the cover crop specialist

t he cover cr op speci al i st What is Cover Cropping 3-4 Terminology 5-6 Living Soil 7-8 Evaluation 9 Solvita Test 10 health soilhealth soil char...
Author: Evan Richardson
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t he cover cr op speci al i st

What is Cover Cropping 3-4 Terminology 5-6 Living Soil 7-8 Evaluation 9 Solvita Test 10

health soilhealth soil

characteristics 13 14 14 15 15 16 16

legume broadleaf non-legume

blends

in the field

Buckwheat Daikon Radish Rapeseed Turnip Other Adirondack Allegheny Brazos Bristol Catskill Cumberland Daytona Dover Halifax

22 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29

Application Termination

grazing products

Since you are reading this guide, you know the discussion and practices of using cover crops have been a hot topic over the past few years. More and more commercial farmers are introducing cover crops as a tool into their farming practice. We have definitely seen cover crops go from what people describe as a fad to a growing trend in response to the economic and ecological desires of sustainability. Regardless of what people call it, what we must remember is that cover crops have been used for many centuries and were widely used only a short time ago. With the advent of modern mechanical farming in the 1900’s and the introduction of cheap nitrates left over from World War 2, the modern tiller has strayed from the path of sustainable farming. Today’s agricultural methods must change, and we feel that cover crops provide a solid foundation for healing the dead soil found in many of today’s fields.

Single Seeds 11 Blends 12

Annual Ryegrass Barley Cereal Rye Triticale Spring Oats Sorghum-Sudangrass Other

grasses

Dear Dealers and Customers,

Berseem Clover Crimson Clover Hairy Vetch Red Clover Sunn Hemp Sweetclover White Clover Winter Pea Other

Homestead Indy Ozark Piedmont Rocky Smoky Teton Wasatch

34 35-36 Factors 37 Rotational 38

Products 39-44 In the field 45-46

30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33

17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21

In recent years, producers are starting to realize that their soil is their most important asset on their farm. In addition, we also must realize that God is a whole lot smarter than any of us. Nature has been adapting and surviving in the conditions in which today’s modern farmer has struggled. As such, our monoculture that we have evolved into has negative impacts on our soil, health and future. As Judith D. Soule and Jon K. Piper stated in their book, Farming in Nature’s Image, “...diversity is the currency of adaptation.” As such, if we do not continue to introduce new seeds and rotations into our farmland, we will reduce the sustainability of land and the resiliency of the soil. We must rely on the knowledge and guidance that God has given us. So, by introducing cover crops into our farm practices we allow our soil to start to heal itself. Integrating cover crops into your practice can be overwhelming and frustrating. As such, we believe it is important for farmers to partner up with seed providers that have the support and knowledge to help minimize the risk of frustration and failure. The farmer should also understand what is happening in these new rotations so that they can measure their success from appropriate growth in the fall and spring, to the proper termination in the spring. This success begins with the proper selection of cover crops, which also includes understanding how your selection of current and previous herbicides can have a negative impact on your upcoming cover crops. So, in this upcoming year, make sure you partner with a dealer that can help you throughout the entire process of cover cropping. You will find that our dealers are focused on providing solutions throughout the entire cover crop process. If you call your current provider and only get a price and not a plan, please call us next to make sure your next steps are the right steps. Good luck in the upcoming year and we hope you look to Center Seeds and our nationwide dealers to service your cover crop needs in the future. Sincerely,

Eric Belcher CEO/President

We are a nationwide distributor of premium cover crop seeds and blends. We currently ship to most locations in 1-2 days and are expanding our network of dealers to service our increasing demand. This demand has increased due to the quality of product and the thirst for obtaining the knowledge of “how to” by our growing base of progressive farmers. What makes Center Seeds different? First and foremost, we are dedicated to providing the highest quality cover crop seeds to our dealers. With roots on our 2,300 acre farm in west central Ohio and with our 150+ dealers nationwide, we have tested everything we sell. We believe the quality of product farmers put into the soil has a direct relationship to the success of accomplishing the key objectives of cover cropping, such as nitrogen production, nitrogen scavenging, erosion prevention, weed suppression, etc. Education first... We are solely focused on providing you the best available seed and the knowledge base of how to properly cover crop. We are constantly discussing and implementing cover crop selections, seeding and terminating techniques. As such, we are focused on training and educating all of our dealers on a regular basis to allow their customers to succeed in planting cover crops, which in turn allows the dealers to succeed in their business of selling cover crops.

Progressive dealers of cover crops wanted! We are unique to the industry... We sell only cover crop seeds. No cash crops sales means we are never in competition with your customer base. We are the perfect plug-in for independent seed salesmen, independent elevators, and retail farming locations. We source our seed from only the best growers and suppliers which means that we will bring you quality seed to market at the best cost available. While others will tout a single seed, we can bring you a full product line from which to choose. We are under no obligation to carry any particular seed. What will Center Seeds provide to you as a dealer?  Dedicated Regional Cover Crop Specialist support  Swift and efficient back office support  Regular education activities and technical discussions  CS Cover Crop Resource Guides, electronic and manual formats  Advertising & marketing assistance based on sales from the prior year  "Hot" leads in your area acquired through extensive advertising

Differences of Cereal Rye and Annual Ryegrass The most two commonly confused cover crops are annual ryegrass and cereal rye. This is largely due to the fact that they both include the word “rye” in their names. However, as you will see in your fields, these two entirely different cover crops are utilized in different ways. Due largely to the height of annual ryegrass (12-24 inches tall), its residue breaks down more quickly than that of cereal rye, which grows to 3-6 feet tall. Due to the growth and nutrient usage of cereal rye, it can dry out topsoil during a dry spring if it is not killed with a timely application of herbicide. It also can get away from growers in a wet spring and can grow more than 6’ high. The mat of residue may keep soils from drying out and warming up in the spring. This large biomass is a benefit for weed control. Annual ryegrass is good at weed control as well, but since the residue does not last as long, it does not perform as well as the cereal rye typically does. While annual ryegrass and cereal rye tie up nitrogen in the spring, cereal rye has more above ground growth in the spring. That growth can tie up nitrogen, so it’s best to terminate cereal rye before it grows taller than 16 inches tall, unless you have good experience terminating it. Annual ryegrass is generally burned down when it reaches 8 to 16 inches high. Since annual ryegrass has less biomass than cereal rye, it allows producers some flexibility because it doesn’t consume as much soil moisture. The downside to annual ryegrass is that it poses more of a challenge than cereal rye to burn down during cool weather when glyphosate doesn’t transfer as well. One of the main differences we like about annual ryegrass is it does better at breaking through layers of soil compaction than cereal rye, especially below 24 inches due to the thick and dense root systems of which annual ryegrass produces. The roots of cash crops will follow the annual ryegrass roots deeper for nutrients and moisture. So, during a dry summer, it allows cash crops to reach nutrients and moisture when it otherwise would not have been able to do so. Cereal rye has a very good drought tolerance and is very cold tolerant. However, it only tolerates brief flooding or ponding. It also grows fine in low soil fertility and sandy soil. Annual ryegrass tolerates long flooding or ponding but has a low heat or drought tolerance. It also has a good tolerance of low soil fertility. While annual ryegrass and cereal rye both isolate nitrogen, cereal rye has more vegetation above ground in the spring, especially if it’s allowed to grow. That growth can tie up nitrogen, so it’s best to eliminate cereal rye while it’s less than 16 inches tall.

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Nitrogen Producers Only legume cover crops fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) into forms that are available for plants. After you terminate the cover crop, much of this N will eventually become available for succeeding cash crops. Roughly speaking, about half the N in the legume cover crop shoots should be available for the following crop one or two months after terminating the cover crop.

Cover Cropping is the practice of utilizing plants such as grasses, legumes and non-legume broadleaves in between cash crop rotations to improve soil health or meet certain objectives.

Nitrogen Scavenger The growing roots of all cover crops take up residual soil nitrate from fertilizer and soil organic matter mineralization. This reduces the amount of nitrate that leaches out of the soil. This protects water quality. Furthermore, some of the scavenged N will be available to succeeding cash crops while the rest will help build soil organic matter.

Soil Builders, Subsoilers and Topsoil Looseners

What is cover cropping? Nitrogen Producing Nutrient Scavaging Soil Building Subsoiling Topsoil Loosening Preventing Erosion Lasting Residue Weed Fighting Grazing Foraging

Broadly speaking, cover crops can improve soil quality. They help build soil organic matter and sequester carbon by adding their roots and shoots to the soil. Fibrous roots enmesh soil particles and provide food for microorganisms, which in turn produce polysaccharides and other sticky substances that stabilize soil aggregates. All these things go into the soil builder rankings. Deep roots improve soil permeability, which leads to increased water infiltration and aeration. Taproots may also penetrate compacted soil layers over time, which provides macropores for future root growth. In areas where compacted soils are a problem for cash crops, cover crops may be able to reduce the problem. The ability to provide channels through the subsoil or loosen the topsoil are part of the Subsoiler and Topsoil Loosener rankings. Cover crops also provide additional food for soil fauna such as earthworms. In years with prevented planting, cover crops can help rebuild soil productivity that may have been lost by prolonged ponding, flooding and erosion.

To better understand soil health, The Ohio State University defines soil health as “an assessment of ability of a soil to meet its range of ecosystem functions as appropriate to its environment. It also refers to the condition of the soil, including its ecosystems (minerals, nutrients, and microbial activity), pH, and structure. The Soil Science Society defines soil health as the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation.”

Erosion Preventer & Lasting Residue The classic use of cover crops is to cover the soil to protect against both water and wind erosion. The live roots also help hold the soil and reduce erosion. A cover crop's ability to prevent erosion goes into the ranking for Erosion Preventer; its ability to produce residue that persists in the soil goes into the ranking for Lasting Residue.

The main core objectives include, nitrogen producing, nutrient scavenging, soil building, subsoiling, topsoil loosening, preventing erosion, creating lasting residue, fighting weeds, producing a grazing crop and producing a good forage crop. Additional benefits that can be obtained include but are not limited to improving water quality and improving wildlife habitats.

Weed Fighter Some cover crops are noted for their ability to suppress weeds which may be due to competition, shading, or allelopathy. The specific causes are not always known. Their ability to suppress other pests is less understood, but has sometimes been observed. More research is needed in this area.

The following is a listing of each of the cover crop objectives. The following definitions have been provided by the Midwest Cover Crop Council:

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Grazing and Forage Value Cover crops can provide livestock producers with extra grazing (Grazing Value) or haying (Forage Value) opportunities. See grazing discussion on pages 37 and 38. 3

Single Seed (Pure Stands) vs. Blends (Multiple Species) Before you decide on any cover crop, you must understand which objectives you want to accomplish on your farm. When you review the different objectives, you will notice that one cover crop does not meet all of the cover crop objectives. So, if you have multiple objectives you need to meet, you may need to select multiple cover crop species. On the other hand if you only want to focus on one objective, like breaking up soil compaction, you may be able to select one cover crop, such as the radish. There are certain advantages and disadvantages of each option you will need to keep in mind. They are as follows:

Advantages of single seed

 Using a single seed makes cover cropping easier. Each cover crop step is easier to manage including plating, pest and crop management and termination  Utilizing one species allows for easier termination and control  The following cash crop will respond more uniformly across the field  One cover crop species will generally affect the cash crop in just one way, multiple species may affect it in several ways

Disadvantages of single seed

Using a single seed will only potentially accomplish the objectives it can handle When using a single seed, if there are environmental circumstances that limit the ability for that specific cover crop to grow, you may have a field with hardly any or no cover crops growing  Herbicides can have a dramatic impact on a single species cover crop  

Advantages of blends

 If one of the species does not get established, other seeds in the blend may compensate for the one that does not perform  Blends often provide a synergy of multiple benefits that can successfully accomplish multiple objectives  Blends provide an avenue to obtain multiple cover crop objectives all in the same field

Disadvantages of blends

 Blends can cause frustration and confusion due to the different management factors that go into using each cover crop  Sometimes it is more difficult to get a blend seeded properly, depending on the rate and ratio of the blend and equipment being used  Due to the variety of characteristics of each of seed, you could cause unknown problems with future cash crop stands and regrowth of cover crops.

Applications

Terminations

There are many different ways to apply cover crops to your fields. We have provided detail information regarding application methods on page 34 of this brochure.

There are many different ways to terminate or control cover crops. We have provided detail information regarding termination methods on page 35 & 36 of this brochure.

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Aggregates Primary soil particles (sand, silt, and clay) held together in a single mass or cluster, such as a crumb, block, or prism or clod using organic matter as cementing material. Soil aggregates are usually greater than ten millimeters in diameter and formed by natural forces (such as alternate wetting-drying) and organic substances derived from root exudates, roots, soil animals and microbial by-products which cement primary particles into smaller aggregates or smaller aggregates into larger particles, such as macroaggregates. Bacteria A large group of single-celled microorganisms lacking chlorophyll and are prokaryotic (lacking a nucleus). Typically a few micrometers in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria are important for functioning of biochemical properties and/or processes. Bacteria are active in the soil for decomposing organic matter, recycling nutrients, and detoxification of contaminants. Bacteria dominate in disturbed (e.g. conventionally tilled) soils because they are generalist feeders that prefer aerobic (oxygenated) conditions, and survive in small soil pore spaces (micropores).

Terminology

Carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) Ratio of the mass (weight) of organic carbon to the mass of total nitrogen in the soil, plants, or any other organic compounds. Soil C: N is generally 10:1 to carry out ecological functions.

Macroaggregates: Soil aggregates greater than 250 micrometers in size consisting of microaggregates cemented together by organic matter, microbial polysaccharides, fungal hyphae, earthworm excretions, and plant roots. Macroaggregates are typically found in undisturbed soils such as continuous no-till with cover crops. Macropores: Larger soil pores (greater than 60 micrometers) from which water drains readily by gravity. Macropores are important for soil aeration and good drainage. Micropores: Smaller soil pores (less than 60 micrometers) generally found within soil aggregates. Water does not drain freely in micropores. Mineralization: Conversion of an organic compound to a transitional or inorganic form by microorganisms. As a result, nutrients are generally more available and absorbed by plant roots. Mycelium: A string-like mass of individual fungal or actinomycetes hyphae. Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, threadlike hyphae.

Double cropping Double cropping is when a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested. An example of double cropping is planting soy beans after taking off the wheat.

Multiple cropping: Multiple cropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in the same space during the single growing season.

Fungal Hyphae Long and often branched filaments associated with fungus, somewhat like a spider web. Fungal hyphae are important to extract nutrients, especially micronutrients, to support growth in poor quality soil. (See Mycorrhizae)

Mycorrhizae: Literally means “fungus root” and is a symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship between fungus and plant roots. The fungus supplies water and nutrients to the plant roots while the plant supplies carbohydrates. Plant roots typically can explore no more than 1% of the soil volume but with mycorrhizal fungus (which attach themselves to the plant root cell walls) association, approximately 20% of the soil volume may be explored. Over 80% of plants have a mycorrhizal association but these fungus populations are reduced by conventional tillage and high fertilizer applications of nitrogen and phosphorus.

Fungus Microorganisms that contain a rigid cell wall that are either single-celled or multicellular organisms without chlorophyll that reproduces by spores and lives by absorbing nutrients from organic matter. Fungi include mildews, molds, mushrooms, rusts, smuts, and yeasts. Fungi survive better under no-till or undisturbed ecosystem and slightly acid conditions. They do not perform well in plowed fields due to their extensive hyphae (spider web like) networks affected by tillage operations. Glomalin A glycoprotein (sugar-protein complex) produced by mycorrhizal fungus (e.g. Glomus spp.). Glomalin binds soil particles together to form aggregates to promote soil aggregate stability and are important in the storage of soil carbon. Humus Total of the organic compounds in the soil excluding undecayed plant and animal tissues. Humus equals fulvic acid plus humin, plus humic acid. The term is often used to describe soil organic matter. Humus is generally dark in color. Infiltration The entry of water into the soil. Infiltration is affected by several factors including antecedent soil moisture content, soil compaction, soil texture, earthworms, and plant roots. 855-667-3943

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Nematode: An unsegmented microscopic roundworm located near plant roots. Nematodes feed on plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. Typically found in higher concentrations in no-till and undisturbed soils. They are the most populous animals on the planet. In fact, if we counted all the animals on earth, four out of every five would be a nematode. Porosity: Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a soil, represented as the volume of voids divided by the total volume of soil. In an ideal soil, the total pore space should be about 50% (composed of air and water) while the solid phases (sand, silt, clay, and organic matter) make up the other 50% of soil volume. Protozoa: Any of a large group of one-celled organisms that move by flagella (flagellates), cilia (ciliates), or have flow (amoeba). Most species feed on bacteria, fungi, or dead microbial particles. Protozoa are more common in conventional tilled or disturbed soils where they outnumber the nematodes.

Relay cropping Relay cropping is the practice of starting the second crop amidst the first crop before it has been harvested.

Soil Organic Matter Classified into two major groups composing a humic and non-humic substances. Soil organic matter is thermodynamically unstable and is part of the natural balance between production, decomposition, transformation, and resynthesis of various organic substances. The humified fraction is composed of humic, fulvic, and humin and is the most stable. The non-humic portion is the relatively unstable and most labile fraction and is most easily decomposed.

Rhizobia A nitrogen-fixing bacterium (genus Rhizobium) that is common in the soil, especially in the root nodules of leguminous plants. Rhizosphere A soil zone near the plant roots where microbes flourish in greater numbers and have more activity than in the bulk soil. The rhizosphere typically supports 1000 to 2000 times more microbes than the bulk soil without live roots. Roots give off many root exudates which supply food for the microbes and increases microbial activity.

Soil Quality The capacity of a soil to function within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation. Soil quality is analogous to soil health. Soil quality is the result of combined activities of biological, chemical, and physical properties as a reaction of management operations. Crop rotations, no-till, and cover crops improve soil quality.

Soil pH The soil pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity in soils. pH is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the activity of hydronium ions (H+ or, more precisely, H3O+ aq) in a solution. It ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. A pH below 7 is acidic and above 7 is basic. Soil pH is considered a master variable in soils as it controls many chemical processes that take place. It specifically affects plant nutrient availability by controlling the chemical forms of the nutrient. The optimum pH range for most plants is between 6 and 7.5, however many plants have adapted to thrive at pH values outside this range.

Soil Structure Combination or arrangement of soil primary particles into secondary units or peds (composed of macroaggregates and microaggregates). The secondary units are classified on the basis of size (microaggregates are the smallest and macroaggregates are the largest) and shape. Soils with good structural stability typically have more macroaggregates and macropores while soils with poor structural stability have more microaggregates and micropores. Compacted soils have poor structure and more microaggregates and micropores.

