The combination of resistance training (RTl and endurance

MILITARY MEDICINE, 169, 12:994, 2004 Effects of Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training on LoadBearing Performance and the Army Physical Fitness T...
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MILITARY MEDICINE, 169, 12:994, 2004

Effects of Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training on LoadBearing Performance and the Army Physical Fitness Test Guarantor; William J. Kraemer. PhD Contributors: William J. Kraemer, PhD*: Jason D. Vesco\1, MS*: Jeff S. Volek. PhD RD*: Bradley C. Nindl. PhD+; Robert U. Newton. PhD;^: John F. Patton. PhD+; Joseph E. Dziados. MD MPH|: Duncan N. French. PhD*: Keijo Hakkinen. PhD§ The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of high intensity endurance training |ET) and resistance training (RT) alone and in combination on various military tasks. Thirty-five male soldiers were randomly assigned to one of four training groups: total body resistance training plus endurance training (RT + ET). upper body resistance training plus endurance training (UB + ET}. RT only, and ET only. Training was performed 4 days per week for 12 weeks. Testing occurred before and after the 12-week training regimen. All groups significantly improved push-up performance, whereas only the RT - ET group did not improve sit-up performance. The groups that included ET significantly decreased 2-mile run time, however, only RT - ET and UB t ET showed improved loaded 2-mile run time. Leg power increased for groups that included lower body strengthening exercises (RT and RT + ET). Army Physical Fitness Test performance, loaded running, and leg power responded positively to training, however, it appears there is a high degree of specificity when concurrent training regimens are implemented.

Introduction he combination of resistance training (RTl and endurance training (ET) is frequently used in athletic, tnilitary, and T civilian populations for performance enhancement. Hickson'

ing. which includes factors such as motor recruitment patterns. endocrine responses, and program design. Optimal readiness for military personnel, however, may not rely heavily on maximal strength (i.e.. lRM) or endurance (i.e., VOaniaJ- Many tasks require a combination of strength and endurance (e.g,, loaded carries, repetitive material-handling tasks). Several investigations provide evidence for improved muscular endurance when combining RT and ET or the addition of RT to basic training for military personnel, '""'-'^ Williams and colleagues'" have shown heightened performance on maximal (12%) and repetitive (15.5%) box lifting and loaded marching (4,2%) when RT was added to British Army basic training. Marcinik et al.''^ reported significant gains in strength and no change in aerobic exercise capacity after the addition of circuit weight training to basic training in female Navy recruits. The RT programs included in concurrent training studies have been performed in a circuit fashion'''-' or have been of relatively short durations (i,e.. 6 weeks).'** It is unclear whether the combination of higb-intensity RT and ET performed over longer periods would elicit similar improvement on standard U,S. military tests as well as a load carry task. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine how concurrent RT and ET would impact the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), a loaded 2-milc run. and muscular power as measured by maximal vertical jump in male army personnel. It was hypothesized that tasks requiring muscular strength and/or endurance would be improved by impletnenting progressive RT. whereas tasks of endurance would benefit from high-intensity aerobic training.

