TR gives Mercedes road map to designing environmentally friendly car

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ISO/TR 14062 gives Mercedes road map to designing environmentally friendly car The Mercedes Car Group has introduced the S-Class, a more environmentally friendly vehicle produced via a “ Design for Environment ” (DfE) programme using ISO/TR 14062 and other standards in the ISO 14000 family. An impressive list of features includes lower fuel consumption, reduced noise and noxious emissions, and an increase in components made from by Matthias Finkbeiner

The author, Matthias Finkbeiner, is Manager-Design for Environment, DaimlerChrysler AG, Mercedes Car Group Development. DaimlerChrysler AG, Mercedes Car Group Development, HPC X602, D-71059 Sindelfingen, Germany. E-mail [email protected] Web

recycled plastics and renewable raw materials.

Environmental protection is a fundamental corporate objective of the DaimlerChrysler Group, and an integral component of a business strategy geared to long-term value enhancement. Design for Environment (DfE) is one of the key elements in reaching this target.

The DfE process at the Mercedes Car Group takes the entire product life cycle into account, from design through production and use, to recycling and disposal. DfE has been firmly established in the development process for Mercedes passenger cars since 1995.

The new Mercedes S-Class, a more environmentally friendly vehicle produced via a ‘Design for Environment’ (DfE) programme using ISO/TR 14062 and other standards in the ISO 14000 family. A team of specialists from the fields of life cycle assessment, dismantling and recycling planning, materials and process engineering, as well

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as design and production, accompanies the development of each model right from the start, defines the ecological requirements and ensures that DfE principles are strictly adhered to. The aim is to make environmental compatibility both objectively measurable and perceptible to the customer.

The new S-Class Embodied in DaimlerChrysler’s environmental protection guidelines is the principle that we develop highly environmentally responsible products – and that we inform the public about the company’s environmental protection activities. The new S-Class and the publication of a comprehensive 44-page brochure, Environmental Certificate Mercedes-Benz S-Class, are examples of how these guidelines are put into practice for the benefit of customers and shareholders as well as stakeholders inside and outside the company. Credibility and acceptance by different stakeholders were the main drivers to achieving compliance with the relevant environmental management standards of the ISO 14000 family. The main focus was the integration of environmental aspects into product design and development according to ISO/TR 14062:2002, Environmental management – Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development. DaimlerChrysler was actively involved in the development

of this Technical Report, and the content was found useful in evaluating and improving the company’s DfE process. In addition to ISO/TR 14062, the international life cycle assessment standards – ISO 14040, ISO 14041, ISO 14042, ISO 14043 – and environmental labels and declarations standards ISO 14020 and ISO 14021, were considered as well.

The DfE process at Mercedes takes the entire product life cycle into account The development process, the environment-related data and compliance with the relevant environmental management standards of the ISO 14000 family, as well as the contents of the related S-Class brochure, were reviewed and verified by independent specialists of the TÜV certification body ( Even though ISO/TR 14062 in particular is an ISO Technical Report which is not intended for certification purposes, the Mercedes Car Group decided to seek independent verification and certifica tion of the above elements of its S-Class programme. This additional effort was deliberately engaged upon because the independent “ third-party ” verification by TÜV was seen as providing confirmation of the reliability of the results affirmed, and therefore increasing acceptance and credibility.

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ISO/TR 14062 and DfE at Mercedes Car Group ISO/TR 14062 was used to analyse the Mercedes DfE process by identifying gaps and potential for improvement. It addresses strategic, management and product considerations as well as the product design and development process as such. In this article, I provide examples of how these issues were implemented at the Mercedes Car Group. Strategic considerations cover, for example, organizational and product-related issues, and communication. One of the product-related issues is early integration, i.e. addressing the environmental aspects early in the design and development process. The Mercedes Car Group adheres to the notion that the sooner DfE is integrated into

the development process, the greater the benefit will be in terms of minimizing environmental load and cost. This means “ building” environmental protection into the products from the very beginning, along with implementing environmental aspects and environmental targets in the development process. As part of management considerations, ISO/TR 14062 deals with the management role, proactive and multidisciplinary approaches, support from existing management systems to supply chain management. The multidisciplinary approach is a core element in the Mercedes development process. Indeed, the success of integrating environmental aspects into product design and development in an organization

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firmed by a critical review. These standards serve both as a useful guidance in conducting LCA as well as an important reference for the credibility of the results.

