The solubility of calcium sulfate in sodium chloride solutions

Scholars' Mine Masters Theses Student Research & Creative Works 1932 The solubility of calcium sulfate in sodium chloride solutions Edward Walter M...
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Scholars' Mine Masters Theses

Student Research & Creative Works

1932

The solubility of calcium sulfate in sodium chloride solutions Edward Walter Mockobey

Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarsmine.mst.edu/masters_theses Part of the Chemical Engineering Commons Department: Recommended Citation Mockobey, Edward Walter, "The solubility of calcium sulfate in sodium chloride solutions" (1932). Masters Theses. Paper 4818.

This Thesis - Open Access is brought to you for free and open access by Scholars' Mine. It has been accepted for inclusion in Masters Theses by an authorized administrator of Scholars' Mine. This work is protected by U. S. Copyright Law. Unauthorized use including reproduction for redistribution requires the permission of the copyright holder. For more information, please contact [email protected]

OLUBll.lff O C1J.CIUJ4 SULF SODI

, RI D

' IN

.OOLUTIOJJ

Bf

OB

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to·-

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tHDllJ' 0, IJla

olla. 113.2

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able ot Content• Page

. olmowledglleGI

1

Introtluotl.o a

1

Pm"poae et tht• Ian tlgt1'1loa

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pper t u.

8

ot

i·10

8

10

'

l

naly la ra, 1on 1A lta

nt.

~.a•

ut oor also 111 b.e

• • uilenbu.rs t ~ involve 1a thi in

tor h i ·

1noere e pr,e 1:1 i&n

n;v

id i n t h~

\o that.de Dootor

1oroacoplc work \or

c. :.

nroe

e·t1ona.

elp.ful

Iatr ntt · I

baa been l::no a tor e lon

bll1 ¥ ot oaloi

ion.

t lM t · .\ tM aolu-

aulf' \e 1• gri 117 t~lu.o o.4 by

the

,

ucb a

eotrelyl • • wJth

o:t

nob • oaloi

obl.orlde, oaloima byttrozlcle•

peat.a

aw.tale • .u41

auit'ale, ••·• HD4 to 4eor-eu:e \be

ol11l>Uti7 . ~

l

ONOO Wl4 8oh®ltmlll1R'a

ve1 .• a.

saa..

he ao1 · 11111

...a-

t hu

3 C . ue-ron an.4 · 14811 exaa-

it ~· - 1n pure • .t e r.

1.neo t ne etfeo t

or

ma,;Iieai u

ehlori do ~fron t l tc aolub i l •

ity of c u.lei inore a sed up t o a soltrti nn ch loride per liter ,.

deer P.ae ·• c loi

Ctlit\-tt it.d .

Fr or.:i t h a.t poitrt tl o oolu'h i l 1 t y 1.s

· 1 ae:l and " 1t b

S'Ult'fit . 1o s

3

ex ~in ·d t~f.t .·olub111\7 ot

ution!I> of' Vhr1out1 elect:rolytAs .

·J..h~ fo . cl t hnt ut • 5°c . . a ri&XlllUll ocoura 1.n lhe ovve

tor 'the aolubil11

ot caloiua

lt'ale 1

Hd.1

or pot .,.._

g:nea1um nitrate waa tound to

a1wa nit~ t e aolutions..

li

eeuN a gradu l 1nore

1a t he aolubil.1t7 or o lolwa

em.eron

4 .r

"'r0Ui£14

aolubil1i ;:,r of c l c i usn sult ot

1n

that

t

25°c. ••

clutiona·or aimoa1•

cbl.or1de or nitrll t e 1ncre -BG& un t:11 a o :rtnln t 10D. of el•otr l.yte ia re o.n.Cf4.

t he conoeatr tio

o.f

1A t e o l ei • sult

co1104.i1.n-e-

A .t'ul'1;her 1 .ore.aae 1n

t he leo-trolJI• o ana a doereaae

t•.

O•t• . ._r; i'mmd tha t oalolmt

l.t'e te 1• IIDJ.l'a soluble

ill .l JI hylrocbl.or1o or .1 Ii nttrto e.o14 , . an ill water.

