The EU Raw Materials Initiative

The EU Raw Materials Initiative - Research and Innovation in view of Critical Raw Materials for the EU - Rare Metals as bottlenecks in the supply cha...
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The EU Raw Materials Initiative - Research and Innovation in view of Critical Raw Materials for the EU -

Rare Metals as bottlenecks in the supply chain of low-carbon energy technologies Brussels, 16December 2010

European Commission Enterprise and Industry European Commission Enterprise and Industry

Antje Wittenberg Metals, Minerals, Raw Materials RMI | A. Wittenberg | 03.12.2010 | 1/26

World Metal Price

1995-2010

6.08.2010 accident in a small size Cu-mine, Chile

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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The Raw Materials Initiative Integrated strategy  based on three pillars  support by R&D and innovation

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

Ensuring access to raw materials from International Markets under the same conditions as other industrial competitors

Right framework conditions within the EU

Boosting resource efficiency and recycling

in order to foster sustainable supply from European sources

to reduce the EU's consumption of primary raw materials

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Define critical raw materials

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Methodology  41 raw materials analysed  Time horizon: 10 years  A pragmatic approach  Three main aggregated indicators ►

economic importance



supply risks



environmental country risks

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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41 raw materials analysed Aluminum

Antimony

Barytes

Bauxite

Bentonite

Beryllium

Borates

Chromium

Clays (incl. kaolin)

Cobalt

Copper

Diatomite

Feldspar

Fluorspar

Gallium

Germanium

Graphite

Gypsum

Indium

Iron ore

Limestone

Lithium

Magnesite

Magnesium

Manganese Perlite

Molybdenum Nickel Platinum Group Metals (PGMs)

Rare earths (REE)

Rhenium

Silica sand

Silver

Talc

Tantalum

Tellurium

Titanium

Tungsten

Vanadium

Niobium

Zinc European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Economic importance Importance for economic value chain and emerging (key) technologies  Renewable energy: solar cells, wind turbines  Energy efficiency: hybrid and electric cars, LED lighting, batteries  Electronics: flat screens, mobile phones  Aerospace: light weight alloys European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Emerging technologies Raw material

Production 2006 [t]

Demand emerging tech. 2006 [t]

Demand emerging tech. 2030 [t]

Gallium

152

28

603

Indium

581

234

Germanium

100

Neodymium

Demand/ prod. 2030

Factor

0.18

3.97

22

1.911

0.40

3.29

8.2

28

220

0.28

2.20

7.9

16.800

4.000

27.900

0.23

1.66

7.2

Platinum

255

very small

345

0

1.35

Tantalum

1.384

551

1.410

0.40

1.02

2.5

Silver

19.051

5.342

15.823

0.28

0.83

2.9

Cobalt

62.279

12.820

26.860

0.21

0.43

2.1

Palladium

267

23

77

0.09

0.29

3.2

Titanium

7.211.000

15.397

58.148

0.08

0.29

3.6

Copper

15.093.000

1.410.000

3.696.070

0.09

0.24

2.7

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

Demand/ prod. 2006

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Emerging technologies

(2)

Raw material

Emerging technologies

Antimony

Antimony-Tin-Oxide (~ In-Sn-O), micro capacitors

Cobalt

Li-ion batteries, synthetic fuels

Gallium

Semi-conductors, thin layer photovoltaics, IC, WLED

Germanium

Fibre optic cable, IR optical technology

Indium

Displays, thin layer photovoltaics

Platinum (PGM)

Fuel cells, catalysts

Palladium (PGM)

Catalysts, seawater desalination

Niobium

Micro capacitors, ferroalloys

Neodymium (REE) Permanent magnets, laser technology Tantalum European Commission Enterprise and Industry

Micro capacitors, medical technology

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US-Report  • Permanent magnets (used in wind turbines and electric vehicles)  • Advanced batteries (used in electric vehicles)  • Thin-film semiconductors (used in photovoltaic power systems)  • Phosphors (used in high-efficiency lighting systems) European Commission Enterprise and Industry

RMI | A. Wittenberg | 03.12.2010 | 10/26

US

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

RMI | A. Wittenberg | 03.12.2010 | 11/26

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Critical raw materials High supply risks  High share of the worldwide production ►

China (antimony, fluorspar, gallium, germanium, graphite, indium, magnesium, REE, tungsten)



Russia (PGM)



Congo (cobalt, tantalum)



Brazil (niobium, tantalum)

 Low substitutability ►

REE, PGM

 Low recycling rates ►

When used in very low concentrations

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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e an ng e M ao n i t nt Be ne to d e s sa n L imli caSi

0,10 0,60

Va na di

Tu

ng

n

se

European Commission Enterprise and Industry 1,10 s te

um

1,60 2,10 2,60

Ra

re

Ea

r th

s

l li u m Ma gn es i um An ti m on y Ge rm an i um

Ga

di u m Be ry ll i Ni um ob iu m

In

M Gr ap F lu h i t or e sp ar

PG

Zi T C o n c i t an pp ium A lu Nie r m c ke Te in u l l lu m ri u I B a m T ro n an ux ta R h Mitoe lu m B oe n iu ly b d ra t m en e um Co ba l C h L itth r o iu m m M a iu m gn es i te