originally reported the idea of interference when attempting to develop strength and cardiovascular endurance concutTenlly. The divergent nature of physiological adaptations for these methods has been debated in the literature since then.^^ with some research showing compromised strength gains, whereas endurance capacity Is unaffected or attenuated with simultaneous training protocols. '''"^' More recently. Hakkinen et al,^' and Methods McCarthy et al/*^ demonstrated no deleterious effects on strength developtnent when RT and ET are performed concurThirty-five active duty men who were soldiers in the U,S, Army rently. A review by Leveritt et al,^ outlined acute and chronic were briefed as to the risks of the investigation and they then hypotheses for the possible inhibition during concurrent trainprovided appropriate informed consent by signing a U.S. Army approved informed consent document to volunteer to partici•Human Performance Laboratory. Department of Kiresiology, University of Conpate in this investigation. Subjects volunteered to go through necticut. Storrs, CT 06269, the informed consent process after study briefings on the project 'School of Biomedical and Sports Science, Edilh Cowan University, Joondalup, were conducted at various military bases. All subjects were WA, Australia. screened and had no medical condition that would confound or iMilitan' Performance Di\1sion, U,S, Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760. limit their ability to fully partake in the study. Subjects were §Department of Biolog>' of Physical Activity. P.O, Box 35, 40014, University of classified as physically active soldiers who participated in variJynaskyla, Jynask\'la. Finland. ous U,S, Army fitness routines to help them with their APFT, but The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the none were speciftcally trained for or experienced in loaded runs authors and should not be construed as official Department of the Army position, on a regular basis. Subject characteristics are presented in policy, or decision. Human test participants participated in this study after giving Table I. All subjects were boused, fed, trained, and tested on their free and informed voluntary consent. Investigators adhered to AR 70-25 and USAMRDC Regulation 70-25 regarding the use of volunteers in research. base at the U.S. Army Natick Research and Engineering Center This manuscript was received for review in September 2003. The revised manu(Natick, Massachusetts). script was accepted lor publication in Januarv' 2004, Reprint & Copyright £ by Association of Military' Surgeons of U.S,, 2004,

Medicine, Vol, 169. December 2004

Subjects were matched for body size, age, and training status

994

Effects of Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training

995 TABLEm

TABLE I SUBJECT CHARACTERISTICS RT4 ET UB f ET RT ET

HYPERTROPHY TRAINING REGIMEN

Height (cm)

Weight (kg)

Age (years)

174.1 176,7 175,3 177,6

74.2 75,6 76.6 75.3

23.3 22.9 24,3 21.4

± 6.4 ±4,0 + 6,1 ± 7,8

± ± ± ±

6.7 8.5 14.0 6.7

± ± ± ±

3.6 5.0 5.1 1,4

Values are mean ± SD,

and randomly assigned to one of four training groups. The four training groups were identified as RT + ET; UB + ET: RT only; and ET only. Training was performed for 12 weeks. No exercise was performed other than the prescribed training for the duration of the experiment, A 2-week familiarization period was used lo ensure the subjects were accustomed to the experimental and respective training procedures to minimize improvement from learning.

Body Area Upper body supersets" Bench press + (best flys Shoulder press + uprif^hl row Lat pulldown + seated row Bicep curls Lower body supersets Single leg extension + leg curl Split squats Call' raises Trunk exercises Sit-ups

Sets

Repetition Maximum

Rest (minutes)

3 2 3 3

10 10 10 10

1 1 1 1

3 3 3

10 10 15

1 1 1

2

25

1

" Supersets, a pair of exercises performed in succession without rest.

co!. Hypertrophy protocols were performed on Mondays and Thursdays and strength protocols were performed on Tuesdays and Fridays, Training Programs The ET program consisted of long distance and sprint inter\'al Exercise training was pedbrmed 4 days per week (Monday. Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday) with all sessions individually training to provide variation. L/ing distance runs were persupervised. Endurance workouts started at 8:00 a,m, and re- formed on Mondays and Thursdays and sprint intervals were sistance training workouts started at 1 ;00 p.m, for the ET and completed on Tuesdays and Fridays. Exercise prescriptions RT groups, respectively. The combined training groups (RT -^ ET were based upon measures of heart rate acquired during treadand UB + ET) waited 5 to 6 hours after their endurance workout mil! testing,''' The long distance training was performed on a (0 perform RT, All subjects completed 100% of the training 1 -mile course of varying terrain with each subject running as far sessions. As subjects improved in strength and/or endurance as they could in 40 minutes. Every 4 weeks, heart rate was (i.e,, weightlifting repetitions performed, post-run heart rate, monitored after every mile to maintain running intensity betreadmill testing, or rim times) workout intensities were pro- tween 70 and 80% VO;^,,,.,,. As the study progressed over the gressively increased within the constraints of each exercise pro- 12-week training protocol, the distance covered during each gram (load increased for the strength programs whereas exer- session increased. Approximately 80% of total running volume cise/rest ratios were decreased and run speeds increased for consisted of long distance training. All sprint interval sessions endurance training). For those subjects performing combined 100 to 400 meters were performed on a 400-meter track. The training (RT ^ ET and UB + ET), RT sessions were split during distance of sprint intervals ranged from 400 to 800 meters, and the week and paired with am workouts so that on each training exercise-to-rest ratios progressed from 1:4 to 1:0.5 over the day only one of the exercise protocols (i,e.. hypertrophy or sprint ] 2-week study period. Intensity was maintained between 90 interval) produced high levels of blood lactate (>10 mmol • L '). and 100% V02,,,,ix based on heart rate after each interval. No load carriage practice was undertaken during the course of the study The RT program consisted of varied workouts within each to determine how well the conditioning programs alone would week (i.e.. nonlinear periodization) designed to enhance muscle translate to the military task and therefore limit injury exposure hypertrophy and strength.'' Tables 11 and III detail each proto- of ruck sack training, TABLE II

