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UK STYLE BREWHOUSE DESIGN MANUAL – WHAT IS IMPORTANT, HOW DOES IT WORK, AND WHY This document is intended as a starting point reference guide for new start brewers, expanding micros, and engineers new to the UK brewing industry. It provides a basic guide to best practice techniques and options for automation to improve the brewing process in a UK ale style brewhouse, to produce consistent high quality beers. Also covered is a brief description of European brewhouse principles, and a comparison between UK and European brewhouse techniques. 1
THE UK ALE BREWHOUSE The UK brewhouse style has developed around the type of barley grown in our temperate climate. It has the ability to be very highly modified by the maltster, and by this, I mean the first stage of conversion from raw grain to fermentable sugars, has been completed before the brewer gets his hands on it. Northern European, and Russian, malts etc. on the other hand, do not have the same ability to be highly modified by the maltster, so the processing equipment to extract fermentable sugars, have to be far more complex and exotic, and even then, the amount of fermentable extract is not as good as what is available from UK style malts, so in this respect we are very lucky. A typical UK brewhouse will consist a Mash Tun, Wort Copper and Hop-Back, or to be technically accurate, a Single Temperature Infusion Mash Vessel, Wort Boiling Kettle, and Hop-Back. It should also include some form of grist hydrator, and of course the wort cooler.
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EXTRACT PERFORMANCE The performance of a brewhouse is usually measured by the ability of the equipment to withdraw fermentable extract from the malt, and present it as sweet wort for fermentation. This is then compared to what can be achieved in the lab, using a standard method for single temperature infusion type mashing. A well-designed new UK style brewhouse will be rated at 98-99% efficiency, but some very small breweries achieve much less than this, which means they realise much less saleable product from the same ingredients.
TURN-AROUND TIME An important factor in brewhouse design is the turn-around time between successive brews. Two UK style mash vessels can produce the same level of fermentable extract, but one can have a 3-hour turn around time, and another in 5 hours. When this logic is extended throughout the brewhouse, it makes one brewhouse capable of two brews per day, and the other not. With a small European style brewhouse, it is common to have multi-functional mash vessel / wort kettle / whirlpool, and this design severely restricts turnaround times. Careful brewhouse design produces both high levels of extract, and a quick vessel turn around time.
MILLING Different brewing styles demand different milling specifications. Typically, for a single temperature infusion mash tun, we want around 20% husk, 70% grits, and a maximum of 10% flour. Too little husk, or too much flour, will result in poor cycle times, poor extract efficiency, and poor flowrate during running-off, and can result in a compacted bed.
GRIST HYDRATORS The grist hydrator is vital in a UK style brewhouse for high yield to be acheived. Full and regular hydration of the complete mash bed is the target, with a regular, accurate temperature of mash, at 65°C or thereabouts. There are two main styles of grist hydrator. Firstly, a steels masher, a motorised system, often with a screw auger driving the grist and liquor into a section with beating tines. Secondly the sleeve type hydrator, which is more often seen in smaller breweries. The modern design is for the grist to pass through a centre sleeve, with liquor added via an outer sleeve, creating a swirling vortex that creates a regular mash. The target is for the grist to be completely and evenly hydrated, with a consistant liquor to grist ratio, and importantly, machine also airates the mash. There are draw-backs to the sleeve masher, it is less forgiving than a steels masher, in terms of flowrate, and it also requires more vertical height, between the grist case and the mash tun.
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BREWING HOT LIQUOR It is vitally important that hot liquor temperature during mashing and sparging is carefully controlled and is steady. The target, with a mash tun, is to get the hydrated mash temperature consistant at 65°C. In winter, when the grist is colder, a higher water temperature will be required to acheive the same mash temperature.
Liquor temperature control is one of the first places for automation, because you use the same liquor for both mashing and sparging, but at variable flow rates. In a manual system, adjustment of flowrate will alter the temperature in a mixing system, and so manual control does not give as consistant a temperature as an automated system. Note that a mash temperature, above 78°C will kill the enzymatic conversion capacity completely. Too low, or a cycling temperature especially during sparging can cause the enzymatic conversion to slow down significantly or cease altogether.