The aol.ub1l.1't1 deo.re-fl.a••• ho1re'Yer. a• lbe

z• .PJl.7a.,

a Cftlieron s s.1o.e11

•n4 s.1,11, ~. Pb¥•·

' c-itoa

.QJMl

and.

14911.

Brown. :r. Pllya.

o.14 oonceo.-

e,s. (1901 ) . c -~ e, , 9:s, (ltOtl. Chem..,. s, aio. (t:siot}.

I O.l•al4. J. !Taki. Chea.• CZ).

hea •• ti,

as,,

u.

U.8M}.

-atra l1oa l ncreaaee. eolub111ty

t ouad I

~

o

r on an_d Br eazeale6 examined the

C

01

u lt t e i n s ulrur1c s c1 d.

ul:turlo ao1d 1noreasea t he

t

:atuaber ot • x1:m · ....,l&IO

au t h ·_ • , -d ue to tbe t or

ue .

They

olub llity

ot

points oooUl" i n

ooording to the

tion or o

:plex Iona

uch

oTe a

C (SO,&}a- e.a4 BGa( u04)a•

T t l be pre eno ot aalt a with a oa n ton t enda l o 4eor•••e tbe aol ub tllt7 ot o lot a ull' \ e ha b en. s hown by

_ry workers .

1, h9 tound t u t

~ id ll and

oalob•

111v t e 4eorea ae

the aolub111'ty or c ulo1 _ aul.-

t at e .

'ull1Tan8 found t bat. 112: dilute aolutiona

or

o-

•1• aultate , the aolub111' Y ot oalo1 aill '• r• ehe • ldAl.llua.- Tabel" en4 U.ll.9 oonltaued ttlla inY at.t ll~a

uainc Jam"• oonoentra ted aolutlou ot ...o t

Tba7 1'oun4 t •ult ••

hlt. 6

llter.

c...roa

at•

aa4 Breau

ta

z.

•• 1. Playa ...

Nll/l-r . Obelt. aoo ••

t Ta.NI" •114 84111, l .

aultale re obea

r ....a. c-r011



11111-.a,

0 1a

!'bey •lalll t hat • • t llta potnl a

caso,•c1111.,.>a506 •8BaO,

f Ibid .

·8

]Mil"

t , . aolu.b Ult J

e · t te.

o-.•• '•

2,.

5

bl•

aDC1

5tl. (1905).

, (1906).

" •• Chea., 10, U t, (ltOI).

s etd 1110 ex aod1 C

tn d the ert ect or c ale1

ul1's t

,a s tow:ul to o uoo a gr a du

aol·u b 111ty.

1 er

•·odt

a· 1n lbe eono n t r a t t en

f ound t o ea

or

odtu:

ult'a te cum

in the sclub111\y o:r oulct, . aul

nd. Bellll t oUJMl t hol 1n t b

nea1

aolub111ty curve . y

111 y or o

1

t he ett ot

or

ult''.

on

\h

sod1

4

tr

Ce

8D

ron 1n1-

In onother ortt cl 11 ,h y

rox1d

o u

eor

in t

d Taber 13 to _n4

ault ...to.

1n the aolub111t7

urpoao ot 1:hia 1nvea't1

fte

te .

ulto.te pro no

t:b I oo l}er &ulta t

01

B

aod.1

1norea

ol

ulfnte w

deer u

ol ub 111 t :y u.nt1l n con.oentrct t on ot 1'1 . ,

4 er aae i h the

ot

nd

eolub i llty of oolctuo ultot .

on t

o1um ehlorld

i n th

cbl ortd

tlon •

t o de1er lne

ob1o~14e on the aolubi ltty of o 1 o, 1t po o1ble , the

<lon t

r tt ture ror

-

ttoet of • od1

, au·

•-

1 0 ll>l:4 .

ll c....roa end Bel1; l. , tqa. la oaawroa 4 Bell. J ., r. 1$ Bell.. and. Ti b .r , l. .· Ph.7 . . Ob

o, 41»06). • oo., ae, l.UO, (1 • ll, ea, ' ().907).

••

10 ,

)

.

ildon and · 'ba aat one

eulol

ault te in aodl

14

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. 446

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Ol

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. ~M• ""-4.'I

olullon • .,0

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.450

...

rta

olutloa

.,

.,1,.