Environmental country risk Ranking of eligible raw materials according to their environmental country risk

REE

3,10 3,60 4,10

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Risk analysis Clays

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

Zinc

RMI | A. Wittenberg | 03.12.2010 | 15/26

Risk analysis Lithium

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

REE

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Critical raw materials 5,0 Rare Earths 4,5

4,0 PGM 3,5

Supply Risk

3,0 Germanium 2,5

Antimony

Niobium

Magnesium Gallium

Indium

2,0

Tungsten Fluorspar

Barytes

1,5

Beryllium

Graphite Cobalt

Tantalum

1,0

0,5

Diatomite

Perlite

Talc 0,0 3,0

4,0

Clays

5,0

6,0

Magnesite

Rhenium

Lithium Limestone Borate Gypsum Bentonite Silica Silver Copper Feldspar Titanium

Tellurium Iron

7,0

8,0

Chromium Vanadium

Molybdenum Manganese Zinc Nickel Aluminum Bauxite 9,0

10,0

Economic Importance

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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14 critical raw materials Graphite

Fluorspar

Platinum Group Metals (PGM)

Rare Earth Elements (REE)

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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R&D - preliminary findings

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Material Flows  raw materials avilibility ► Primary

raw materials – bas metal and by-product relationship (e.g. Zn – In)

► Recovery ► Urban

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

rate and reclyling

mining and landfills

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Thank you for your attention ! References: Report on critical raw materials: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/raw-materials/critical/index_en.htm Report on best practices in area of land use planning, permitting and geological knowledge: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/raw-materials/sustainable-supply/index_en.htm Natura 2000 guidelines: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/management/guidance_en.htm Trade raw materials activity report 2009: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2010/june/tradoc_146207.pdf Communication on the EU 2020 Flagship Initiative Innovation Union: http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/innovation-union-communication_en.pdf

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Recommendations Two types of recommendations 

follow-up and further support



policy-oriented recommendations (areas where measures should be undertaken)

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Follow up and further support  Up-date the list every 5 years and enlarge the scope  Improve the availability and quality of statistical information and prepare a Yearbook  Carry out further studies, e.g. competition to land use, « cradle-to-grave » LCAs, emerging technologies  Establish a sub-group of the Raw Material Supply Group on criticality European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Policy-oriented

(2)

 Recycling ►

Improve collection



Prevent illegal exports of End-of-Life products



Promote research

 Substitution ►

Promote research

 Material Efficiency ►

Minimise the raw material used



Minimise raw material losses

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

RMI | A. Wittenberg | 03.12.2010 | 25/26

1,E+02

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

hed stone Gr av S ands el an d pe Mon b bl es ume Lim ntal s t one estones a Clay ggr egat e s and s shale Calc s areo us m Dolomi t e a s si Mar b le an ve st one d t ra vert in e Gr Sand anit st o n e Mar b S l la e t a e Natu ral b nd t raver it ume t ine n / as pha Gr an lt it e tot al Othe Sil ic Gy r che mi ca psum an a sands l and d fer tili anhydrit e ser m Mar b l e ag inerals greg ates Kaol in Chal k Fir ec Kaol la y initi c cl ays Prec Abra ious sives / sem i- pr e cious Nat ural Bent onit e p st on es (e hosphat e cl . in s Prec ds. diam ious meta onds) ls Ir on tot al (excl . roa sted Mixtu i ron pyr it e r es o f e. g s) s Alum l ag i nium Unr o Nick asted el i Lead ron pyri te , zi nc s and t in Ot he Co r non -f erro pper us m etal tot al

Crus

volume [kg] 1,E+10

Construction Materials Industrial Minerals Metals

1,E+09

1,E+07 1,E+06

1,E+06 1,E+05

1,E+05 1,E+04

1,E+03

value [tds. €]

NE Extractive Industry EU27 1,E+08

1,E+07

1,E+08

1,E+04

1,E+03

1,E+02

volume [kg]

value [tds €]

EU 2007, Eurostat last up date 09/09/2010

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Efficiency & recycling

3rd pillar

 Huge potential of EU’s Urban Mines  Tackle illegal shipment of waste to third countries through a more harmonised enforcement of Waste Shipment Regulation  Develop best practices in the area of collection and treatment of key waste streams  Develop eco-design measures aimed at fostering more efficient use of raw materials in products European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Increase resource efficiency

3rd pillar

 The Commission plans to publish a Roadmap on how to move towards a resource efficient Europe by summer 2011.  The roadmap will set out specific resource efficiency objectives, and how to meet them, based on actions up to 2020 with a time perspective of up to 2050.

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

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Promote research

2nd pillar

 Under FP7 new funding opportunities have recently been created for projects on: ► Advanced

underground technologies for intelligent mining

► Substitution

of critical raw materials

► Coordination

of activities in Member States in the area of the industrial handling of raw material

European Commission Enterprise and Industry

RMI | A. Wittenberg | 03.12.2010 | 29/26

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