The Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series Series Editors: Akira Iriye, Professor of History at Harvard University, and Rana Mitterr, Professor of the History and Politics of Modern China at the University of Oxford This distinguished series seeks to: develop scholarship on the transnational connections of societies and peoples in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; provide a forum in which work on transnational history from different periods, subjects, and regions of the world can be brought together in fruitful connection; and explore the theoretical and methodological links between transnational and other related approaches such as comparative history and world history. Editorial Board: Thomas Bender, University Professor of the Humanities, Professor of History, and Director of the International Center for Advanced Studies, New York University; Jane Carruthers, Professor of History, University of South Africa; Mariano Plotkin, Professor, Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, Buenos Aires, and member of the National Council of Scientific and Technological Research, Argentina; Pierre-Yves Saunier, Researcher at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France and Visiting Professor at the University of Montreal; Ian Tyrrell, Professor of History, University of New South Wales. Titles include: Gregor Benton and Edmund Terence Gomez THE CHINESE IN BRITAIN, 1800–PRESENT Economy, Transnationalism and Identity Manu Bhagavan INDIA AND THE QUEST FOR ONE WORLD The Peacemakers Sugata Bose and Kris Manjapra (editors) COSMOPOLITAN THOUGHT ZONES South Asia and the Global Circulation of Ideas Sebastian Conrad and Dominic Sachsenmaier (editors) COMPETING VISIONS OF WORLD ORDER Global Moments and Movements, 1880s–1930s Martin Conway and Kiran Klaus Patel (editors) EUROPEANIZATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY Historical Approaches Joy Damousi, Mariano Ben Plotkin (editors) THE TRANSNATIONAL UNCONSCIOUS Essays in the History of Psychoanalysis and Transnationalism Desley Deacon, Penny Russell and Angela Woollacott (editors) TRANSNATIONAL LIVES Biographies of Global Modernity, 1700–present Jonathan Gantt IRISH TERRORISM IN THE ATLANTIC COMMUNITY, 1865–1922 Abigail Green and Vincent Viaene (editors) RELIGIOUS INTERNATIONALS IN THE MODERN WORLD Pawel Goral COLD WAR RIVALRY AND THE PERCEPTION OF THE AMERICAN WEST Per Högselius RED GAS Russia and the Origins of European Energy Dependence
Eric Hotta PAN-ASIANISM AND JAPAN’S WAR, 1931–45 Robert David Johnson (editorr) ASIA PACIFIC IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION Martin Klimke and Joachim Scharloth (editors) 1968 IN EUROPE A History of Protest and Activism, 1956–77 Erika Kuhlman RECONSTRUCTING PATRIARCHY AFTER THE GREAT WAR Women, Gender and Postwar Reconciliation between Nations Deep Kanta Lahiri Choudhury TELEGRAPHIC IMPERIALISM Crisis and Panic in the Indian Empire, c. 1830–1920 Per Lundin and Thomas Kaiserfeld (editors) THE MAKING OF EUROPEAN CONSUMPTION Facing the American Challenge Bruce Mazlish THE IDEA OF HUMANITY IN THE GLOBAL ERA Nicola Pizzolato CHALLENGING GLOBAL CAPITALISM Labor Migration, Radical Struggle, and Urban Change in Detroit and Turin Glenda Sluga THE NATION, PSYCHOLOGY, AND INTERNATIONAL POLITICS, 1870–1919 Giles Scott-Smith WESTERN ANTI-COMMUNISM AND THE INTERDOC NETWORK Cold War Internationale Mark Tilse TRANSNATIONALISM IN THE PRUSSIAN EAST From National Conflict to Synthesis, 1871–1914 Luc van Dongen, Stéphanie Roulin, and Giles Scott-Smith (editors) TRANSNATIONAL ANTI-COMMUNISM AND THE COLD WAR Agents, Activities, and Networks Richard Ivan Jobs and David M. Pomfret TRANSNATIONAL HISTORIES OF YOUTH IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
The Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series Series Standing Order ISBN 978–0–230–50746–3 Hardback 978–0–230–50747–0 Paperback (outside North America only) y You can receive future titles in this series as they are published by placing a standing order. Please contact your bookseller or, in case of difficulty, write to us at the address below with your name and address, the title of the series and one of the ISBNs quoted above. Customer Services Department, Hampshire RG21 6XS, England.
Transnational Histories of Youth in the Twentieth Century Edited by
Richard Ivan Jobs Department of History, Pacific University, Oregon, USA
David M. Pomfret Department of History, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong S.A.R.