Soil Biological Quality Biological properties that are associated with soil functionality including microbial biomass, nematodes, earthworms, biological activity, and enzymes.

Total Carbon The total of all forms of carbon in the soil. If the pH of the soil is 6.5 or higher, all the total carbon is considered to be organic carbon. Total carbon (TC) minus active carbon (AC) equals passive carbon (PC). Total carbon is composed of microbial carbon, particulate organic carbon, fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, non-humified carbon (glucose), and calcium and magnesium carbonates.

Soil Functions Ecosystem functions are directly and indirectly associated with soil. Soils perform many functions, and healthy soil gives us clean air and water, bountiful crops and forests, productive rangeland, diverse wildlife, and beautiful landscapes. Soil does all this by performing five essential functions:

Total Nitrogen Total of all forms of nitrogen in the soil. Total nitrogen also includes the ammonia that is non-mobile and the nitrate form which is more mobile.

1. Nutrient Cycling—Soil stores, moderates the release of, and cycles nutrients and other elements. During these biogeochemical processes, analogous to the water cycle, nutrients can be transformed into plant available forms, held in the soil, or even lost to air or water.

Total Phosphorus Total of all forms of phosphorus in the soil including organic (inositol, phospholipids, etc.) and inorganic (phosphates) phosphorus.

2. Water Relations—Soil can regulate the drainage, flow, and storage of water and solutes, which includes nitrogen, phosphorus, pesticides, and other nutrients and compounds dissolved in the water. With proper functioning, soil partitions water for groundwater recharge and for use by plants and soil animals.

Virus A large group of submicroscopic infective agents that typically contain a protein coat surrounding a nucleic acid core. Typically considered nonliving and are capable of growth only in a living cell.

3. Biodiversity and Habitat—Soil supports the growth of a variety of plants, animals, and soil microorganisms, usually by providing a diverse physical, chemical, and biological habitat.

Water Quality Defined as the biological, chemical, and physical conditions of water; a measure of the ability of water to support beneficial uses. The composition of water as affected by natural processes and human activities depending on the water’s chemical, biological, physical, and radiological condition.

4. Filtering and Buffering—Soil acts as a filter to protect the quality of water, air, and other resources. Toxic compounds or excess nutrients can be neutralized, transformed, or otherwise made unavailable to plants and animals. 5. Physical Stability and Support—Soil has the ability to maintain its porous structure and regulate passage of air, gases, and water, withstand erosive forces, support heavyloads, and provide a medium for plant roots.

Water Stable Aggregates A soil aggregate that is stable to the action of water such as falling raindrops or agitation, as in wet-sieving analysis. Water stable aggregates improve soil quality. 6

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Soil health is defined as the ability of soil to function and sustain the life of plants and animals. Only living things can have health, so if you view your soil as being alive, then you will be able to better care for it.

Feed it!

In order to have healthy soil, you must first know the natural balance of adding diversity, reducing stress, covering the soil and growing a living root at all times. Studying the relationships between people, animals, plants, and their environments and connections become very important in caring for your soils.

Your soil is alive! It is important to understand that adding diversity, reducing stress, keeping the soils covered and growing a living root allows this life to flourish. It contains many other living organisms that depend on its health. Agricultural practices should mimic soils natural processes as it is seen in nature.

Living Soil

Biodiversity plays a major role in the success of many agricultural systems. It is a way to mimic nature at its finest and get the most out of your system. A steady and stable environment has an increase in diversity of plants, animals and other organisms with low human inputs and high functioning nutrient cycling, water regulation, and creating a diverse food web. As soil is disturbed less and plant diversity is increased, the soil becomes balanced and diverse. This makes the nutrients more available to desirable plants and keeps the disease-causing organisms under control, thus reducing weeds and diseases in your system.

Biodiversity is key Keeping the soils covered promotes life  Earthworms are great indicators of soil health  

Soil Health Biodiversity Earthworms

The lasting physical, chemical, and biological stress applied in today’s intensified agriculture weakens nature’s natural processes. Tillage is only a temporary air supply for the soil and consumes the natural fungi and carbon-based glues that hold the soil particles and composites together which, in turn, limits the amount of pore space available for ample water movement throughout the soil profile. Continuously tilled soils have little pore space, decreased infiltration and increased run-off. These conditions along with a bare surface can form a physical crust over the soil that limits water entry into the soil, which will have a negative impact on the nutrient cycle.

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Bare soil can harm the natural system in more than one way. Rainfall washes away the organic matter which holds many crop nutrients. It is also the lightest segment of the soil and will be the first to be carried off by wind and erosion. Naked ground will harm the macro- and micro-organisms because of lack of carbon in the soil, and the soil will go into starvation with no live root to push carbon, sugars, carbohydrates and other plant releases into the soil system. Lack of food results in very little microbial activity as carbon is the food in which microbes live on and the keystone for all soils’ physical, chemical and biological processes and properties. Without a living root growing at all times, many vital nutrients are lost and the soil is unable to produce. A disturbance of the land also limits the amount of organic carbon available for microbial activity to take place in the soil.

Without microbial activity, other organisms and natural air suppliers such as earthworms can be lost. Earthworms dramatically change soil structure, water movement, nutrient dynamics, and plant growth, and they are sometimes referred to as soil engineers. Their presence is typically a sign of a healthy soil system. Earthworms stem their nutrition from microorganisms, but even more microorganisms are available in what they give off than in the organic matter they take in. When the organic matter passes through their intestines, it gets split and inoculated with microorganisms. This increased activity aids in the nutrient cycling from the organic matter to nutrient forms readily taken up by plants. As they are doing this, they are also releasing a soil compound called casts. They can move large amounts of soil from the lower layers to the surface and also carry organic matter down into deeper soil layers. Earthworms improve water flow as they move through the soil. Some species make permanent tunnels deep into the soil that can last long after the earthworm has died, and can be a major passage for soil drainage. At the same time, the tunnels minimize surface water erosion while also increasing water holding capabilities. The horizontal tunneling of other species in the top several inches of soil increases overall absorbency and drainage. The vertical, deep-tunneling earthworms form pathways lined with available nutrients that make it easier for roots to reach deep into the soil. Research in Applied Soil Ecology stated that CO2 respiration in the soil around earthworm tunnels is twice that of surrounding soil, and those benefits are also probably being transported to deeper layers of the soil. Plant residue is eventually buried with time by cast material left on the surface along with the earthworms pulling surface residue into their tunnels.

From 10%, up to 44%, of carbon taken up by plants through photosynthesis is released in the soil. The enzymes released start all organic reactions and are an essential part of nutrient cycling in the soil. Plant roots are constantly producing and discharging compounds in the soil surrounding the roots that include particles, free oxygen and water, and enzymes along with various amount of carbon elements.

All of these living beings within the soil actually work better together than they do apart. A study was done which showed that adding diversity in the plants themselves adds diversity in the organisms under the soil surface as well. The diversity produced more and became more efficient than individual plants, and the plants did not compete against each other. Instead, they each shared the resources and built different relationships with the soil components to conserve moisture, prevent evaporation, and share nutrients efficiently. Soil has a very complex system, but it can be easily managed by simply mimicking, instead of changing, its natural ability to sustain life. Keeping the soil covered with a living root and adding diversity will help reduce the disturbances and stresses in order to have well managed, healthy productive soils!

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Taking Stock of your Soil’s Health Monitoring and Measuring your soil health is achieved by paying attention to three primary attributes of soil and their interaction: physical structure, chemical composition and biology. All three must be in a good state to obtain positive soil health and optimal crop yields. Physical: The combination of sand, silt and clay, along with organic matter, that can form a porous, aggregated condition, allowing high water infiltration, root expansion, nutrient cycling and gas exchange.

Soil Health Monitoring & Measuring Why Measure? How to Measure Soil Health Trends Lab Testing The Solvita Test

Chemical: The quantity, forms and balance of various mineral nutrients in the soil, such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, carbon and multiple trace elements, all needed for plant growth and influenced by soil biology. Biological: The quality and quantity of various living organisms which are present in your soil and their activity. Bacteria, fungi, nematodes and other soil animals feed on organic matter, breaking it down into storage humus and plant available nutrients.

How to measure your soil’s biological health Until recently, measuring soil biology was time consuming, expensive and unreliable. Now with a Solvita® Soil Biology Kit, growers can measure this important indicator right at the farm (or have labs perform the test). Solvita® is a novel sensor which measures changes in CO2 caused by the respiration of all living organisms in your soil. Put a sample of your soil in a jar with the Solvita® probe, close tightly and set aside for 24 hours and the change of color in the probe directly indicates biological activity. Soil Health Trends It is becoming well understood that soil biology is a key component to sustainable, high-functioning soils. The latest studies and literature point to a direct connection between soil biology and sustained crop productivity. Multiple current USDA, NRCS and international programs and educational practices support this concept. Regardless of your particular farming methods, healthier, biologically active soils always produce better yields. Start measuring and tracking your soil biology today with Solvita®.

Most farmers perform chemical nutrient testing and understand the need to balance the withdrawal of minerals by crops with the supply of additional nutrients through amendments such as fertilizers, manures and cover crops. What hasn’t been completely understood until recently is the need to also measure the soil’s biological functioning which affects overall soil productivity. 855-667-3943

Why measure? Measuring your soil’s biological activity provides valuable insight into whether your soil management practices are sustaining and improving overall health. Ordinary soil testing does not do this. Well-managed and maintained soils, including those with good rotations and cover-cropping, often show large banks of accumulated factors such as carbon and organicnitrogen, which regulate soil functions and aid nutrient availability to plants. New test methods make it possible to include these factors thereby helping optimize and potentially reduce the need for fertilizer amendments. If a soil shows a lower health score from soil biology tests, then this typically suggests the need to boost the organic functioning of the soil. Measured and tracked over time, your soil’s biology is a key indicator of whether your most important asset (your soil) is increasing in value.

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Dig Deeper

MAKE SMARTER FERTILITY DECISIONS. DISCOVER THE CO2-FACTOR OF YOUR SOIL. The new Solvita® Soil Biology Kit puts soil health testing in your hands.

Can your soil lab perform this test? A standardized, laboratory version of Solvita® is available and can be performed by any soil lab that offers routine nutrient analysis. We recommend that you check with your soil lab to see if they offer it. Solvita® provides cost-free training to soil labs interested in offering the test. Soil labs that currently offer Solvita® can be found below and by the on-line map link.

Get the Solvita® Soil Biology Kit New in 2015 is the easy-to-use Solvita® Soil Biology Kit. For the first time ever growers can self-test their own soil CO2-Factor. The kit provides the ease of personal use with the quality of a lab. The kit is also useful for on-farm training sessions and workshops. Included are full instructions, interpretation guide, incubation jars, a color chart and the new Solvita® field photometer that offers lab level accuracy. The photometer is specially designed for field use and stores and recalls 1500 readings, which may be uploaded at anytime. Great for cataloging soil trials during the year. The unit shows results as the official Solvita® color and as pounds/acre (or kg/ha) of CO2 released. This CO2-Factor is vital to gauging soil biological functions due to bacteria, fungi and soil animals.

How Solvita® fits into your soil testing program Field Testing: You can accurately self test soil by observing simple guides. We recommend sampling when soil is evenly moist such as 2-3 days after rain or irrigation. Test fresh soil shortly after sampling. Periodic tests such as every month enable you to observe seasonal trends. A popular approach is to compare differently-treated strip plots. You can measure the effects of applied soil amendments by sampling a few weeks after they have reacted with the soil. Sampling before and after rain events helps show climate effects.

(P.N. 3352) • The Solvita® Soil Biology Pack with Field Photometer Includes 25 test probes, digital spectrometer, 6 jars, manual and a digital scale. (P.N. 3362) • The Solvita® Soil Biology Refill 25 pack (P.N. 3363) • The Solvita® Soil Biology Refill 50 pack

Lab Testing: We strongly recommend that you also have a soil health lab (see list) run a combination CO2-Burst / SLAN test (Solvita Labile Amino-N). Use your regular soil sample program for this. These two tests link the biology with accumulation of humus organic nitrogen. The combined results are crucial to assess likelihood of response to additional nitrogen fertilizer.

Solvita® Soil Biology Kits and refills are availble from Center Seeds dealers or can be purchased directly on www.centerseeds.com. Solvita® Tests for Soil Labs • CO2 Burst – measures the soil biological response after soil is re-moistened. This pulse correlates to soil’s microbial mass and potential mineralized nitrogen. • SLAN – (Solvita Labile Amino-Nitrogen) measures the organic nitrogen reserve in your soil and can aid predicting likelihood of response to added nitrogen. Solvita® soil health laboratory tests are available through these testing services:

Solvita® Interpretation guidelines help understand the range of expected results.

• • • •

Brookside Laboratories, New Bremen, Ohio − blinc.com Midwest Laboratories, Omaha, Nebraska − midwestlabs.com Ward Laboratories, Kearney, Nebraska − wardlab.com Woods End Laboratories, Mt. Vernon, Maine − woodsend.org

• Also see solvita.com/soil/map 10

www.centerseeds.com

Center Seeds believes in supplying quality cover crop seeds to our dealers and customers. As such, we purchase what we have identified as the best seed in the market and are constantly evaluating additional prospective seed. We believe it is always better to purchase certified seed, which goes a long way toward guaranteeing uniformity in growth, results and termination. As the cover crop market continues to grow, we will see the increased availability of certified seed. The seeds listed below are not an all-inclusive listing of our products, but consist of the main core products we distribute. For an additional listing of our products and prices or to find a Center Seeds Dealer near you, please contact us at (855) 667-3943.

Single Seed

Alfalfa Berseem Clover Crimson Clover Red Clover Sweetclover Sunn Hemp Vetch, Hairy Vetch, Woolley Pod White Clover Winter Pea

p 21 p 17 p 18 p 19 p 20 p 19 p 18 p 21 p 20 p 21

N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R 12 7 7 n/a 26

12 8 12 8 10 15 15 15 2 40

15 15 15 10 15 N/R 20 20 3 N/R

Annual Ryegrass Barley Cereal Rye Millet, Japanese Millet, Pearl Spring Oats Triticale Honey Sweet Hybrid Sorghum-Sudangrass ,BMR

p 13 p 14 p 14 p 16 p 16 p 15 p 15

10 N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R 30

12 50 45 13 4 64 50

15 18 med 80 96 med 60 70 high 15 18 med 6 high 5 96 116 med 60 72 high

p 16 16

22

26 N/R high

Seed legume

grasses

broadleaf non-legume

Buckwheat Phacelia Radish, Daikon Rapeseed Turnip

p 22 N/R 20 p 24 N/R 7 p 23 4 6 p 23 N/R 3 p 24 2 3

22 9 8 4 4

27 11 10 5 5

low low low low low med low low low low

med low low low low

Objectives are ranked 0 to 4, 0 = Poor, 1 = Fair, 2 = Good, 3 = Very Good, 4 = Excellent

855-667-3943

11

Hardy

N

l ria ae t as dc oa br ill dr

e

on

isi

g pa

ec pr

18 18 18 12 18 N/R 24 24 4 N/R

C:N Ratio

ge ra Fo g in az Gr ter igh d F ue ee id W Res er t ng en sti ev r La n Pr sene io os oo r Er oil L oile s ps To Sub lder ui il B er So eng av r Sc ce N rodu P

Rates Root Through Depth Zone

Habit 5 med Upright med 7 Upright/Semi Upright deep 7 Upright/Semi Upright med 4 Upright med 4 Upright deep NFT Upright shallow 4 Climbing shallow 6 Climbing med 4 Prostrate/Semi Prostrate shallow 7 Climbing

3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3

1 1 2 1 1 IS 1 2 1 1

4 4 4 4 4 IS 3 4 2 2

3 1 2 2 4 IS 2 1 1 1

2 3 3 3 4 IS 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 IS 2 2 3 2

1 1 2 2 3 IS 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 3 3 IS 3 4 3 2

4 4 4 4 1 IS 0 2 4 2

4 4 4 4 1 IS 1 1 3 4

deep 6 med 7 med 3 shallow NFT shallow NFT med 8 4 med

Upright Upright Upright Upright Upright Upright Upright

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 3 4 4 4 3 3

4 3 4 3 3 3 3

4 2 3 1 2 0 2

4 3 4 1 1 3 2

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

2 4 4 2 3 2 4

2 3 4 2 3 4 3

4 3 4 3 4 4 4

2 3 2 3 4 3 2

Upright

0 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 4 2

deep

NFT

shallow NFT Upright/Semi Upright shallow 8 Upright deep 6 Upright deep 7 Upright med 6 Upright

0 IS 0 0 0

1 IS 4 3 3

2 IS 3 2 1

0 3 1 0 4 0 0 IS IS IS IS IS IS IS 4 3 1 1 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 0 3 1 1 3 4 0 NFT = Not Frost Tolerant IS = Insufficient Data

Our PeakBlends and others below have been combined for specific needs or objectives, which we have identified through our research and farming practices. The objectives listed below were identified based on the highest rating of any single seed rating included in the mixture. The ever increasing demand from growers is to utilize multi-species blends (7+ seeds per blend). Here at Center Seeds, we believe the high seed blends are great for farmers who have extended experience utilizing cover crops. If you are a producer that is interested in these types of blends, we have the resources and services to specifically mix multi-species blends you desire. However, since most of the farmers in the industry are new to cover cropping, we recognize that these producers are still learning about the various types of cover crops, learning how to plant each crop, and how to manage the growth and termination of these various cover crops. As such, all of our mixes included in this guide include 2-3 way mixtures. The goal of these 2-3 way blends is to utilize seeds that will minimize the producer’s risk of failure and frustration. The blends are designed so that when you plant a three way blend, 1-3 of them will winterkill; as a result, you have to manage the termination of 1-2 of the plants. With this philosophy, we want the farmer to learn and grow in confidence on how to make cover cropping a valuable and key component of their rotation. If anyone is interested in custom seed mixes targeted to their specific rotation, Center Seeds can blend specifically to your needs. Please contact us at (855) 667-3943.

