Theory reminders DVB-S DVB-S2 QPSK DVB-C COFDM DVB-T 8PSK MPEG4 MPEG2 HD QAM DVB-H DVB-C2 DVB-T2 DVB-SH

Theory reminders DVB-S DVB-S2 QPSK DVB-C COFDM DVB-T 8PSK MPEG4 DVB-H DVB-T2 MPEG2 HD SD DVB-SH QAM IP DVB-C2 Some relations • DVB-S  QP...
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Theory reminders DVB-S DVB-S2 QPSK

DVB-C COFDM

DVB-T

8PSK

MPEG4 DVB-H DVB-T2

MPEG2

HD SD

DVB-SH

QAM

IP

DVB-C2

Some relations

• DVB-S  QPSK  SD  MPEG2 • DVB-S2  QPSK/8PSK  SD/HD  MPEG2/MPEG4 • DVB-T  COFDM  SD/HD  MPEG2/MPEG4 • DVB-C  QAM  SD/HD  MPEG2/MPEG4 • IP  IP Protocol  SD/HD  MPEG2/MPEG4

The great evolution: From analogical signals to DIGITAL terrestrial

How the TV works The home TV reproduces the movement, transmitting a series of fixed images (50 pictures a second)

Interlaced T = 0,04 0 secsec 0,01 0,02 0,03

How the TV works In analogical home TV, the picture seen is nothing but a copy of all the movements of an electronic paintbrush located in the filming camera...

The “measurements” of analogical TV



Channel level



Video Modulation



Audio Modulation



C/N



Front to back ratio



Synchronism measurement



Teletext Test

The “deterioration” of analogical TV

Image quality

Analog Signal

Signal to noise ratio

How the digital TV works Digital TV transforms images into number (just as it occurs in digital photography). To describe light and colour, for each pixel, 3 numbers are available

256,256,256 white pixel

0,0,0 black pixel

How the digital TV works In standard defined television, the pixels are 0.4 Million per frame (precisely 576 lines and 720 pixels per line) • the result is a track flow superior to 270 Mb/s.

In high definition (HDTV) the pixel are about 2 Million (1080 lines per 1920 pixels per line) • the track flow is about 1.5 Gb/s

Result Compression permits description of the images with less bit and therefore does not damage the qualityof the image With the MPEG-2 used in Digital: a television signal in a standard definition, requires about 5 Mb/s • signals in High definition (HDTV) require about 20 Mb/s (this system is not used in Europe)

MPEG has introduced about 2000 compressors of second generation, called MPEG-4 (AVC or H264): • the HDTV signal requires about 8-10 Mb/s (it is the only European candidate for HDTV)

How many programs in one terrestrial channel?

In analogical: one program per channel

a

In digital (DVB-T and MPEG-2) with 4-5Mbit/s codes for each program: •20 Mb/s in SFN network = 4 TV programs •24 Mb/s in MFN network = 5 TV programs

f

The television channel is the “road” on which the electromagnetic waves travel and join the TV transmitter to the antenna user.

Echo effect and other distortion.

Even the “digital” signals are delicate and during the propagation the bit can be “damaged” (error rate – BER) caused by electromagnetic noise, interferences, reflection, etc.

Counter-measures 1° “guard interval” between the symbol we introduce the interval without the signal, in this time there is a decrease echo 2° Using a lot of OFDM subcarriers (8k or 2k) to receive some of it in a correct way 3° “Code Error Protection” to correct the signal in the receiver (FEC= Forward Error Correction = (signal bit / total bit) ratio: 1/2; 2/3; 3/4,...)

The “measurements” of digital TV •

Digital signal power



C/N (signal to noise ratio)



Noise Margin



Flatness (to the bouquet)



Phase distortion



Amplitude distortion



BER, SNR



MER

The “deterioration” of digital TV SNR qualità immagine

SegnaleSignal Digitale Digital

Without NESSUNA image threshold IMMAGINE SOGLIA FAIL

Good Image IMMAGINE PERFETTA PASS

MARG.