Selection, introduction and editorial content © Richard Ivan Jobs and David M. Pomfret 2015 Individual chapters © Contributors 2015 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 2015 978-1-137-46989-2 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No portion of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. First published 2015 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN Palgrave Macmillan in the UK is an imprint of Macmillan Publishers Limited, registered in England, company number 785998, of Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS. Palgrave Macmillan in the US is a division of St Martin’s Press LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the above companies and has companies and representatives throughout the world. Palgrave® and Macmillan® are registered trademarks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and other countries. ISBN 978-1-137-69178-4 ISBN 978-1-137-46990-8 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-1-137-46990-8 This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. Logging, pulping and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.
For Greta, Ezra, Damon and Neve
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Contents List of Figures
Series Editors’ Preface
Notes on Contributors
The Transnationality of Youth Richard Ivan Jobs and David M. Pomfret
1 Youth and Rural Modernity in Japan, 1900s–20s Sayaka Chatani
2 Boy Scouts under the Aztec Sun: Mexican Youth and the Transnational Construction of Identity, 1917–40 Elena Jackson Albarrán
3 ‘These Heroic Days’: Marxist Internationalism, Masculinity, and Young British Scientists, 1930s–40s Heather Ellis
4 ‘A Malayan Girlhood on Parade’: Colonial Femininities, Transnational Mobilities, and the Girl Guide Movement in British Malaya Jialin Christina Wu
5 ‘Colonial Circulations’: Vietnamese Youth, Travel, and Empire, 1919–40 David M. Pomfret 6 Youth Mobility and the Making of Europe, 1945–60 Richard Ivan Jobs 7 On the Revolutionary Road: Youth, Displacements, and Politics in the ‘Long’ Latin American Sixties Valeria Manzano vii
8 Movement Youth in a Global Sixties Hub: The Everyday Lives of Transnational Activists in Postcolonial Dar es Salaam Andrew Ivaska
Part III Identities 9 ‘Belonging to Many Homes’: Argentine Sephardi Youth in Buenos Aires and Israel, 1956–76 Adriana M. Brodsky 10
Swinging across the Iron Curtain and Moscow’s Summer of Love: How Western Youth Culture Went East Juliane Fürst
Deng’s Children: Chinese ‘Youth’ and the 1989 Movement Fabio Lanza
A Transnational Generation: Franco-Maghribi Youth Culture and Musical Politics in the Late Twentieth Century Paul A. Silverstein
Afterword Akira Iriye
List of Figures 2.1 2.2 2.3 9.1 9.2 9.3
The Aztec calendar and the Asociación de Exploradores Mexicanos logo that it inspired Template of the uniform and equipment for an ideal Explorer American children dressed as ‘typical’ Mexicans, 1941 Invitation to 3rd Seder, 1963 Israeli Festival, 1963 Tejezakna’s Argentine-Israeli Festival, 1966
53 57 61 220 224 225
Series Editors’ Preface ‘Youth is like early spring, like the rising sun, like trees and grass in bud, like a newly sharpened blade. It is the most valuable period of life.’ So wrote the Chinese political thinker Chen Duxiu, a future founder of the Chinese Communist Party, in 1915. His words expressed a feeling that was in some ways new and exciting in the China of the early twentieth century, that it might not be in the venerable Confucian elders of the country that salvation lay, but rather in the contributions of the next generation. That sense of excitement runs through this groundbreaking collection of essays which gives a powerful and often surprising view of the power of youth to shape modern history. The transnational element is at the heart of the enterprise, and as the editors point out, youth often considered itselff more transnational than the older generations, with dreams and aspirations that pointed to mobility and possibility. Transnational organizations, of course, were also central to the idea of youth self-actualization, the Boy Scouts being among the groups that found a place in locations as far apart as Japan and Belgium. But flows were not always structured in terms of organizations; music was a force for youthful encounter, as was fashion. (The stilyagi (hipsters) of the mid-Cold War period who caused such a stir in buttoned-up Moscow made enough of a splash to be remembered decades later in a hit 2008 Russian film.) Many of the key themes of modern social history are here, race and gender among them. For young women and men also imagined themselves in a whole variety of ways, some sharing similarity of taste and preference across cultural and geographical boundaries, others tied up in phenomena deeply shaped by their own location. For transnational youth, the global and the local came together in powerful and often unexpected ways. The study of youth is a field still in formation. What youth is, when it begins, and when it ends, remain questions yet to be fully answered. In our own century, when medical advances and hygiene have meant that it is commoner to live into later decades than our ancestors could have imagined, we should remember that the idea of a lengthy youth lasting into one’s 20s might have seemed odd to generations who might expect to live only into their 40s or a little beyond. The twentieth century marks the first historical occasion when large swathes of youth around the globe, even in parts of the world where life expectancy had been low, were able to conduct lives long enough to make youth a topic worthy of study. Despite the wars and destruction that marked that last century, the emergence of youth as a subject of enquiry should be a cause for celebration. That a collection such as this could exist, showing connection, flow and influence between youth in different places and different times, should also be celebrated. x