N/R 27 N/R 36 N/R 19 10 12 N/R 12 30 40 8 10 20 25 N/R 19 12 15 12 15 N/R 40 N/R 22 N/R 10 30 40 N/R 19 N/R 23

40 51 N/R 15 16 50 13 30 24 N/R 17 52 31 13 50 27 28

47 60 N/R 18 18 60 16 36 28 N/R 20 62 37 15 60 32 33

N

p 25 p 26 p 26 p 27 p 27 p 28 p 28 p 29 p 29 p 30 p 30 p 31 p 31 p 32 p 32 p 33 p 33

l ria ae t as dc oa br ill dr

Adirondack Allegheny Brazos Bristol Catskill Charlotte Daytona Dover Halifax Homestead Indy Ozark Rocky Smoky Talladega Teton Wasatch

ge ra Fo g in az Gr ter igh d F ue ee id W Res er t ng en sti ev r La Pr ne ion se os oo r Er oil L oile s ps To Sub lder ui il B er So eng av r Sc ce N rodu P

Rates on isi ec pr ge pa

Seed Blends

Grass

Legume

Broadleaf

Oats Oats Sorghum-Sudangrass Annual Ryegrass Annual Ryegrass Triticale

Crimson Clover Winter Pea Sunn Hemp

Radish Radish Buckwheat Radish

Oats Annual Ryegrass Sorghum-Sudangrass Annual Ryegrass Cereal Rye Annual Ryegrass & Cereal Rye

Annual Ryegrass Triticale Cereal Rye

Crimson Clover Crimson Clover Crimson Clover Winter Pea Sunn Hemp Crimson Clover Winter Pea Hairy Vetch

Radish Radish Radish Radish Radish Radish

Hairy Vetch & White Clover

Crimson Clover Winter Pea

Radish Radish Radish

4 3 4 0 4 4 4 0 3 4 4 3 4 4 0 4 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3

4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4

3 3 2 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2

2 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 1

4 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 3

Objectives are ranked 0 to 4, 0 = Poor, 1 = Fair, 2 = Good, 3 = Very Good, 4 = Excellent

N/R = Not Recommended 12

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4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3

4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4

2 3 3 4 4

Annual

CS G

Bristol p 27 Rocky p 31 Catskill p 27 Smoky p 32 Halifax p 29 cool season grass Indy p 30 Annual ryegrass aids in erosion prevention, improves soil structure, which improves drainage. It also adds organic matter, suppresses weeds and scavenges nutrients. As a certified single seed, it allows the user to know that this product does not have multiple strands of annual ryegrass in it. Multiple stands will increase the risk of having termination issues due to plants maturing at different times. Tillage Rootmax provides a combination of shorter and more desired dense leaf tillering, uniform growth and preferred later maturity. All of these traits are important as it improves ability to terminate annual ryegrass. See page 41 and 42 for an indepth discussion for Tillage Rootmax Annual Ryegrass.

Ryegrass Grass cover crops are readily available and usable in most rotations nationwide. These relatively inexpensive cover crops are an excellent solution for increasing organic biomass in your soil, sequestering available nutrients in the soil, and easy to control when following established guidelines.

Annual Ryegrass Barley Cereal Rye Triticale Spring Oats Sorghum-Sudangrass Other

Soil Builder

Subsoiler

Topsoil Loosener

Erosion Preventer

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

0

4

4

4

4

4

2

2

4

2

Soils Drainage: Poorly to well drained Fertility: Good tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 6.0-7.0 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 40°F Nutrients: Planting Tillage Rootmax in a recently/heavily manured field can be a good strategy since annual ryegrass can scavenge residual nutrients from the soil Sunlight: Good shade tolerance

NR* = Not Required However, see page 44 for cereal/grass inoculants that can help with the establishment and root growth, including Sabr-Ex for wheat/cereals and now Graph-Ex for Cover Crops that contain necessary inoculants for cereals/grasses. 855-667-3943

N Scavenger

Objectives

N Source

Grasses

Grass cover crops are most useful for...  Nutrient scavenging  Reducing or preventing erosion  Producing large amounts of residue and adding organic matter to the soil  Reducing weed suppression  Breaking up soil compaction  Usually high in feed quality for grazing and forage practices

13

Key points when using glyphosate  Top growth more than 7 inches  Sunlight: the more, the better  Soil Temp: above 45°F  Air Temp: above 60°F (if night temp goes below 38°F wait 3 days before spraying)  Moisture: growing conditions should be good  Spray 4-5 hours prior to sunset to allow translocation time  If 2nd pass needed, min of 3 weeks after the first control application.

Strengths  Very deep soil-building and subsoiling roots  Breaks up hardpan & compaction  Top nitrogen scavenger & great erosion preventer  Late heading out, longer spring window  Uniform stand maturity for easier burndown Weaknesses  Termination has to be properly managed  High weed potential if goes to seed in spring  Past vegetative stage, N release may be delayed  Other inferior seed has given annual ryegrass a bad name due to multiple strands of seed in the same bag

Seeding & Growth Dates: 3-10 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: 10 lb/A Drilled: 12 lb/A ,1/2”to 3/4”deep Broadcast: 15 lb/A Aerial: 18 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 190,300 Inoculate: NR* Inter-seeding: Yes, light seed, see p 34 for details Emergence: 14 days Height: 1.5' - 3' Drought & Heat: Low heat and drought tolerance Flooding: Tolerates long flooding or ponding

Cereal

CS G

Rye

grass

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

4

3

3

3

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly drained to excessively drained soil Fertility: Very good tolerance of low soil fertility pH Level: 6.0 - 8.5 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 38°F Nutrients: Adequate but not excessive moisture Sunlight: Does not tolerate shade

Weaknesses  Cutworms and other small grain pests can be occasional problems  Avoid seeding in cold, damp soils  Less traffic tolerant than rye

 Needs vernalization to produce seed  Does poorly in acidic soil  Good nurse crop for legumes  Uses less water than other cover crops

0

4

4

3

4

4

4

4

4

2

Weaknesses  Slow mineralization of nitrogen  Sensitive to seeding depth. No deeper than 2”  Rye can get tall and overwhelming in the spring for new cover crop farmers

Soils Drainage: Poorly drained to well-drained soils Fertility: Excellent tolerance of low soil fertility pH Level: 5.0-7.0 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 34°F Nutrients:  Large utilization of nitrogen  Either apply in spring or plant legumes with cereal rye in fall Sunlight: Low shade tolerance

Seeding & Growth

Additional Thoughts:

Forage

Lasting Residue

4

Grazing

Erosion Preventer

3

Weed Fighter

Topsoil Loosener

2

Lasting Residue

Subsoiler

3

Erosion Preventer

Soil Builder

3

grass

Strengths  Great cover to scavenge available N in spring  Strong nitrogen scavenger (25-50 lbs N/A)  Excellent soil builder and erosion preventer  Great for no-till soil loosener and subsoiler  Good forage and grazing crop  Rapid spring growth  Efficient biomass producer (4-10k lbs DM/A)

Objectives Topsoil Loosener

N Scavenger

0

Strengths  Deep fibrous root system  An overwintering crop provides erosion control  Excellent nutrient scavenger and recycler  Good weed suppressor  Improve water infiltration

Subsoiler

N Source

Objectives

CS G

cool season

Cereal Rye is an upright, cool season, annual grass often confused with annual ryegrass. Rye can germinate and grow under cooler conditions than other covers. As such, it is a great option for fields with late harvest of cash crops. Due to the root structure and the top growth, rye adds high levels of soil organic matter. Early adopters of cover crops should terminate cereal rye at least 14 days prior to planting corn. Terminating rye at earlier stages reduces the risk for allelopathic effects, army worms, voles and nitrogen immobilization. Producers with more experience and healthier fields may consider planting corn into standing rye. Need to consider a foliar insecticide to prevent army worms in this situation.

Barley is a fast growing, cool season, annual grain crop that can be used as forage or as a cover crop to improve soil quality. Barley quickly produces large volumes of biomass for improving the soil organic matter content. It provides weed and insect suppression as well as excellent erosion control. It also can serve as a topsoil-protecting crop during drought conditions in any region. Barley can reclaim overworked, weedy or eroded fields, or act as a cover crop mix for improving soil structure and nutrient cycling.

Soil Builder

cool season

N Scavenger

Barley

Ozark p 31 Rocky p 32 Teton p 33

N Source

Winter

Dates: 3-10 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 50 lb/A, 3/4”to 1 1/2”deep Broadcast: 80 lb/A Aerial: 96 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 13,600 Inoculate: NR* Emergence: 6 – 8 days Height: 1 1/2’ to 3’ Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Good drought Low heat tolerance Flooding: Tolerates brief flooding or ponding

Seeding & Growth

Additional Thoughts:  Needs vernalization to produce seed  Seed with a legume such as hairy vetch or winter peas to reduce the risk of rye tying up nitrogen in the spring  Often used by pumpkin farmers to provide solid bedding to improve the marketability of pumpkins

14

Dates: Late August to December (regional variations) Later than other cover crops in the fall Rates Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 40-45 lb/A, 3/4”to 1 1/2”deep Broadcast: 56-60 lb/A Aerial: 65-125 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 18,200 Inoculate: NR* Emergence: 5-8 days Height: 3’-6’ Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Very good drought tolerance Low heat tolerance Flooding: Tolerates brief flooding

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Spring

CS G

Oats

grass

Triticale characteristics closely resemble wheat and cereal rye as it was bred from both of these plants. It has a rapid growth which is good for short growing windows. The spring rapid growth can suppress weeds and provide additional erosion prevention. Triticale is good to use with other cover crops, such as Winter Peas. The growth of the triticale allows the Winter Pea to climb and provides protection to the pea during harsh winter months.

Grazing

Forage

4

2

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly drained to well-drained soil Fertility: Very good tolerance to low fertility pH Level: 5.2-7.2 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 38°F Nutrients: Should consider applying additional 10% of N prior to corn or another legume when using small grains such as triticale Sunlight: Low shade tolerance

Additional Thoughts: Terminate 14 days prior to planting corn or when crop reaches 6-8 inches tall



Harmful insects or nematodes can be a problem in subsequent crop



Winter triticale requires vernalization to produce grain

Forage

Weed Fighter

3

Grazing

Lasting Residue

4

Weed Fighter

Erosion Preventer

4

Lasting Residue

Topsoil Loosener

2

Erosion Preventer

Subsoiler

2

Topsoil Loosener

Soil Builder

3

Subsoiler

N Scavenger

3

Weaknesses  May limit nitrogen availability for subsequent cash crops  May require additional nitrogen application prior to corn or other similar cash crops or mixture of other legume crops

Soil Builder

N Source

0



Objectives

Strengths  Good cover crop for blends  Easier to burndown than rye  Poor host for root knot nematode

Objectives

p 25 p 26 p 29

CS G

cool season

grass

Spring oats are an upright, cool-season annual grass. This is a great starter cover crop due to its ease of spring management. When seeded in the fall, spring oats will winter kill in the northern regions. This will allow for easy management and planting in the spring. In addition, spring oats can germinate quickly. As such, they can outcompete weeds. Finally, spring oats are a great scavenger of nitrogen remaining from summer legumes or fertilization.

N Scavenger

cool season

N Source

Triticale

Adirondack Allegheny Dover

0

3

3

0

3

4

2

4

4

3

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly drained to excessively drained soils Fertility: Good tolerance of low fertility

Strengths  Winter kills if planted in fall in northern regions.  Low cost and reliable  Good biomass 2-4k lbs in late summer/early fall  Great companion crop for legumes Weaknesses  Not a good subsoiler  Potassium level of oat hay can be very high and could cause metabolic problems in milking cows if it’s the primary forage  Termination early can hinder biomass production  If mechanically terminating, could see regrowth

pH Level: 4.5-6.5 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 38°F Nutrients: Good moisture Sunlight: Low shade tolerance Seeding & Growth

Seeding & Growth Dates: August 1 to December 1 Rates Precision: 30 lb/A Drilled: 50 lb/A, 3/4”to 1 1/2”deep Broadcast: 60 lb/A Aerial: 72 lb/A

Additional Thoughts:  Use only cleaned or certified seed  Feed oats may contain weed seeds  If frost seeding in the spring, terminate 2 weeks prior to planting corn  Very rapid growth, good for short windows

Avg seeds/lb: 22,700 Inoculate: NR* Emergence: 6-8 days Height: 1.5’ – 3’ Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Good drought tolerance Low heat tolerance Flooding: Tolerates brief flood or ponding

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15

Dates: Late February to the end of March 6 to 8 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 64 lb/A, 3/4”to 1 1/2”deep Broadcast: 78 lb/A Aerial: 94 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 19,600 Inoculate: NR* Emergence: 5-8 days Height: 2’-5’ Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Low drought and heat tolerance Flooding: Tolerates brief flood or ponding

WS G

Sorghum-sudangrass is an upright, summer annual that is great at increasing organic matter when soils are worn out. To produce the deepest root systems, it is recommended to mow stalks when they reach between 3-4 feet tall. As a result, roots can reach 5-8 times deeper. Due to the rapid growth during the summer, it can produce large amounts of forage, reduce soil erosion and suppress weed. A great summer blend is sorghum-sudangrass, sunn hemp and buckwheat. See Brazos PeakBlend on page 26 for more details. In addition, see page 39 for a detailed discussion of Honey Sweet Hybrid Sorghum-Sudangrass

Additional Thoughts: Leaves resemble corn  Can be grazing in 4 weeks  BMR variety with improved digestability is recommended 

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

1

4

2

2

3

3

 Can handle standing water if young plant doesn’t become completely submerged Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 13 lb/A Broadcast: 15 lb/A Aerial: 18 lb/A

Weaknesses  Does not tolerate frost  Do not mow closer than 6” if regrowth desired  Potential prussic acid poisoning hazard for livestock when stressed by drought or freeze.

Seeding & Growth Drainage: Poorly to moderately well-drained soils Fertility: Very good tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 4.6-7.4 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 65°F Avg seeds/lb: 142,900 Height: 2-4 feet Inoculate: NR* Emergence: 3-5 days Drought & Heat: Excellent heat and drought tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

Pearl

WS G

Millet

warm season

grass

Pearl Millet is an upright summer annual bunch grass. It has broad, flat, pointed leaves with serrated edges with cattail like inflorescences. It uses low amounts of water which makes it great in heat and drought environments. It utilizes the wind to self-pollinate. It is best if grazed between 24-30 inches tall. Seeding & Growth

Objectives

Seeding & Growth Dates: Best planted 10 to 20 days after prime corn planting time until 6 weeks prior to avg first frost Rates Precision: 16 lb/A Drilled: 22 lb/A, 1/2”to 1 1/2”deep Broadcast: 26 lb/A Aerial: Not recommended Avg seeds/lb: 13-18,000 Height: up to 8’ Inter-seeding: Not recommended Emergence: 10 days Inoculate: NR* Drought & Heat: Excellent heat/drought tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

Forage

Drainage: Somewhat poorly drained to excessively drained soil Fertility: Good tolerance of low soil fertility pH Level: 6.0-7.0 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 65°F Nutrients: Application of N or a legume crop either during or after sorghum-sudangrass will reduce the risk of tying up nitrogen for the following cash crop, such as corn Sunlight: Does not tolerate shade

1

Grazing

Soils

Lasting Residue

4

3

Weed Fighter

Forage

3

Erosion Preventer

Grazing

4

4

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

3

Topsoil Loosener

Lasting Residue

4

0

Erosion Preventer

Erosion Preventer

2

Subsoiler

Topsoil Loosener

2

Strengths  Extremely rapid growth  Good for short windows.  Reduces weed pressures and aids in erosion  Mow/harvesting promotes tillering & root growth

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

4

Objectives Soil Builder

Soil Builder

4

grass

Japanese Millet is an upright summer annual grass. It has think stems and more of a course appearance than other millets. It has an extremely rapid growth, which is good for short growing windows. When incorporated at maturity, it can be a moderate problem.

Subsoiler

N Scavenger

0

warm season

Soil Builder

N Source

Objectives

WS G

Millet

grass

N Scavenger

warm season

N Scavenger

Sudangrass

Japanese

N Source

Brazos p 26 Homestead p 30

N Source

Sorghum-

0

4

3

2

1

4

3

3

4

4

Nitrate toxicity can be a concern No prussic acid concern Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 4 lb/A Broadcast: 5 lb/A Aerial: 6 lb/A  

16

Drainage: Poorly to well-drained soils Fertility: Very good tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 5.5 – 7.5 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 65°F Avg seeds/lb: 82,300 Inoculate: NR* Height: 2-4 feet Emergence: 7 days Drought & Heat: Excellent heat and drought tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

www.centerseeds.com

WS L

Clover

warm season legume

Berseem clover is a summer or winter annual legume that will winterkill around 20F. As such, it can be a good starter legume as using it minimizes the management in the spring prior to planting. It creates a lot of biomass (6,000-10,000 lbs/A of dry matter), which allows it to aid in weed suppression. It is also a very good nitrogen scavenger, soil builder and erosion fighter.

Soil Builder

Subsoiler

Topsoil Loosener

Erosion Preventer

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

Objectives N Scavenger

Legumes

Legume cover crops are used to:  Fix atmospheric nitrogen for use by subsequent crops  Reduce or prevent erosion  Produce biomass and add organic matter to the soil  Attract beneficial insects

Berseem

N Source

The legume plant is a strong producer that should be used when possible. Most legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria placed in structures called root nodules. Legumes vary widely in their ability to prevent erosion, suppress weeds and add organic matter to the soil. In general, legume cover crops are not N scavengers like grasses and non-legume broadleafs. As previously mentioned, they are used to take nitrogen from the atmosphere and place it in the soil for your cash crops in the spring and summer. They can have strong soil conditioning characteristics with additional biomass for soil health.