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MASH TUN (Single Temperature Infusion Mash Vessel) The mash needs to steep in the mash tun, at the correct temperature (65°C) for the enzymatic change to occur, creating the fermentable sugars, and the mash needs to retain this temperature for the complete duration of the steeping phase. Loss in temperature at this stage means a drop in performance. The mash tun should be brought up to operating temperature before use, or else the mash close to any cold surfaces will quickly reduce in heat and the conversion will suffer. If the enzymatic reaction is started and then stopped again for any reason, it will not properly restart, even during sparging. Once the steeping phase is complete, the liquor in the mash bed has already converted much of the starches to fermentable sugar, and is ready to be run-off. If the mash bed has an uneven hydration or temperature, then the sweet wort flow through the filter bed will be uneven, and wort flow and more importantly, extract performance deteriorates. The ability of the mash hydrator to airate the mash is also important at this stage, as this helps the mash to “float” in the sweet wort, and maintain an open filter bed. As wort starts to run off, it is vitally important to retain the same level of hydration in the mash bed, to keep it open and floating. A good sparging mechanism will provide even liquor distribution accross the whole mash bed, typically provided by a rotating sparge arm. Flow control is critical, and is one of the first areas we advocate to automate. Run-off, while being manually controlled, can be run through a flowmeter, which in turn can directly control the liquor flow into the sparging system, allowing an exact balancing act to take place. The old fashioned valentine tube design was perfect for controlling run-off and sparge flowrates, because once the position of the tube was correctly set at the top of the mash bed, then the sparge flowrate alone dictated the run-off flowrate, but these devices are open to misoperation, and are difficult to integrate into a modern brewhouse, so have fallen out of favour. Liquor temperature control during sparging changes, to around 75°C - 78°C (to the brewer’s preference). The temperature through the mash bed slowly increases, and other enzymatic changes occur, with further fermentable extract generated. Again temperature control is critical, as continuing extract only occurs on a steadilly rising temperature. As already mentioned, if the mash temperature exceeds 80C, this will kil the enzymatic process completely, but also a mash temperature above 80°C will start to wash out starches, which is not desirable. Run-off flowrate at the beginning (when worts are strongest) is slow, as the filter action of the mash bed presents a very high resistance to flow. As the run-off progresses, the wort weakens, and the filter bed opens up, as the sugars are washed out, and so resistance to flow lessens, and the flowrate can be increased. This is where automatic sparging flow control comes into it’s own, modulating exactly in temperature and flow rate as the run-off flowrate varies.
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214 hl/hr 2.5"OD
3 Te GRIST CASE
Too little hydration, or a too high run-off flow rate, will tend to suck the mash bed down onto the false bottom plates, compacting it, sometimes irrecoverably, but at minimum, compounding the ability of wort to flow, and strongly compromising extract yeild.
SAFETY INTERLOCK SWITCH
STEELES MASHER SA3353
3200 Kg MASH TUN SA3354
120 hl/hr 1.5"OD UNDERPLATE JETTING
WORM & GEAR
GRAIN DISCHSRGE SA3355
82 hl/hr 2"OD
Sparging continues until very weak worts are produced. At this stage, extract with some gravity is still occuring, but very little of it is fermentable, and the laws of diminishing returns come into play.
Mash bed depths are not so important as some think, the primary consideration is the turn-around time of the vessel. The lesser the mash depth, the quicker the run-off and sparging phases, as the filter bed creates less resistance to flow. However, as the bed depth decreases, the relative vessel diameter increases, and so a very quick mash tun will be bigger in diameter than a slow one, which has an impact in cost. Mash tun false bottom plate design is also largely irrelevent to exytract yield, as you must remember it is primarily the mash bed that creates the filter, not the plates. It is critical is that the holes through are small enough to retain the husk, are plentiful, regularly spaced, and completely covering the mash bed base. Any obstructed area with no holes in, will have a column of mash above with poor extract yeild. Typical hole or slot sizes would be 1/32” with a 5-10% free area. The consideration of milled plate false bottom, versus wedge wire, is only relative to the longevity of the false bottom, it’s carrying capacity when operators have to enter the vessel, and the performance of the spent grains discharge gear. This is definitely a case of buying what you can afford at the time. A wedge-wire system might need to be replaced after 10 years, wheras a milled plate will last forever. 8
UNDERBACK The purpose of the underback (sometimes refered to as a grant) is to provide a break between the flow out of the mash tun, and the pump used to transfer sweet wort to the copper. Otherwise the pump would pull the bed down in the mash tun. Other features can be built into the underback to provide a means of sugar block dissolving, often with a steam coil in the tank. The underback is also often used as a CIP make-up tank for a low-cost UK style of brewhouse.