OTTIMA

BUONA

MEDIA

NOISE MARGINE DI MARGIN SICUREZZA

SUFFIC.

SCARSA.

PESSIMA.

~1dB 6dB 20dB

7dB 21dB

> 15dB >27dB

C/N qualità Segnale RF

SFN and MFN Network In the analog TV, we cannot have near transmitters that work in the same audio/video program in the same frequency (there is interference). Tele

Tele

MSF Network for analog broadcast

E32

E41

E63 Tele

In the analog broadcast, we must use an MSF Network (Multi Frequency Network) to transmit the same program into different frequencies.

SFN and MFN Network In the digital TV, we can have near transmitters that work in the same frequency with the same audio/video program Tele

Tele

SFN Network

E32

E32

for digital broadcast E32 Tele

The transmitters must be synchronized (using a GPRS signal); in this way there are have not echoes. In fact we have an increasing signal into the superimposed areas.

DIGITAL CONVERSION by FRACARRO

19

Scenario of possible application

IN

OUT DVB-S

DVB-S_CI DVB-S2_CI DVB-T DVB-T_CI A/V ASI

A/V

PAL

COFDM

QAM

IP

Fracarro Solutions OUT IN DVB-S

A/V SIG7330

DVB-S_CI

SIG7340

DVB-S2_CI

SIG7100

DVB-T

SIG7531

DVB-T_CI

SIG7540

A/V

PAL

COFDM

SIG73x0 + SIG728x SIG73x0 + SIG728x SIG7100 + SIG728x SIG7531 + SIG728x SIG7540 + SIG728x

SIG7330 + SIG7120 SIG7340 + SIG7120 SIG7100 + SIG7120 SIG7531 + SIG7120 SIG7540 + SIG7120

SIG7281 SIG7282 SIG7282S

SIG7404 + SIG7121

ASI

SIG7121

TS

SIG7120

IP SIG7710 SIG7340 + SIG7720 SIG7100 + SIG7720 SIG7531 + SIG7720 SIG7540 + SIG7720 SIG7404 + SIG7400 + SIG7720 SIG7400 + SIG7720 SIG7720

QAM SIG7330 + SIG7111 SIG7340 + SIG7111 SIG7100 + SIG7111 SIG7531 + SIG7111 SIG7540 + SIG7111

TS SIG7330

SIG7340

SIG7100

SIG7531

SIG7540

SIG7404 + SIG7111

SIG7404 + SIG7401

SIG7111

SIG7400

SIG7111

Fracarro Solutions OUT IN DVB-S

A/V

SIG7330

DVB-S_CI

SIG7340

DVB-S2_CI

SIG7100

DVB-T

SIG7531

DVB-T_CI

SIG7540

A/V

PAL

COFDM

SIG73x0 + SIG728x SIG73x0 + SIG728x SIG7100 + SIG728x SIG7531 + SIG728x SIG7540 + SIG728x

SIG7330 + SIG7120 SIG7340 + SIG7120 SIG7100 + SIG7120 SIG7531 + SIG7120 SIG7540 + SIG7120

SIG7281 SIG7282 SIG7282S

SIG7404 + SIG7121

ASI

SIG7121

TS

SIG7120

IP SIG7710 SIG7340 + SIG7720 SIG7100 + SIG7720 SIG7531 + SIG7720 SIG7540 + SIG7720 SIG7404 + SIG7400 + SIG7720 SIG7400 + SIG7720 SIG7720