4

1

4

1

3

3

1

2

4

4

Soils

Berseem Clover Crimson Clover Hairy Vetch Red Clover Sunn Hemp Sweetclover White Clover Winter Pea Other

Drainage: Somewhat poorly to well drained soils Fertility: Fair tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 4.9-7.8 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 42°F Nutrients: Fertilize with 60 to 100 lb. P2O5/A if soil tests below 20 ppm Boron also may limit growth, so test soil to maintain levels Sunlight: Low shade tolerance

Additional Thoughts  Berseem dies when exposed to temperatures below 20°F for several days  No known cases of bloat from grazing  Forage quality is good until seed production

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17

Strengths  Can produce 100 to 200 lbs. of N/A  Winter killed berseem allows for earlier spring planting than winter-hardy annuals  Good weed suppression especially when planted with grass  Quick growth, cut within 60 days  Excellent with oats mixture  18 to 28% protein Weaknesses  Slow initial growth

Seeding & Growth Dates: Frost-seed or 5-6 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 10 lb/A 1/4”to 1/2”deep Broadcast: 15 lb/A Aerial: 18 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 206,900 Inoculate: Yes, crimson or berseem inoculant Emergence: 7 days Height: 16”-20” Inter-seeding: Possible, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Very good heat & drought tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

Hairy

CS L

Vetch

legume

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

2

2

4

4

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly to well drained soils Fertility: Very good tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 5.5-7.0 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 42°F Nutrients:  Best grown with medium levels of phosphorus and potassium  In pure stands, no nitrogen should be applied Sunlight: Good shade tolerance Additional Thoughts  Bloat hazard  May attract meadow voles  Rapid growth, good for short growing windows

Weaknesses  Not great at aerial application, best if incorporated  Early fall planting can result in crimson clover going to seed in the fall  Is a secondary host to pests such as corn earworm and cotton bollworm

Forage

Erosion Preventer

3

Grazing

Topsoil Loosener

3

Weed Fighter

Subsoiler

2

Lasting Residue

Soil Builder

4

Erosion Preventer

N Scavenger

2

Objectives

Strengths  Tolerates most soil types making it a versatile plant  Produces Nitrogen ranging to 50-150 lbs/A  Soil builder & moderately good weed suppression  Increases moisture holding capacity  Attracts beneficial insects

Topsoil Loosener

N Source

4

legume

Hairy vetch is one of the best N producing, winter hardy legumes used in the cover crop industry. A well-nodulated hairy vetch can enrich the soil with 60 to 120 lb of nitrogen through fixation. Once the crop is established in the spring, it is a good weed suppressor. Due to the taproots, it provides great soil building characteristics. The ability to grow vigorously stems from the flexibility to survive in low fertility soils. Due to its ability to survive in many soil types and conditions, it can be difficult to completely eliminate from your fields. Best to be used on high ground to allow for proper drying of fields.

Crimson Clover is an upright to semi-upright winter annual. It has light green leaves covered with soft hairs and crimson flowers. It has a taproot accompanied by numerous small fibrous roots. Is has been successfully used as a cover crop in rotations including corn, soybean, wheat, cotton, potatoes and grain sorghum. It is adapted to cool humid conditions. Some of the main cover crop objectives that crimson clover provides is nitrogen production, soil building, erosion prevention. In addition, it is a great forage and grazing crop. Objectives

CS L

cool season

Subsoiler

cool season

Rocky p 32 Smoky p 32

Soil Builder

Clover

p 25 p 27 p 28 p 30 p 33

N Scavenger

Adirondack Catskill Daytona Indy Teton

N Source

Crimson

4

1

3

2

3

2

1

3

0

1

Strengths  Produces large amounts of mineralized N  Excellent weed suppression once established.  Good soil builder and topsoil loosener  Very good phosphorus scavenger

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly to well drained soils Fertility: Fair tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 5.5 – 7.5 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 60°F Nutrients:  Has a high P and K requirement  Does not require N fertilization Sunlight: Excellent shade tolerance

Seeding & Growth Dates: Anytime after last threat of spring frost Seed 6-10 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision Not Recommended Drilled 12 lb/A 1/4” to 1/2” deep Broadcast: 15 lb/A Aerial: 18 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 149,800 Inoculate: Yes, crimson or berseem inoculant Emergence: 3-7 days. Height: 12“- 20” Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Fair heat and drought tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

Additional Thoughts  Bloat hazard  Poor for grazing  Seed and vegetation is potentially poisonous  A severe freeze with temperatures less than 5°F may kill hairy vetch if there is no snow cover.

18

Weaknesses  Slow to establish  Potential to become a weed  Can be hosts and may increase soybean cyst & root-knot nematode when using hairy vetch

Seeding & Growth Dates: 30-45 days before avg first frost Precision: 7 lbs/A Drilled: 15 lb/A 1/2”to 1 1/2”deep Broadcast: 20 lb/A Aerial: 24 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 16,300 Emergence: 14 days Inoculate: Yes, pea or vetch inoculant Height: 3-7 feet tall Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Good drought tolerance Low heat tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

www.centerseeds.com

Red

Sunn

CS L

Clover

cool season

Hemp

legume

N Source

N Scavenger

Soil Builder

Subsoiler

Topsoil Loosener

Erosion Preventer

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

4

1

4

2

3

3

2

3

4

4

Soils Drainage:Somewhat poorly to excessively drained soils Fertility: Low tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 6.2 – 7.0 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 41°F Nutrients: Phosphorus and potash Sunlight: Very good shade tolerance Additional Thoughts  For maximum N production, terminate red clover at about mid-bloom in spring of its second season  Bloat hazard  Has less tendency to leach phosphorus in fall than some non-legume covers

Strengths  Contributing up to 70-150 pounds of soil nitrogen for the following crop rotation  Great nitrogen producer and soil builder  Very good erosion preventer and weed fighter  Adapts well in many soil types and climates  Usually grows well wherever corn grows well Weaknesses  Tillage termination might require multiple passes  Not a good nitrogen scavenger  Not a good subsoiler  Limited herbicide options to control clover escapes that survive in the bean crop

Soils Drainage: Well drained soils Fertility: Good tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 5.0 – 7.5 (Above 6.0 is best) Min. Soil Germ. Temp: Greater than 68°F Nutrients: Sunn Hemp can grow on infertile as well as fertile soils and has difficulty growing in soil with low calcium and/or low phosphorus

Seeding & Growth

Additional Thoughts

Dates: May be frost seeded in late winter/early spring Rates Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 8 lb/A 1/4”to 1/2”deep Broadcast: 10 lb/A Aerial: 12 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 272,200 Emergence: 7 days Height: 12”-36” Inoculate: Yes, red or white clover inoculant Inter-seeding: Possible, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Very good heat tolerance Good drought tolerance Flooding: Tolerates some flooding & ponding once established 855-667-3943

WS L

warm season legume

Sunn Hemp is an upright, warm season legume. It is a cover crop adapted to tropical or subtropical areas. In 60 days from planting it can typically grow over 6 feet tall. It can add 80-100 pounds of nitrogen. It produces approximately 4 tons of organic matter. In addition, it can suppress multiple types of nematodes. Some of the nematodes it has shown to suppress include reniform, borrowing and root-knot nematodes. It also suppresses pesky weeds such as pigweed. Due to the large roots and strong taproot, it is a great soil builder. The leaves of sunn hemp are 30% protein. As such, using sunn hemp as a mulch or green manure would be beneficial at the early to mid-flowering stages.

Red Clover is a biennial or short-lived perennial that grows as medium or mammoth red clover. Plants have hollow, hairy stems and branches. The taproot is extensively branched, which makes it a great soil builder. Red clover easily establishes, and produces high quality forage, up to 8,000 lb. biomass/A. A great nitrogen producer, it can produce a lot of nitrogen especially when it is allowed to grow to full season and overwintered. In a lot of cases, it is frost seeded in late winter or early spring into small grains such as wheat. Objectives

Brazos p 26 Homestead p 30

Control at first flower for maximum benefit and before it becomes fibrous and difficult to manage.  Sunn Hemp should receive a minimum of 1 inch of moisture per week for maximum growth, however it is quite drought tolerant.  Sunn Hemp has a long strong taproot with many lateral roots and numerous irregularly branched and lobed nodules. 

19

Strengths  Fast growing cover crop, significant N in 60 days  Suppresses nematodes  Builds soil health and tolerates dry conditions  Large roots, strong taproot Weaknesses  At 2 months growth, majority of N is in organic form, which slows its availability for plant uptake  Needs healthy soil ecosystem to recycle nutrients  If incorporated as green manure, doesn’t suppress weeds. Does not contain allelopathic compounds  Does not grow well in acidic soil

Seeding & Growth Dates: Anytime after last threat of spring frost For maximum benefit, plant a minimum of 8 weeks before avg first frost in the fall. Precision: 9 lbs/A (15” row) or 5 lbs/A (30” row) Drilled: 12 lb/A 1/2”to 1”deep Broadcast: Not recommended Aerial: Not recommended Avg seeds/lb: 15,000 Emergence: 3 days Inoculate: Yes, cowpea or peanut inoculant Height: 4’ in 60 days and 6’ in 90 days Inter-seeding: Not recommended Drought & Heat: High heat and drought tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding

White

CS L

Sweetclover

cool season

Clover

legume

Sweetclover is an upright annual or biennial cool season legume. Its extensive root taproot is great for soil building and subsoiling. In addition, it is a very durable legume as it can grow in most environmental situations. Once established, it is very drought tolerant. It attracts many beneficial insects, including honeybees. It is best planted at least six weeks before avergae first frost so roots can develop as this will reduce the risk of the plant winter heaving.

1

Soils Drainage: Poorly to excessively drained soils Fertility: Excellent tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 6.5 – 7.5 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 42°F Nutrients: For high yields, sweetclover needs P and K in the medium to high range, along with sufficient sulfur. Sunlight: Very good shade tolerance Additional Thoughts Killing sweetclover before bud stage has several benefits:  80 percent of the potential nitrogen is present  Nitrogen release is quick because the plant is still quite vegetative  High N percentage in young stalks and roots  Moisture loss is halted without reducing N contribution

Weaknesses  Major volunteer establishment hazard  Not a good forage or grazing crop in the 2nd year  Can be a bloat hazard

Soils

Forage

Forage

1

Grazing

Grazing

3

Weed Fighter

Weed Fighter

3

Lasting Residue

Lasting Residue

3

Erosion Preventer

Erosion Preventer

4

Topsoil Loosener

Topsoil Loosener

4

Objectives

Subsoiler

Subsoiler

4

Strengths  Excellent nitrogen source  Excellent in different weather environments  Scavenge then release phosphorus, potassium & other micronutrients that are otherwise unavailable  Good emergency forage in the first year, feed value similar to alfalfa

Soil Builder

Soil Builder

1

White Clover is a cool season perennial legume that stores more of its total nitrogen in its roots than other legumes. Since it has a low carbon to nitrogen ratio, it decomposes rapidly which releases nitrogen quickly. White clover germinates and establishes well when inter-seeded into standing cash crops. It grows slowly while in the shade as it develops its root system. It will then grow rapidly when the cash crop is harvested and more light is provided.

N Scavenger

N Scavenger

4

CS L

cool season legume

N Source

N Source

Objectives

Smoky p 32

4

1

2

1

3

3

1

3

4

3

Drainage: Poorly drained soils Fertility: Good tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 6.0 – 6.5 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 68°F Nutrients: Performs best with plenty of lime, potash, calcium and phosphorus. Sunlight: Very good shade tolerance

Seeding & Growth Dates: At least 6 weeks before avg first frost in fall May also be frost seeded Rates Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 10 lb/A 1/4”to 1/2”deep Broadcast: 15 lb/A Aerial: 18 lb/A

Additional Thoughts  Grows better in clay and loam soils than on sandy soils  Bloat hazard  Fair to good winter hardiness

Avg seeds/lb: 258,600 Inoculate: Yes, alfalfa or sweetclover inoculant Emergence: 7 days Height: 1.5’ - 7’ Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Excellent heat & drought tolerance Flooding: Tolerates long flooding and ponding 20

Strengths  Once established, stands up to heavy traffic  Good erosion preventer and weed suppresser  Can produce 80 to 130 lb. N/A when killed the year after establishment  May be frost seeded, early in the morning  Bees love white clover for nectar and pollen Weaknesses  Susceptible to root and stolen rots  Longer growth without cutting potentially creates disease and insect issues  Less tolerant of basic soils above pH 7.0

Seeding & Growth Dates: At least 6 weeks before avg first frost in fall May also be frost seeded Rates Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 2 lb/A 1/4”to 1/2”deep Broadcast: 3 lb/A Aerial: 4 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 794,500 Height: 3“-14” Inoculate: Yes with white clover inoculant Emergence: 10 days Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Poor drought tolerance Good heat tolerance Flooding: Very good tolerance to flooding

www.centerseeds.com

CS L

The Winter Pea is a low growing vine annual legume. It has three common varieties called the Austrian, Lynx and Windham Pea. It has a hollow, slender, succulent stem that is 2-4 ft. long. The foliage is pale green and the flowers are purple, pink or reddish. It is generally a fall seeded cover crop that can be used for grazing, hay or as a green manure. If the pea is exposed to long periods of sub-zero weather without snow cover, there may be winterkill of the stand. It can also be grown as a spring seeded summer annual sown as early as possible in the spring. The pea has good nitrogen fixing capabilities. See page 40 for an indepth discussion of Lynx Winter Pea.

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

1

2

4

4

Weaknesses  Does not overwinter low temps w/o snow cover  Does not scavenge nutrients well  Shallow root system  Not recommended for broadcast or aerial applications

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly drained to well drained soils Fertility: Low tolerance of low soil fertility pH Level: 6.0 to 7.0 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 41°F Nutrients: Well limed fields Sunlight: Low shade tolerance

legume

Seeding & Growth Drainage: Well drained to excessively drained soils Fertility: Poor tolerance of low soil fertility pH Level: 6.6 – 7.0 Emergence: 7 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 34°F Avg seeds/lb: 226,800 Height: 15”- 38” Inoculate: Inoculate with alfalfa inoculant Sunlight: Low shade tolerance Drought & Heat: Excellent heat and drought tolerance Flooding: Will tolerate some flooding or ponding once established

Woollypod

CS L

Vetch

cool season

legume

Often Woollypod is confused in the marketplace. Vendors are selling product labeled woollypod which in fact they are not certain if it is woollypod or hairy vetch. If you are looking for this cover crop, look for the specific variety named Namoi or Lana woollypod vetch. It is a faster growing variety than hairy vetch and produces a lot of nitrogen. Objectives

855-667-3943

Seeding & Growth

Forage

Additional Thoughts  Crop diseases (Sclerotinia, Fusarium root rots) in the following cash crop may be a moderate problem  Snow covered peas help insulate plants well, which aid in the overwintering

Dates: Aug. to Oct., early enough so plants are 6-8” tall before soil freezes, because peas are shallow rooted and susceptible to heaving. Frost Seeding in early spring. Rates Precision: 26 lb/A Drilled: 40 lb/A, 1” to 1 1/2”deep Broadcast: Not recommended Aerial: Not recommended Avg seeds/lb: 1,800 - 4,000 Inoculate: Yes with pea or vetch inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Emergence: 9 days Height: 2’- 4’ Drought & Heat: Low drought and heat tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

Grazing

Seeding & Growth

Weed Fighter

Forage

4

Erosion Preventer

Grazing

2

3

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

2

Topsoil Loosener

Lasting Residue

1

2

Erosion Preventer

Erosion Preventer

2

3

Topsoil Loosener

Topsoil Loosener

3

4

Subsoiler

Subsoiler

1

1

Soil Builder

Soil Builder

2

3

N Scavenger

N Scavenger

1

Objectives

N Source

N Source

3

cool season

Alfalfa is an upright perennial that has a deep taproot. It most commonly has purple flowers. It has very high palatability and good winter hardiness. Due to the demands in forage needs, it can be a very expensive cover crop.

Strengths  Good N producer ranging from 90-150 lbs/A  Can produce as much as 300 lbs/A of N  Rapid spring growth can out compete weeds  Mix with a grass such as oats, triticale or wheat  Easy to terminate with herbicide

Objectives

CS L

Alfalfa

legume

Subsoiler

cool season

Soil Builder

Pea

p 26 p 29 p 31 p 33

N Scavenger

Allegheny Halifax Ozark Wasatch

N Source

Winter

4

2

4

1

3

2

1

4

2

1

Drainage: Poorly to well-drained soils Fertility: Very good tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 6.0 – 8.0 Inoculate: Yes, pea/vetch inoculant Sunlight: Good shade tolerance Drought & Heat: Very good drought and heat tolerance Flooding : Good tolerance to flooding or ponding Additional Thoughts  Hard seed can be problematic

21

Buckwheat

Buckwheat Daikon Radish Rapeseed Purple Top Turnip Other

Soil Builder

Subsoiler

Topsoil Loosener

Erosion Preventer

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

non-legume

Strengths  Extremely rapid growth  Excellent for short windows  Attracts beneficial insects  Increases phosphorus availability  Excellent weed suppression

Objectives N Scavenger

Broadleaf

Non-legume broadleaf cover crops are most useful for:  Breaking up soil compaction  Soil building by adding organic matter to the soil  Scavenging nutrients—especially nitrogen—left over from a previous crop  Suppressing weeds

0

1

2

0

3

1

0

4

0

0

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly to excessively drained soils Fertility: Good tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 5.0 – 7.0 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 50°F Nutrients: Buckwheat takes up phosphorus and some minor nutrients that are otherwise unavailable to crops, releasing these nutrients to later crops as the residue breaks down. Sunlight: Low shade tolerance Additional Thoughts:  The roots of the plants produce mild acids that release nutrients from the soil  Terminate within 10 days of flowering  Sometimes used to protect late-fall plantings of slowstarting, winter-hardy legumes

22

WS B

warm season broadleaf

Buckwheat is a very good short season cover crop. It reaches maturity in just 70-90 days. The main benefits include weed suppression through shading and competition. It also attracts beneficial insects. It is a good first crop for rejuvenating over-farmed soils. Buckwheat’s dense, fibrous roots clustered in the topsoil provide an extensive root system for scavenging nutrients.

N Source

Broadleaf crops are broken into legume and non-legume broadleaf categories. The non-legume broadleaf category includes broadleaf crops that do not have the nitrogen fixing abilities that legume crops have. The most popular of these crops include radishes and turnips. Most of these types of cover crops tend to be more focused on 1 to 3 cover crop objectives. However, they tend to be superior in accomplishing these objectives rather than utilizing a grass or legume.