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SAFETY INTERLOCK SWITCH LIGHT
MANUAL HOPS ADDITION
OVER BOIL PROTECTION
EWB Temp/Press Control
(wort kettle) The purposes of wort boiling are many, the main points are:
Vent to Atm 10"OD
To sterilise the wort Isomerisation of hops, to create a soluable extract Deactivating proteins and enzymes Evaporation of unwanted volatiles, DMS etc. Protein coagulation to enable trub removal Formation of colour and flavour components Wort concentration
110 BRL WORT COPPER SA3359
EWB SA3360 LT TI
The wort kettle is available in many forms, and some are better than others. The majority of the functionality of a wort copper is time & temperature dependent, but it is vitally important to produce a very rigouous rolling boil, with two-phase nucleate boiling, where steam bubbles pass through the wort, and large circulation currents thouroughly mix the contents of the kettle. The best standard, low cost solution, comes with an external wort boiler and fountain with a venturi arrangement in the approach to the fountain, which helps induces a big rolling boil action in the vessel. The purpose of the fountain is that a thin film is created with a large surface area, where evaporation can take place. Another benefit of the fountain is for foam suppression, particularly in the initial raise to boil phase, before any hops are added, where the fountain beats down the foam head. Different breweries operate with differing evaporation rates, and boil times. The accepted general practice is for a minimum of 60 minutes, and for evaporation of approximately 7 - 10 % per hour. Steam control is critical in the wort kettle. Manually controlled systems and steam coils, usually suffer from either burn-on, or insufficient heating. A low cost automatic steam control system can be acheived using a simple pressure control system (steam pressure being proportional to temperature). During mash tun run-off, gentle heating with low pressure steam, is applied so that the contents are close to boiling point when the copper-up volume is reached. A second steam pressure set-point is then used to bring the wort to the boil, and a third set-point in evaporation mode. The primary objective is to create the massive vigourous rolling boil, but with an external wort boiler, it is very important to limit the surface temperature of the tubular heat exchanger, to reduce the amount of fouling and burning-on the wort heating surfaces. Fouling of the heat exchanger results in less heat being transferred to the wort in successive brews between a full wort kettle CIP. A more expensive system uses a steam mass flow meter, where you can control both the pressure and flowrate of steam used. This can be used to control the theoretical completion of evaporation, to a recipe, and can compensate automatically for external wort boiler fouling, however, steam meters are expensive, and this capital is usually more effectively spent elsewhere, in a small to medium sized brewery. Microdat UK Style Brewhouse Manual
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A well designed wort kettle with external boiler, if flushed out immediately after use with hot water, should be able to operate for a complete brewing week between full caustic cleans. Note that an external wort boiler is designed differently for whole hops, than for pellet hops, in terms of the tube diameter, and whole hop EWBs are larger and more expensive to manufacture than pellet hop versions. 10
HOP-BACK The job of the hop-back is to retain the whole hops and to form a filter bed to entrap the coagulated solids (trub) from the wort copper. Late hops can be added to hot liquor in the hopback prior to casting, which maximises the yield with late hopping, in terms of flavour and aroma qualities. Wort is allowed to stand for 10 – 15 minutes with the hops, and is then usually slowly recirculated, to assist the formation of the hop-leaf filter bed, and the filtering of trub, until clear bright wort is created, which is then pumped forwards through the wort cooler. At the end of running-off, the hop leaf bed can be sparged with hot dilution liquor, to flush out any residual wort, and to purge the wort through the wort cooler. Again the false bottom plates are actually not that critical, typically having a larger hole or slot size than the mash tun at around 1/16”. The main design issue with the hop-back, is the surface area of the base of the vessel, which should be designed to create a hop leaf filter bed of somewhere in the region of 6 - 24”. It is not un-common, due to heavy trub formation, to have to scrape the hop bed during either recirculation or wort cooling. The hop-back is normally fitted with an anti-vacuum relief tube, either internal or external to the vessel. It is required, so that the wort pump doesnot create too much negative pressure, or else the hop filter bed will be compressed and sucked down onto the plates, and then run-off is very difficult to restart. (The issue of spent hops is covered under health safety)
