisation are the salaries of employees. It is essential that the people in an organisation are motivated to deliver the best possible results to justify the investment in them. Managers have a huge responsibility to understand what drives the people in their team, and to ensure that they do everything they can to encourage and support them to do their best for the organisation and themselves.
ͻ I believe the real difference between success and failure can be very often traced to the question of how well the organisation brings out the great energies and talents of its people
ͻ Good management is the art of making problems so interesting and their solutions so constructive that everyone wants to get to work and deal with them.
-‐ Thomas J. Watson
-‐ Paul Hawken
leading through motivation The ability to motivate stems from the leaders͛ understanding of the individual, the greater the interpersonal connection and trust, the more effectively a motivational approach can be targeted. Motivation is defined as the forces within each individual that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour.
Leaders seek to motivate others when they want them to focus on a particular goal, change their level of effort or the time devoted to an action. 1
motivation Motivation can be defined as a conscious or unconscious driving force that arouses and directs action towards the achievement of a desired goal. Psychologists have long been aware that our unconscious mind (instinctive self) has as much and sometimes more control of our behaviours than does our conscious mind (aware self). Both aspects of ourselves respond to motivational stimulus however research shows that our conscious and unconscious minds find it hard to agree on what gives us our motivation. Although most people would describe their greatest motivators as being conscious ones (money, status, reward), research has shown that the very fact that they are conscious makes them less effective as motivators and the things that work to motivate us on an unconscious level (opinion of our peers, our fellings self worth, felling valued) can prove more effective. In order to get the best out of any individual, an understanding of who they are and what motivates them is essential. No leader can afford to ignore a tool set that can unlock the potential in the most important resource an organisation has ʹ people.
͞>ĞĂĚĞƌƐŚŝƉŝƐƚŚĞĂƌƚŽĨŐĞƚƚŝŶŐ somebody else to do something you want done; ďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞǇǁĂŶƚƚŽĚŽŝƚ͘͟ Dwight D. Eisenhower
Intrinsic motivation is an important means of motivating employees. It is often more effective than extrinsic motivation, which is often based upon rewards and punishments. Knowing how to effectively use intrinsic motivation will help make your employees more effective and increase their job satisfaction at the same time. Intrinsic motivation occurs when a person finds a task interesting and derives satisfaction from performing it. The motivation comes from within you rather than being imposed upon you by external forces such as rewards or punishments. Psychologists argue you can only be completely effective if you feel autonomous and competent. In other words, you will only be intrinsically motivated if you feel you are competent at the task and have autonomy or control over it. A third component necessary for intrinsic motivation is having satisfying relationships with others at work.
Extrinsic motivation is an important tool an organisation can use to motivate members of an organisation to accomplish organisational tasks. Knowing its advantages and disadvantages will help a manager decide when it's effective to use and when it's not. Extrinsic motivation is a means of encouraging an activity based upon external consequences resulting from performing the activity. The most common examples of extrinsic motivations are rewards and punishments. 3
Extrinsic motivation will often be used in situations in which the activities are uninteresting and provide little, if any, internal satisfaction. Stuffing envelopes is a good example of the type of task that probably requires extrinsic motivation. You also need to consider the level of control that will be necessary in developing extrinsic motivators. Some extrinsic motivators provide the organisation more control over motivation than others. The classic motivators of reward and punishment are considered the most controlling and are often referred to as external regulation. In other words, your task performance is completely controlled by the related rewards and punishments. For example, if you exceed your sales quota, you may get a bonus, but if you miss your sales quota by a significant amount, you may be fired.