QAM SIG7330 + SIG7111 SIG7340 + SIG7111 SIG7100 + SIG7111 SIG7531 + SIG7111 SIG7540 + SIG7111

TS SIG7330

SIG7340

SIG7100

SIG7531

SIG7540

SIG7404 + SIG7111

SIG7404 + SIG7401

SIG7111

SIG7400

SIG7111

Fracarro Solutions OUT IN DVB-S

A/V SIG7310 SIG7330

DVB-S_CI

SIG7320 SIG7340

DVB-S2_CI

SIG7100

DVB-T

SIG7530 SIG7531

DVB-T_CI

SIG7540

A/V

PAL

COFDM

SIG73x0 + SIG728x SIG73x0 + SIG728x SIG7100 + SIG728x SIG7531 + SIG728x SIG7540 + SIG728x

SIG7330 + SIG7120 SIG7340 + SIG7120 SIG7100 + SIG7120 SIG7531 + SIG7120 SIG7540 + SIG7120

SIG7281 SIG7282 SIG7282S

SIG7404 + SIG7121

ASI

SIG7121

TS

SIG7120

IP SIG7710 SIG7340 + SIG7720 SIG7100 + SIG7720 SIG7531 + SIG7720 SIG7540 + SIG7720 SIG7404 + SIG7400 + SIG7720 SIG7400 + SIG7720 SIG7720

QAM SIG7330 + SIG7111 SIG7340 + SIG7111 SIG7100 + SIG7111 SIG7531 + SIG7111 SIG7540 + SIG7111

TS SIG7330

SIG7340

SIG7100

SIG7531

SIG7540

SIG7404 + SIG7111

SIG7404 + SIG7401

SIG7111

SIG7400

SIG7111

Fracarro Solutions OUT IN DVB-S

A/V

SIG7330

DVB-S_CI

SIG7340

DVB-S2_CI

SIG7100

DVB-T

SIG7531

DVB-T_CI

SIG7540

A/V

PAL

COFDM

SIG73x0 + SIG728x SIG73x0 + SIG728x SIG7100 + SIG728x SIG7531 + SIG728x SIG7540 + SIG728x

SIG7330 + SIG7120 SIG7340 + SIG7120 SIG7100 + SIG7120 SIG7531 + SIG7120 SIG7540 + SIG7120

SIG7281 SIG7282 SIG7282S

SIG7404 + SIG7121

ASI

SIG7121

TS

SIG7120

IP SIG7710 SIG7340 + SIG7720 SIG7100 + SIG7720 SIG7531 + SIG7720 SIG7540 + SIG7720 SIG7404 + SIG7400 + SIG7720 SIG7400 + SIG7720 SIG7720

QAM SIG7330 + SIG7111 SIG7340 + SIG7111 SIG7100 + SIG7111 SIG7531 + SIG7111 SIG7540 + SIG7111

TS SIG7330

SIG7340

SIG7100

SIG7531

SIG7540

SIG7404 + SIG7111

SIG7404 + SIG7401

SIG7111

SIG7400

SIG7111

COFDM SOLUTIONS

25

DTT (COFDM) or QAM TV System

ASTRO

AMP 4S Decoder

Decoder

Decoder

TAP

TAP

TAP

TAP

TAP

TAP

TAP

TAP

TAP

TAP

TAP

TAP 26

A/V  COFDM 1.How can we convert s A/V sources to Digital? 2.How can we distribute A/V signals to all the TV’s with Digital Tuner?

27

A/V  COFDM How can we convert s A/V sources to Digital?

SIG7404 Output: TS in ASI standard 28

A/V  COFDM How can we distribute A/V signals to all the TV’s with Digital Tuner or DTT STB? SIG7404

TS in ASI format

Output from the SIG7121 is the COFDM multiplex carrying the 4 programs

SIG7121 29

A/V  COFDM

SIG7404: A/V  ASI -4 A/V sources, for every input 3 BNC connectors: video, audio left, and audio right -BNC to RCA cables included in the packaging - Two ASI outputs -One output cable BNC-BNC included in the packaging -Programmable via PC or via front panel 30

A/V  COFDM SIG7121: COFDM Modulator with ASI and TS Input • COFDM Modulator with TS Input • 2K, 8K carriers • Max Output Bitrate: 31,6 Mbit/s • When applied in a couple with receiver (DVB-S, DVB-S2 …) become a Transmodulator • ASI/TS input selectable by software • Priority Management Protocol Embedded • Low loop-through insertion loss at the output for connection of several modules

MOD COFDM Specially designed to distribute analogue baseband signals coming from a CCTV camera or media players and STBs on an existing DVB-T distribution network.