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WORT COOLING Wwort cooling is usually the first area to be automated in a brewhouse, allowing wort run-off from the hop back to vary, and letting the instrumentation look after the temperature control. Yeast strike temperature in the FV is what is being looked for, and this varies from yeast to yeast, and brewer to brewer, but 17°C is a good enough estimation. Energy efficiency concerns are also strong with wort cooling. Innapropriate heat exchanger design will result in too much hot liquor being created, at low temperature, to the extent that it overflows the hot liquor tank and flows to drain. Careful design of the heat exchanger allows you to use a water temperature of only around 5°C lower than the wort outlet, to acheive the desired cooling, and as a side effect, this allows the brewer to collect hot liquor at 80°C (high grade energy), with no waste to drain. A well designed heat exchange system will cost more, but will pay back in no time in energy conservation, compared to a cheaper system. Wort oxygenation takes place around the wort cooler, sometimes on the hot side, sometimes on the cold side, according to brewer’s preference. For sterility, the hot side is better, as is the hot wort continually sterilises the injection system.
HEALTH & SAFETY, SPENT GRAINS & HOPS Discharge of spent grains is a pre-requisite in todays world of health and safety, except in the smallest of brewhouses. Automatic spent grains discharge is not a difficult affair, requiring a fairly hefty motor and double reduction gearbox, with arms rotating at around 8 RPM. A dead flat false bottom is required in order to set the gap between the arms and plates to a minimum. Under-slung vessel discharge systems are more expensive than above vessel motor gearboxes, but are preferrable, as there is no possibility of oil leakage into the mash tun, and they are also much more easy on the eye in a showcase brewery. From the mash tun, the spent grains can discharge into a chute and wheeled skip, or via a screw conveyor, or spent grains pump, into a farm trailer or silo. Feedmass regulations now in place, mean that the spent grain system has to be hygienic, ignoring the farmer’s muck trailer of course. Removal of spent hops should be carefully considered. In a small vessel, it is simple to provide a large rectangular manway, flush with the false bottom, at a convenient height, where spent hops can be raked or shovelled out into a wheeled skip. Automatic hops discharge gear is notoriously unreliable. There are systems that work, but their success is often attributed to the consistancy of the hop leaf/trub bed, which is not consistant between different breweries, or even between different brews in the same brewery.
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All brewhouse vessels should have a written procedure for full isolation, to allow a man to enter the vessel, but is particularly important for the mash tun and hop-back where ingress into the vessel is expected in normal practice. Surface temperatures mean that vessels, hot wort, and of course steam pipework, should be insulated where practical, for safety reasons and energy conservation. In a large brewery, nearly all the pipework in the brewhouse would be insulated, however in a smaller brewery, a compromise is reached. 13
MASH CONVERSION VESSEL This type of equipment is usually used in European style beer production, primarilly because the barley has lower levels of modification carried out by the maltster. The mash conversion vessel mash has a much higher level of hydration, and the conversion is at minimum in two temperature steps. Firstly the temperature of the mash is controlled at around 52°C, where protelitic conversion takes place, (this is essentially the job that the maltster does to get highly modified UK style malt). The mash is then raised in temperature, with steam jackets, to sacarification temperature, at 65°C, note this is the same temperature as the single temperature infusion mash tun. Lastly, the temperature is gradually brought up to 78°C, to convert the last of the fermentable extract, again, just like when sparging a traditional mash tun. The mash conversion vessel has a mixer to aid mashing-in, maintain a homogenous mix, and to keep the mash moving over the heating surfaces. Note that if well modified malt is used, a mash conversion vessel and traditional mash tun are almost identical in terms of extractable yeild. Further enhancements are made when using poorer still ingredients, Chiniese, South African, and Siberian barley, might be considered as unfermentable by some brewers, but careful use of the mash conversion vessel with 5, 6,7 even ten different temperature set points means that a meaningful extract can be made, and beer can be produced. Some Geman brewers and beer styles use the process known as decoction mashing, where part of the mash is removed from the mash vessel, while at a low temperature, and is raised to the boil, before being added back to the mash. More exotic double and tripple decoction mashing are also currently used. Extract efficiencies of this type of equipment excedes the lab measured malt extractability, as the industry standard lab method uses only a single temperature infusion. Thus extracts of above 100% is usually acheivable against the standard lab test.