In a perfect world everyone would be intrinsically motivated and every task would be ĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞĚǁŝƚŚƉĂƐƐŝŽŶĂŶĚĞŶƚŚƵƐŝĂƐŵ͘/ŶƚŚĞƌĞĂůǁŽƌůĚǁĞŬŶŽǁƚŚĂƚǁŽŶ͛ƚĂůǁĂǇƐďĞƚŚĞ case, and so we augment the levels of intrinsic motivation an individual has with the required level of extrinsic motivation to get them to act. A leader has to be aware that there may be some tasks that an individual has a strong moral or cultural objection to which gives them an intrinsic motivation not to act. Attempting to add extrinsic motivational is more likely to make the situation worse than to help. If the task is a key part of the persons role and no accomodation can be reached, the best solution may be for them to seek a role that aligns with their intrinsic motivation.
A feeling that the tasks you complete matter adds to our intrinsic motivation. Setting work in context to show how it contributes to the organisation is the first step, going further to show how the organisation contributes positively to the wider world is better still. If the work we do matters, we matter and as a result we become more committed to doing a good job. Making the work interesting and challenging for the individual is another route to intrinsic motivation. Routine means boring, when people get bored their minds wander. When their minds wander their motivation wanders with them. Full time workers will spend more of their time in work than they will with friends and family, which means an unhappy workplace is the same as an unhappy life, soon all of their get up and go will have gone. If work is a place we enjoy going and we get satisfaction from the tasks we complete, we have the intrinsic motivation to do our job well. Development of our knowledge and skills along with the growing feeling of competance and confidence it brings can add to intrinsic motivation. A company that exploits the abilities of employees devalues them and demotivates them, investing in the development of the team shows commitment and makes us an employer of choice. Trusting people to have a little control over what they do and how they do it is a great method of building their intrinsic motivation and breeds a sense of ownership of their job role.
ŵĂƐůŽǁ͛ƐŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚǇŽĨŶeeds Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-‐50's USA. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs remains valid today for understanding human motivation and for management training. Abraham Maslow's key book, Motivation and Personality, was first published in 1954 (second edition 1970). Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970. Maslow's PhD in psychology in 1934 at the University of Wisconsin formed the basis of his motivational research, initially studying rhesus monkeys. Each of us are motivated by needs. Our most basic needs are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of years. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself. Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-‐being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development. physiological needs These are biological needs. They consist of needs for oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature. They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction. safety / security needs When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer controlling thoughts and behaviours, the needs for security can become active. Adults have little awareness of their security needs except in times of emergency or periods of disorganisation in the social structure (such as widespread rioting). Children often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe.
needs of love, affection and belongingness When the needs for safety and for physiological well-‐being are satisfied, the next class of needs for love, affection and belongingness can emerge. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. This involves both giving and receiving love, affection and the sense of belonging. needs for self-‐esteem When the first three classes of needs are satisfied, the needs for esteem can become dominant. These involve needs for both self-‐esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-‐respect, and respect from others. When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-‐ confident and valuable as a person in the world. When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless. needs for self-‐actualisation When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then are the needs for self-‐actualisation activated. Maslow describes self-‐actualisation as a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do." "A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write." These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness. The person feels on edge, tense, lacking something, in short, restless. If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted, or lacking self-‐esteem, it is very easy to know what the person is restless about. It is not always clear what a person wants when there is a need for self-‐actualisation.
herzberg's 2 factor theory To better understand employeeƐ͛ attitudes and motivation, Frederick Herzberg performed studies to determine which factors in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. He published his findings in the 1959 book The Motivation to Work. The studies included interviews in which employees where asked what pleased and displeased them about their work. Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction (and presumably motivation) were different from those causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-‐hygiene theory to explain these results. He called the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfiers hygiene factors, using the term "hygiene" in the sense that they are considered maintenance factors that are necessary to avoid dissatisfaction but that by themselves do not provide satisfaction. The following table presents the top six hygiene factors causing dissatisfaction and the top six motivating factors causing satisfaction, listed in the order of higher to lower importance.
