This booklet will not tell you to quit Enough people already do that

SMOKE Other Leave The Pack Behind Resources: QUIT QUIT A booklet for smokers who are thinking of or trying to quit. This booklet will not tell you...
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SMOKE

Other Leave The Pack Behind Resources: QUIT

QUIT A booklet for smokers who are thinking of or trying to quit.

This booklet will not tell you to quit »» Enough people already do that.

U KNOW U WANT 2... A booklet for people who want to help a friend quit smoking.

U KNOW U WANT 2... help a friend quit smoking

This booklet is for

university & college students who smoke and Authors: Heather Travis, BA; Anita Federici, BA; Kelli-an Lawrance, PhD; Sharon Lawler, RN, MEd

Design: Stephen Agnew Leave The Pack Behind Brock University [email protected] (905) 688-5550 ext. 5144

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or adapted in any form by photostat, microfilm, retrieval system or any other means without prior written permission of Brock University and the authors. Leave The Pack Behind is funded by the Government of Ontario.

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www.LeaveThePackBehind.org

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Copyright © 2014 The Authors

do not want to quit »» This is an objective resource, no strings attached.

This booklet looks at: »» The pleasures of smoking »» How to tell if you are addicted to nicotine »» Common places to smoke »» How to deal with people who bug you to quit »» Info you may not know 1 24

This is why you smoke... Smokers say these things about SMOKING: »» Reduces stress & tension »» Decreases boredom »» Reduces anger & frustration »» Offers a sense of control over life »» Improves concentration »» Controls appetite »» Is something to do with friends »» Boosts energy

y wh

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qu it?

So

»» Can you relate?

3 24

.. except,

ne them out.

to tu »» It’s so easy

ou Who Bugs Y To Quit? ir life erson in the p 1 st a le t ve er has a . Or you may ha Every smok uit smoking q , to rs e m k e o th ny sm who nags u’re like ma yo o If h u! w yo le y p ck eo several... lu d off with p ly feel pisse b a b . e ro p lif r u u yo e yo u how to liv try to tell yo g Na

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We do

ople care.

at these pe

tell you th n’t need to

! And you el frustrated fe to t h it, too! g ri e You’r ething about m so o d to t n probably wa

BUT WHAT?

4 24

give a little, ttle get a li

Out Tuning Them ork W y ll a e R t ’ n Does

Instead:

remind them ate. Gently ic n u m m o C u quit »» can make yo u will quit that no one yo t them know smoking. Le ady. re once you are that their you feel — w ; o h m e th be annoying »» Tell d advice can e n tio re n o te m in e llwe that th help you quit; g. that it won’t l like smokin e fe u yo re o m e they nag, th ut your Fighting abo . g in u rg a you or »» Avoid ductive, for ro p t o n is g smokin lk about it. for them. Ta t mad. They — don’t ge ll a how f o t s o »» M don’t know st ju y e th ; lp want to he to do it. opy of the r friend a c t — it will »» Give you T 2... bookle better. N A W U W O U KN oking nderstand sm help them u 5 24

Pleasure Centre Being addicted = greater tolerance for nicotine Æ greater need for nicotine Æ nasty withdrawal without it. »» It’s a dependence that gains control of you.

Surprise! Nicotine is more addictive than marijuana, alcohol, and even cocaine!1

You light a cigarette and inhale… through advances in cigarette technology and the efficiency of the body, it only takes 5 heart beats (7 seconds) for nicotine to reach your brain…ahhh...

Nicotine stimulates your brain to release dopamine (a neurotransmitter that creates feelings of pleasure). Your body

experiences a surge in heart rate and blood pressure, blood vessels squeeze smaller (diminishing oxygen and

reducing circulation in the hands and feet), and brain waves are

altered.

One isn’t enough... Within minutes of finishing a smoke, nicotine levels start dropping in your blood stream… leaving you feeling restless and empty. »» You get a craving that must be satisfied.

ohhhhh… sweet addiction…

give me more nicotine...

Tobacco companies intentionally place ads in

Check out the ads...

24

9

Is this reality?

Think about it. It’s no coincidence that cigarette ads are all about freedom, fitting in, and looking good.5

»» All complete with a pack of smokes in easy reach.

»» The women are pretty, sexy and slender. »» And the men… hotter than hot, rugged & ripped.

