Total Design: A Methodology for Product Design

Total Design: A Methodology for Product Design Part I • Introduction to the Concept of Total Design • Problem Definition -The Brief -The Product Desig...
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Total Design: A Methodology for Product Design Part I • Introduction to the Concept of Total Design • Problem Definition -The Brief -The Product Design Specification (PDS) Part II • Conceptual Design • Concept Evaluation -Rating/Weighting -Controlled Convergence Method • Conclusions Prepared by: Miguel A. Torres, Ph. D., P.E. © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez

Case Study: IN-LINE SKATES Graphic Design

Manufacturing

Market Analysis

Industrial Design

Packaging Engineering

Plastics Engineering

Mechanical Design

Ergonomics

Technical Writing © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Fluid Design

Case Study II: The Personal Computer Heat Transfer

Electromechanical Design

Ergonomics

Software Engineering

Graphic Design Plastics Engineering Mechanical Design Manufacturing

Industrial Design Technical Writing

Packaging Engineering

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Material Sciences

Law

Marketing

Controls

Finance

Electronics

Psychology Machine Design

Ergonomics

Conclusion: “ A typical product is made up of many technological as well as non-technological components.” Eng inee r a m o But, How does this fact compares pl i D with the way we have been educated as engineers? © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

The engineering degree has been broken down in manageable packages which we call COURSES. ADMI ADMI

INEL INEL

ICON ICON INME INME

ININ ININ

ESPA ESPA

Manageable for the STUDENTS and for the TEACHER

INCI INCI

Unfortunately, you will see that this represent the professional divisions of most universities and indeed INDUSTRY. © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

TOTAL DESIGN Total Design is a systematic methodology to achieve integration of the technological as well as nontechnological subjects material with the goal of creating successful products and processes. Customer

Product

TOTAL DESIGN is distinguish from “partial design” in which TOTAL DESIGN requires the input from people of many disciplines, both engineering and non-engineering, in a mix that is almost unique to the product under consideration. © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Product Design Core

Market Specifications

Conceptual Design

Detail Design

Manufacturing Sales © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Product Design Core Co

Inf

Co o stin g

ntr ol

Market

Information Electrical Stress

Specifications

Hydraulics Mechanisms Mechanical Stress

Conceptual Design

Power Systems Surface Amount

Detail Design

Quality Control Vibrations ics n o r t Elec

tion

e ti p m ture c Co a f u Man

Technology-Dependents Tools

Manufacturing

Sales © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Product Design Core Co

Inf

Co o stin g

e si s h t n Sy

ntr ol

alysis n A n o i t ti Compe

Market

Concept Selection

Information Electrical Stress

Specifications

Data handling

Hydraulics Mechanisms Mechanical Stress

Info Acquisition

Conceptual Design

Power Systems Surface Amount Quality Control

Optimization Detail Design Cost patterns

Vibrations ics n o r t Elec ion t i t pe m ture Co c a f u Man

Technology-Dependents Tools

Manufacturing

Market Trends Info

Sales

Technology-Independent Tools

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Market Market

All design starts with a need that, when satisfied, will fit into an existing market or create a market of its own.

Specifications

Conceptual Design

The outcome of this design activity is a statement of need or a “brief”.

Detail Design

Manufacturing

Sales © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Market Market

All design starts with a need that, when satisfied, will fit into an existing market or create a market of its own.

Specifications

Conceptual Design

The outcome of this design activity is a statement of need or a “brief”.

Detail Design

Example: Manufacturing Design a machine for material handling capable of maneuvering over rough terrain Sales © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Market Market

All design starts with a need that, when satisfied, will fit into an existing market or create a market of its own.

Specifications

Conceptual Design

The outcome of this design activity is a statement of need or a “brief”.

