The Article. The Article. The Article. The Article. The Article: Regular Uses. Basics: : Beyond Basics 290

Basics: 9393-128 Beyond Basics 206206-290 The Article The Article “The article is one of the most fascinating areas of study in NT Greek grammar. It...
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Basics: 9393-128 Beyond Basics 206206-290

The Article

The Article “The article is one of the most fascinating areas of study in NT Greek grammar. It is also one of the most neglected and abused.” abused.”

The Article ORIGIN: • Derived from the demonstrative pronoun

Wallace, Beyond Basics, 207

The Article FUNCTION: • In essence, article does NOT definitize >> and since no “indefinite article,” it is unnecessary and unhelpful to call it the “definite article” • In essence, article has ability to

conceptualize

• Its primary function is to identify • At times, it also functions to

definitize

The Article: Regular Uses As a Pronoun • Personal Pronoun: he, she, it, they 3rd Singular or Plural Nominative; usually with μεν... δε Matthew 15:26-27 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν … ἡ δὲ εἶπεν • Alternative Personal Pronoun: the one… the other 3rd Singular or Plural Nominative; ~always with μεν... δε mild contrast implied Acts 17:32 Ακούσαντες δὲ ἀνάστασιν νεκρῶν οἱ μὲν ἐχλεύαζον, οἱ δὲ εἶπαν· • Relative Pronoun: who, which especially when repeated after a noun or before a phrase (genitive or prepositional or a participle) 1 Corinthians 1:18 Ὁ λόγος γὰρ ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ • Possessive Pronoun: his, her, their (especially w/ body parts)

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The Article: Regular Uses

The Article: Regular Uses

With Substantives (Dependent or Modifying Use)

With Substantives (Dependent or Modifying Use)

• Individualizing Article

• Individualizing Article

• Simple Identification (category of last resort…)

• Simple Identification (category of last resort…)

• Anaphoric (Previous Reference)

• Anaphoric (Previous Reference)

John 4:40,43 καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐκεῖ δύο ἡμέρας… Μετὰ δὲ τὰς δύο ἡμέρας

• Kataphoric (Following Reference, ie anticipatory) rare • Deictic (“Pointing” Article) John 19:5 ἰδοὺ ὁ ἄνθρωπος.

The Article: Regular Uses

The Article: Regular Uses

With Substantives (Dependent or Modifying Use)

With Substantives (Dependent or Modifying Use)

• Individualizing Article

• Individualizing Article

• Simple Identification (category of last resort…)

• Simple Identification (category of last resort…)

• Anaphoric (Previous Reference)

• Anaphoric (Previous Reference)

• Kataphoric (Following Reference, ie anticipatory) rare

• Kataphoric (Following Reference, ie anticipatory) rare

• Deictic (“Pointing” Article)

• Deictic (“Pointing” Article)

• Par Excellence

• Par Excellence

John 1:21 ὁ προφήτης εἶ σύ;

• Monadic (“One of a Kind” or “Unique” article) the sun, the devil, the Christ (but not “the Lord” since is best of lords) the way of God (but not the Way since is the best way)

The Article: Regular Uses

The Article: Regular Uses

With Substantives (Dependent or Modifying Use)

With Substantives (Dependent or Modifying Use)

• Individualizing Article

• Individualizing Article

• Simple Identification (category of last resort…)

• Simple Identification (category of last resort…)

• Anaphoric (Previous Reference)

• Anaphoric (Previous Reference)

• Kataphoric (Following Reference, ie anticipatory) rare

• Kataphoric (Following Reference, ie anticipatory) rare

• Deictic (“Pointing” Article)

• Deictic (“Pointing” Article)

• Par Excellence

• Par Excellence

• Monadic (“One of a Kind” or “Unique” article)

• Monadic (“One of a Kind” or “Unique” article)

• Well-Known (“Celebrity” or “Familiar” article)

• Well-Known (“Celebrity” or “Familiar” article)

Matthew 13:55 οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός;

• Abstract (ie, the article with abstract nouns)

Romans 12:9 ἀποστυγοῦντες τὸ πονηρόν, κολλώμενοι τῷ ἀγαθῷ,

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The Article: Regular Uses

The Article: Regular Uses

With Substantives (Dependent or Modifying Use)

With Substantives (Dependent or Modifying Use)

• Individualizing Article

• Individualizing Article • Generic Article (Categorical Article) as a class • As a Substantiver (with certain parts of speech) Adverbs; Adjectives; Participles; Infinitives; Genitive word or phrase; Prepositional phrase; Particles; Finite Verbs; Clauses, Statements, & Quotations • As a Function Marker

Absence of the Article It is not necessary for a noun to have the article in order for it to be definite. But conversely, a noun cannot be indefinite when it has the article. Thus it may be definite without the article, and it must be definite with the article.