Measuring environmental performance Measuring environmental performance at Mercedes follows a multi-criteria approach. Taking the S-Class as an example, the team of experts at the Mercedes-Benz Technology Center in Sindelfingen created a four-point plan with specific requirements :

depends on the involvement of relevant disciplines and organizational functions such as design, engineering, marketing, environment, production, quality, purchasing and service delivery. Supply chain management is also an important element of the Mercedes DfE Process. For example, environmental issues like recycling concepts and collaboration in the field of life cycle assessment (LCA) are addressed in the purchase conditions. Section 7, Product considerations of ISO/TR 14062 addresses Product-related environmental aspects and impacts ; Early integration; Product life cycle ; Functionality ; Multi-criteria concept ; Trade-offs; Strategic product-related environmental objectives such as Conservation of resources, recycling and energy recovery ; Preven-

tion of pollution, waste and other impacts, and finally Design approaches. At Mercedes Car Group, the product life cycle is addressed by performing LCA’s on the complete vehicle level as well as decisions between different concepts for individual parts. The calculation of the LCA for the new S-Class – from the production of materials and components to a service life of 300 000 kilometres and eventual disposal – took over 40 000 individual processes into consideration. The overall result includes a total of more than 200 “ input ” factors (resources) and around 300 “ output ” parameters (emissions). These LCA’s comply with the requirements of the life cycle assessment standards ISO 14040, ISO 14041, ISO 14042 and ISO 14043, as con-

1. Compliance with the European end-of-life vehicle directive must be assured by a recycling concept with high rates of re-use, observance of prohibited substances and optimization of the product concept with a view to recycling compliant design. 2. Greater use of recycled materials compared to the preceding model. 3. Components made from renewable materials must have a total weight of at least 23 kilograms. 4. All major environmental burdens which are caused during the lifecycle of the S-Class must be recorded in an LCA. Other goals such as achieving a reduction in fuel consumption or lowering exhaust and noise emissions were also defined in the book of development specifications. The final Section 8 of ISO/ TR 14062, Product design and

development process contains a general model of how environmental aspects can be integrated into the different phases of the process from Planning ; Conceptual design ; Detailed design ; Testing/prototype; Production Market launch, to Product review.

The aim is to make environmental compatibility both objectively measurable and perceptible to the customer In the early days of DfE implementation at companies, numerous concepts and tools were discussed, but real and systematic implementation as standard practice in the industry was rather limited for two key reasons : • There was a lack of tools for fast, reliable supply of appropriate data and information. • There was a lack of practical, efficient concepts for implementation into the organization’s development process. We found the solution to these issues at Mercedes-Benz by using the DfE concept to implement a procedure based on “simultaneous engineering ”. This comprised three main elements : 1. A methodological procedure, which allows integration of environmental targets and measures into the Mercedes-Benz Product Development System. This procedure defines interfaces with

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development phases and employs a formalized Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle.

and functions, and teams with cross-sectional functions – quality management, project management, etc.

from an environmental angle, checking on their accomplishment and, if necessary, initiating improvement measures.

2. Tools and databases to assist the DfE procedure in simulating and evaluating the environmental performance of future vehicles or parts.

One of the cross-sectional teams was the DfE team, comprising experts from life cycle assessment, dismantling and recycling planning, materials and process engineering, as well as design and production.

The integration of DfE in the process organization of the S-Class development project ensured that environmental aspects were taken into account at the earliest stage of development. Pertinent objectives were coordinated in good time and reviewed at the quality gates in the development process.

3. An organizational structure that formalizes the integration of DfE into the development process.

The DfE process at Mercedes takes the entire product life cycle into account

Tools and databases are continuously developed, maintained and optimized. Examples are tools for product modeling, recycling and dismantling modelling/ planning, database for restricted substances, material database and LCA software and database. Apart from the data, process integration plays the most important role.

Each DfE team member is also the person responsible for all environmental issues and tasks on the respective development team. This guarantees complete integration of the DfE process in the vehicle development project. The member’s duties consist of defining objectives for individual vehicle modules

Chart shows the materials composition of the new Mercedes S-Class — a mix of steel, iron, light alloys, recycled plastics, polymers and natural materials that has made the car lighter, more recyclable and environmentally friendly.