TABLE IV

STRENGTH TRAINING REGIMEN

CHANGES IN APFT PERFORMANCE

Body Area Upper body exercises Bench press Shoulder press Bleep curls Lat pulldown Lower body exercises Dead lift 1-eg press Leg extension Calf raises Trunk exercises Obliques Sit-ups

Sets

Repetition Maximum

Rest (minutes)

5 5 5 5

5 5 5 5

2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3

4 5 5 3

6 5 5 10

2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3

5 5

10 10

Push-Ups

Sit Ups

2-Mile Run (s)

62.8 + 13.6 87.2 ± 11.2"

68.9 ±11.7 84,7 ± 7.8

804 ± 96 732 ± 66"

50.6 - 13,0 68.3 = 17.9"

58,4 ± 12,6 72,8 ± 17,2"

906 ± 42 798 ± 60"

51.2 - 9.8 73.4 ± 11.7"

52.9 ± 7.8 72.8 ± 4.2"

888 ± 78 888 ± 84

44.5 ± 10.2 52.4 ± 9 . 1 "

47,6 ± 7,0 55.0 ± 8.5"

924 ± 168 804 ± 114"

RT + ET

Pre Post UB + ET Pre Post RT Pre Post ET Pre Post

Values are mean ± SD. " Significant difference pre- and post performance (p < 0,05).

^ Medicine. Vo), 169, December 2004

Effects of Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training

996

Testing The APFT was performed according to FM 21-20. Subjects completed all three tests within 2 hours. All subjects had previous experience and were familiar with testing protocols. First, push-ups (maximum in 2 minutes) were performed in a standard push-up position ulth the body in a straight line the subject descends until the upper arms are parallel with the ground and then raising the body until the arms are fully extended. Next, sit-ups (maximum in 2 minutes) were performed. Subjects laid flat on the ground with knees bent at 90 degrees and fingers interlocked behind the head uith another subject holding the feet with only their hands. A repetition was counted when the body is brought up to the vertical position and returned until the shoulder blades touch the ground. Finally, a 400-meter track was used to for the 2-mile run (unloaded). Subjects were instmcted to complete the course in the shortest time possible. A minimum of 10 minutes and maximum of 20 minutes rest was allowed between tests. A maximal effort 2-mile loaded run was performed on the same 400-meter track described while carrying 44.7 kg (Alice pack. Battle Dress Uniforms, boots, and pack load]. Again, subjects were instructed to complete the course in the shortest time possible. Immediately after completion of the run. heart rate and rating of perceived exertion"' were recorded. Maximal effort countermovement jump height was used to assess leg power using a pre\1ously described protocol.'' Each subject performed three jumps without an approach step and the best score was recorded. Ample rest (--2 minutes) was provided between attempts. Body composition analysis was accomplished with hydrostatic weighing technology previously described in detail.'^ The percentage body fat was estimated using the Siri equation."* Statistical Analysis All data are presented as mean t SD, Data were analyzed using (group "^ time) repeated measures analysis of variance. When significant main effects and/or interactions were observed, a Fisher least-significant difference or Tukey post hoc test was used where appropriate to determine pairwise differences. Test-retest reliability intraclass Rs for the dependent

variables was R > 0.92. Statistical power calculations for this study ranged from 0.84 to 0.95. The level of significance set for the investigation was p < 0.05.