• 0 .,1,. 416-

.ua••1 5

C

per l

CaS04

A



.'17

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..,..,,'

t

-16-

ao0 .MO .. M4.3"3-

.3M

A.Te.

90°

.·..a.''...

. 315

.M&-

.Sl5

.MS

. 5lt

.:.16 . 3 16

. Sl5-

. 3 12.AYtt .

.SIG

Aaa17ala ti Pereenl HeCl 6olullon 4,00

uo

o.O&p

a.1 ··

eo0 :s.1

11B.lyaia 10 Peroea1i NaCl t,ol ut1on

,oo

~

10.09·'

l 0 .05Jii

600

Allalyala l& Penea\ gO

nalya1• 20 Peroent

,o• AIMllyale

~

a.cl

old loo

eo0 16.~

Cl

olutlon

ss• ao.1

ao.1~

...

10.a ,

1,.-.

16.te;.

4,0D

,oo

0

a&

.Per. .Dt

.... gO

to0

ao.soj aCl Solution

...... ,oo

·

ot 'tll 1d. ) lur

• 5

l utlon •

ot

15 '

lO;.

ol u.tlon

0

o 1 J!

·01ut 1on

hY

J)

,,o

p

&

800

oo

1t e

ydri e

'3

0

70

Sol tton

bydr11 ,..,...

_ .... _...

.. drlte

dr 11 1

1 l

41'11

41'11•

tt

,.

Fi9u.re I. · £/feet o/ Sodium Chloride Concentration . 011 Solubility of CaS04.

O.G

.

I I

~

........ C)

\

~

\

C)

\

....

~

.... ~

o.s

~

\1

Q,..,

-"" () ()

,Q,.., ~

x lllat ol 7 l a . t> percent or a od1wa chloride.

C

ron

ae r ound

b111 i y oocur G 1n a peroent

or

aocl1

1trn t e l 23

oc.

t he maxlaUD&

olu-

olutlon oonla lning npprox ble t l y l ~. o

ohlor-14e.

Al

~a0 c. he round

aolub1l 1 t y . to ooour lo a aolullon o ontn ln lng

13. a pero nl ot aodl

oblorid.e .

x1•wa pproxl s tel7 &Y

Tllc.ltJn and ~henatone

r o}?Ql"l-ed i ~ 1t I.bey round t he aol ub1l 1 t y or o tt lol

l o re Cih a

ao 0 c. peroenl or t

prox1r&al e l 7 16.1

ln a aolullon oont a lnlng ap-

ao4l

olllorlh.

oble l ne-d by Caa rOII are la aocarct •lU1 t ho• l b•

o t lned •Y

\lllllol'.

la Fla . a will abow 1110,, wl \ h a 10 peraenl

aolutt:on,

\be

oon•eralon or gy

a blS)Mtr leap r \ ur

,h.un wtt b

c.-.r•.

ftl• art1ole.

4,

oun••

041

ohl orl4e

\o ttftbJdr 1 te ooova a, or ,b other tt0lu\loaa

oblor14ti a-ol utlo • M

Tb• Yaluea

P.a•

• , !'114ea . .. 6 MUI-One . ftl • artlole. P •••

-a.alure •ould. be obta lae4.

Theee ob•ena l1ona m.ny bo expl.nlned on ta ba•1• ot double eal t torae tt on. Uitte 28

ha• aolt.tal ly 4 ault lea aa

on.trnl•d the ex1a"tenoe ot such double

o~o, •llaa50,.a8 0.

S.-Uoh a Rbat ance would

baYe lhe tollowlng at r uoiural t'onrul a , Ila

ca

Tbe tar11&tlon

ot au•h

••

"ao I

ft

""I .804

1n1balonoe

7 t ake plaoe aocord•

taa \o the toll()Wlng -.ua,1on 1

acaso4 +

eel

-'r

ca80, ·• •aao,

-1-

c.018 •

TIie 4ouble aalt f'"oJ'llad woul.4 'tlln probal>lJ 10ll1M u 1'011....

ca804 •w.,so, ~ ••++cac o,>i-. 11111GJ be lb I 1n • la.I peooat aoa.u ohlo.ri4e aolutlon the tCll'llla'l1on ot ••• a 40tlble att.11 t; akaa pl oe w11h 111-

lle or ao 41tt1cult)".