Acknowledgments Transnational Histories of Youth in the Twentieth Centuryy was made possible with generous support from the Faculty of Arts of the University of Hong Kong in the form of a grant from the Louis Cha Fund, and from Hong Kong Research Grants Council General Research Fund (project reference: HKU 748413) and from the Hong Kong S.A.R. University Grants Committee Teaching Excellence Award. We are also grateful to additional financial support provided by the Department of History and the School of Humanities at the University of Hong Kong. This book developed out of a four-panel strand organized at the Society for the History of Childhood and Youth (SCHY) conference ‘The State of Children: Politics and Policies of Childhood in Global Perspective’, held at Columbia University in June 2011. At this meeting we were able to identify 14 participants for our larger project, then called ‘A Transnational Age’. We then invited those selected to participate in a dedicated workshop held at the University of Hong Kong in June 2012. We also hosted a panel entitled ‘Transnational Histories of Youth’ at the snowswept January 2014 meeting of the American Historical Association. We would like to thank all of the 2011 SHCY panelists, commentators, and audiences for their input, the 2012 Hong Kong workshop participants for their productive effort, and the volume’s final contributors for their cooperation, good humor, and support throughout the project. We would also like to thank the series editors Professor Akira Iriye and Professor Rana Mitter for their enthusiasm and support and the editorial staff at Palgrave Macmillan, particularly Jen McCall, for their expert help in preparing the book for publication. This book benefited greatly from the input of anonymous reviewers and we would like to take this opportunity to thank both for their comments on the original manuscript. As we put together the final manuscript – in the midst of the dramatic early days of the Hong Kong pro-democracy protests of 2014 – the assitance of Zardas Lee Shuk-man, Research Associate for the Transnational Histories of Youth project, was invaluable. We should also like to thank Ruby Leung Nga-ching for her able assistance in the organization of the Columbia conference strand, the running of the workshop at The University of Hong Kong in 2012 and the preparation of the index for this book. We thank Wilhelmina Ko Yuk-hang for the superb artwork created to publicize the Hong Kong workshop, and for the production and maintenance of the ‘Transnational Age’ project website. Finally, special thanks are also due to the following for their encouragement, advice, and support: Kimberly Brodkin, Bonnie Smith, John Gillis, Helen E. Meller, Daniel Chua, Kam Louie, Leslie Paris, Mona Gleason, and Jim Marten. xi
Notes on Contributors
Elena Jackson Albarrán received her PhD in history from the University of Arizona. She is currently Assistant Professor of History and Latin American Studies at Miami University of Ohio. Her book Seen and Heard in Mexico: Children and Revolutionary Cultural Nationalism (2015) explores the role of children as both subjects and transmitters of new official and popular culture in the decades following Mexico’s revolution. She has published articles in The Americas, Studies in Latin American Popular Culture, and various anthologies, and is co-editor of a volume on Latin American childhood, Nuevas miradas a la historia de la infancia en América Latina: entre practices y representaciones (2012). Her current research deals with the transnational flow of children’s art. Adriana M. Brodsky is Associate Professor of Latin American History at St Mary’s College of Maryland. Her manuscript, currently under review, is entitled Becoming Argentine Jews: Sephardim and the Construction of Ethnic and National Identities, 1880–1960 and it focuses on the Sephardi groups that settled in Argentina and the communities they created. She has co-edited with Raanan Rein (Tel Aviv University) a book titled The New Jewish Argentina (2012), and has published on Sephardi schools in Argentina, and on Jewish Beauty Contests. Her new project explores the experiences of Argentine Sephardi youth in the 1960s–70s. Sayaka Chatani received a PhD from the international and global history program of Columbia University in 2014. With her background in international affairs and political science, she specializes in modern imperialism and social mobilization in twentieth-century East Asia. Her dissertation, ‘Nation-Empire: Rural Youth Mobilization in Japan, Taiwan, and Korea 1895–1945’ is a transnational comparison of youth mobilization in rural villages across the Japanese empire. She is a Max Weber postdoctoral fellow at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, in 2014–15, and will be teaching as a FASS postdoctoral fellow in the history department of the National University of Singapore in 2015–17. Heatherr Ellis is Senior Lecturer in History of Education at Liverpool Hope University. Between 2008 and 2012 she taught British History at the Humboldt University, Berlin. She is the author of Generational Conflict and University Reform: Oxford in the Age of Revolution (2012) and has recently edited two volumes on transnational history: Juvenile Delinquency and the Limits of Western Influence, 1850–2000 (2014) and (with Ulrike Kirchberger), xii
Notes on Contributors