ASTRO

To the distribution

To the distribution

MOD COFDM Baseband Audio/Video modulator to COFDM

► MBX die cast housing ► Frequency output, LCN no. Country and level selectable through internal keys and display 7 segments; ► Single A/V input (more flexible); ► Reduced installation set-up (easy installation for low level installer); ► High level set-up through TPE for advanced installer. ► Output MIX to add all other channels coming from different directions.

DVB-S/S2  COFDM(DTT) How can we convert directly DVB-S/S2 programs to DTT? The first question we should answer is: Are the programmes encrypted and Is there a professionnal CAM available in the market?

34

DVB-S/S2  COFDM(DTT) How can we convert directly DVB-S/S2 programs to DTT? If the programmes are encrypted but there is NOT a professionnal CAM available in the market, the only way is to use consumer receivers an then process A/V signals as described here before

35

DVB-S or DVB-S2  COFDM How can we convert directly DVB-S/S2 programs to DTT? If the programmes are encrypted and there is a professionnal CAM available in the market, the next question is : Does the transponder that includes the programmes are in DVB-S or DVB-S2 format?

36

DVB-S or DVB-S2  COFDM How can we convert directly DVB-S/S2 programs to DTT? The here under table show which satellite receiver should be used depending on the answer to the previous question

DVB-S

DVB-S2

FTA

SIG7330

SIG7100

Encrypted

SIG7340

SIG7100 37

DVB-S or DVB-S2  COFDM How can we convert Digital Satellite Programmes to Digital Terrestrial Modulation? SIG7100 SIG7340 SIG7330 Output from the

TS

SIG7120 is the COFDM multiplex carrying the programs received from the receiver

SIG7120 38

COFDM SOLUTION How many programs can be distributed in one MUX? SD programs: - Average: 4.5Mbps - Max peak: 7.5Mbps HD programs: - Average: 15Mbps - Max peak: 20Mbps

39

COFDM SOLUTION How many programs can be distributed in one MUX? From SATELLITE transmission: DVB-S: 45Mbps DVB-S2: 90Mbps DVB-T standard specifies that the maximum bit rate that can be transmitted in a 8 MHz channel is 31.6Mbps

40

COFDM SOLUTION

41

COFDM SOLUTION How many programs can be distributed in one MUX? So one COFDM MUX genetrated by one COFDM modulator is not enough to distribute all the programs contained in one Satellite Digital Transponder The total bit-rate of the programs contained in a Digital COFDM MUX should not exceed 31Mbps In case the total Bit rate provided by the Satellite receiver is higher, we will use 2 or more COFDM modulators 42

DVB-S2 COFDM

DVB-S2  TS 

COFDM

Let’s summarize !!

A/V  COFDM DVB-S  COFDM DVB-S2  COFDM DVB-T  COFDM 44

QAM SOLUTIONS

45

QAM SOLUTION SIG7111: QAM Modulator with ASI and TS Input • Modules can be integrated into the HEADLine FRACARRO professional series • FULL HD compliant !! • Easy and quick settings by TPE (remote control) or FHM (software) • Digital Programs priority management feature available • The module continues to operate even in case of bitrate overflow

DVB-S2 QAM

DVB-S2  TS 

QAM

DVB-S2 QAM Why it might be useful the QAM modulation? • Thanks to very high output bitrate available, it’s possible to tune a complete QPSK trasponder and convert in a single QAM multiplex. • Many TV “business” next generation receivers allow to tune also QAM signals • Enormous advantage in terms of spectral efficiency  1:1 QPSK to QAM conversion • QAM modulation is mainly used in CATV countries (i.e. USA, India, North-Europe, Germany…)

…. Full DVB-S trasponder are tuned and "compressed" into QAM multiplex

A/V  QAM How can we distribute A/V signals to all the TV’s with Digital Tuner? SIG7404 Output from the SIG7111 is the QAM multiplex carrying the 4 programs TS in ASI format

SIG7111 50