Absence of the Article • Indefinite: a member of a class without specifying “a woman of Samaria” • Qualitative: stress on quality, nature, or essence 1 John 1.8: ὁ θεὸς ἀγάπη ἐστίν. Hebrews 1.2: ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν ἐν υἱῷ, • Definite: “Though by definition an articular noun is definite, an anarthrous noun may also be defi-nite under certain conditions.”

Absence of the Article • Indefinite • Qualitative • Definite 1. Proper Names: may indicate known person or to identify case 2. Object of a Preposition: obj. of prep. does not require article 3. With Ordinal Numbers: the number makes it definite 4. Predicate Nominative: if PN precedes copula, it may be definite 5. Complement in Object-Complement Construction 6. Monadic Nouns 7. Abstract Nouns 8. A Genitive Construction (Apollonius’ Corollary)

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Luke 1.35 κληθήσεται υἱὸς θεοῦ. Daniel 3.92 (TH) ἡ ὅρασις τοῦ τετάρτου ὁμοία υἱῷ θεοῦ

when both nouns are anarthrous, both will usually have same semantic force

9. With a Pronominal Adjective: 10. Generic Nouns

nouns with πας, ὁλος...

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„

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Psalm 51.11 τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιόν σου μὴ ἀντανέλῃς ἀπ᾽ ἐμοῦ

„

ἄγγελος κυρίου

Mark 1.8 βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. “filled / full of πνευμα ἁγιον”

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses The Article

Special Uses and NonNon-Uses

Colwell’s Rule “Definite predicate nouns which precede the verb usually lack the article . . . a predicate nominative which precedes the verb cannot be translated as an indefinite or a ‘qualitative’ noun solely because of the absence of the article; if the context suggests that the predicate is definite, it should be translated as a definite noun. . . .” John 1.49: Nathanael says to Jesus:

ῥαββί, σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, θεοῦ, σὺ βασιλεὺς εἶ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ. Ἰσραήλ.

you are THE son of God, you are THE king of Israel

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses

Colwell’s Rule

A General Rule about Colwell’s Construction

“Definite predicate nouns which precede the verb usually lack the article . . . a predicate nominative which precedes the verb cannot be translated as an indefinite or a ‘qualitative’ noun solely because of the absence of the article; if the context suggests that the predicate is definite, it should be translated as a definite noun. . . .”

An anarthrous pre-verbal PN is normally qualitative, sometimes definite, and only rarely indefinite.

>>> NOT: An anarthrous predicate nominative that precedes the verb is usually definite.

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The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses A General Rule about Colwell’s Construction

An anarthrous pre-verbal PN is normally qualitative, sometimes definite, and only rarely indefinite. John 1.1:

… καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.

The Word was a god (indefinite) The Word was God (definite) The Word was divine (qualitative)

The construction the evangelist chose to express this idea was the most concise way he could have stated that the Word was God and yet was distinct from the Father. Wallace, 269

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses A General Rule about Colwell’s Construction

An anarthrous pre-verbal PN is normally qualitative, sometimes definite, and only rarely indefinite. In cases with no verb…

John 4:24

πνεῦμα ὁ θεός

Philippians 2:11 every tongue confess that

κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς

Cf. http://www.watchtower.org/bible/ - That link should indicate to you that the NWT is the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ translation. Why do they translate the last phrase as they do? (Cf. http://www.wcg.org/lit/God/wordwasgod.htm or http://www.christiananswers.net/q-acb/acb-r001.html or the footnote in your NET Bible or the discussion in Wallace’s Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, pp. 257-269 for more information.)

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses Article with Multiple Substantives Connected by καί (Granville Sharp Rule and Related Constructions)

In Greek, when two nouns are connected by καί, and the article precedes only the first noun, there is a close connection between the two. • That connection always indicates at least some sort of unity. At a higher level, it may connote equality. • At the highest level it may indicate identity. • When the construction meets three specific demands, then the two nouns always refer to the same person. • Neither is impersonal • Neither is plural • Neither is a proper name • When the construction does not meet these requirements, the nouns may or may not refer to the same person(s)/object(s).