Herzberg reasoned that because the factors causing satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction, the two feelings cannot simply be treated as opposites of one another. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather, no satisfaction. Similarly, the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction. While at first glance this distinction between the two opposites may sound like a play on words, Herzberg argued that there are two distinct human needs portrayed. First, there are physiological needs that can be fulfilled by money, for example, to purchase food and shelter. Second, there is the psychological need to achieve and grow, and this need is fulfilled by activities that cause one to grow.
From the above table of results, one observes that the factors that determine whether there is dissatisfaction or no dissatisfaction are not part of the work itself, but rather, are external factors. Herzberg often referred to these hygiene factors as "KITA" factors, where KITA is an acronym for Kick In The A..., the process of providing incentives or a threat of punishment to cause someone to do something. Herzberg argues that these provide only short-‐run success because the motivator factors that determine whether there is satisfaction or no satisfaction are intrinsic to the job itself, and do not result from carrot and stick incentives. implications for management If the motivation-‐hygiene theory holds, management not only must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction, but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. Herzberg argued that job enrichment is required for intrinsic motivation, and that it is a continuous management process. According to Herzberg: x The job should have sufficient challenge to utilise the full ability of the employee. x Employees who demonstrate increasing levels of ability should be given increasing levels of responsibility. x If a job cannot be designed to use an employee's full abilities, then the firm should consider automating the task or replacing the employee with one who has a lower level of skill. If a person cannot be fully utilised, then there will be a motivation problem. ,ĞƌǌďĞƌŐ͛ƐƚŚĞŽƌǇĚŝǀŝĚĞƐDĂƐůŽǁ͛s Pyramid into two sections with hygiene factors relating to the lower levels and true motivators occupying the higher levels. Later interpretations of the theory allow for movement in what may be seen as an hygiene factor and what a motivating factor is based on the current economic and social climate. What may be taken for granted and considered a hygiene factor in times of plenty may seem more of a motivating incentive in harder times.
clark hull͛s drive theory ,Ƶůů͛ƐƚŚĞŽƌǇŝƐƉƌĞĚŝĐĂƚĞĚŽŶƚŚĞĂƐƐƵŵƉƚŝŽŶƚŚĂƚŚƵŵĂŶŵŽƚŝǀĂƚŝŽŶŝƐĚĞƌŝǀĞĚĨƌŽŵƚǁŽ linked but separate sources; drives and needs drives (primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives) ± Outward manifestation of our cognitive process (the way we think). ± Defined by our values, beliefs and experience. ± Prime movers of behaviour by activating emotions. ± May evolve over time or through sudden psychological event. needs ± Goal-‐directed forces that people experience. ± Drive-‐generated emotions directed toward goals. ± Goals formed by self-‐concept, social norms, and experience. ± Can change quickly in response to circumstances. Hull viewed our drives as our fundamental self and the source of our long term motivation. Needs are deemed more immediate in nature, sometimes linked to our drives but also triggered by external circumstances. E.g. A ƉĞƌƐŽŶ͛Ɛ upbringing and experiences may lead them to have a drive to value social interaction over financial gain which would make monetary rewards a poor source of motivation. However, if they are facing a costly car repair bill at the time; money can become an excellent short term motivator.
In Hull͛s model, we have a concept of self which defines our values, beliefs and ethics. This is described as an evolving entity that builds on our experiences through life. This drives our primary needs which combine with present life circumstances to produce our immediate needs. Those needs lead us towards the decisions we make and behaviours we exhibit (Hull points out that our concept of self will act as a filter to ensure that our needƐĚŽŶ͛ƚůĞĂĚƵƐƚŽ make unethical choices), these then become experiences which further evolve our sense of self. Hull notes that this process can lead to a gradual change in our drives and that sudden change can be brought about by psychological trauma. However, ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐĂŶŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů͛ƐĚƌŝǀĞƐ gives a leader the best long term motivational strategies. Interpersonal bonding and trust can give the leader insights into the immediate needs of the individual when short term injections of motivation are needed. lŽĐŬĞ͛Ɛgoal setting theory of motivation Edwin Locke considered motivation to be a natural extension of the goals an individual strives to attain. He considered poor motivation to be a symptom of goals which were neither robust nor challenging for the individual. >ŽĐŬĞ͛ƐƚŚĞŽƌǇĂƐƐƵŵĞƐƚŚĂƚďĞŚĂǀŝŽƵƌŝƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚŽĨĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐŐŽĂůƐĂŶĚŝŶƚĞŶƚŝŽŶƐ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ goals influence behaviour (performance). motivation is a function of goal attributes: 1. Goal difficulty. 2. Goal specificity. 3. Goal acceptance: the extent to which a person accepts a goal as his / her own. 4. Goal commitment: the extent to which a person is interested in reaching a goal.