Detail Design

Example: Manufacturing Design a machine for material handling capable of maneuvering over rough terrain Sales © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

PDS Changes

Specifications D/W D D W D D D W

Changes

D/W D D W D D D W

Changes

D/W D D W D D D W

Requirements Throughput (mixed Flow) max... 10 l/min. @ 2 bars max.. Pressure 10 Bars Temp. of Water standard 60ºC To fit hose basin Light Operation (Children) No Extra energy Smooth, easily cleaned contour, no sharp edges Requirements Throughput (mixed Flow) max... 10 l/min. @ 2 bars max.. Pressure 10 Bars Temp. of Water standard 60ºC To fit hose basin Light Operation (Children) No Extra energy Smooth, easily cleaned contour, no sharp edges Requirements Throughput (mixed Flow) max.. 10 l/min @ 2 bars max. Pressure 10 Bars Temp. of Water standard 60ºC To fit hose basin Light Operation (Children) No Extra energy Smooth, easily cleaned contour, © 2001 no sharp edges

The outcome of this design activity is the Product Design Specification

Market Specifications

Conceptual Design

Detail Design

Manufacturing

Sales Miguel A. Torres

The General Structure of the PDS Title:_________________ Changes D/W D D W D D D W

DATE:_______

Requirements Throughput (mixed Flow) max. 10 l/min. @ 2 bars max. Pressure 10 Bars Temp. of Water standard 60ºC To fit hose basin Light Operation (Children) No Extra energy Smooth, easily cleaned contour, no sharp edges

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Responsible

The Product Design Specification PDS Changes

D/W D D W D D D W

Changes

D/W D D W D D D W

Changes

Market

Requirements Throughput (mixed Flow) max... 10 l/min. @ 2 bars max.. Pressure 10 Bars Temp. of Water standard 60ºC To fit hose basin Light Operation (Children) No Extra energy Smooth, easily cleaned contour, no sharp edges

Specifications

Requirements Throughput (mixed Flow) max... 10 l/min. @ 2 bars max.. Pressure 10 Bars Temp. of Water standard 60ºC To fit hose basin Light Operation (Children) No Extra energy Smooth, easily cleaned contour, no sharp edges

Conceptual Design

Detail Design

•Controls the rest of the design activities. D/W Requirements Throughput (mixed Flow) max.. • ItD is Dynamic. 10 l/min @ 2 bars D max. Pressure 10 Bars Temp. of Water standard 60ºC •It WDis legal document. To fit hose basin D D W

Light Operation (Children) No Extra energy Smooth, easily cleaned contour, no sharp edges

Manufacturing

Sales © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

“To be successful, you have to be systematic and thorough, paying meticulous attention to detail from the beginning to the end of the design activity.” © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Characteristics of the Product Design Specification (PDS): • • • • • •

PDS

The PDS is the fundamental control mechanism that allows this success to manifest itself. The PDS must be comprehensive and unambiguous. At the end of the design process the product must be balanced with the PDS. Poor PDS leads to poor design that will fail in the market. Good PDS does not guarantee good design but make the goal more attainable. PDS set the design in context which are a comprehensive set of constrains. © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

The Contents of a PDS: Performance Webster’s Dictionary per• per•for for•mance •mance \pe(r)-’fo \pe(r)-’for-men(t)s\ r-men(t)s\nn (15c) (15c) 1a: 1a:the theexecution executionofofan anaction action b:b:something accomplished: something accomplished:DEED, DEED,FEAT FEAT 2:2:the fulfillment of a claim, promise, the fulfillment of a claim, promise,ororrequest: request:IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION 3a: the action of representing a character in a play 3a: the action of representing a character in a play b:b:aapublic publicpresentation presentationororexhibition exhibitionEa. Ea.benefit benefitperformance performance 4a: the ability to perform: EFFICIENCY 4a: the ability to perform: EFFICIENCY b:b:the themanner mannerininwhich whichaamechanism mechanismperforms performs engine engineperformance performance 5:5:the manner of reacting to stimuli: BEHAVIOR the manner of reacting to stimuli: BEHAVIOR 6:6:linguistic linguisticbehavior behavior- -compare compareCOMPETENCE COMPETENCE 33 - -per perfor forma matotory ry \-me-, \-me-,totor r-e-e, ,-,-,totor-\ r-\adj adj