Without you, the industry is dead. magazines young people buy. Look at the ads...

Who else will replace its older customers who are quitting or dying?

The industry is desperate for your business. It spends billions annually on advertisements directed at you.

Research shows that young people are more likely to smoke if they’ve watched a lot of movies with smoking in them... Smoking’s there for a reason and it’s not artistic.4

Historically the industry purposefully paid celebrities to smoke in movies and on TV2 to make smoking look cool to non-smokers and to make current and ex-smokers crave a cigarette.3

Young adults represent the youngest LEGAL target for the tobacco industry and it knows exactly how to make its products appealing.

How Big Tobacco Targets You

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Who’s Got Good Taste?

Have you ever smoked a brand of cigarettes, thinking that they were BETTER for your health?

Flavoured tobacco products have actually been around forever … all starting with the minty menthol cigarettes.

Guess what? When it comes to your health—distinct, smooth, elite, blue, or red—they are all the same.

In the late 1990s, new candy and fruit flavoured tobacco products hit the market. Just guess which age group likes flavoured tobacco? (Hint: it’s not your parents’ generation!) 7

These are just labels used by the multi-billion dollar tobacco industry to fool its own customers. The different labels may mislead you to think one brand is safer than another. But, that’s a lie. The amount of tar you suck in from any cigarette is pretty much the same. They’re all equally addictive and lethal.6

Tar intake depends on how you smoke and how much you smoke. Not on the type of cigarettes.

Flavours make tobacco products more attractive and easier to sell to students and young adults. Not only does the smoke smell better, but it’s got a sweeter aftertaste as well.7

Hmm... yummy or deadly?

Carbon monoxide is found in car exhaust and the “air” smokers breathe out.

10

Light This

These different flavours may also trick you into thinking that what you’re using is safer and harmless. Who would want to believe that something that tastes like candy and fruits can cause cancer?

Flavoured or not, all tobacco products are addictive and harmful.

11 24

Smoking Anything Else?

»Marijuana »

Can’t be so bad if they’re trying to legalize it right? Joints and cigarettes have different “active ingredients”— THC in joints, nicotine in cigarettes. But, BOTH have tar to clog up your lungs and carbon monoxide to rob your cells of oxygen. Most people who smoke marijuana take deep drags that they hold in. For cigarettes, people take more drags, but not as deep. These different ways of smoking lead to different types of lung damage. So... smoking BOTH cigarettes and joints causes more damage and makes quitting that much harder.11 Do you like fertilizers & household cleaners in your body? Marijuana delivers 20X as much ammonia as a cigarette.12

Getting Hooked...

»on » Hookah?

It’s water-filtered, naturallyflavoured and allowed indoors... Must be safe, right? »» Unfortunately not.

smoking weed is harmless... right? No, it’s not. It has cancer-causing chemicals which can also lead to breathing problems.8 oh Not to mention its link to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia!9 Oh, and ongoing use can cause damage to your memory.10 what are we talking about again?

Because a single session of smoking shisha can last 20-80 min, it’s like smoking 4-5 packs of cigarettes in that same time span!13,14 All the bad things you can get from cigarettes are also in your shisha. Toxins, chemicals, lung diseases, cancer...you get the idea.15

»Cigarillos » & Cigars Mmmm, so fun with all those flavours! Except, depending on the product, lighting one up is like smoking up to 50 cigarettes all at once because they contain even more tobacco than a regular cigarette!16 Sucks that all the fun stuff hurts you...

Why do you smoke now?

What made you keep smoking?

What are your benefits?

What Do You Gain From Smoking?

Who were you with?

How old were you?

Remember Your 1st Cigarette What made it cool?

ur

o What’s Y

g?

hin T e l t t i L One

te... already roomma r u o r a year y fo ’s e e r c e la th p So, aring a been sh »» You’ve e food the sam e k li u o nds »» Y same frie e th e s to see v a e movie »» You h m a s e th s to use en pick an dishe »» You ev le c e m o s lly have to actua e ic n e aying... ould b »» Just s ...but it w . for once

ce... your pla l pubs, A e to coo s lo c e ’r »» You uts, st takeo »» the be iends ll your fr ! a d n a » » oor? mplaints ily next d noise co m e s fa o e th th ith all ...but o cool w »» Not s there’s nd then

? smoking t u o b a l g? thing... you fee le t smokin w t u t o o li h b a e is n te h o Is t hat g you ha except t ttle thin d li o 1 o e g th ll A » What’s »

17 24

Tobacco production and use damages the global environment

Know The Personal Risks

Cigarette butts are non-biodegradable…They can take up to 12 years to break down! In the world, an estimated 5 trillion butts are discarded into the environment each year.17 Good thing

Smoking does more than just cause diseases

you use a butt receptacle.