In



N

dllu,e aodl

olllorl4• aola-

CS.OSMI tbe oonMntrallon or aal.\ uy be too lo• to eauae ton1e:lloa ot lbe 4ouble wltate.

aolu11.oea

tu

Jl"••.n" or

ID aore conoentra\e4

luge a110uat• or aa41

oblorl4e

would lta:.J.y ten4 to r eprea, a ~t only tho 1oalsa,1oa

ae

o-.,. a.a•• U6. 1,. ""· (1816).

Dllte. (?),

eM.

(1818)a JJm. Chlll.

or

PbJ•··

--'tbe oaloium clll.or1de. but alao thnl

rate.

or

the double aul-

It a ay e tia1ly be Hen the t the tin41 reault

ould

be tht1t Iba t'oraal1on or bolh the ooloium ohlor1de nnd

,n

double ault'11 tie would be l argely preYea-te a.

In other

worda the e qu111br1ua 1n the t1rst equation would be

4laplaoed to the left \o a Tery l arge exlenl. lbe oonoenlretion ot aodhm oblorlde at\y beo that the ooourronce ot auob a reoct1on

IA8)"

,1aall7, s o high

be preYon'l,ed.

Ir, 1n a ~.G peroent aodlum ohlorlde aolut1on, oondltiona are ,he a oat t a'l'ol'sble ror such a r eaction \o oocur, then it la to be expeo'ted tbttt the aolubtl1ty

oalol

or

aul:tate woul.4 be greater in auob a aolu11oo.

That tbe 4ou'bl.e Mllt'ete 11ay bs•e aOlle etteo'\ on tbe

t:rua111on betnen UP•• uad aaby4rite, oauatns ll to

ooov a, a higher teape.r alu.,

1 Rlao be expeoleu.

llenllon aboul4 btt aa4e or '&1te auilaa polata wbloll

ooour 1a

tu

ounee tor lbe aolvb111i1 ot oalotum aultah

la ao all4 d P4tro•nt ao41'Ull •blOJ."161 eolutiona.

Tb•

ooeurreaoe ot lbeae pointa la prob ably due ,o the to.1'1118tlon ot a quant1\J ot ao1u,10 anbyc1.t"1te.

Soluble ....

IQ'drlte la a -'laa,a,l• ..-art.elJ' ot ubJ'dr'oaa oalo1m aul.t"ale t"orae4 r.roa

OpMIII

at ll1gb.er t-perniurea.

-M-

· --ry

The aolubUily ot

001011111

ault te 111 ao41Qlh oblori4e

ao1u,1ona neohea a llflX1ma, ree;ar4le••

or

teaper ature. 1n

a a.o1u,1oa oonta1n.1n& approxtmatelf l&.O peroen, or salt. The VMalt1on l•peralure ror gypaua an4 allhyclrlle

pl"O'babl7 n aohea a aaxlaua Ya lue • 1th a ao1u,1on oonta.111-

tnc la.5 peroen\ ot aod1ua oblortde. The•• obeenatlon.a aa7 be expla.lned b7 tb.e .tor11a-

llon of double aolta auoh a C&S04•XaaBo,.

l.

oaooe d tic orl · · r 1 n a\ 1 on -d1t 1ou , lw.Galll an Publ.1 hlq co., 6e140cll . Z . Pb.:y • Che • , 5 , 643 , (1901 ) •



be14oll

4

L

ya . c

1tb. J .

ron nnd Brown , 1 . Phy • c

4.

C

G.

...

Oat wal d , Z .

7.

1'b14 . 3 .

• C

al .

r.

• 9.

ell . :1,. V.

4

10.

1b14. 2 .

U.

C

:iron

h

4

• t

(

•,

l•

z.

9 , a10 , (1905).

9 • ' ' • (l • 0

.. liN •• ·?,

• C

..,

r.

a--.

••

v.

16.

Tlld n

10.

Cl oaz. Bull.

10.

o

1,.

D• An . .i ae. Bull . soo. O.h

18.

1b14. 1.

19.

a.uor.

rello C

a •• ae •

• OM.II. . III,

Piqa. c

• (U.

).

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