Brazos p 26

Weaknesses  Regrowth and volunteer plants can occur  Sensitive to herbicide residue of previous crops  Harmful insects are also attracted  Does not do well in heavily compacted soils

Seeding & Growth Dates: Seed 6-10 weeks before avg first frost Anytime after last threat of spring frost Rates Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 20 lb/A 1/2”to 1 1/2”deep Broadcast: 22 lb/A Aerial: 27 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 20,400 Inoculate: No Emergence: 3 - 7 days Height: 2’- 5’ Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Low drought tolerance Excellent heat tolerance Flooding : Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

www.centerseeds.com

CS B

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

3

3

3

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly to well-drained soils Fertility: Low tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 6.0-7.5 Min. Soil Germ. Temp.: 45°F Nutrients:  Planting radish in a recently or heavily manured field can be a good strategy since radish can scavenge residual nitrogen from the soil  Very responsive to nitrogen Sunlight: Low shade tolerance

Additional Thoughts:  Earthworm “Heaven”  Good for Grazing  Great for mixtures Yield Data  Corn – Up average 12 bu/ac  Soybean – up average 8 bu/ac  Wheat – up average 5-7 bu/ac

Weaknesses  Nitrogen deficiency limits radish growth  N deficiency also may limit ability to compete with weeds or grow through compacted soil  Odor of decaying cover crop may be offensive to surrounding communities

Forage

Lasting Residue

1

Grazing

Erosion Preventer

1

Weed Fighter

Topsoil Loosener

3

Lasting Residue

Subsoiler

4

Erosion Preventer

Soil Builder

3

Topsoil Loosener

N Scavenger

4

Objectives

Strengths  Great for no-till systems  Great subsoiler and nitrogen scavenger  Good soilbuilder and topsoil loosener  Rapid growth with deep taproot  Winterkills in northern regions  Works well in rotations that include manure

Subsoiler

N Source

0

0

3

2

2

3

1

2

2

3

1

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly to well drained soils Fertility: Good tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 5.5-8.0 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 41°F Nutrients: Prefers adequate amounts of nitrogen and sulfur Sunlight: Low shade tolerance

Seeding & Growth

Strengths  Very rapid growth  Good for short growing windows  Scavenges phosphorus by making insoluble phosphorus more available Weaknesses  Moderate potential to become a weed  Secondary hosts to lesion & root knot nematodes  Attracts flea beetles

Seeding & Growth Dates: 4-6 weeks before avg first frost date

Dates: 3-10 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: 4 lb/A Drilled: 6 lb/A 1/4”to 3/4”deep Broadcast: 8 lb/A Aerial: 10 lb/A

Additional Thoughts:  Rapeseed tends to be more successful as a fall/winter cover crop, especially in northern regions  Rapeseed has proven difficult to kill with glyphosate  Requires a higher than normal rate of glyphosate application  Multiple applications may be necessary

Avg seeds/lb: 25,000 Inoculate: No Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Height: 12“-18” Emergence: 3-5 days. Drought & Heat: Good heat & drought tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

855-667-3943

cool season broadleaf

Rapeseed is an upright, cool-season or winter annual broadleaf. It has a deep fibrous root system. It is a very good scavenger of nitrogen and phosphorus. Some winter-type cultivars are capable to survive in low temperatures such as 10°F. When mixing rapeseed in blends, reduce the seeding rate appropriately based on the desired mixture. If not, rapeseed can outperform other species and become very competitive.

Radish is one of the most popular cover crops on the market today. It is an upright cool-season annual broadleaf. The main reason for its popularity, is its ability to break up compaction and scavenge nutrients, especially nitrogen. In addition, it is continuing to show impressive results in improving yields and managing weeds at low per acre costs. In addition, radishes are easy to manage in the northern regions due to the radish winterkilling after 3-4 nights in the mid teens or mid twenties depending on the radish you purchase. When radishes over-winter, they are easily controlled with herbicides. For a detailed discussion, see pages 41-42 for Tillage Radish and page 43 for Jackhammer Radish. Objectives

CS B

Rapeseed

cool season broadleaf

Soil Builder

Radish

N Scavenger

Multiple p 25-33

N Source

Daikon

23

Rates

Precision: Drilled: Broadcast: Aerial:

Not recommended 3 lb/A 1/4”to 1/2”deep 4 lb/A 5 lb/A

Avg seeds/lb: 157,000 Inoculate: No Inter-seeding: No Height: 3’-5’ Emergence: 4-10 days Drought & Heat: Good drought tolerance Low heat tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

CS B

Turnip

N Source

N Scavenger

Soil Builder

Subsoiler

Topsoil Loosener

Erosion Preventer

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

0

3

1

0

3

1

1

3

4

0

Soils Drainage: Somewhat poorly to well drained soils Fertility: Low tolerance of low soil fertility pH Level: 5.3-6.8 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F Nutrients: Nitrogen applications aid in the growth Sunlight: Low shade tolerance

Strengths  Great soil builder  Good weed suppression  Attracts beneficial insects  Taproot that can reach up to 30”

Strengths  Very rapid growth  Good for short growing windows  Great grazing crop  Utilize in cover crop practices when grazing is desired

Weaknesses  Relatively low germination rate ranging from low 50’s to high 80’s.  Terminates between 15-20°F

Weaknesses  Might not winterkill completely in years with adequate snow cover  Avoid using in rotations with other brassicas  Attracts flea beetles that can transmit Stewart’s wilt to sweet corn

Additional Thoughts:  Use alfalfa setting when drilling



Introduce to livestock slowly Shouldn’t compromise more than 35% of livestock diet

CS B

cool season broadleaf

Kale is an upright and spreading cool season, annual broadleaf. It is a vegetable with green or purple leaves. It is closely related to cabbage. Kale is a remarkably hardy plant. It withstands frosts with little to no protection.

Rates



Seeding & Growth Dates: 5-7 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 7 lb/A, 1/16”to 1/2”deep Broadcast: 9 lb/A Aerial: 11 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 235,000 Inoculate: No Height: 6”- 47” Emergence: 3-11 days, largely dependent on temperature, darkness germinates better than light Min Soil Germ Temp: 37°F pH Level: 6.6 – 7.8

Kale

Precision: Drilled: Broadcast: Aerial:

Seeding & Growth

Strengths  Great weed suppressor  Cold tolerant

Seeding & Growth Dates: 3-10 weeks before avg first frost

Additional Thoughts:

cool season broadleaf

Phacelia is very good at creating soil structure due to its extensive, fibrous root system that can reach up to 30 inches. Most of its intense soil conditioning effect occurs in the top 2” of soil. Its purple blue flowers attract many beneficial insects. Its dense foliage does a very good job helping with weed suppression. Even though it produces large amounts of biomass, the residue will not likely remain in the spring because it degrades quickly.

The two main reasons to utilize turnips relate to the crops ability to scavenge nutrients and its grazing value. Most of the turnips that we use during the cover crop process are largely dependent on the needs of the producers’ livestock. Other additional benefits include reducing soil compaction and aiding in water infiltration. Turnips will typically winterkill at temperatures below 25°F.

Objectives

CS B

Phacelia

cool season broadleaf

2 lb/A 3 lb/A 1/4”to 1/2” 4 lb/A 5 lb/A

Weaknesses  In warmer temps, it can easily bolt Additional Thoughts:  C:N ratio: 10 – 30  Good for wildlife

Avg seeds/lb: 192,800 Inoculate: No Emergence: 4-10 days Height: 6”-12” Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details Drought & Heat: Good heat tolerance and Low drought tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

24

Dates: 3 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 4 lb/A, 1/4”to 3/4”deep Broadcast: 5 lb/A Aerial: 6 lb/A Avg seeds/lb: 167,200 Inoculate: No Height: reaches 25” tall Emergence: 14 days Fertility: Fair tolerance of low fertility pH Level: 6.6 – 7.8

www.centerseeds.com

PeakBlend

Adirondack

Adirondack Allegheny Brazos Bristol Catskill Cumberland Daytona Dover Halifax Homestead Indy Ozark Piedmont Rocky Smoky Teton Wasatch

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Soil Builder

N Scavenger

Objectives

4 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 4 based on highest value of single seeds

Multiple seeds offer support for each other in various growth stages  Failure of one seed in a blend is outweighed by the success of the other seeds  Benefits of fall growth support overwintering and growth of spring plant growth 

4

Growth Emergence: Crimson Clover – 7 to 10 days Oats – 5 to 8 days Radish – 3 to 5 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F

If anyone is interested in custom seed mixes targeted to their rotation, Center Seeds can blend specifically to your needs.

CS

cool season

The Adirondack PeakBlend is a combination of oats, crimson clover and radish. This mixture of grass, legume and broadleaf accomplishes most of the objectives while minimizing the risks of termination in the spring. Oats and radish will winterkill, which allows the producer to focus only on terminating crimson clover in the spring. This is very similar to the TillageMax Indy blend. However, we have substituted oats for annual ryegrass for those producers who have concerns with terminating cereal rye, triticale or annual ryegrass.

N Source

Blends

The current consensus among cover crop experts and trials in the field is that blends of cover crops introduce synergies that would not be found when utilizing a single seed cover crop. Mixtures of legume, broadleaf and grass cover crops combine the benefits of all the seeds, including biomass production, nutrient scavenging, nitrogen production, as well as weed and erosion control. We have developed cover crop blends that focus on the synergies of single seeds with the rotational and time constraints of planting a cover crop. In addition, we have tried to minimize the risk of termination issues producers face.

Spring Oats p 15 Crimson Clover p 18 Daikon Radish p 23

Seeding Dates: 3 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 16 lb/A 1/4”to 3/4”deep Broadcast: 20 lb/A Aerial: 23 lb/A Inoculate: Pre-inoculated with crimson clover inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details

Purpose The goal of this mixture is to maximize the ability to obtain each of the ten cover crop objectives. In the fall we are going to scavenge nutrients with radish and oats. Both of these crops will winterkill in the northern regions. This will put the nutrients back in the ground and make them available for corn or soybeans in the spring. In the spring we want to produce as much nitrogen as possible with crimson clover. Great seeded into bean stubble or wheat going into corn in following year.

Concerns:  Due to the oats and radish included in this mix, there is minimal lasting residue  Review your herbicide application, long residuals can negatively impact crops  The odor of the decaying radish may be offensive especially if grown close to residential areas

Termination Radish and Oats winterkill with 3 nights in the mid-teens. Crimson clover and radishes that may have overwintered can be controlled by a spring burndown of 1 pint of 2,4-D type herbicide with 1 quart of glyphosate.

855-667-3943

25

PeakBlend

Spring Oats Winter Pea Daikon Radish

Allegheny

p 15 p 21 p 23

PeakBlend

CS

Sorghum-Sudangrass p 16 Sunn Hemp p 19 Buckwheat p 22

Brazos

cool season

WS

warm season

3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 4 based on highest value of single seeds

4

Growth Emergence: Winter Peas – 9 days Oats – 5 to 8 days Radish – 3 to 5 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F due to Radish Seeding Dates: 3 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 25 lb/A 3/4”to 1”deep Broadcast: 31 lb/A Aerial: 36 lb/A Inoculate: Yes, pea/vetch inoculant Inter-seeding: Not recommended

4 4 4 2 2 4 3 4 3 based on highest value of single seeds

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Soil Builder

N Scavenger

Purpose This is a great mixture, especially if the producer has time to drill after harvest. In the fall, we are going to scavenge nutrients with radish and oats. Both of these crops will winterkill in the northern regions. This will put the nutrients back in the ground and make them available for corn or soybeans in the spring. In the fall and spring we want to produce as much nitrogen as possible with winter peas.

N Source

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Objectives

Soil Builder

Objectives N Scavenger

The Brazos PeakBlend is a combination of sorghum-sudangrass, sunn hemp and buckwheat. This mixture of a grass, legume and broadleaf is meant to be utilized after wheat or corn silage for maximum nitrogen and soil building. Sorghum-sudangrass and sunn hemp will frost kill. Buckwheat should winterkill. As such, there is little termination management with this blend.

N Source

The Allegheny PeakBlend is a mix of oats, winter peas and radish. This blend of grass, legume and broadleaf accomplishes most of the objectives while minimizing the risks of termination in the spring. Oats and radish will winterkill, which allows the producer to focus only on terminating winter peas in the spring. The ability of winter peas overwintering depends on when they are seeded in the fall. They need to be 6-8 inches to reduce the risk of heaving. Too much growth in the fall can also cause the plants to winterkill. Snow cover and other crops aid in the overwintering process.

4

Growth Emergence: Sorghum-Sudangrass – 10 days Sunn Hemp – 3 days Buckwheat – 3 to 7 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 68°F due to Sunn Hemp Seeding Dates: At least 9 weeks before avg first frost Rates Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 19 lb/A 1/2”to 1”deep Broadcast: Not Recommended Aerial: Not Recommended Inoculate: Yes, cowpea or peanut inoculant Inter-seeding: Not recommended

Concerns: Due to the oats and radish included in this mix, there is minimal lasting residue  Review your herbicide application, long residuals can negatively impact crops  The odor of the decaying radish may be offensive especially if grown close to residential areas 

Purpose The goal of this mixture is to utilize warm season crops after wheat or corn silage to scavenge and produce nitrogen, improve the soil, reduce erosion along with suppressing weeds during the summer months. Due to the excellent heat tolerance of these crops, they survive well during the summer months. Buckwheat will also attract beneficial insects and sequester phosphorus and make it available for upcoming crops.

Concerns:  Regrowth and volunteer buckwheat plants can occur  Sunn hemp needs a healthy soil ecosystem to recycle nutrients

Termination

Termination

Radish and oats winterkill with 3 nights in the mid-teens. Winter peas and any radishes that may have wintered over can be controlled by a spring burndown of 1 pint of 2,4-D type herbicide with 1 quart of glyphosate.

Sunn hemp and sorghum-sudangrass kill with the first frost. Buckwheat should winterkill. However, terminate within 7-10 days after flowering begins, before the first seeds start to turn brown and harden. If they do not winterkill, apply a combination of one pint of 2,4-D type herbicide along with one quart of glyphosate. 26

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Rootmax Annual Ryegrass p 13 & 42 Tillage Radish p 23 & 41

PeakBlend

CS

Annual Ryegrass p 13 Crimson Clover p 18

Catskill

cool season

CS

cool season

0 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 based on highest value of single seeds

3

Growth Emergence: Tillage Radish – 3 to 5 days Tillage RootMax – 14 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F due to Tillage Radish Seeding Dates: Typically, 3 to 10 weeks prior to avg first killing frost Precision: 10 lb/A Drilled: 12 lb/A 1/4”to 1/2”deep Broadcast: 15 lb/A Aerial: 18 lb/A Inoculate: Pre-inoculated with crimson clover inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details

4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 based on highest value of single seeds

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Soil Builder

N Scavenger

N Source

Purpose In the fall, we are going to scavenge nutrients with Tillage Radish and Tillage RootMax. Both of these crops are deep rooted plants. As such, reducing soil compaction is a major objective with this mixture. Tillage RootMax will reduce the risk of erosion and aid in suppressing weeds. We prefer to utilize this mixture prior to beans. This is a great mixture to use when there are manure applications on the field.

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Objectives

Soil Builder

Objectives N Scavenger

The Catskill PeakBlend is a combination of annual ryegrass and crimson clover. This mixture of grass and legume accomplishes most of the objectives at the highest levels. Although this mixture will not winterkill, it is easily managed in the spring as long as the proper termination procedures are followed. This mixture has a higher focus of crimson clover than the TillageMax Indy blend. In addition, there is no radish included in this mix. As such, this is a good mixture for fields that have had residual herbicides such as Pursuit on their fields in prior years.

N Source

The TillageMax Bristol mix is a combination of Tillage Radish and RootMax annual ryegrass. The Tillage Radish breaks up soil compaction with its aggressive taproot, creating thick channels 30" or deeper. This nitrogen storage tank holds nitrogen and other nutrients over winter and releases them as needed by following cash crops. Tillage RootMax annual ryegrass builds soil structure deeper than many other annual ryegrass varieties. In combination, this outstanding cover crop mixture provides added cover in the spring prior to control.

4

Growth Emergence: Crimson Clover – 7 to 10 days Annual Ryegrass – 14 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 42°F due to Crimson Clover

Purpose The goal of this mixture is to focus on producing nitrogen, scavenging nutrients and soil building. In the fall, this mixture is going to scavenge nutrients with the annual ryegrass. Crimson clover will produce nitrogen throughout its lifecycle. Both of these crops should overwinter in most regions, depending on the temperatures and the establishment in the fall. This mixture is preferred into corn stalks going to soybeans in the spring.

Seeding Dates: 3 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 12 lb/A 1/4”to 1/2” Broadcast: 16 lb/A Aerial: 18 lb/A Inoculate: Pre-inoculated with crimson clover inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details

Concerns:  Termination of annual ryegrass if not appropriately managed in the spring  Uneven stands of annual ryegrass when using a spreader  May need to take a double pass to get even stand of annual ryegrass

Termination Tillage Radish winterkills with 3 nights in the mid-teens. If Tillage Radish does not winterkill, add one pint of 2,4-D type herbicide at flowering / bolting. Tillage RootMax requires a burndown of two quarts of glyphosate. Best control is achieved spraying on warm days (sunny above 60F) between 9 AM and 2 PM with water adjusted to 5 - 5.5 pH. Suggested burndown is at approximately 8-12" in height, before the first node has developed or prior to jointing stage. 855-667-3943

Concerns:  Termination management of annual ryegrass. If process is followed properly, risk of regrowth is minimal.  Review your herbicide application, long residuals can negatively impact cover crops

Termination Annual ryegrass and crimson clover require a burndown of 2 quarts of glyphosate with 1 pint of 2,4-D. Best control is achieved spraying on a warm day (sunny, above 60ºF) between 9 AM and 2 PM with water adjusted to 5 - 5.5 pH. Suggested burndown is when annual ryegrass is approx. 8-12" in height, before the first node has developed or prior to jointing stage.

27

G WS

warm season

Developed for the experienced grazer, the PeakBlend Cumberland builds on the Piedmont mix. It is a versatile warm season mix with good drought and stress tolerance for building biomass, N fixation, and increased soil health through plant diversity. In addition to what is available in the Piedmont mix, we have added Pearl Millet to expand upon diversity. Sunflowers with its deep rooted system that can bring sulfur and zinc from the subsoil into the prime growing root zone. It has a good grazing value if grazed below 40 inches. Turnips help to improve water infiltration rates and scavenge N, sulfur, calcium. Most livestock love grazing on the foliage produced by the broadleafs. Non-GMO Soybeans that will fixate N, establishes quickly, produces a large volume of roots in the top 6” of soil with a tap root growing deeper. It will produce a large amount of biomass without the worry of going to seed in most regions. Non-GMO BMR corn variety with highly digestible features and an excellent grazing component that can produce high amounts of biomass. Growth Emergence: BMR Sorghum Sudangrass -10 days Sorghum Sudangrass -10 days Cowpeas – 6 to 9 days Radish – 3 to 5 days Pearl Millet – 3 to 5 days Japanese Millet – 3 to 5 days Turnip - 4 to 10 days Sunn Hemp - 3 days Corn - 4 to 7 days Soybeans - 4 to 7 days Sunflower - 5 to 7 days

Purpose The Cumberland is diverse and heavy grazing mix that maximizes the opportunity for growth while benefiting your production and soil health. It provides good biomass for forage and will help increase the water infiltration rate by building soil aggregates, reduce soil compaction by producing large amounts of root structure and it will feed the mycorrhizal and other beneficials in the soil. It can build a large amount of biomass that helps increase soil holding capacity through soil nutrient cycling. PeakBlend Piedmont can increase soil fertility levels through mineralization by the root exudates feeding the soil biology.

