The difference between Canadian and British English

The difference between Canadian and British English Edited by Elaine Gold and Janice McAlpine Presented by Bernadett Szalai Background, including d...
Author: Baldwin Houston
31 downloads 0 Views 684KB Size
The difference between Canadian and British English Edited by Elaine Gold and Janice McAlpine

Presented by Bernadett Szalai

Background, including demographic and geographical information 

Canada is the second largest nation in the world, occupying almost ten million square kilometers; Culturally, Canada are diveded by several nations

Demographical backgrounds Demographically, the population of 29,639,035  the population is geographically concentrated along the southern border. Most Canadians live within two hundred kilometres of the U.S.-Canadian border.  Canadians are highly urbanized but also overwhelmingly middle-class 

Demographic information 

Canada has an astounding number of „nonofficial‟ languages as well Mother Tongue








English and non-official language




Totals (English)




Phonology 

Canadian English (CE) forms one branch of North American English, but it has distinctive phonological features:  CE has only one low back vowel phoneme where most other standard varieties of English have two. In most of the United States, for example, the words listed  below are distinguished from one another in this way [ɑ]




Dotter Don cot 

daughter dawn caught

the phonological distinction does not exist in Canada, and the words in both lists have the same vowel. The vowel is usually (but not always) the unrounded [ ɑ ] so that cot and caught are both pronounced /kɑt/, don and Dawn both / dɑn /. Canadian Raising (Chambers 1973)Pronouciation of wife, mice, right, house, couch, and about. Canadians pronounce the diphthongs in these words in a singular way, so that outsiders sometimes claim that they are saying, for example, aboot the hoose for „about the house.‟

Syntax CE conforms to wirld-wide standards;  Standard English grammar varies little from country to country;  Nonstandard grammatical constructions in CE they are usually not Canadian innovations but carryovers from regional dialects in the British Isles. 

 after

+ present participle is heard in Newfoundland (Clarke 1997)

„Mary’s after telling us about it=Mary has recently finished telling us” 

ever exclamation

„Does John ever drive fast! and Is John ever stupid!”  ‟cep‟fer

complementizer (Chambers 1987) phological reproduction of except for „We could sit on the floor cep’fer the teacher would probably tell us not to”  positive any more (Eitner 1949, Labov 1991b, Murray 1993) „John listens to rock a lot any more”

Canadian Spelling Category Usual

Usual British Preference

American Preference

Other Such Examples

Some Shared Spellings In Both




favour honour humour labour

glamour stupor

derivations of our/or



favourite honourable labouring

coloration glamorous Humorous laborious




meage metre spectre theatre

macabre timbre


defence practise(v)

defense practice(v)


license(v) practice(n)

stems in -l



Enrol, expel

Annul, compel Install,

double/single consonant before inflections



imperilled signalled

benefited focused kidnapped outfitted

Canadian Spelling Category Usual

Usual Bristish

American Preference


criticise (permitted))

criticize (exclusive





silent -e-

judgement moveable (permitted)


acknowledgement ageing liveable






aesthetics medieval







connection and inflection

-ogue -og

analogue, dialogue, catalogue

dialog, catalog

re-elect, reenter, reentry, reexamine

reelect, reenter, reentry, reexamine


Other Such Examples

Some Shared Spellings In Both advertise civilize realize surprise

Analog(UK) Dialogue (US)

counter-attack(UK) counterattack (US)

Canadian vocabulary 

Canadianism 

the native words and expressions of Canada  Inculdes the words and expressions borrowed form other languages, which do not appear in other varieties of English. Landscape:the chutes, or saults, of the rivers, the muskeg of the hinterland, the buttes and parklands of the prairies, and the bluffs, or islands of trees, on the flat prairie are but a few Trees and plants: cat spruce, Douglas fir, Manitoba maple, Sitka spruce, and tamarack; kinnikinnick, Labrador tea, Pembina berry, saskatoon and soapalallie. Birds were discovered: Canada goose, fool hen, siwash duck, turkey vulture and whiskey jack. Fish of all sorts: cisco, inconnu, maskinonge, kokanee, ouananiche, oolichan, tuladi and wendigo Finally, political term such as M.P.P.:acclamation, and endorsation tell us something of the newly founded institutions

Vocabulary II. 

Canadian English is a mixture of American and British English with an insignificant number of Canadianisms added. Canadians borrow freely from both American and British English andappropriate it to suit their needs.  The

lexeme chesterfield is a par exemplar.  the interjection eh: „So eh? is Canadian, eh?” he interjection did not originate in Canada and is not peculiar to the English spoken in Canada. However, the frequency and the context in which it occurs in Canadian speech is remarkably different from both American and British native speakers

Words that differentiate Canadian and American everyday speech “Middle border” Canadian asphalt road blinds elastic band feather sheaf tap tea party veranda

Midwest American blacktop shades rubber ban (corn) silk bundle faucet coffee party porch

Conclusions    

Canadian English is still a subject of constant change; Canadian English is the result of a number of contextual factors that influenced its early formation; It is a product of the cooperation and coexistence of various groups of people from different nations; The differences between native Canadian and British and American speakers have never been so great that communication was impossible; However it is sufficient to distinguish these differences.

Thank you for your attantion!

Suggest Documents