“Performance should be fully defined, e.g., how fast, how slow, how often, continuously vs. discontinuous, energy requirements- electrical, hydraulic vs. pneumatic, tolerances, etc.” © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

±0 tolerance-> ∞$ “A common failing in specifying performance is to ask for the ultimate, rather than which is obtainable from economical point of view.” © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

The Contents of a PDS: Environment • • • • • • • • • •



temperature range pressure range (altitude) humidity shock loading (gravity forces) dirt or dust - how dirty? - how clean? corrosion from fluids - type of fluid or chemical noise levers insects vibration type of labor or person who will use the equipment - likely degree of abuse? any unforeseen hazards to customer, user or the environment - for example inclusion of CFCs?

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

The Contents of a PDS: Environment These may occur at the following stages: •

• •

• • • • •

During manufacturing exposure to cutting fluid, solvents, fluxes, acids, etc. During storage - in the plant During assembly - assembly forces, contamination from sweating hands? During packaging During transportation During storage - at a wholesale’s warehouse During display During use

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

PDS: Guide lines • • • • • •

PDS

The PDS is a control document. It is a use document. Never write a PDS in an essay format. From the beginning, try to quantify parameters. Always date the document and to an issue number. Clearly document amendments. © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design Market •

It is the phase of design primarily concerned with the generation of solutions to meet the stated need, i.e., the PDS.

Specifications

Conceptual Design

Detail Design

Manufacturing

Conceptual Design is a “Synthesis” © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Sales

Conceptual Design Market

Conceptual Design has two major components: 1. The generation of solutions to meet the stated need, i.e., the PDS. 2. The evaluation of these solutions to select the one that is must suited to match the need.

Specifications

Conceptual Design

Detail Design

Manufacturing

Sales © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design 1. The generation of solutions to meet the PDS.

In order to generate solutions or ideas to solve a given design problem you must be “creative” Idea!!!

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design 1. The generation of solutions to meet the PDS.

Yes but how do I become “creative”? Everybody is creative. All we need to do is watch out for “Mental Blocks”

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

?

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“The Right Answer”

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“That is not Logic” Fin i

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

sh

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“Follow the Rules”

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“Be Practical”

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“Play is Frivolous”

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“That is not my area”

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“Avoid Ambiguity” Ambiguous

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“Don’t be foolish”

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“To err is wrong”

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design

Recognizing and dealing with Mental Blocks

“I’m not Creative”

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Idea Generation: Tips

Idea!!!

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Idea Generation: Tips ®

Concepts are best generated by individuals

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design Idea Generation: Tips ◆



Concepts are best generated by individuals Avoid at all cost the temptation to “cut and run” and start engineering and developing the ideas further.

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Idea Generation: Tips ® ®

®

Concepts are best generated by individuals Avoid at all cost the temptation to “cut and run” and start engineering and developing the ideas further. You need as many ideas as you can.

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Idea Generation: Tips ® ®

® ®

Concepts are best generated by individuals Avoid at all cost the temptation to “cut and run” and start engineering and developing the ideas further. You need as many ideas as you can. Stay within the laws of physics.

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Idea Generation: Tips

PD S

Concepts are best generated by individuals Avoid at all cost the temptation to “cut and run” and start engineering and developing the ideas further. You need as many ideas as you can. Stay within the laws of physics. Always keep the PDS as a reference. © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design Idea Generation: More Tips Use the following techniques: 1. Brainstorming 2. Analogies 3. Combinations

+

= © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design An idea is not an idea if you cannot communicate it. •3D Sketching •Diagrams •Circuit Diagrams •Block Diagrams •World Description •Ladder-logic diagrams •Mathematical Expressions •Analytical Drawings Note: Concepts or ideas must be titled, numbered and ionized so they can be cross referenced later. © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Conceptual Design

Concepts generated at this phase should never be arbitrarily discarded as not been good. Particularly because a third party does not like them. “Gut-feeling” design is out of the question. © 2001 Miguel A. Torres

To effectively evaluate a concept, an agreed set of criteria is needed.