Results No injuries were obser\^ed as a result of participating in this investigation: however, one subject in tbe ET group dropped out because of an acute hernia in the first week of training. APFT performance responded positively to training (Table W]. All groups significantly improved push-up performance [p < 0.05): however, groups involved with RT tended to show larger gains (35-43%) than ET only (18%). Although all groups increased the number of sit-ups performed in 2 minutes, the RT ^ ET group did not reach statistical significance. All groups performing ET showed significant (p < 0.05) decreases in the unloaded 2-mile run time. No changes were observed for heart rate or ratings of perceived exertion immediately after the 2-mile loaded run. Only the groups performing concurrent training showed significant improvements in time to completion (Table V and Fig. 2). Figure 1 illustrates the changes in leg power as measured by countermovement jump performance. Only the two groups performing RT. which involved multijoint exercises for the legs, showed significant increases in jump height (p < 0.05). Table VI shows the changes in body composition. All groups performing ET decreased their percentage body fat (p < 0.01), whereas all groups performing RT increased fat-free mass (FFM)

Discussion The data from this investigation indicate the APFT responds positively to both methods of training regardless of performing them independently or concurrently (Table IV). However, there does appear to be some degree of specificity. Although performing RT was not necessary for improvements, as evidence by ET significantly improving on all three tests, the gains observed when RT was included were greater for push-ups (38-41 vs. 18%) and sit-ups (23-38 vs. 17%). On the other hand, changes in 2-mile run performance were mixed. The greatest decrease in

TABLE V RESPONSES AND CHANGES TO 2-MILE LOAD-BEARING TASK Heart Rate RT + ET Pre Post UB ^ ET Pre Post RT

Pre Post ET Pre Post

Pre-Run

Immediately Post-Run

Ratings of Perceived Exertion

Time (s)

72.2 ± 9.8 82.8 ± 10.7

205.2 ± 6.6 199.2 ± 8.8

18.0 ± 1.4 19.0 ± 0.7

1518 ± 253 1305 ± 164"

78.0 ± 20.8 79.5 ± 7.5

201.0 ± 14.3 196.1 ± 12.9

18.0 ± 1.9 t7.5 ± 1.9

1717 ± 171 1532 ± 186°

80.2 ±11.1 85.1 ± 8.1

186.0 ± i7.9 178.0 ± 15.3

16.5 ± 2.5 17.9 ± 1.8

1767 ± 202 1692 ± 215

86.4 ±15.1 91.5 ± 19.2

192.0 ±11.2 183.6 ± 10.3

16.6 ± 1.6 17.4 ± 1.7

1832 ± 319 1831 ± 383

Values are mean ± SD. " Significant difference pre- and postperformanre (p < 0.05).

Military Medicine, Vol. 169. December 2004

Effects of Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic- Traininji

RT+ET

997

UB+ET

Fig. 1. Changes in vertical jump height after training. *, Significantly greater compared with pretest.

time occurred as a result of ET, whereas RT showed no change. Interestingly, the coneurretit ffroups showed a large disparity with RT - ET itnproving 4% compared with UB + ET improving 12%. These results are sitnilar to others iti the literature'^''''^ and seem to support an acute hypothesis'' that suggests that residual fatigue from ET inhibits the ability to generate force during subsequent RT. Although a significant amount of time was allowed between sessions during coneurrent training in the present study. Sale et a\:^ reported greater strength gains when concurrent training was performed on separate days compared with the same day. It eould be argued thai aerobic endurance was affected in a similar fashion hy performing lower body RT on the same day. whereas UB + RT did not include any lower body RT and therefore encountered no interference on aerobic performance. Loaded nmning/marching is a typical military task."^'^° Our results suggest eoncurrent training is important and possibly necessary to achieve improvement for this type of task (Table V]. Only the groups perfomiing eoneurrent training significantly decreased time to completion, whereas RT and ET alone showed no change in performance. Previously, Kraemer et al,^*' showed similar improvements for military women performing concurrent and aerohic only training, Williams et al."^ also reported improvements in loaded marching when heavy RT was ineluded with basic training; however, these differences were not signifieantly different from normal basic training. An apparent eonfounding faetor was that basic training included loaded marching, therefore, their results must be interpreted with eaution. Although it appears RT is beneficial to load-bearing tasks, the