The responsibility for improving environmental compatibility was an integral part of the organization of the SClass development project. The management of the overall project appointed people to manage development, production, procurement, sales and other functions. In addition, there are development teams, such as bodyshell, drive system, interior equipment, etc., that correspond to the key car subassemblies

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From the interim results, the need for further action until the next quality gate was determined and implemented by collaboration among the development teams. The development process for the S-Class “ Design for Environment ” meets all ISO/ TR 14062 criteria for the inclusion of environmental aspects in product development. All the targets in the four-point plan and the specifications were met, and in addition, independent spe-

cialists examined the environment-related data for the S-Class model and confirmed their accuracy.

Product results : the real benchmark The process of integrating environmental aspects in product development is only effective if it leads to an improved product. Actual environmental improvements achieved on the product are the “ real ” benchmark of whether the DfE process is successful. As far as the new S-Class is concerned, the following results clearly confirm that this was achieved : • Th e n e w S 3 5 0 r e m a i n s more than 85 % below the current EU emission limits for nitrogen oxides, and around 75 % below for hydrocarbons. • The new six-cylinder saloon consumes about 9 % less fuel than the previous S 350. Driving noise has also been reduced by two decibels.

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• Due to its newly developed engine and the inclusion of a particulate filter as standard, the new S 320 CDI diesel model also produces fewer exhaust emissions than its predecessor. The emission levels are up to 90 % below those of the preceding model introduced in 1999. • The LCA confirmed an 85 gigajoules reduction in overall energy demand compared to the preceding model, corresponding to the energy content of approximately 2 500 litres of fuel. Over the life cycle, emissions of the carbon dioxide greenhouse gas have been reduced by 7 %, with a 14 % reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions compared to the previous S-Class. • The new S-Class not only meets the 85 % recycling rate effective in the EU from 2006, but will also comply with the 95 % overall recovery rate applicable from 2015. • A total of 45 components with an overall weight of around 21 kilograms are made from high quality recycled plastics. This represents a 4 % increase in the weight of approved recycled components compared with the previous model. • In the new S-Class, 27 components with a combined weight of around 43 kilograms are made from natural materials. Compared to the preceding model series, this is an increase of approximately 73 % in the total weight of components made from renewable raw materials.

ISO/TR 14062 – a useful guideline Vehicles are complex products that interact with the environment in very complex ways. Therefore, simple solutions, (e.g. a focus on fuel economy or lightweighting), recycling or single material strategies only, are bound to fail. It is a prime task of DfE and LCA to take this fact into account and come up with more intelligent solutions. ISO/TR 14062 is a useful guideline to achieving intelligent, holistic solutions, and to providing a credible means of communicating the results. As described in the Environmental Certificate Mercedes-Benz S-Class brochure, the Mercedes Car Group comprehensively demonstrates the improvement in environmental compatibility achieved with the new SClass for the first time. This car sets new standards not only in engineering, innovation and driving pleasure, but its customers can also take satisfaction from lower fuel consumption and emissions, and a comprehensive recycling concept involving a higher percentage of renewable raw materials and high-grade secondary raw materials. All these factors combine to give the new S-Class a comprenensively improved environmental profile over its entire life cycle. •

About ISO/TR 14062 ISO/TR 14062:2002, Environmental management – Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development, is an ISO Technical Report describing concepts and current practices, where “ product ” is understood to cover both goods and services. ISO/TR 14062 is applicable to the development of sector-specific documents, but is not applicable as a specification for certification and registration purposes. It is intended for use by all those involved in the design and development of products, regardless of organization type, size, location and complexity, and for all types of products whether new or modified. The Introduction to ISO/TR 14062, part of the ISO 14000 family of International Standards, states that all products “ have some impact on the environment, which may occur at any or all stages of the product’s life cycle : raw material acquisition, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal.” It reports that the interest of customers, users, developers and others in the environmental aspects and impacts of products is increasing. “ This interest is also reflected in the economics of various market sectors that are recognizing and taking advantage of new approaches to product design.

Cost savings “ These new approaches may result in improved resource and process efficiencies, potential product differentiation, reduction in regulatory burden and potential liability, and cost savings. “ More organizations are coming to realize that there are substantial benefits in integrating environmental aspects into product design and development. Some of these benefits may include: lower costs, stimulation of innovation, new business opportunities, and improved product quality. “ Early identification and planning enables organizations to make effective decisions about environmental aspects that they control and to better understand how their decisions may affect environmental aspects controlled by others, i.e. at the raw material acquisition or end-of-life stages.” ISO/TR 14062:2002 is available in PDF and paper versions in English and French, cost 106 Swiss francs, from ISO national member institutes (listed with contact details on www.iso. org) and from ISO Central Secretariat ([email protected]).

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