This criteria comes from the PDS. ® This is carried out in groups (never along) ® It should be written down. ®

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

The Controlled Convergence Matrix A methodology for sorting out ideas. Example: Brief: “Design a car horn.” PDS:

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

Concept Evaluation

The Controlled Convergence Matrix D/W

PDS for a Car Horn

D D D D D D D W W W W W D W D W

Criteria Able to Produce 105-125 DbA Able to Produce 2000-5000 Hz Corrosion, erosion and water resistant. Resistance to vibration, shock and acceleration. Temperature range -50°F to 200°F Time response: 250 msec. Small number of stages. Power Consumption < 35 W Low Maintenance Weight: < 2 lbs. Size: < 6x6x6in. Low num. parts. Life in service: >10 years Manuf. Cost: < $3.00 Easy installation Shelf Life: 20 years

© 2001 Miguel A. Torres

The Controlled Convergence Matrix

Concept Evaluation Ideas Criteria Able to Produce 105-125 DbA Able to Produce 2000-5000 Hz Corrosion, erosion and water resistant. Resistance to vibration, shock and acceleration. Temperature range -50°F to 200°F Time response: 250 msec. Small number of stages. Power Consumption < 35 W Low Maintenance Weight: < 2 lbs. Size: < 6x6x6in. Low num. parts. Life in service: >10 years Manuf. Cost: < $3.00 Easy installation Shelf Life: 20 years

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 D A T U M

Sum +’s Sum Miguel -’s © 2001 A. Torres Sum S’s

The Controlled Convergence Matrix

Concept Evaluation Ideas Criteria Able to Produce 105-125 DbA Able to Produce 2000-5000 Hz Corrosion, erosion and water resistant. Resistance to vibration, shock and acceleration. Temperature range -50°F to 200°F Time response: 250 msec. Small number of stages. Power Consumption < 35 W Low Maintenance Weight: < 2 lbs. Size: < 6x6x6in. Low num. parts. Life in service: >10 years Manuf. Cost: < $3.00 Easy installation Shelf Life: 20 years

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 S

S

D SS

AS TS U -S S

MS

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Sum +’s Sum -’s © 2001 A. Torres Sum Miguel S’s

The Controlled Convergence Matrix

Concept Evaluation Criteria

Ideas

Able to Produce 105-125 DbA Able to Produce 2000-5000 Hz Corrosion, erosion and water resistant. Resistance to vibration, shock and acceleration. Temperature range -50°F to 200°F Time response: 250 msec. Small number of stages. Power Consumption < 35 W Low Maintenance Weight: < 2 lbs. Size: < 6x6x6in. Low num. parts. Life in service: >10 years Manuf. Cost: < $3.00 Easy installation Shelf Life: 20 years

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 S + - + + - - - S + S S N + S S + S - - S + o S - - S - + - - - S DS - T S - S - S - - - S - - S S S - - - S S AS - + - - - - S - - - - +E S++ - - - + + - - -V+- -+ - - - - S + TS +A++ +- - S + + S - -L + -- - S - - - - + -U S - - -- - - - - US S A +S S - - + - - S S - T + - S - - - - - M- S E - + + - - S - - - S S D S S + - S - - S S S - S S S S S S S S

0 2 8 3 5 3 0 6 9 1 9 7 12 11 Sum -’s © 2001 Miguel A. Torres 10 5 7 4 4 1 5 Sum S’s Sum +’s

2 8 6

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0 8 8

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Remember that: The wrong choice of concept in a given design situation can rarely, if ever, be recouped by brilliant detail design. © 2001 Miguel A. Torres