## THINGS TO REMEMBER PHYSICAL SCIENCE

PREMIER CURRICULUM SERIES Based on the Sunshine State Standards for Secondary Education, established by the State of Florida, Department of Education ...
Author: Anne Leonard
PREMIER CURRICULUM SERIES Based on the Sunshine State Standards for Secondary Education, established by the State of Florida, Department of Education

THINGS TO REMEMBER PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Physical Science Things to Remember

Lesson 1          

A law is a rule. Astronomy and chemistry are branches of physics. There are around 400 billion stars in our galaxy. The Sun is our star. The name of our galaxy is the Milky Way. The human heart beats around 60 times each minute. Each time zone contains about 15 degrees of longitude. The United States has a total of 4 time zones within it. Benjamin Franklin first invented Daylight Savings Time. A liter is equivalent to 1000 cubic centimeters.

Lesson 2     

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Remember 100 centimeters is equal to 1 meter then 3 meters = 300 cm. etc. A kilogram is equivalent to 1000 grams. Miles driven / speed in mph = time traveled. Example: At 30 miles per hour, how long would it take to travel 300 miles? 300 miles / 30 mph = 10 hours of driving. Remember that the term “acceleration” means that you are changing the speed, or velocity, over time. You may be traveling at 30 miles per hour, but then choose to speed up to 50 miles per hour. That means that you will have to increase your speed from 30 miles per hour to 50 miles per hour – or a difference of 20 miles per hour. And how long will it take you to do that? Let’s say it takes 10 seconds. Then you will have an acceleration of 20 mph/10 sec = 2 mph/sec. Power is defined as work divided by time. Momentum is mass times velocity. Water is considered to have a high specific heat. Weather moves mainly by convection around the Earth. Example: If a wave with a wavelength of 2 meters is going by at a speed of 6 meters/second, then 3 complete waves go by in 1 second. That is, the frequency is 6/2 = 3 waves/second The Angstrom unit is a unit of wavelength.

Lesson 3        

The discovery of electromagnetism was made by Oersted. The flow of electrons is known as electrical current. A proton has a positive electrical charge. To find the power of a tool that draws 20 amps of current from a 120-Volt line, one just multiplies the two: P = 20 x 120 = 2400 watts A transformer changes voltages. An electromagnet can be turned on and off. Magnetite is a naturally occurring magnetic mineral. The German scientist Max Planck determined that the energy of a wave packet of light is equal to a constant multiplied by the frequency of that light: E = h  where E is the 2

Physical Science Things to Remember

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energy in Joules, “h” is a constant that Planck was able to determine experimentally and  is the frequency in Hertz. In his honor, the constant, “h,” has been named Planck’s constant. Ultra-violet has slightly shorter wavelengths than violet. There are 7 colors in the visible spectrum.

Lesson 4          

Atoms are divisible into smaller particles. The formula for table salt or Sodium Chloride is NaCl. Heisenberg discovered the Uncertainty Principle. There are no electrons found in the nucleus of a Helium atom. Inside of stars, four Hydrogen nuclei are fused into Helium. A breeder reactor produces Plutonium 239. The fission of Uranium yields Barium and Krypton. In Einstein's famous equation E = MC2 the M term represents the missing mass. The term "mole" comes from the Latin word meaning “little mass.” Molecules are made up of atoms.

Lesson 5          

Patterns of repeated chemical activity are known as periodicity. In the word 'isotope' the prefix "iso" means equal. Tritium an isotope of hydrogen. A compound cannot be separated by physical means. Turpentine, gasoline, alcohol and water are solvents. Grinding coal into powder is a physical change. Burning coal is a chemical change. In an endothermic reaction heat goes into the reaction. Reactants form products. The separation of compounds using electricity and water is hydrolysis.

Lesson 6          

Hydrocarbons can have only Hydrogen and Carbon in them. Chains of Carbon atoms connected by single bonds are known as an alkanes group. Propane has 3 Carbon atoms. C2H2 is the formula for acetylene. Plants make glucose sugar through photosynthesis. In the word "polysaccharide", the prefix 'poly' means many. DNA is a nucleic acid. Free radicals consist of complex molecules that have spaces for one electron. Proteins consist of chains of amino acids. The shape of a DNA or RNA molecule resembles a double helix.

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Physical Science Things to Remember

Lesson 7          

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. Not all planets have one or more moons. The force of gravity is responsible for making stars. Magma consists of molten material. Seismologists study the Earth's vibrations and earthquakes. Large waves caused by earthquake movements are called tsunamis. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. Cirrus are the highest forms of clouds. The Unified Field Theory came initially from Maxwell's 4 equations. An arid climate is characterized by being dry all year.

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Physical Science Things to Remember

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Author: David H. Menke Copyright 2009 Revision Date:12/2009