Seeding Dates: last threat of frost Rates Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 50 lb/A 1/2” deep Broadcast: 60 lb/A Inoculate: use Graph-Ex for Cover Crops Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 55°F

Concerns:  With the Sorghum-Sudangrass, watch your nitrate levels during drought periods.  Do not graze for 14 days after a frost.  Overgrazing can lead to compaction.  Be aware of herbicide residual carryover

CS

cool season

The TillageMax Daytona mix is a combination of crimson clover and Tillage Radish. This mixture of legume and broadleaf focuses mainly on nitrogen production, soil compaction, soil building and scavenging. Tillage Radish will most likely winterkill, however, crimson clover will need to be terminated in the spring.

4 4 4 4 3 3 2 3 4 based on highest value of single seeds

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

N Source

Objectives Subsoiler

grazing

Crimson Clover p 18 Tillage Radish p 23 & 41

Soil Builder

Cumberland

Multiple Pages

N Scavenger

PeakBlend

4

Growth Emergence: Crimson Clover – 7 to 10 days Tillage Radish – 3 to 5 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F due to Radish Seeding Dates: 3 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Precision: 8 lbs/A Drilled: 10 lb/A 1/4”to 1”deep Broadcast: 13 lb/A Aerial: 16 lb/A Inoculate: Pre-inoculated with crimson clover inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see page 34 for details.

Grazing Recommendations

Purpose Tillage Radish absorbs soil nitrogen and other key nutrients with its unique taproot that grows 30" and deeper. Crimson clover converts atmospheric nitrogen into plant available nitrogen, helping reduce fertilizer input while improving soil health by adding organic matter. Maximum nitrogen is achieved at first flower of crimson clover. This is a high performance cover crop mix. The main focus of this cover crop is seeding into bean stubble with the following crop being corn.

Concerns:  The odor of the decaying radish may be offensive especially if grown close to residential areas.  Both crops can be negatively impacted by herbicide applications with long residuals.

Termination

Plant after your last frost date.  Allow growth to get to 30-40 inches  Limit grazing to the top 50% of plant growth & allow a 30-40 day rest period  50/50 rule... 50% for the cattle & 50% for the soil.  Maximize your grazing value by considering a more intense grazing rotation moving more livestock on less acres and moving them more frequently.

Tillage Radish winterkills with 3 nights in the mid-teens. Crimson clover and any Tillage Radish that may have overwintered can be controlled by a spring burndown of one pint of 2,4-D type herbicide along with one quart of glyphosate.



28

www.centerseeds.com

Spring Oats Tillage Radish

p 15 p 23 & 41

PeakBlend

CS

Annual Ryegrass p 13 Winter Pea p 21 Daikon Radish p 23

Halifax

cool season

CS

cool season

0 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 4 based on highest value of single seeds

3

Growth Emergence: Daikon Radish – 3 to 5 days Oats – 5 to 8 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F due to Tillage Radish

3 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 based on highest value of single seeds

Growth Emergence: Winter Peas – 9 days Annual Ryegrass – 14 days Radish – 3 to 5 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F due to Radish

Seeding Dates: Typically, 3 to 10 weeks prior to avg first killing frost

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Soil Builder

N Scavenger

N Source

Purpose Both excellent scavengers of N, the Tillage Radish and oats mix will grow rapidly in cool weather and is ideal for quick fall cover. Tillage Radish breaks up soil, even in the compaction zone, with its long, singular taproot to create thick channels 30" or deeper. This mixture enhances seedbeds, provides more ground cover in spring, helps control erosion, works to control harmful nematodes, and will winterkill for easy spring management.

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Objectives

Soil Builder

Objectives N Scavenger

The Halifax PeakBlend is a combination of annual ryegrass, winter peas and radish. This mixture of grass, legume and broadleaf excels at all of the objectives, except lasting residue. However, if the winter peas overwinter, then lasting residue is not a problem as both annual ryegrass and winter peas will flourish until termination. The ability of winter peas overwintering depends on when they are seeded in the fall. They need to be 6-8 inches to reduce the risk of heaving. Too much growth in the fall can also cause the plants to winterkill. Snow cover and other crops aid in the overwintering process.

N Source

The TillageMax Dover mix is a combination of oats and Tillage Radish. This mixture of grass and broadleaf fits into most rotations as it is easily managed in the spring. The main focus of this mixture is nutrient scavenging, soil compaction and fall erosion prevention. Tillage Radish and oats will most likely winterkill depending on which region it is used in.

4

Purpose The goal of this mixture is to scavenge nutrients in the fall with the radish and annual ryegrass. Radishes will also work on soil compaction problems in each field. As the radish winterkills and decomposes, the nutrients will be placed back in the ground which will make them available in the spring. Ryegrass will provide aid with erosion prevention soil building and subsoiling as it can reach up to 48” in root growth. We want to produce as much nitrogen as possible with winter peas.

Seeding

Precision: 20 lb/A Drilled: 25 lb/A 1/4”to 1”deep Broadcast: 30 lb/A Aerial: 36 lb/A Inoculate: None required Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 30 for details

Dates: 3 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Precision: Not Recommended Concerns: Drilled: 19 lb/A 1/4”to 3/4”deep  Termination management of annual ryegrass. If Broadcast: 24 lb/A process is followed, risk of regrowth is minimal Aerial: 28 lb/A  The odor of decaying radish may be offensive Inoculate: Yes, pea/vetch Inoculant especially if grown close to residential areas Inter-seeding:  Review your herbicide application, long residuals Not recommended can negatively impact crops, especially radish

Concerns:  None of crops overwinter, which does not allow something green to be growing in the spring.  Odor of decaying radish may be offensive especially if grown close to residential areas.  Radishes can be negatively impacted by herbicide applications with long residuals for multiple years

Termination Tillage Radish and oats winterkill with 3 nights in the mid-teens. If they do not winterkill, apply a combination of one pint of 2,4-D type herbicide along with one quart of glyphosate at flowering or heading.

855-667-3943

Termination Radish will winterkill with 3 nights in the mid-teens. Annual ryegrass, winter peas and any remaining radishes can be controlled by a spring burndown of one pint of 2,4-D type herbicide along with two quarts of glyphosate. Terminating annual ryegrass is best achieved by spraying on a warm day (sunny, above 60ºF) between 9 AM and 2 PM with water adjusted to 5 - 5.5 pH. Suggested burndown is at approximately 8-12" in height, before the first node has developed or prior to jointing stage. 29

WS CS

CS

Sorghum-Sudangrass p 16 Sunn Hemp p 19 Tillage Radish p 23&41 warm season cool season

Rootmax Annual Ryegrass p 13 & 42 Crimson Clover p 18 Tillage Radish p 23 & 41 cool season

4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 based on highest value of single seeds

4

Growth Emergence: Sorghum-Sudangrass – 10 days Tillage Sunn – 3 days Tillage Radish – 3 to 5 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 68°F due to Sunn Hemp Seeding Dates:  Plant in late spring after last frost  Up to 8 weeks prior to the avg first frost Precision: 12 lbs/A Drilled: 15 lb/A 1”deep Broadcast: Not recommended Aerial: Not recommended Inoculate: Inoculate with a cowpea or peanut inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see page 34 for details.

4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 based on highest value of single seeds

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Soil Builder

N Scavenger

Purpose TillageMax Homestead helps restore soil health following challenging conditions. Sunn Hemp is a tropical warm weather legume that thrives in dry conditions and poor soil. Sorghum-sudangrass has tall growth & adds to the biomass production. The lower growing Tillage Radish is shaded by the two taller species during the summer & then springs to life at the first sign of cooler weather, soaking up N produced by Tillage Sunn. The Tillage Radish then stores the N over winter, releasing it in the spring when newly planted cash crops need it most.

N Source

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Objectives

Soil Builder

Objectives N Scavenger

The TillageMax Indy mix is a combination of annual ryegrass, crimson clover and Tillage Radish. This mixture of grass, legume and broadleaf excels at most of the cover crop objectives. Radish will winterkill, however, annual ryegrass and crimson clover will need to be terminated in the spring. Termination of annual ryegrass may be a concern for some producers. However, with good management, Tillage RootMax annual ryegrass can be terminated very easily.

N Source

The TillageMax Homestead mix is a combination of sorghum-sudangrass, Tillage Sunn (sunn hemp) and Tillage Radish. This mixture of grass, legume and broadleaf is a nice summer blend to be utilized after wheat or corn silage. This summer mixture excels in most of the cover crop objectives. The main objectives we are focused on is nitrogen production, scavenging and soil health including erosion isssues. This entire mixture will be terminated by the spring, especially in the northern regions, which makes for easy management.

4

Growth

Purpose This 3-way mix provides a combination of deep soil tillage and yield benefits achieved only by Tillage Radish, the soil building improvements of Tillage RootMax and the nitrogen fixing advantages of crimson clover for a high performance cover crop mix. We prefer this cover crop mixture followed by soybeans in the spring due to the large emphasis on annual ryegrass in the mixture.

Emergence: Tillage Rootmax – 14 days Crimson Clover – 7 to 10 days Tillage Radish – 3 to 5 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F due to Tillage Radish Seeding Dates: 3 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Precision: 12 lbs/A Drilled: 15 lb/A 1/4”to 1”deep Broadcast: 17 lb/A Aerial: 20 lb/A Inoculate: Pre-inoculated with crimson clover inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see page 34 for details.

Concerns:  None of the crops overwinter, which does not allow something green to be growing in the spring  Potential weed issues in the spring depending on the fall growth  Odor of decaying radish may be offensive especially if grown close to residential areas

Concerns:  Annual Ryegrass may delay the release of N, which may hinder the following crop. However, with additional nitrogen support of radish and crimson clover, the issue should be mitigated  Odor of decaying radish may be offensive especially if grown close to residential areas

Termination Tillage Radish winterkills with 3 nights in the mid-teens. If Tillage Radish does not winterkill, add one pint of 2,4-D type herbicide at flowering. Tillage RootMax and crimson clover require a burndown of two quarts of glyphosate with one pint of 2,4-D. Best control is achieved spraying on a warm day (sunny, above 60ºF) between 9 AM and 2 PM with water adjusted to 5 - 5.5 pH. Suggested burndown is when Tillage RootMax is approx. 8-12" in height, before the first node has developed or prior to jointing stage.

Termination Tillage Sunn and sorghum-sudangrass kill with the first frost. Tillage Radish is winterkilled with a few nights in the mid-teens. A quart of glyphosate and one pint of a 2,4-D product will control any Tillage Radish that may not have been winterkilled.

30

www.centerseeds.com

PeakBlend

Cereal Rye Winter Pea

Ozark

p 14 p 21

PeakBlend

CS

Piedmont

cool season

The Ozark PeakBlend is a combination of cereal rye and winter peas. This mixture of grass and legume allows you to seed later in the fall than blends that have broadleaf crops, such as radish. This mixture excels at all of the cover crop objectives. The ability of winter peas overwintering depends on when they are seeded in the fall. They need to be 6-8 inches to reduce the risk of heaving. Too much growth in the fall can also cause the plants to winterkill. Snow cover and other crops aid in the overwintering process.

3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 based on highest value of single seeds

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Soil Builder

N Scavenger

N Source

Objectives

4

Growth Emergence: Winter Peas – 9 days Cereal Rye – 5 to 8 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 41°F due to Winter Peas Seeding Dates: Typically, 3 to 10 weeks prior to avg first killing frost Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 40 lb/A 1”to 1.5” Broadcast: 52 lb/A Aerial: 62 lb/A Inoculate: Yes, Pea/Vetch Inoculant Inter-seeding: Not recommended

G WS

grazing

warm season

This warm season blend is developed for someone new to grazing or looking for a lighter forage. A BMR Sorghum-Sudangrass provides a high quality forage with a higher percentage of digestibility. Drought resistant cowpeas can be grown in a wide range of soils to build nitrogen and to attract a variety of beneficial insects. The Daikon Radish helps to reduce compaction, improve water infiltration rates and scavenge N, sulfur, calcium. Japanese Millet is also very drought resistant, tolerant of most soil types, works well in lower fertility soils and produces good bio mass and forage quality. It also has a very fibrous root system to help build soil aggregates. Sunn Hemp provides it greatest forage value when it is grazed at 32-40 inches. It can contribute additional N that can help your other grazing species. It can grow on poor soils with a PH of 5- 7.5 and will grow best in soils with ample amount of P and K. It is also resistant to root knot nematodes. As a grazing forage it can average 18-20% protein and total digestible nutrients (TDN) of 75.

Purpose The goal of this mixture is to scavenge nutrients, erosion prevention, weed suppression, and soil building with cereal rye. We want to produce as much nitrogen as possible with winter peas. Mixing the cereal rye and winter peas together aids in the overwintering of the winter peas. The cereal rye also allows the winter peas to climb during the spring growth.

Growth Emergence: BMR Sorghum Sudangrass -10 days Cowpeas – 6 to 9 days Radish – 3 to 5 days Japanese Millet – 3 to 5 days Sunn Hemp - 3 days

Seeding Dates: plant after last threat of frost in spring Rates Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 45 lb/A 1/2” deep Broadcast: 54 lb/A Inoculate: use Graph-Ex for Cover Crops to maximize N production Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 55°F

Concerns:  Many producers show concerns of the tall growth of cereal rye. As such, if the spring is wet and the producer cannot get the cereal rye sprayed, it can get tall and overwhelming to the producer.  Allowing cereal rye to grow in the spring can tie up nitrogen. This mix includes peas which will aid in the availability of nitrogen. If peas do not grow properly, terminate at least 2 weeks prior to harvest to minimize nitrogen tie up.

Termination Cereal rye is less competitive than annual ryegrass and more readily controlled by burndown herbicides. Glyphosate (4.5 lb ae/gal formulation) at a rate of 22 fl oz/A will effectively control up to 18 inches tall, although applications should be made to smaller plants when possible and prior to the boot stage. Adding one pint of 2,4-D type herbicide along with glyphosate will also control winter peas.

855-667-3943

Multiple Pages

Purpose The Piedmont is an easy beginners grazing mix that minimizes the risk of species going to seed and becoming a weed in subsequent crops. It provides good biomass for forage and will help increase the water infiltration rate by building soil aggregates, reduce soil compaction by producing large amounts of root structure and it will feed the mycorrhizal and other beneficials in the soil. It can build a large amount of biomass that helps increase soil holding capacity through soil nutrient cycling. PeakBlend Piedmont can increase soil fertility levels through mineralization by the root exudates feeding the soil biology. Concerns: With the Sorghum-Sudangrass, watch your nitrate levels during drought periods.  Do not graze for 14 days after a frost.  Overgrazing can lead to compaction.  Be aware of herbicide residual carryover 

Grazing Recommendations Plant after your last frost date. Allow growth to get to 30-40 inches  Limit grazing to the top 50% of plant growth & allow a 30-40 day rest period  50/50 rule... 50% for the cattle & 50% for the soil.  Maximize your grazing value by considering a more intense grazing rotation moving more livestock on less acres and moving them more frequently.  

31

PeakBlend

Annual Ryegrass p 13 Cereal Rye p 14 Hairy Vetch p 18

Rocky

PeakBlend

CS

Annual Ryegrass p 13 Hairy Vetch p 18 White Clover p 20

Smoky

cool season

CS

cool season

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 based on highest value of single seeds

2

Growth Emergence: Annual Ryegrass – 14 days Cereal Rye – 5-8 days Hairy Vetch – 14 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 60°F due to Hairy Vetch Seeding Dates: 3 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 22 lb/A 1/2” - 3/4” Broadcast: 31 lb/A Aerial: 37 lb/A Inoculate: Pre-inoculated with vetch inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see p 34 for details

4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 based on highest value of single seeds

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Soil Builder

N Scavenger

Purpose The goal of this mixture is focused on producing nitrogen, scavenging nutrients, weed fighting and soil building. This mixture will scavenge nutrients, prevent erosion and build soil structure with the annual ryegrass and cereal rye. Hairy vetch will focus on producing nitrogen as well aiding in erosion prevention and weed fighting. All 3 of these crops should overwinter in most regions, depending on the temperatures and establishment in the fall. This mixture is preferred into standing corn crops going to soybeans in the spring.

N Source

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Objectives

Soil Builder

Objectives N Scavenger

The Smoky PeakBlend is a combination of annual ryegrass, hairy vetch and white clover. This mixture of grass and legume accomplishes most of the objectives at the highest levels. In addition, the cover crops in this blend have good to excellent shade tolerances. As such, this blend is focused on producers who want to aerial apply cover crops into standing bean fields. One of the troubles with aerial applied cover crops is the ability to survive and grow in the shaded environment of a cash crop such as soybeans. As such, we have created this blend for improved stand and growth.

N Source

The Rocky PeakBlend is a combination of annual ryegrass, cereal rye and hairy vetch. This mixture of grass and legume accomplishes most of the objectives at the highest levels. In addition, the cover crops in this blend have good to excellent shade tolerances. As such, this blend is focused on producers who want to aerial apply cover crops into standing corn fields. One of the troubles with aerial applied cover crops is the ability to survive and grow in the shaded environment of a cash crop such as corn. As such, we have created this blend for improved stand and growth.

3

Growth Emergence: Annual Ryegrass – 14 days Hairy Vetch – 14 days White Clover – 10 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 68°F due to White Clover Seeding Dates: 6 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 10 lb/A 1/2”deep Broadcast: 13 lb/A Aerial: 15 lb/A Inoculate: Pre-inoculated with clover and vetch inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see page 34 for details

Concerns: Management of termination of annual ryegrass and cereal rye. If process is followed properly, risk of regrowth is minimal  Management of termination of hairy vetch as it is a hard seed. As such, it can potentially be difficult to eliminate from fields 

Purpose The goal of this mixture is focused on producing nitrogen, scavenging nutrients, weed fighting and soil building. This mixture will scavenge nutrients, prevent erosion and build soil structure with the annual ryegrass. Hairy vetch and white clover will focus on producing nitrogen as well aiding in erosion prevention and weed fighting. All three of these crops should overwinter in most regions, depending on the temperatures and the establishment in the fall. This mixture is preferred into standing bean crops going to corn in the spring.

Concerns:  Management of termination of annual ryegrass. If process is followed, risk of regrowth is minimal  Management of termination of hairy vetch and white clover as both have hard seed characteristics. As such, it can potentially be difficult to eliminate from fields

Termination

Termination Annual ryegrass, cereal rye and hairy vetch require a burndown of two quarts of glyphosate with one pint of 2,4-D. Best control is achieved spraying on a warm day (sunny, above 60ºF) between 9 AM and 2 PM with water adjusted to 5 - 5.5 ph. Suggested burndown is when annual ryegrass is approx. 8-12" in height, before the first node has developed or prior to jointing stage. Cereal rye is most effectively controlled up to 18 inches tall, although applications should be made to smaller plants when possible and prior to the boot stage.