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LAUTER TUN The lauter tun does not do the same job as the mash tun, it is essentilally there just to allow the sweet wort to be flushed out of the grain. A Lauter tun enables a different milling specification to be used which increases turn-around times and extraction yield but which demands a higher technology mill. Less husk, and more flour is created which causes a more “stodgy” mash, and so the run-off and sparging is a little more complicated. Initially wort recirculation occurs to set-up the mash filter bed, then strong worts are run-off without sparging. Once the filter bed starts to get drier, and more compact, instrumentation is used to detect negative suction pressure under the false bottom plates, meaning the filter bed above is starting to blind. At this time sparging comences, usually at a higher flowrate than the wort run-off. The differential pressure accross the mash bed is monitored until a second, maximum set-point is reached. At this point the bed is lightly raked with automatic arms, which opens-up the filter bed, allowing wort to run-off again. The rake design is important, so that the whole mash bed is opened up. The rake arms are adjustable in height and allow regular and deep bed raking functions. Run-off usually continues during some of the raking, but not usually during a deep bed rake, and the operation does differ according to the ingredients used, and the brewer’s preferences. Raking may occur several times during a brew, according to the differential pressure of the mash bed. At the end of run-off, the rakes operate almost continually to allow the last weak worts to be collected. Turn-around times are considered as important as extract performance, and a good mash conversion vessel - lauter tun combination can turn around in as little as 2 hours, an important consideration when you are brewing a million hectolitres a year in a 24 hour operation. Oxygen pickup with European style of brewing is critical, and is kept to an absolute minimum, as the beers are generally intended for keg and small pack, and so long shelf life. Lauter tuns and mash conversion vessels are usually partially or fully automated, but can be operated manually. Lauter tun mash bed depths are far thinner than mash tuns, and the vessel diameters are huge in comparison, and with the cost of the rake gear included, it makes for a very expensive vessel.
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WHIRLPOOL The whirlpool is used where pelletted hops are used for bitteness, and usually in a European style brewhouse with a Lauter tun. The whirlpool is a simpler, and lower cost vessel than a hop-back, is easier to clean and is less expensive to buy. With a whirlpool, wort is cast tangentially, creating a big swirling mass. Centrifugal and centripedal forces, cause the solids, the ground hops and trub, to collect over time into a cone in the centre of the vessel. Wort is then run off, first from ½ way down the shell of the vessel, the ¾ down the shell, then from the base of the shell. The solids cone, steadilly decreases in height as the wort depth decreases. The vessel needs to be carefully designed so that suffitient swirling is induced, and so that the run-off system does not disturb the trub cone. There are many opinions on the use of pelletted hops, mostly centred around late hopping for aroma, and the varieties readilly available in pellet form. Reluctance to switch to pelletted hops is also a tradition decision.
TWO-VESSEL EUROPEAN STYLE BREWHOUSES A two vessel European style brewhouse consists of a multi-functional vessel and a lauter tun. The mash is converted in the combination vessel, which is used as a mash conversion vessel, and the contents are all transfered to the lauter tun, allowing the combination vessel to be flushed out. The lauter tun then runs-off back into the multifunctional vessel, which now acts as the wort kettle. Finally wort is recirculated tangentially in the vessel, to create the whirlpool effect, thus the same vessel is used three times. This makes excellent sense economically, and it also saves space, however, the overiding draw-back is the turn around time, which extends to somewhere in the region of 7.5 hours, before you can mash-in a second brew. Compared this to around 4 hours between brews for a simple UK style mash tun. The two vessel brewhouse also demands high levels of automation, which adds cost and complexity to the brewhouse, and requires more highly trained brewers, and some in-house engineereing skills to keep running.