Anglo-German Scholarly Relations in the Long Nineteenth Centuryy (2014). She has published widely on the history of education, youth, and masculinity and is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. Juliane Fürst is Senior Lecturer in Modern History at the University of Bristol. She has worked and published widely on many aspects of Soviet youth culture from the Stalin period to the time of stagnation. She is the author of the monograph Stalin’s Last Generation: Soviet Youth and the Emergence of Mature Socialism (2010) and the editor of Late Stalinist Russia: Society between Reconstruction and Reinvention (2006). She is the Principal Investigator of an AHRC project titled ‘Dropping out of Socialism’, which looks at alternative cultures all across Eastern Europe and investigates their similarities, differences, mechanism, and role in shaping late socialism. For the last seven years she has been on the Soviet hippie trail and is currently writing a book on her Explorations in the Soviet Hippieland. Akira Iriye is Charles Warren Professor of American History, Emeritus, Harvard University. He served as President of the American Historical Association in 1988. He is the author of numerous books, including Cultural Internationalism and World Orderr (1997) and Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World (2002). Andrew Ivaska received his PhD from the University of Michigan and is Associate Professor of History at Concordia University in Montreal. His early research focused on urban struggles around gender, global culture, youth, modernity and the state in colonial and postcolonial Tanzania. This work culminated in his monograph, Cultured States: Youth, Gender, and Modern Style in 1960s Dar es Salaam (2011), which won the 2012 Bethwell A. Ogot Prize for Best Book in Eastern African Studies, sponsored by the African Studies Association. His current book project is titled, Africa’s Liberation Capital: Dar es Salaam and Political Exile in a Global 1960s. Richard Ivan Jobs is Professor of Modern European History at Pacific University in Oregon. His recent publications include Riding the New Wave: Youth and Rejuvenation of France after the Second World Warr (2007), and a 2009 article in the American Historical Review, ‘Youth Movements: Travel, Protest, and Europe in 1968’, from his current book project ‘Backpack Ambassadors: How Youth Travel Integrated Western Europe’. He is the recipient of numerous awards, honors, and fellowships in support of his research and teaching including the Outstanding Academic Title from Choice for his book, the William Koren Jr Prize for the best article in French history, the Arnold and Lois Graves Award in the Humanities, a Bourse Chateaubriand from the French government, an NEH grant, and the Fulbright-Schuman Fellowship in European Affairs.
xiv Notes on Contributors
Fabio Lanza is Associate Professor of Modern Chinese History in the Departments of History and East Asian Studies of the University of Arizona. His main research interests are political movements and urban history of twentieth-century China. He is the author of Behind the Gate: Inventing Students in Beijingg (2010) and co-editor (with Jadwiga Pieper-Mooney) of De-centering Cold War History Local and Global Changee (2013). He is currently completing a manuscript on Maoism, Asian Studies, and intellectual activism in the US and France and has just started a new project on Beijing urban space under Maoism. Valeria Manzano is Associate Professor of History at the Instituto de Estudios Sociales (Universidad de San Martín) and an associate researcher at the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina. She is the author of The Age of Youth in Argentina: Culture, Politics, and Sexuality from Perón to Videla (2014), as well numerous articles on youth, politics, and sexuality in Argentina. She is currently working on a book manuscript on the cultural and political history of illegal drugs in twentieth-century Argentina. David M. Pomfret is Associate Professor in the Department of History at the University of Hong Kong. His research interests are in nineteenth and twentieth century European history, with a particular focus upon the comparative and transnational history of childhood and youth in Europe and its empires. His publications include Young People and the European City: Age Relations in Nottingham and Saint-Etienne (2004), and the collections Imperial Contagions (with Robert Peckham, 2013) and Diasporic Chineseness after the Rise of China (with Julia Kuehn and Kam Louie, 2013). Paul A. Silverstein is Professor of Anthropology at Reed College (Portland, OR). He is author of Algeria in France: Transpolitics, Race and Nation (2004) and co-editor of Bourdieu in Algeria: Colonial Politics, Ethnographic Practices, Theoretical Developments (2009). A 2008 Carnegie Scholar, his current research focuses on Amazigh activism, racial politics, and migrant labor in southeastern Morocco and the broader Berber diaspora. He is co-editor of the book series Public Cultures of the Middle East and North Africa at Indiana University Press. Jialin Christina Wu is a doctoral candidate in History at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (France) and the Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). She is the recipient of a scholarship (Bourse d’aspirant) from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, (Belgium). Her dissertation, entitled ‘Youth in Movement: Scouts and Guides in British Malaya (1910–1966)’, analyzes the social, cultural, and political impact of colonial Scouting and Guiding in Malaya. Her other research interests include colonial studies of Southeast Asia, childhood and women’s experiences in colonial contexts and the history of colonial medicine in the construction of alterity.