Once motivated, the level of performance will then depend on the innate skills, knowledge and abilities of the individual coupled with the support offered by the leader to develop the individual further. The rewards for performing well and achieving goals should then be intrinsic (sense of achievement and self-‐worth) and extrinsic (the nature of which should be specified as part of the goal). Reward for performance provides job satisfaction and renewed commitment to further goals. >ŽĐŬĞ͛ƐŵŽĚĞůŝƐĐƌĞĚŝƚĞĚĂƐƚŚĞďŝƌƚŚof modern performance management. management by objectives (MBO) ± A collaborative goal-‐setting process through which organisational goals cascade down throughout the organisation. ± Requires customising to each organisation. ± Can be effective for managing reward systems where the manager has individual interactions with each employee. dŚĞĨŝƌƐƚĨŽƵƌƐƚĞƉƐŝŶ>ŽĐŬĞ͛ƐƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶĨŽƌŵĂůŝƐĞĚŝŶƚŽŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂůƚŽŽůƐ of performance management.
The simplest method of motivating an individual is to provide them with clear and specific explanations of what is expected of them and to collaboratively set objectives that the individual takes ownership for. 12
the right approach for the right person
Everyone needs feedback in order to understand what they are doing well and what they need to improve upon. The skilled leader varies the type of feedback behaviours they use to match the person who they want to discuss performance with. The root of a personal performance can be attributed to how willing and how able they were to complete the task.
The leader needs to provide feedback in each case, but the feedback approach should tackle the root of the behaviour and have the best chance of ensuring positive future performance.
vary the approach
abc of behaviour Human beings are born with very little instinctive behaviour; we learn our behaviour from observation and experience. Psychologists break this process down to the ABC of human behaviour. A -‐ Antecedents. This is the sum of all our knowledge and experience about a course of action. We start with what we observe and what we are told by others and as we gain experiences of our own, we draw up on those more heavily. This is the guide to all our chosen behaviours. B -‐ Behaviours. The actions we take and the ways we choose to behave. Confidently approached when we have built up enough knowledge (antecedents) to be certain of the ŽƵƚĐŽŵĞ͘DŽƌĞĐĂƵƚŝŽƵƐůǇŝĨǁĞĂƌĞŶ͛ƚƐƵƌĞŽĨƚŚĞĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ͘ C ʹ Consequences. The results of our actions, either positive or negative. We focus most on how our actions impact ourselves and to a lesser extent the effect on the world around us. The consequences of our chosen behaviours or actions then become experiences that are the antecedents of future behaviours.