Animals eat these butts which can cause nicotine poisoning and seriously damage their organs.18 Yes, your own pets may also be at risk! Plus butts leach chemicals that can get into lakes & streams and harm many marine animals.19 How sad. The tobacco industry exploits developing nations. It pays poor tobacco growers next to nothing for their raw product. Turns a blind eye to child labour. Ignores workers who get really sick from using pesticides with no protection.20 And disregards the extensive deforestation that occurs for the sake of growing tobacco.21 Who knew your cigarettes were part of a global issue? »» Do you really want to support an industry like this?

Think about this...Your friends are 30 years old and they are having trouble getting pregnant. Tick tock tick tock. Is it because he smokes and his sperm are slow and low or that he can’t get it up?22 Scary but true. Or maybe she smokes and is having a hard time getting and staying pregnant. Too sad for words. Even if she has a baby, experts say breast is best. But if mom is smoking, her breast milk will have nicotine and chemicals in it.23 Smoke in the home is also associated with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).24

»» Wouldn’t it be easier to quit smoking before trying to start a family?

What about your future? Is this what you see for yourself?

Know The Implications

Young women who smoke & take birth control pills are at risk of a blood clot that may cause a heart attack or stroke.25 19 24

Know The Limits

SMOKING AFFECTS YOUR ABILITY TO EXERCISE TO YOUR FULL POTENTIAL

Think about the places where you smoke and write them down.

1

Your respiratory system doesn’t deliver oxygen to working muscles as well, causing your aerobic capacity to decline.

2

Your circulatory system is impaired.

3

Your heart & lungs are forced to pump harder... working on overdrive.

4

Muscles need oxygen to work. Smoking reduces the body’s ability to get oxygen to muscles. Lifting weights? Biking? Skateboarding? Running? Rock climbing? Playing sports? Chances are, you’ll tire out wayyy before your non-smoking friends.

1

2

3

4

Does your list of places to smoke include smoking outside in a blizzard? in pouring rain? in 32° weather? »» Bet it doesn’t.

Isn’t it fun being a smoker? Today, almost all buildings are smokefree and it is becoming more common to see no smoking signs in friends’ houses and outdoor places like patios and parks.

It is becoming harder and harder to smoke when you go out anywhere.

Have you noticed... campuses are going smoke-free.

Know The Facts

21 24

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Ç You are on the road to addiction.

Did you check any of these?

Nicotine is the most addictive drug known and 9/10 users become addicted quickly.

Checked these? You are addicted.

I smoke alone I smoke with coffee I buy my own cigarettes I smoke when I’m waiting I smoke every time I drink alcohol My friends smoke, and I tend to smoke with them

I smoke daily I have smoked 100 cigarettes I smoke within 30 minutes of getting up I have cravings if I haven’t smoked in a while

Check the sentences that describe you:

»Is » This Me?

Quiz

È

Recap

References

»» Anyone who smokes would say smoking has emotional &

social benefits. The tobacco industry certainly works hard to sell this idea.

»» Today, you may not be interested in quitting. BUT… you also may not intend to be a lifelong smoker.

»» You know the pleasures smoking brings you, but you also see the downside. Poison in the long-term, but one day you’ll do something about it.

»» Smoking’s OK for now. When it’s not OK, you’ll know it. And then you’ll quit.

There are successful ways to quit... WHEN THE TIME IS RIGHT FOR YOU

1.

Lopez-Quintero, C., Pérez de los Cobos, J., Hasin, D.S., Okuda, M., Wang, S., Grant, B.F., & Blanco, C. (2011). Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 115, 120-130.

2.

Lum, K.L., Polansky, J.R., Jackler, R.K., & Glantz, S.A. (2008). Signed, sealed and delivered: “big tobacco” in Hollywood, 1927-1951. Tobacco Control, 17, 313-323.