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MASH FILTERS Mash filters have been around for a very long time and are making a comeback. They are used in place of Lauter tuns, to filter the wort from the grain. Esentially the whole mash is pumped into a vessel containing pourous membranes or tubes down it’s length, the mash pump squeezes the mash against the pourous tubes, and strong wort passes through. Much higher pressures can be accomodated in the mash filter, compared to the differential pressures of a lauter tun, and so the milling specification can be changed yet again to a finer mill, and allows a faster turn-around time in the brewhouse. At the end of first wort run-off, the mash is “squeezed” and then weaker wort and eventually sparging liquor is pumped through the mash. At the end, when weak worts are being collected, the mash is given a final squeeze, and that’s it. The mash filter is primarilly used for high gravity brewing, and it is very poor at collecting weak worts. Mash filters are always fully automated.
BREWHOUSE CLEANING It is usual to caustic clean a UK style brewhouse just once per week, so long as the individual vessels are rinsed with hot liquor immediately after use. The caustic clean can be a much simpler, less automated function, as it is only carried out once per week. Caustic can be made up in a simple vessel and then recirculated around the rest of the brewhouse, and is boiled in the wort copper. Design of false bottomed vessels in particular need careful attention to ensure the underplate areas are cleanable. In theory, you should only have to lift the false bottom plates a few times per year. A European style brewery needs a much more automated external multi-tank CIP system, with higher levels of automation, and all these aspects add cost.
BREWHOUSE HEAT RECOVERY It is standard practice to recover heat from the wort cooler, and this should be designed to produce high grade heat at 80°C while producing a low liquor to wort ratio. Another opportunity arises in recovering heat from the wort copper during evaporation. It is possible to extract 7 x the volume of wort evaporation of hot water at 90°C. So if you have an 80 Brl brewlength, and you evaporate 7%, you will evaporate 5.6Brl, and can theoretically generate 39Brl 90°C water from this. However a vapour condensing system is expensive, and adds complexity to the brewhouse, so should not be undertaken lightly. There is also a finite amount of energy that can be re-used in a brewery, and the water balance needs to be carefully designed. The best use of vapour condensing energy is to use it to heat wort en-route from mash tun or lauter tun, to the wort copper, instead of steam heating, however, this necessitates yet another brewhouse vessel, as the heat transfer needs to be done at a higher velocity than wort is run-off from the mash/lauter tun. The resulting energy savings are very significant, and have a clear payback over time. This application is a good case currently for a carbon trust grant. Microdat UK Style Brewhouse Manual
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SUMARY Milling, mash consistancy, liquor temperature control & flowrates, and steam control, all contribute to quality, yield, and good functionality, and automation can help, to produce a more consistantly high quality of beers. European style brewhouses are higher in technology, use more automation, are more expensive to purchase, and require higher levels of in house skills to run and maintain, when compared to traditional UK style brewhouses. Two-vessel European style brewhouses, which are sold in competition to 3-vessel UK style ale brewhouses, have a very long turn around time for double brewing, and higher levels of technology equipment to maintain. If the type of beer to be brewed does not dictate the style of brewhouse, then a simple UK ale brewhouse is an easy choice, being simpler to operate and maintain, and lower in cost, while still being capable of producing a consistantly high quality product. This document is intended to be lightweight in content, compared to other more authoritive brewing information widely available, and is only a very quick-start reference guide for new start brewers, and engineers new to the brewing industry.
MICRODAT Microdat manufactures a full range of brewery equipment from malt intake to cask washing and filling. In 2010, Microdat’s brewery process division commissioned 3 brand new complete breweries: Joules Brewery – A 30 Brl traditional uk style brewery. Meantime Brewery – A 100Hl high end European style brewery. Moorhouses – A 100 Brl traditional UK style brewery For more information, you can e-mail your enquiry to : [email protected]
Alternatively contact: Andy Humphrey Sales Director, Microdat 07785 930931
Technical paper written by: Matthew Hadwen, Chief Process Engineer, Microdat.co.uk Ltd.
© Copyright Microdat.co.uk Ltd. You are not permitted to distribute this document, either in paper, or electronic form, without the express permission of Microdat.co.uk Ltd.
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