Annual ryegrass, hairy vetch and white clover require a burndown of two quarts of glyphosate with one pint of 2,4-D. Best control is achieved spraying on a warm day (sunny, above 60ºF) between 9 AM and 2 PM with water adjusted to 5 - 5.5 ph. Suggested burndown is when annual ryegrass is approx. 8-12" in height, before the first node has developed or prior to jointing stage.

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PeakBlend

Cereal Rye p 14 Crimson Clover p 18 Daikon Radish p 23

Teton

PeakBlend

CS

Winter Pea Daikon Radish

Wasatch

cool season

p 21 p 23

CS

cool season

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 based on highest value of single seeds

4

Growth Emergence: Crimson Clover – 7 to 10 days Cereal Rye – 5 to 8 days Radish – 3 to 5 days Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F due to Radish

3 4 3 4 3 2 1 3 3 based on highest value of single seeds

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Soil Builder

N Scavenger

N Source

Purpose In the fall, it will scavenge nutrients with radish and cereal rye while also working on soil compaction and soil building. Cereal rye will provide a long lasting residue. As such, all of these crops help with weed suppression. This mixture is best used prior to soybeans. Due to the nature of this mixture, it can be used prior to corn as long as the producer manages the N tie up in the spring.

Forage

Grazing

Weed Fighter

Lasting Residue

Erosion Preventer

Topsoil Loosener

Subsoiler

Objectives

Soil Builder

Objectives N Scavenger

The Wasatch PeakBlend is a combination of winter peas and radish. This mixture of legume and broadleaf is focused on nitrogen production, soil compaction and nutrient scavenging. However, if the peas overwinter, then lasting residue is an additional benefit as winter peas will flourish until termination. The ability of winter peas overwintering depends on when they are seeded in the fall. They need to be 6-8 inches to reduce the risk of heaving. Too much growth in the fall can also cause the plants to winterkill. Snow cover and other crops aid in the overwintering process.

N Source

The Teton PeakBlend is a combination of cereal rye, crimson clover and radish. This mixture of grass, legume and broadleaf excels at all of the cover crop objectives. This is a very similar mixture to the TillageMax Indy blend. We have substituted cereal rye for annual ryegrass for those producers who prefer using cereal rye instead of annual ryegrass, or in regions where annual ryegrass has a hard time overwintering.

4

Growth Emergence: Winter Peas – 9 days Radish – 3 to 5 days

Purpose This mixture will scavenge nutrients and break up soil compaction in the fall with the radish. As the radish winterkills and decomposes, the nutrients will be released in the ground making them available for the cash crop in the spring. We want to produce as much N as possible with winter peas. This is a good crop after wheat going to corn. Expect the winter peas to winterkill if planted after wheat. It is also used after soybeans going to corn. Successful overwintering depends on the growth in the fall of winter peas and the harshness of the winter.

Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 45°F due to Radish

Seeding Dates: 3 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Precision: Not Recommended Drilled: 19 lb/A 1/2”to 3/4” Broadcast: 27 lb/A Aerial: 32 lb/A Inoculate: Pre-inoculated with crimson clover inoculant Inter-seeding: Yes, see page 34 for details.

Seeding Dates: 3 to 10 weeks before avg first frost Precision: Not recommended Drilled: 23 lb/A 3/4”to 1” Broadcast: 28 lb/A Aerial: 33 lb/A Innoculate: Yes, with pea/vetch inoculant Inter-seeding: Not recommended

Concerns:  If radish and crimson clover perform poorly, proper control management is important as the cereal rye can tie up a lot of N in the spring  Odor of decaying radish may be offensive especially if grown close to residential areas  Review your herbicide application, long residuals can negatively impact crops

Concerns:  Managing the ability of the peas to overwinter  Odor of decaying cover crop may be offensive especially if grown close to residential areas.  Review your herbicide application, long residuals can negatively impact crops.

Termination

Termination

Cereal rye is less competitive than annual ryegrass and more readily controlled by burndown herbicides. Glyphosate (4.5 lb ae/gal formulation) at a rate of 22 fl oz/A will effectively control up to 18 inches tall, although applications should be made to smaller plants when possible and prior to the boot stage. Adding one pint of 2,4-D type herbicide along with glyphosate will also control winter peas and any remaining radishes that overwintered.

Radishes winterkill with 3 nights in the mid-teens. Winter peas and any remaining radishes can be controlled by a spring burndown of one pint of 2,4-D type herbicide along with one quart of glyphosate.

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Drill

Using a seed drill gives a farmer much improved seed to soil contact. When using a drill you need to make sure you calibrate it to the seed you are using and the rate you want it spread. You want to make sure the seed spacing is consistent and drilling depth are consistent and set to your needs. You must be catious of hard soil, soil compaction, soil crusting, inadequate soil moisture and a quick following rain as these variables can reduce establishment and seed germination. It is a good idea to read your seed drill manual or talk to a dealer about your equipment for seed rates and calibration advice before starting. It is a popular procedure to manually turn gears on your drill in your shop and weighing outputs for an accurate calibration.

Broadcast

Broadcast your seed after a cash crop with light or shallow tillage to incorporate the seed is another common method. To make things extra efficient, try adding fall fertilizer to your mix of seed(s). It is beneficial to have a rain following your broadcast and tillage, although it is not as necessary as it is for aerial or surface broadcasting seeding. Some problems to look out for are inadequate soil moisture, poor germination, poor rooting depth, seedling death, uneven seed depth, and uneven distribution due to equipment or soil conditions. It is a common rule of thumb to increase your seeding rate 10 – 25% more than drilled rates to achieve a desirable stand.

Application

Aerial/surface seeding There are six common methods for applying cover crops

Drilled Broadcast with light incorporation  Aerial/surface seeding  Precision row crop planter  Slurry manure  Seeding  Frost seeding  

Each method has its benefits, but you have to choose what is best for your particular situation. The three most common seeding methods are drilling, broadcasting, and aerial seeding.

The next method is aerial or surface seeding. This method requires an aircraft or a ground-based, high-clearance vehicle to allow a broadcast over the already standing cash crop. You want to plant into corn when silks are brown, leaves have turned down, and light penetration at the soil surface is greater than 50%. For soybeans, apply seed when the 25% of the leaves are yellow. .5 – 1 inch of rainfall after seeding will increase germination and establishment. Similar to the prior methods, you want to avoid compacted or crusted soils as they will reduce establishment. Smaller or lighter seeds will germinate better from this method compared to larger cover crop seeds. The smaller or lighter seeds are less likely to crack and have better seed placement. Be sure to increase seeding rate by 20 – 50% more than drilled rates to achieve adequate stands.

Precision

Precision row crop planter seeding generates the best cover crop establishment due to good seed to soil contact, good depth control and consistent seed spacing. Some row crop planters may require special seed plates, cup holders, brushes or other planter modifications to correctly apply your seed depending on their size and type.

Slurry Manure

Another method is mixing slurry manure with your cover crop and applying it right behind soil that has been fractured by tines or coulters. This method ensures rapid cover crop growth and can be accomplished with one efficient pass. It has been shown that this method works well with most brassicas, grasses and legumes (except crimson clover). Efficient nitrogen scavengers are better for this process to ensure less nutrients from the manure are washed away from the field.

Frost Seeding

Frost seeding is used to give a farmer an established cover crop in early spring. This method involves a broadcast of seed onto ground that has been broken up from late winter freeze thaw cycles. Legumes such as red clover or sweetclover can be planted from late February to early March. Cereals such as spring wheat or oats can be frost seeded anywhere from late winter to early spring for a sufficient stand in the spring. 34

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No doubt the power of cover crops with your cash crop rotations have distinct benefits of soil health, weed suppression, production output, and many more. Using cover crops in your cash crop rotation have many factors to consider including how the cover crop will be terminated. If not controlled properly, cover crops have the potential to become weeds in your fields and can hinder spring soil conditions and yields. Many types of cover crops have characteristics that make them both desirable as cover crops and undesirable as a weed species.

Termination Types Growth Stage Weeds Rotation Conditions Herbicides

Termination Methods The four common methods of terminating cover crops are: winterkilling, tilling, mowing, and applying herbicides. Each method has its disadvantages and limits. For example, a winterkilled cover crop terminated by a hard freeze is only applicable to certain species of cover crops and region climate variations; mowing is limited to certain cover crops and their growth stages. Conventional tillage can be expensive and can negate the benefits of the cover crops, as well as the benefits of minimum/no-till production systems. An additional practice that is beginning to show a lot of promise is rolling and crimping cover crops. Herbicides are often used in this practice. Many factors also limit herbicides — and they may be completely prohibited in organic cropping systems. When selecting an herbicide program for termination of a cover crop, consider: Type of cover crop Cover crop growth stage  Other weed species present.  Cash crop going in after cover crop  Weather conditions  Herbicides used for termination  

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Types of Cover Crop Cover crop species are split into three general categories:

grass, legume, and non-legume broadleaf.

Cover crop systems that contain only grass species or only broadleaf species can be terminated using selective grass or broadleaf herbicides. However, producers will often grow combinations of grass and broadleaf species from the three groups together to receive the maximum benefits that each group presents. Successfully terminating a mixed cover crop that contains grasses and broadleaves will require a nonselective herbicide such as glyphosate, glufosinate (Liberty®), or paraquat (Gramoxone®).

While it is possible to combine a selective grass herbicide and selective broadleaf herbicide to terminate a mixed crop, this practice is not advisable because combinations can be antagonistic. Combining glyphosate with either 2,4-D or dicamba can ensure more complete termination of broadleaf species than spraying glyphosate, 2,4-D, or dicamba alone. Effective herbicide control of grasses and broadleaves varies by species. You should always consult a weed control guide or herbicide label to ensure the herbicide will be effective on a particular cover crop species.

Cover Crop Growth Stage The growth stage and height of the cover crop at the time of termination is critical in determining what herbicide and rate will be most effective. Crops that are bolting, jointing, or producing reproductive structures can be difficult to control with herbicides and may require other termination methods. Always take cover crop heights into consideration because taller, more mature plants may require greater herbicide rates than smaller, less mature plants.

Weather Conditions Environmental conditions affect herbicide applications, and unfortunately, these are factors that producers cannot control or predict. Typically, cover crop terminations take place in the early spring. So, while the exact weather may vary, conditions tend to be cold to mild with variable cloudiness and high moisture. Take these typical weather conditions into account when planning an herbicide termination program — cool, cloudy conditions slow the rate that herbicides kill plants. The effect of temperature is especially striking with translocated herbicides, because plants must be actively growing to move the herbicide to its site of action. Wet soil can also keep sprayers out of fields, which delays applications and allows cover crops to reach undesirable heights and growth stages.

Other Weed Species Present One of the potential benefits of cover crops is that they can suppress some winter annual weed species. However, poor cover crop stands, unintended winterkill, and seed contamination can make room for weed species to infest cover crops. Before choosing an herbicide to terminate a cover crop, carefully consider all the plant species that are present including cover crops and weeds. Decide on an herbicide plan before planting or seeding the cover crop, and then amend the plan according to any additional weed species that occur.

Herbicides used for termination Herbicides are generally divided into two groups: contact or translocated. Contact herbicides are not transported throughout the plant, so they only affect the parts of the plant they come into contact with. This can be an advantage because the cooler temperatures won’t limit herbicide activity; however, a successful application will require complete foliar coverage. Complete coverage will be especially difficult in mixed cover crop stands because of the different plant sizes and shapes.

Cash crop going in after cover crop When considering a cover crop and termination plan, consider the production crop you will plant after the cover crop. Many herbicides persist in soil and plant residues, which can harm or kill the following production crop. When planning an herbicide termination program, use only herbicides that are labeled for burndown or preplant applications with the production crop you will plant. Be sure you also observe planting restrictions. For example, there is a 14-day restriction when planting soybean after using high rates of 2,4-D in your cover crop termination program. In addition, consider future cover crop usage when selecting your herbicide. Some herbicide applications may hinder cover crop growth in the future.

Translocated herbicides are transported in plants to their growing points and sites of action. These herbicides rely on plants’ transport systems to gain access to the site of action — this eliminates the need for complete application coverage. However, as mentioned earlier, the rate that translocated herbicides kill plants depends on the plants’ metabolism, which is slower during spring’s typically cooler temperatures.

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Bring in the Cows! Cover crop grazing improves soil health more rapidly than just the cover alone. Using mob grazing practices will supercharge the conversion process of above ground cover crop biomass into dense nutrient rich urine and manure.

The second mistake is not letting the cover grow. By putting livestock on pastures the second you see any green, you are preventing the plants from establishing a full and deep set of root systems to enhance the soil and build organic matter.

Lower feeding costs Better nutrition management  Greater soil benefits  Higher farm profits

To avoid this mistake in your fall grazing system, you can add a few cool-season plants with your warm-season crops. This allows you to utilize some of your warm-season crops while you are waiting for your cool-season plants to grow and have abundant grazing.



Grazing

The first mistake is not having enough species. If you use multiple species in your system, you can increase the opportunities for the soil biology to grow. Research has shown that more plants and species (as few as 9 and as many as 20) can actually increase yields without using any more from the soil water profile than the simple mixes of 1 or 2 species. And, having many species is a great way to act out nature’s model of soil biology.



There are a few factors that producers should keep in mind when utilizing cover crops for forage and nutritional purposes for their livestock. As many producers have observed, their livestock will consume the younger, more palatable plants and tops before eating the stems on the plant. These better tasting feeds are also much more nutritional for the livestock. The upper 6 inches of a plant has more Crude Protein (CP) and relative feed value than the lower portions of the plant. This is an important factor to keep in mind when implementing a grazing system because it goes to show that abundant biomass does not always mean abundant nutrients – 90% of plant protein is actually located in the leaves! Grazing livestock on your cover crops is an ideal way to speed up the process of soil restoration by turning slow decomposing vegetation into pre-digested food for soil bacteria. However, many producers make common mistakes when it comes to utilizing their cover crops within a grazing system.

The third mistake is continuous grazing. Allowing your livestock to run loose on your cover crops for long periods at low stocking rates does more harm than good; it can severely damage your soil health instead of building it. Animals will also tend to selectively graze on their favorite plants and leaves first and save the lower-nutrition plants for last. As a result of this, you can expect to see poor performance from the crop and livestock by the end of the grazing season. Another result of continuous grazing is soil compaction and manure spreading. Constant trampling by the animals for a long time will essentially cause more compacted soil than short periods with high stocking rates. In addition, it does not do as thorough of a job at spreading manure across the pasture as the short periods of high stocked animals. The fourth mistake is taking too much from the crop. You should strive to not graze any more than the best third of the crop and then leave the rest down on the ground. This practice will put the best nutrition in your animal while still being able to cover the ground with vegetation. Also, this will protect the soil and feed the soil at the same time by keeping it at constant temperature. One of the best ways to control these cover crop grazing mistakes and the habits of livestock is to implement a rotational grazing system, if at all possible. Producers will be more efficient in producing livestock and maintaining soil health if the animals are only taking what they need from the plants. The general rule in a cover crop grazing system is take 1/3, leave 1/3, and livestock will likely stomp 1/3. Realistically, the animals will take closer to ½ of the crop while grazing. However, as long as they are not taking it down to the ground, the cover will be able to have ample regrowth.

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Rotational grazing is signified by having intervals of grazing and resting periods of the forage. The grazing periods are usually short periods of intense grazing (anywhere from a few hours to a few days) by the livestock followed by longer periods (usually 30-60 days) of rest for the forage to regrow what the animal took. These periods are based on the stocking rate in the pasture or paddock, climate in the region, and cover crop planted. If producers want to do the calculations themselves, then use the following information:

These equations can help you estimate how many days your livestock can be on a given acre or paddock size at a time based on your individual dry matter yield. Producers then must decide if they will be able to allow enough rest time for ample regrowth between the rotations of their paddocks. If there is not enough rest time allotted, this is when the supplemental hay can be used until the livestock can be released on pasture again. It is also important to have mixes in your cover crop that will perform well during adverse weather conditions, such as drought, so supplemental hay can be avoided during the normal grazing season and saved for the winter periods of no grazing.

- Two to three acres of pasture per cow/calf pair - One acre will produce roughly 5 tons or 10,000 pounds of forage. - One animal unit (au) equals 1,000 lbs. when doing your calculations. A producer also wants to keep in mind the appropriate feeding rates of forage quality in relation to body weight of dairy cattle or mature beef cows:

Forage Quality

Excellent Good Average Fair Poor

In order to expand the grazing season even further, livestock can be strip-grazed on crop residue such as corn stalks. Cattle on cornstalks are estimated to consume 20%-30% of the total residue on the field. Cornstalks are a very high-quality winter feed source with the nutritional rates being high earlier in the grazing period and decreasing as the time goes on. Like any other forage crop, the livestock will eat the highest palatability components first, in this case being the grain, before moving onto lower palatable components such as the cornhusks, leaves, or stalks. Strip-grazing prevents the livestock from being so selective in their grazing habits by limiting access in the field to a small portion at a time. This forces the livestock to utilize the whole forage in a more efficient way while still extending the grazing time and giving them a balanced diet throughout the entire grazing period, rather than just early on. However, if snow fall accumulates to a foot or more and develops a crust, the livestock are most likely done grazing for the year as they are using too much energy to get the nutrients they need. Some are also worried about compaction issues with grazing crop residue, but this can be prevented by not allowing them to graze when the ground is soft or extremely muddy or removing the livestock 60 days after harvest for the freeze-thaw period. Another way to reduce compaction and extend the grazing period is to plant a winter cover crop directly into the crop residue after harvest or broadcasting with an airplane or high-boy. This will allow for the cover crop to give protection to the ground and produce extra forage in early spring before it is terminated for planting of cash crops.

% of Body Weight

3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0%

Example 10 cows, 1,300 pounds each, consuming 2.5% of their body weight daily. 1,300 X 0.025 = 32.5 lbs/head/day 32.5 X 10 head = 325 lbs/day total To measure biomass, determine your cover crop quantity: 1) Create a 1X1 foot square and toss randomly to select sampling (5-10 times) 2) Clip the above ground forage inside the square. Be sure to only clip the upper half since this is all you will be grazing. 3) Put it into the a paper bag to dry for 4-5 days (crunchy when it’s dry). 4) Weight the dry forage 5) Calculate the dry matter (DM) yield, using the following formula: DM Yield = (mass of dry forage) X (43,560/number of squares sampled) 1lb = 453.6 grams

1 kg = 2.2 lbs

1 acre = 43,560 sq. ft.

Understanding the needs and habits of livestock while grazing will help a producer be more cost and time efficient in the grazing and cover crop practices implemented on his farm. It will allow him to avoid the common mistakes and be successful in grazing cover crops.