3.

Shmueli, D., Prochaska, J.J., & Glantz, S.A. (2010). Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking: A Randomized Controlled Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(4), 351-358.

4.

Song, A.V., Ling, P.M., Neilands, T.B., & Glantz, S.A. (2007). Smoking in movies and increased smoking among young adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(5), 396-403.

5.

Lovato, C., Watts, A., & Stead, L.F. (2011). Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, Art No.: CD003439. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003439.pub2

6.

Hammond, D., & Parkinson, C. (2009). The impact of cigarette package design on perceptions of risk. Journal of Public Health, 31(3), 345-353.

7.

Carpenter, C.M., Wayne, G.F., Pauly, J.L., Koh, H.K., & Connolly, G.N. (2005). New cigarette brands with flavors that appeal to youth: tobacco marketing strategies. Health Affairs, 24(6), 1601-1610.

8.

Reid, P.T., Macleod, J., & Robertson, J.R. (2010). Cannabis and the lung. The Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 40(4), 328-333.

9.

Moore, T.H.M., Zammit, S., Lingford-Hughes, A., Barnes, T.R.E., Jones, P.B., Burke, M., & Lewis, G. (2007). Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. The Lancet, 370, 319-328.

10.

Volkow, N.D., Baler, R.D., Compton, W.M., & Weiss, S.R.B. (2014). Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use. The New England Journal of Medicine, 370(23), 2219-2227.

11.

Agrawal, A., Budney, A.J., & Lynskey, M.T. (2012). The co-occurring use and misuse of cannabis and tobacco: a review. Addiction, 107(7), 1221-1233.

12.

Moir, D., Rickert, W.S., Levasseur, G., Larose, Y., Maertens, R., White, P., & Desjardins, S. (2008). A comparison of mainstreatm and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 21(2), 494-502.

13.

Shihadeh, A., Azar, A., Antonios, C., & Haddad, A. (2004). Towards a topographical model of narghile water-pip café smoking: a pilot study in a high socioeconomic status neighborhood of Beirut, Lebanon. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 79(1), 75-82.

14.

World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. (2005). Waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators. Geneva: World Health Organization.

15.

Blachman-Braun, R., Del Mazo-Rodríguez, R.L., López-Sámanoa, G., & Buendía-Roldánb, I. (2014). Hookah, is it really harmless? Respiratory Medicine, 108(5), 661-667.

16.

National Cancer Institute. (2012, May 21). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 9: Cigars: Health Effects and Trends. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from http:// cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/monographs/9/index.html

17.

Novotny, T.E., Lum, K., Smith, E., Wang, V., & Barnes, R. (2009). Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(5), 1691-1705.

18.

Novotny, T.E., Hardin, S.N., Hovda, L.R., Novotny, D.J., McLean, M.K., & Khan, S. (2011). Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals. Tobacco Control, 20(S1), i17-i20.

19.

Slaughter, E., Gersberg, R.M., Watanabe, K., Rudolph, J., Stransky, C., & Novotny, T.E. (2011). Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish. Tobacco Control, 20(S1), i25-i29.

20.

Ericksen, M., Mackay, J., & Ross, H. (2012). The Tobacco Atlas (4th ed.) Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.

21.

Otañez, M. & Glantz, S.A. (2011). Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies’ use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming. Tobacco Control, 20(6), 403-411.

22.

Zhang, Z.H., Zhu, H.B., Li, L.L., Yu, Y., Zhang, H. G., Zhang, H.G., & Liu, R.Z. (2013). Decline of semen quality and increase of leukocytes with cigarette smoking in infertile men. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 11(7), 589-596.

23.

Primo, C.C., Ruela P.B.F., Brotto, L.D., Garcia, T.R., & Lima, E. (2013). Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants. Revista Paulista de Pediatria, 31(3), 392-397.

24.

Hyland, A., Piazza, K.M., Hovey, K.M., Ockene, J.K., Andrews, C.A., Rivard, C., & Wactawski-Wende, J. (2015). Associations of lifetime active and passive smoking with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis of historical data from the Women’s Health Initiative. Tobacco Control, 24, 328-335.

25.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 7, 2015 from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2001/complete_report/ index.htm

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