An effective leader must give their team as much information as they can to ensure they understand which actions and behaviours will lead to positive rewards and which will have negative consequences. They must ensure they are aware of the actions and behaviours of the team members and that the consequences reinforce only the positive actions and behaviours of team members. For example: I am late to site every day by 15 minutes. I should be reprimanded but no-‐one says anything. The only consequence of my actions is positive for me ʹ I gain 15 minutes every morning. As a result I am likely to repeat this behaviour. If on the other hand I have stayed on after my shift to finish my work everyday, I am expecting to be praised. If my leader fails to notice and fails to praise me I see no positive results from my efforts and I quickly learn not to waste my effort. 14
types of reinforcement
positive reinforcement Positive behaviour should be rewarded every time and negative behaviour should be punished every time. Consistency leads to reinforcement of behaviour. Positive reinforcement is the surest way to move team members towards the kinds of behaviours you want to see. Letting them know when they have done a good job and what specifically you thought was good about it. It should never be over the top or appear to be less than heart felt or the team member will learn to discount the praise. The aim is to let the team member know that you noticed and valued their actions. negative reinforcement Negative reinforcement is a dangerous area for a leader. If the actions or behaviours of the team member are deserving of comment, they will know. A leader that deliberately finds fault ƚŽ͚ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ͛ƚŚĞŵĞŵďĞƌƐŽĨƚŚĞŝƌƚĞĂŵǁŝůůĨŝnd resentment and demotivation as a result. If there is a need for negative reinforcement, make sure that the team member understands that it is the behaviour that you take issue with and that they are still valued. no reinforcement The worst form of reinforcement is none at all, even the most competent of team members needs reassurance and guidance. Ignoring poor behaviour encourages more poor behaviour, ignoring good behaviour makes it much less likely to continue. Organisations have had many good people leave because they either feel undervalued through lack of feedback or because ƚŚĞǇĚŽŶ͛ƚůŝŬĞƚŽƐĞĞŽƚŚĞƌƐďĞŚĂǀŝŶŐƉŽŽƌůǇĂŶĚŐĞƚƚŝŶŐĂǁĂǇǁŝƚŚŝƚ͘
Engagement is a combination of commitment to the organisation and its values plus a willingness to help clients, partners and colleagues. It means people genuinely care and are happy to go that extra mile at work. There is no need to stand over them with a stick as they want to do their best. They also care about customers and business opportunities and continually look for ways to do things better. They like coming to work and are emotionally involved with the business. Many studies have been done into employee engagement both in America and Europe. They all had a different focus and results but one theme seems to be consistent: organisations where people are engaged are doing better than their competitors. That leads to conclusion that securing engagement from the workforce makes sound business sense and is worth the effort leaders and managers have to put in to achieve it. Of course it is nice to be nice, and most organisations would like to be a workplace of choice, ǁŚĞƌĞũŽďƐĂƚŝƐĨĂĐƚŝŽŶŝƐŚŝŐŚ͘ƵƚĞŵƉůŽǇĞĞĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚŝƐŶŽƚũƵƐƚĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ͞,ZŶŝĐĞƚǇ͟-‐ it is directly related to the business bottom line, be it profit, service or reputation. It is a two-‐fold benefit concept, designed to benefit the employees by making them happier at work but in the same time facilitate enhanced productivity and efficiency, better customer service, creativity, good all-‐round relations, good reputation and so on.
Engaged employees are proud of the products of their labour.
Engaged employees consistently exert themselves beyond their contractual obligations.
Engaged employees continually improve their methods of work and productivity.
Engaged employees act as ambassadors to other employees, clients and the wider public.
levels of engagement A sense of satisfaction with what they get out of their employment is what the individual strives for; whilst the organisation wants the highest productive output it can get from its workforce. It is possible for each to achieve their own aims at the expense of the other, however the most likely outcome of the organisation and its employees thinking only of themselves is that neither will get what they want. Research suggests that the surest route to long term success for an organisation is to fully engage with its employees and that employees are happier and more successful if they are engaged with their employer and the work they do.
burn out employees
The UK has an employee engagement deficit. Survey after survey indicates that only around one third of UK workers say they are engaged ʹ a figure which leaves the UK ranked ninth for ĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚůĞǀĞůƐĂŵŽŶŐƐƚƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͛ƐƚǁĞůĨƚŚlargest economies as ranked by GDP (Kenexa 2009). The UK also has a productivity deficit. The most recent ONS survey found that output per hour in the UK was 15 percentage points below the average for the rest of the G7 industrialised nations in 2011; on an output per worker basis, UK productivity was 20 percentage points lower than the rest of the G7 in 2011. This represents the widest productivity gap since 1995. Evidence from other countries suggests these two factors are related. There is a firm correlation between employee engagement and high organisational productivity and performance, across all sectors of the economy. Analysis indicates that were the UK to move its engagement levels to the middle of the top quartile such as that for the Netherlands this would be associated with a £25.8bn increase in GDP (Kenexa).