50 g of dry forage from 5 squares DM Yield = (50 g / 453.6) X (43,560 / 5) = 960 lb/A 6) Calculate Grazing Days, using the following formula: Grazing Days = dry matter yield of forage / dry matter intake of cows

A local NRCS agent can help a producer come up with a Grazing Management Plan that works best for them.

Grazing Days = 960 / 325 = ~ 3 days/A

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Honey Sweet Hybrid Lynx Winter Pea Tillage Radish RootMax ARG ABM Inoculants

Topsoil Loosener

Erosion Preventer

Lasting Residue

Weed Fighter

Grazing

Forage

Objectives

Subsoiler

Treat your cover crops like your cash crops. Quality matters.

p 26

WS G

warm season

grass

0

4

4

2

2

4

3

4

3

4

Strengths  High quality direct pasture and hay forage  Good for short windows.  Extraordinary palatability for grazing or hay  Good regrowth and recovery  High daily weight gains from direct pasture  Slightly broader leaves and larger stems

Soils

If anyone is interested in custom seed mixes targeted to their rotation, Center Seeds can blend specifically to your needs.

Drainage: Somewhat poorly drained to excessively drained soil Fertility: Good tolerance of low soil fertility pH Level: 6.0-7.0 Min. Soil Germ. Temp: 65°F Nutrients: Application of N or a legume crop either during or after sorghum-sudangrass will reduce the risk of tying up nitrogen for the following cash crop, such as corn Sunlight: Does not tolerate shade

Two additonal product lines that Center seeds carries (not included in this section) are Alta Seeds and Barenbrug Forage products. Alta Seeds includes grain sorghum, forage sorghum, sudangrass, millets and more. Barenbrug includes its “Master Blends” and other high quality forage products.

Additional Thoughts: Leaves resemble corn Can be grazing in 4 weeks  BMR variety with improved digestability is recommended  

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Brazos

Our Honey Sweet Hybrid BMR Sorghum-sudangrass is a modified sorghum/sudangrass which offers flexibility to producers for direct pasture or hay production. Performance in fields has shown from 75 to 100% greater daily weight gains over conventional sorghum/sudangrass hybrids. Its high level of palatability allows the hybrid to fit well into cell-grazing systems. This hybrid has a demonstrated ability to increase both meat and milk production dramatically, therefore producing greater profits per acre of pasture.

Soil Builder

Products

bmrsorghumXsudangrass

N Scavenger

The following pages highlight a few brands that we believe have identified better and more consistent traits when utilized in a cover cropping environment. These seeds are also used in our blends and can be included in any custom mixes you desire.

HoneySweetHybrid

N Source

In our previous sections, we have discussed many single seeds and blends. Those discussions were based on nonbranded products that we carry. Through our cover cropping experience, we have realized (and experienced) that there are specific products that are more consistent and reliable when specific, branded products are utilized. As of a result of our experiences we believe that choosing the proper cover crop can make the difference between a cover crop success or a failure.

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Seeding & Growth Dates: Best planted 10 to 20 days after prime corn planting time until 6 weeks prior to avg first frost Rates Precision: 16 lb/A Drilled: 22 lb/A, 1/2”to 1 1/2”deep Broadcast: 26 lb/A Aerial: Not recommended Avg seeds/lb: 13-18,000 Height: up to 8’ Inter-seeding: Not recommended Emergence: 10 days Inoculate: NR* Drought & Heat: Excellent heat/drought tolerance Flooding: Does not tolerate flooding or ponding

Lynx for Cover Cropping Lynx Winter Pea is an ideal cover crop for multiple reasons, including high nitrogen production, excellent winter survivability, crop compatibility, larger amounts of biomass, ease of crop termination, and extensive ground coverage. Lynx can be planted straight or with other cover crops. Its extensive multi-stem growth provides improved weed suppression.

“A new cold-tolerant, disease resistant winter field pea ideal for cover cropping, rotational crops, and wildlife.” Summary Lynx Winter Pea is an exciting new winter field pea with better cold tolerance, excellent palatability, and improved disease resistance. Lynx Winter Pea is a clear-coated, smooth green pea that produces white flowers. These characteristics are particularly significant for attracting wildlife. Clear-coated, white flower pea plants have been shown to be more palatable than purple flowering pea plants Types because they are tannin-free, Stages making the plants sugar-sweet, not bitter. Lynx Winter Pea is a semi-leafless Weeds variety with short internodes. For the cover crop market, it offersRotation improved winter hardiness, meaning longer production of roots, nodulation,Conditions and high nitrogen. Lynx Winter Pea was developed by the USDA/ARS in cooperationHerbicides with Washington State Ag Research. It was tested under the experimental name PS05300180W. It is 5 days later in maturity than Windham.

Lynx for Forage Lynx Winter Pea has tremendous feed value and very good regrowth, making it ideal for grazing and a compliment to a winter forage mix. Combined with small grains and other cool season grasses and legumes, Lynx Winter Pea is very nutritious, with protein levels between 14-20%. They are also tannin-free, making them very palatable. Comparison Lynx Winter Pea is more cold hardy than Windham and other peas, has a white flower, a clear seed coat, is green, and tannin-free.

Windham

Lynx

Austrian

Planting Lynx Winter Pea can be seeded at a rate of 30-100 lbs/acre depending on the mix or purpose. For best results, plant in the fall when adequate moisture is available. Ideal seeding depth is ½-1 inch. Always use a proper Rhizobium inoculant to ensure optimal inoculation.

Variety

Class

Vine Type

Blooms per Stem

Winter Hardiness

Height Max (in)

Grams per 100 Seeds

Seed Coat

Flower Color

Tannin Free

Lynx Windham Austrian

Green Yellow Purple

Short-leafless Short-leafless Tall-Normal

Triple Double Double

-5º F 0º F 5º F

35” 29” 65”

12.2-14.0 13.3-15.5 12.0-14.0

Clear Subtly Mottled Mottled

White White Purple

Yes Yes No

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Insist on Certified Seed

Tillage Radish® is different in ways that can affect cover crop results

Center Seeds has used Cover Crop Solutions Tillage Radish® and Tillage RootMax™ Cover Crop Ryegrass on our farms for many years and can attest that quality, certified seeds mean better stands and consistant results in your cover crops. Their seeds are sold as certified seed, your assurance that the genetics for the variety you buy are consistent in every bag.

There is a lot of confusion among farmers over the different types and names of radishes (daikon, oilseed, forage, etc.) being sold as cover crop seed. As the industry leader in the U.S., Cover Crop Solutions’ Tillage Radish® has been, and will continue to be, the most tested cover crop radish in the country. The result is there is more information available on Tillage Radish® to support its benefits and proper placement as a cover crop.

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Stringent standards, superb management Cover Crop Solutions’ certified seed is grown under the most intensively managed production conditions possible, and has minimal weed seeds or other matter. Varietal purity Certified seed uses systems to maximize genetic purity making sure you get the variety you want. Off-types, other crop seeds, and weeds are guaranteed to be minimized. Guaranteed quality assurance Third party inspections in the field and at the processing plant ensure that all quality assurance requirements have been met.

The brand name Tillage Radish® is the result of 13 years of careful selection through on-farm and university trials with a daikon type radish. The criteria for selection assures that as a cover crop it exhibits the following characteristics. 1. A very high nutrient “catch-and-release” potential for nutrients like N and S 2. A vigorous tap root to penetrate compacted soil and clay layers 3. The ability to create better soil conditions to support improved soil biology to reduce crop damage from nematodes 4. Less early bolting, resulting in higher organic matter production Strict seed production standards for Tillage Radish® assure that the seed is certified, unlike some of the other cover crop radish seed available. Advantages of seed certification include: 1. Confirmed weed-free seed to ensure growers are not establishing more weeds 2. Assured high germination seed 3. Absence of foreign material, which can plug seeders The Tillage Radish® has the highest quality standards for seed processing & reporting. 1. The seed processing standard used for the Tillage Radish® emphasizes a uniform seed size for more consistent planting. 2. Seed count per pound is reported on each Tillage Radish® bag. (Some competitors do not report this and their seed can be significantly larger resulting in fewer seeds per pound. This is important when buying seed by the pound.)

New genetics Improved traits like better performance, higher yields and others leading to easier management and greater profitability come to farmers in the form of certified seed. Years of research and development go into these traits. Maximum use of other inputs For the best results, start with the best genetics that have a history of proven and dependable performance. This will ensure you’re making the most of your input dollars. Value creation The little bit more you pay for certified seed pays you back multiple times over. Today more than ever the adage is true: Better seed, better return. 855-667-3943

Foreign matter in this sampling of low cost alternative cover crop radish is indicated by the white circles. One pass through the cleaner is often not enough to produce the best seed quality and value, which far outweighs initial seed cost.

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One broken seed was found in this lot of Tillage Radish® seed. The quality target for Tillage Radish® seed is called “zero-zero,” which means no weeds, no foreign matter in the bag. This requires multiple cleanings and higher cost to achieve or to get very close.

The superior genetics of the Tillage Radish® cover crop are the secret weapons behind the dependable, consistent results and measurable benefits to the farmer, the soil, & the environment.

Uncertified

Certified

Extremely Rapid Germination and Growth • Germinates in 2 to 3 days if adequate moisture is available • Foliage spreads out to fill the given space and shade out weeds • The tuber and thick foliage are the storehouse for vital nutrients • Grows to a height of 12-24” depending on when it was planted Bioactive Plant Chemicals (Glucosinolates) • Tillage Radish® increases the soil’s bacteriovores who feed on nematodes and increases the (N) cycling process mineralizing available (N), (P), (Ca) and (S) • Weed-suppressive effect helps shade out competition • High levels of the compound glucosinolate and when decomposed, produces isothiocyanate (ITC) which has fungicidal, nematicidal properties. Some studies say it can also help inhibit weed seed germination

Easier control Where some ARG varieties cause problems in the spring by irregular growth and early heading out, requiring more than one control treatment, Tillage RootMax™ is much more suited to farming practices where efficiency and productivity are critical. The easier control that Tillage RootMax™ provides is based on a combination of shorter and more desired dense leaf tillering, uniform growth, and preferred later maturity. Deeper root mass, better soil structure The fine root mass of Tillage RootMax™ grow especially deep to build soil structure through the addition of organic matter, opening of macro pore spaces, introduction of air and water to deeper layers in the soil profile, enhanced soil biological activity, increased water infiltration and water holding capacity, and better soil particle aggregation. Later maturity – a certified advantage • Compared to other varieties, RootMax™ is easier to control in the spring • You have at least three more weeks of denser tiller leaf growth • You have three more weeks to burn down Tillage RootMax™

Large, Deeply Penetrating Taproot • Pulls up nutrients, allows increase water infiltration, establishes a root trail for the next crop, stores water in the soil profile • The Tillage Radish®’s bio-drilling taproot forms when soil compaction reaches around 290 psi, boring into the subsoil to wick up nutrients • Taproot has been reported to go 30 inches and beyond

Excellent nitrogen (N) scavenging This is why most farmers look to annual ryegrass (ARG) to plant over winter to keep the soil covered, help improve soil structure, and store significant amounts of nutrients in addition to N. What makes Tillage RootMax™ different is its noticeably deeper roots. That means it grows deeper in to the soil to extract and hold nutrients.

Winterkills & Quickly Decomposing Residues • Usually after three nights with temperatures in the mid-teens • Residue is very sparse at planting time • Low (C)/(N) ratio making for a fast mineralization • Releases stored nutrients when next crop needs it (April-June)

Reduced soil loss Soil erosion conditions are minimized when fields are effectively planted with Tillage RootMax™, eliminating exposed soil that would otherwise become crusted and “sealed” when rain drops cause surface compaction on bare soil. Tillage RootMax™ also encourages water to infiltrate the soil profile instead of washing downstream.

High Nutrient (N, P, Ca, S, B) Content • A nutrient scavenger taking up nutrients throughout soil profile • A Calcium film is left on the soil surface as part of decomposition • Sulfur is concentrated in the roots and gives off an odor when decomposing, just like the additive mercaptan that is added to natural gas • Tillage Radish® mineralizes available (N), (P), (Ca) and (S) • Tillage Radish® pulls up twice the amount of (Ca) than cereal rye

Water management Tillage RootMax™ planted as a cover crop is a simple way to improve water infiltration as a potential hedge against drought. Its dense top growth protects the soil from rain drop compaction, the exceptionally deep roots provide channels for water to infiltrate deeper than ever, and when terminated, the loosened channels left in the soil by its roots let cash crop roots grow deeper to get that stored moisture. 42

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Features and Benefits  Deep Taproot  Erosion Control  Works Well in Saline Conditions  Loosens Compacted Soil  Brings Nutrients to the Surface  Reduces Fertilizer Costs  Helps Weed Control  Economically Priced

Jackhammer Radish Planting Tips Plant Jackhammer Radish seed in late summer to early fall at least 3 weeks before the average date of first killing frost. It will germinate rapidly and start appearing within days. If a burndown herbicide is used to clean up existing weeds, wait no longer than 2 days after planting Jackhammer Radish Seed. Jackhammer Radish begins to winterkill when temperatures fall to the mid-teens for 2-3 nights. In most areas, Jackhammer Radish will decompose in time for spring planting. If Jackhammer Radish does not winterkill, apply a mixture of 1 pint 2,4-D type herbicide along with 1 quart glyphosate when first flowers appear. If planted very early as a cover crop, flowering of Jackhammer Radish may develop before they are winterkilled. This can be controlled with mowing or burndown with the active ingredient Glyphosate or 2,4-D equivalent at flowering. Nitrogen needs to be 40-60 lbs for Jackhammer Radish to grow to its fullest potential. Most fields have enough nitrogen left over from the previous crop. In the spring, Jackhammer Radish will give nitrogen back in time to utilize in the spring crop.

Jackhammer Radish seeding rates Precision: 4 lbs/acre Drilled: 6 lbs/acre Broadcast: 8 lbs/acre Depth: ¼ to ½” deep,1” if necessary for moisture Soil: 5.5-7.5 pH Strive for good soil and moisture contact.

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Center Seeds exclusively carries the ABM lineup of cover crop inoculant. Their propreitary formulation of inoculants are key to the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. We find that their quality of product is second to none and has more reliable production in the spring. Because we are huge proponents of ABM inoculant, we also offer cash crop inoculants to support the best yields possibile from all your crops.

A specially formulated cover crop inoculant plus the benefits of the iGET™ Technology. Graph-Ex SA is a planter box treatment that can be added right at the planter just before planting and is your answer to increasing nitrogen levels in the soil with a legume crop. www.abm1st.com • Fast and convenient application • Improved seed flowability • Patent pending • Grower applied

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Rhizobia for Cover Crops Stages ABM proprietary Rhizobia for legume cover crops is Weeds specifically beneficial for these crops and helps the plant to establishRotation nitrogen-fixing nodules that will convert the nitrogenConditions to a useable form for the plant. The Rhizobia in Graph-ExHerbicides SA™ for Cover Crops is a different type of Rhizobia. iGET™ Technology The SA means that ABM has also added a proprietary, patent pending Trichoderma strain found in SabrEx™ root inoculant. Trichoderma has been shown to be beneficial in cover crops. Increasing Nitrogen Credits The nitrogen fixing Rhizobia found in Graph-Ex SA will aid in the production of nitrogen by establishing itself inside the root nodules of the host plant. Working symbiotically within the plant’s nodules, inoculation will maximize the desired nitrogen credits. Talc/Graphite Formulation As an added benefit, the talc/graphite formulation used as the carrier helps to lubricate your planter equipment and improves seed flowability. This is important, as it will minimize seed hang-ups in your equipment and reduce wear and tear.

Graph-Ex SA for Cover Crops ABI Pea/Lentil Liquid Graph-Ex SA

Seed

Formulation

Size

Treats

Units/Case

cover crops

planter box

4 oz

100 lbs

12

Pea/Lentil Alfalfa /Clover

liquid

3L

48-50 lb bags

4

planter box

4 oz

100 lbs

12

Sabr-Ex PB

Corn

Sabr-Ex HC

Corn

Excalibre SA

Soybeans

Marauder

Soybeans

Graph-Ex SA

24 units (80k count) seed corn 40 units (80k count) 10 oz pail seed corn

72.5 fl. oz. 100 x 50 lb seed

4

Soybeans

planter box commercial treater commercial treater commercial treater planter box

25 oz pouch 50 x 50 lb seed

6

ABI Sterile Peat

Soybeans

planter box

75 oz pouch 50 x 50 lb seed

5

ABI Non-Sterile Peat

Soybeans

planter box

75 oz pouch 40 x 50 lb seed

8

Sabr-Ex for PB

Cotton

planter box

12 oz

12 x 50 lb seed

6

Sabr-Ex for HC

Cotton

commercial treater

10 oz

40 x 50 lb bags

6

Sabr-Ex for PB

Wheat /Cereals

planter box

48 oz

48 x 50 lb bags

6

Sabr-Ex for HC

Wheat /Cereals

commercial treater

30 oz

240x50 lb bags

6

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12 oz pail 10 oz + 100 oz

200 x 50 lb seed

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name Todd P. location Wapakoneta, OH rotation before Beans covers 3 yrs mix 26 lbs/A Annual Ryegrass Dwarf Essex Rape “If cover is insufficient in spring, this is a cheap way to stimulate microbes, warm & dry soil and make available some potash & sulfur while pulling out some of the nitrates.”

name location covers mix

Scott D. Laddonia, MO 5 yrs 50 lbs/A

Oats Cereal Rye Radish Hairy Vetch “First our major concern was to stop soil erosion. Now we are building organic matter, cutting back on spray applications due to the weed suppression we get with covers. In 5 years of cover crops, the quickest ROI we have seen is being able to provide a high quality feed source to our feeder cattle.”

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name Travis F location Flora, IN rotation Grazing covers 12 yrs mix 12 lbs/A Purple Top Turnip Austrian Winter Pea Dwarf Essex Rape Diakon Radish “Great feed source while building available organic nutrients for following crops. Healthiest pigs in the area! Soil samples show it is working incredibly well.” name Bruce K. location Halstead, KS rotation Biological Fallow covers 3 yrs mix 22 lbs/A Pearl MIllet Sunn HempKansas Daikon Radish non-GMO Soybean Berseem Clover “Looking to produce N for following wheat crop as well as cooler soil and weed suppression. Great mix for building organic matter.” 46

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mail

PO Box 106 Minster, Ohio 45865

office

40 W 4th Street Minster, Ohio 45865 www.centerseeds.com sup[email protected]

@covercrops /centerseeds /covercrops

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