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses Article with Multiple Substantives Connected by καί (Granville Sharp Rule and Related Constructions)

In Greek, when two nouns are connected by καί, and the article precedes only the first noun, there is a close connection between the two. Mark 6:3 οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τέκτων, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς Μαρίας καὶ ἀδελφὸς Ἰακώβου

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses

Article with Multiple Substantives Connected by καί (Granville Sharp Rule and Related Constructions)

Article with Multiple Substantives Connected by καί (Granville Sharp Rule and Related Constructions)

Titus 2:13 προσδεχόμενοι τὴν μακαρίαν ἐλπίδα καὶ ἐπιφάνειαν τῆς δόξης τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ καὶ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,

2 Peter 1.1 ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν καὶ σωτῆρος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,

In Greek, when two nouns are connected by καί, and the article precedes only the first noun, there is a close connection between the two.

as we wait for the happy fulfillment of our hope in the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ. (NET)

In Greek, when two nouns are connected by καί, and the article precedes only the first noun, there is a close connection between the two.

through the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ:

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The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses

Constructions Involving Impersonal, Plural, and Proper Nouns Article + Subst + καί + Subst

Constructions Involving Impersonal, Plural, and Proper Nouns Article + Subst + καί + Subst

Proper Names:

lone article serves to conceptualize a contextually-defined coherent group

Acts 13:2: τὸν Βαρναβᾶν καὶ Σαῦλον

Plural Personal Constructions

• Distinct groups, though united:

the Pharisees and Sadducees

• Overlapping groups: the cowardly and the unfaithful… • First group subset of second:

the tax collectors and [other] sinners

• Second group subset of first:

the sinners and tax collectors

• Both groups identical:

those who have not seen and believe

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses

Constructions Involving Impersonal, Plural, and Proper Nouns Article + Subst + καί + Subst

Constructions Involving Impersonal, Plural, and Proper Nouns Article + Subst + καί + Subst

Plural Personal Constructions

Plural Personal Constructions

Ephesians 4:11

Ephesians 2:20

he gave some as apostles, some as prophets, some as evangelists, some [as] pastors and teachers

having been built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets

… τοὺς δὲ ποιμένας καὶ διδασκάλους, διδασκάλους,

Pastors does not equal teachers Pastors equals teachers Teachers as subset of pastors Pastors as subset of teachers
(NT) apostles does not equal (OT) prophets or (NT) apostles are subset of (NT) prophets

The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses Constructions Involving Impersonal, Plural, and Proper Nouns Article + Subst + καί + Subst

Plural Personal Constructions Acts 20:21

διαμαρτυρόμενος Ἰουδαίοις τε καὶ Ελλησιν τὴν εἰς θεὸν μετάνοιαν καὶ πίστιν εἰς τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν testifying to both Jews and Greeks of the repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ

One major exegetical problem of the text relates to the Pauline kerygma and the use of μετάνοια here. Two of the most commonly-held views are at odds with each other. On the one hand, some scholars regard the construction as a chiasmus: Jews were to have faith and Greeks were to repent. Although it is true that turning toward God is a typical component in Paul’s gospel presenta-tion to Gentiles (cf. Gal 4:8; 1 Thess 1:9), it is hardly atypical of the message he addressed to the Jews. Nor is it atypical of Luke’s theology. Further, the TSKS construction in the least implies some sort of unity between μετάνοια and πίστις. Those who embrace the chiastic view do not address this problem. On the other hand, several scholars argue that the two terms have an identical, or nearly identical referent, being persuaded apparently by the supposed force of the TSKS construction. Although this second view takes into account the structure in Greek, it does not reckon with the impersonal nature of this construction. The evidence suggests that, in Luke’s usage, saving faith includes repentance. In those texts which speak simply of faith, a “theological shorthand” seems to be employed: Luke envisions repentance as the inceptive act of which the entirety may be called πίστις. Thus, for Luke, conversion is not a two-step process, but one step, faith–but the kind of faith that includes repentance. This, of course, fits well with the frequent idiom of first subset of second for impersonal TSKS constructions.

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The Article: Special Uses and NonNon-Uses Constructions Involving Impersonal, Plural, and Proper Nouns Article + Subst + καί + Subst

Plural Personal Constructions 2 Thess 2:1 Ἐρωτῶμεν δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, ὑπὲρ τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ ἡμῶν ἐπισυναγωγῆς ἐπ᾿ αὐτόν Now we ask you, brothers, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering together with him This text impacts the discussion in some American evangelical circles over the time of the rapture. Many posttribulationists/non-dispensationalists have considered the two to have the same referent precisely because of their misunderstanding of Sharp’s rule and its specific requirements. Since the TSKS construction involves impersonal substantives, the highest degree of doubt is cast upon the probability of the terms referring to the same event. This is especially the case since the terms look to concrete temporal referents (the parousia and the gathering of the saints), for the identical category is unattested for concrete impersonals in the NT. This is not to say that one could not see a posttribulational rapture in the text, for even if the words do not have an identical referent, they could have simultaneous ones. Our only point is that because of the misuse of syntax by some scholars, certain approaches to the theology of the NT have often been jettisoned without a fair hearing.

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