foundations of engagement
strategic voice Visible, empowering leadership provides a strong strategic narrative about the oƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƚŝŽŶ͕ǁŚĞƌĞŝƚ͛ƐĐŽŵĞĨƌŽŵĂŶĚǁŚĞƌĞŝƚ͛ƐŐŽŝŶŐ͘/ƚŝƐŶ͛ƚĞŶŽƵŐŚƚŚĂƚƉĞŽƉůĞŚĂǀĞ been told, they have to understand if they are to be truly engaged. employee voice ŵƉůŽǇĞĞǀŽŝĐĞƌĞŝŶĨŽƌĐĞƐƉĞŽƉůĞĂƐĂŶǇŽƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƚŝŽŶ͛ƐŵŽƐƚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĂƐƐĞƚĂŶĚŝƐĞƐƐĞŶƚŝĂů for gathering views and feedback and making each employee part of the solution. Of course, it is essential that the organisation listens and is seen to act on what people have to say. management Engaging managers focus their people and give them scope, treat them as individuals, coach and stretch them. They care for their employees, recognising that a healthy and happy employee will connect with their workplace and be most productive. shared trust Shared trust means that the values people can see on the wall are reflected in the way people, and particularly leaders, behave on a daily basis -‐ ŝ͘Ğ͘ƚŚĂƚƚŚĞǇ͚ǁĂůŬƚŚĞƚĂůŬ͛͘ 20
what does an empowered worker look like?
10 ways to spot an engaged employee
engaged employees are 1. Obvious -‐ It may be an elusive quality, difficult to describe but an engaged employee is more likely to be exhilarated by their role. Most of us can spot and will be drawn to a genuine smile and welcoming, inclusive attitude. 2. Authentic -‐ Employees who are clear enough about what their organisation stands for and are at ease with the culture are more likely to bring themselves to work and to share stories about their family lives, hobbies, likes and dislikes. 3. Receptive -‐ WĞĂůůŬŶŽǁƚŚĂƚŝĨǁĞ͛ƌĞĞŶŐĂŐĞĚ͕ǁĞ͛ƌĞĨĂƌŵŽƌĞŽƉĞŶƚŽŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚŝĞƐ to be involved with new initiatives and share new experiences. Engaged employees listen actively and offer support and challenge, largely because they care about the outcomes. 4. Involved -‐ They are part of the programme not recipients of it. They feel they can influence their personal fate through influencing the fate of the organisation. /ŶǀŽůǀĞŵĞŶƚůĞĂĚƐƚŽĂŐƌĞĂƚĞƌƐĞŶƐĞŽĨŽǁŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ͘/ƚ͛ƐĂůƐŽƚŚĞǁĂǇŵŽƐƚŽĨƵƐůĞĂƌŶ best. 5. Show initiative ʹ Engaged employees understand the goals, culture and values of the organisation so they make suggestions or take initiative, even innovate for the greater good, without being asked. Their primary focus is on adding value to the organisation rather than obsessing about what the organisation gives them. 6. Energised ʹ Engaged employees have correspondingly high energy levels. They do things and maintain appropriate momentum. They are the heartbeat, rather than their managers, and they set the pace. 7. Achievers ʹ Because of enhanced levels of understanding, clear goals and boundaries, an appropriate mix of support and challenge (and in light of the characteristics above), they tend to be focused and therefore, more productive. The things they do tend to get results. 8. Advocates ʹ Whether at conferences or recruitment fairs even dinner parties or sitting next to you on a plane, engaged employees are proud and happy to recommend the organisation and to represent the brand. Want to know how engaged your employees are? As a starting point, find out how many buy / use your products. 9. Engaging with others -‐ They inspire others by example. They are communication role models in all stakeholder engagements whether with customers, fellow employees, competitors or even shareholders. 10. In demand -‐ Take care of your engaged employees, given a chance other organisations would be happy to take them off your hands. 22
the house of engagement
making engagement happen x ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝƐĞĂŶĚƉƌĂŝƐĞĞĂƌůǇĂŶĚŽĨƚĞŶ ĨŽƌŵĂůͬŝŶĨŽƌŵĂůĂŶĚƉƵďůŝĐͬƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝƚŝŽŶ All employees want their contributions to be recognised. Set realistic targets and reward managers and employees who increase productivity and build enthusiasm. Reward commitment, passion, the attainment of goals and discretionary effort. Customise recognition to be more meaningful to different segments of the organisation. Recognition and praise, in addition to physical incentives, promote engagement.