contribution of the upper versus lower body musculature remains less elear. An interesting finding from our data shows that UB -t-CTsignificantly improved time to completion similar to RT + ET (- 188 vs. -213 s. respectively). A direet mechanism by which upper body strength and/or stability contributes to load carrying ability cannot be determined from our data, but maintenance of proper posture and subsequent reduction of energy expenditure is one possible explanation. Figure 2 shows the high degree of speeifleity in loaded and unloaded 2-mile runs; however, more research is neeessary to decipher the interaetion of resistance (upper and lower body) and aerobic training on repetitive loaded tasks. Changes in body composition are typically observed after ehronic resistanee and/or aerohic training favoring an increase in FFM and a deerease in the percentage of body fat.*^"*'^-^""^^ Recently, Sharp and colleagues^' provided a eross-seetional report on changes in body composition for U.S. Army recruits between 1978 and 1998. They indicated that the percentage of fat had increased from 16.2 to 18.7% for men. Our results fall within this range, and posttests are closer to the lower end range (Table VI). The percentage of body fat decreased in only those groups perlbrming ET. whereas FFM only increased in groups performing RT regardless of ET inclusion. This would suggest that hypertrophy was not inhibited by concurrent training yet differences among groups oeeur.'-'' Overall, it appears concurrent training provides a beneficial stimulus for altering body composition in military personnel. Vertical jump was used to assess lower body power. Only the

MiUtar>' Medicine. Vol. 169. December 2004

Effects of Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training

998

UB+ET

RT+ET

Fig. 2. Comparison of percentage of improvement between loaded and unloaded 2-mile runs, K Significantly greater compared with pretest. +, Significant difference between loaded and unloaded runs,

FFM (kg)

% Body Fat

74.2 ± 6.7 73.7 ± 6.5

63.6 ± 5.9 65.9 ± 5.3"

13.t ± 6 . 1 9.8 ± 5,1"

75.6 ± 8.5 76.4 + 8.4

62.0 ± 1.1 64.8 ± 6.4"

17.4 r 2.9 14.6 r 3.5"

The APFT was selectively responsive to resistance and endurance training performed alone or concurrently. An intriguing finding was that upper body strength played a significant role in enhancing a 2-mile loaded run performance. Favorable changes were observed for body composition as well as lower body power when resistance exercise was included in the training regimen. Based on these results, performance enhancement military tasks respond positively to various aspects of both types of training, however, the appropriate timing, volume, and type of exercise are essential elements to acquiring a targeted outcome.

76.6 ± t4.0 79.0 ± t6.1"

61.8 ± 7.t 64.1 ± 7.9"

18.3 ± 1.1 16.9 ± 8.0

Acknowledgments

75.3 ± 6.7 74.4 ± 4.6

61.1 r 3.6 62.1 ± 3 . 6

18.5^7.1 16.2 ± 2.6°

TABLE Vi CHANGES IN BODY COMPOSITION Body Mass (kg) Pre Posf UB + ET Pre Post RT Pre Post ET Pre Post

Values are mean ± SD. " Significant diffcrenee pre- and post performance (p < 0.01|.

groups performing RT. which included multiple joint leg exercises and improved jump height (Fig. I|. Interestingly. RT + ET and RT improved 8.7%. which would indicate a lack of interference with concurrent training. These results do not agree with recent findings from Hakkinen ct al..'' who found similar strength, and activation improvements, but dampened rate of force development when comparing strength and ET combined against strength training alone. Ditterences in testing modalities may play a role in the discrepancy.

Militar\' Medicine. Vol. 169. December 2004

We thank our colleagues and university iaboratory staffs and the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natiek. Massachusetts, for iheir scientific and technical contributions, and for a dedicated group of participants who made this research possible.

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Military Medicine, Vo!, 169, December 2004

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