x ĐŽĂĐŚ͕ŵŽƚŝǀĂƚĞ͕ĂŶĚƉƌŽŵŽƚĞĞŵƉůŽǇĞĞƐ No one wants to stay at a job where they have no room for growth. Imagine how terrible it would be going to work every day, knowing that your position is stagnant and that ǇŽƵ͛ůůďĞĚŽŝŶŐƚŚĞƐĂŵĞƚŚŝŶŐŽǀĞƌĂŶĚŽǀĞƌĂŐĂŝŶǁŝƚŚŽƵƚƚŚĞƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚǇŽĨŵŽǀŝŶŐ onward and upward. Opportunities for growth should be limitless ʹ employees should only be restricted by what they choose to put into their job. If your employees know that there is ample room to advance in the organisation, it will lead to a more motivated, productive workforce.
x ŽƉĞŶƌĞůĂƚŝŽŶƐŚŝƉƐ Just as in any relationship, communication is key. Regular discussions about job ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ͕ǁŚĂƚ͛ƐŐŽŝŶŐŽŶǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŵƉĂŶǇ͕ŽƌƐŝŵƉůǇƚŽƵĐŚŝŶŐďĂƐĞĂďŽƵƚĂŶǇ issues your employees might have is an integral part of maintaining an open dialogue. Employees should feel comfortable discussing job and company-‐related concerns with their managers and vice versa. When employees and management are communicating and on the same page, it will help develop meaningful, collaborative relationships with the shared goal of driving the organisation to success.
x ůŝŶŬĞŵƉůŽǇĞĞƐ͛ũŽďƐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐƚƌĂƚĞŐǇĂŶĚŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ Employee engagement and an awareness of organisational strategy, values and goals are strongly related. How employees interact with each other creates a workplace culture ĂŶĚŝĨƚŚĞǀŝƐŝŽŶŝƐŶŽƚƵŶĚĞƌƐƚŽŽĚŽƌĞŵďƌĂĐĞĚ͕ǇŽƵƌ͞ĨƌŽŶƚůŝŶĞĂŵďĂƐƐĂĚŽƌƐ͟ŽĨǇŽƵƌ organisation can set an unhealthy tone. Organisations that effectively brand the worthwhile nature of their work stand out against their competition. Employees want to work for a successful organisation and feel good about what they do. This is an important correlation to employee engagement. Organisational performance should be shared with 24
the employees as much as possible along with strategy: where we are headed, why we are going in that direction, and how we are going to get there.
x ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĨƌĞĞĚŽŵĂŶĚĂƵƚŽŶŽŵǇ ŵƉůŽǇĞĞƐůĂƌŐĞůǇǁĂŶƚƚŽĚŽƚŚĞƌŝŐŚƚƚŚŝŶŐ͕ďƵƚĚŽŶ͛ƚĂůǁĂǇƐŬŶŽǁŚŽǁ͘/ĨǇŽƵǁĂŶƚ your employees to take action on behalf of the organisation with confidence, make sure ƚŚĂƚƚŚĞǇŚĂǀĞƚŚĞƚŽŽůƐĂŶĚĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶƚŽĚŽƐŽ͕ĨĞĞůĞŵƉŽǁĞƌĞĚƚŽĂĐƚ͕ĂŶĚĂƌĞŶ͛ƚ shackled with red tape and process. Serving clients / customers and responding to market conditions today is dependent on your ability to handle operational problems effectively. Free information and communication channels are important to ensure that the right resources are never out of reach of employees who can make a difference. Give employees access to the latest information so that they can become effective organisational ambassadors.
x ĐůĞĂƌůǇĚĞĨŝŶĞĞŵƉůŽǇĞĞƌŽůĞƐ ĂƐŬĞŵƉůŽǇĞĞƐŚŽǁƚŚĞǇĐĂŶĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞ ƐĂŶĞŵƉůŽǇĞĞ͕ŝƚĐĂŶďĞĚŝĨĨŝĐƵůƚƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚǁŚĂƚǇŽƵƌƌŽůĞĂĐƚƵĂůůǇŝƐ͘tŚŝůĞŝƚ͛Ɛ important to allow employees to chart their own path and adjust their roles to meet the changing needs of the business, certain clarity around roles is also necessary. Without ĐůĂƌŝƚǇŽĨǀŝƐŝŽŶ͕ƉĞŽƉůĞďĞĐŽŵĞĨƌƵƐƚƌĂƚĞĚĂŶĚ͞ĐŚĞĐŬŽƵƚ͟ŵĞŶƚĂůůǇ͘>ĂĐŬŽĨĐůarity can lead to uneven distribution of work, affecting morale and increasing burnout; it can also lead to duplication of efforts, which is wasteful and frustrating.
x ŽƉĞŶĂŶĚĞĨĨĞĐƚŝǀĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚŝŽŶ Engaged employees want to know and they want to be ŚĞĂƌĚ͘dŚĞǇĂƌĞǇŽƵƌĐŽŵƉĂŶǇ͛Ɛ biggest advocates and they want to know that their feedback, suggestions, and opinions are considered valuable by management. Whether a company is ready to roll out a new advertising campaign or they just need feedback on the types of snacks available for the ďƌĞĂŬƌŽŽŵ͕ŝƚ͛ƐďĞŶĞĨŝĐŝĂůƚŽƐŝŵƉůǇĂƐŬǇŽƵƌĞŵƉůŽǇĞĞƐĨŽƌƚŚĞŝƌŽƉŝŶŝŽŶƐ͘ŶĞĂƐǇǁĂǇ to do this is to set up a suggestion box where employees can specifically email suggestions and feedback for any major company initiative. This builds good will and reinforces to your employees that they are a vital part of the decision-‐making process and the company as a whole.
x ĨƵŶсĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ Employees and Management spend most of their waking hours in the workplace and routine can make even the most demanding tasks boring and uninteresting. The fun and ƐŽĐŝĂůĂƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨƚŚĞǁŽƌŬƉůĂĐĞĂƌĞƚŚĞďĞƐƚǁĂǇƚŽĞŶƐƵƌĞƚŚĂƚƉĞŽƉůĞ͛ƐůŝǀĞƐƌĞǀŽůǀĞ ĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞŝƌǁŽƌŬ͕ƚŚĞƌĞ͛ƐĂƌĞĂƐŽŶƐŽĐŝĂůŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŝŶŐƐŝƚĞƐŚĂǀĞengaged so many people! Managers that make the workplace an enjoyable place to be for their teams and encourage strong social bonds are connecting employees to the organisation; making the job a far more important part of the employees͛ life. Changing jobs is not as daunting as losing contact with a network of friends. 25