Technology Applications for Integrated Sediment Management

Technology Applications for Integrated Sediment Management Eric A. Stern Battelle Memorial Institute Montclair, New Jersey, USA Klimauken Organized by...
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Technology Applications for Integrated Sediment Management Eric A. Stern Battelle Memorial Institute Montclair, New Jersey, USA Klimauken Organized by the Municipality of Bergen Bergen Harbor, Norway 09 May 2012

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Eric A. Stern: 25 years and still playing with mud (Government / Consulting / Academia) • Research Leader – Sediment Management (Battelle) – Co-chair of 7th International Conference on the Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (4-7 Feb. 2013)

US Army Corps of Engineers / New York District US Environmental Protection Agency – Region 2 New York • Research Associate Professor - Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey - Earth and Environmental Studies / Environmental Management  Norway – Contaminated Sediment Workshops - Sandefjord (May, 2001) – USACE/Biologge - Sandefjord (September, 2007) - Biologge - US EPA (April 2008) – Bergen Harbor - SedNet (October, 2008)

- Venice – Bergen Workshop (2011)

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• Need to balance remedial project cost with:  risk/environmental protection  liability

Summary Slide

 sustainability (green remediation?)  regulatory and public/political challenges  depth (maturity) of technology development, and  long-term management of the system

• Can you have it all? – I don’t think so…. (New Yorker speaking…)

– There is no magic technology…. – Integrated approaches to sediment management – Regional systems – transferable ? BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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What is the desired Outcome? In a perfect sediment world..

• Protective of human and ecological health • Use in multi-environments (ocean, estuarine, lakes, fjords, urban) • Socially and politically acceptable – Stakeholder buy-in • Education and public outreach • No re-contamination (source control)

Can you have it all?

• Compliance and reduced liability • Sustainability and restoration is a part of the outcome (LCA/MCDA) Long-term monitoring consideration of the remedy?

Complete project before I’m 90 Component of a Regional Sediment Management Program Transferable to other Norwegian harbors and Ports

Least cost / economically efficient (public, gov’t, businesses) BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Accelerating Progress at Contaminated Sediment Sites: Moving from Guidance to Practice

Bridges, T.S., Nadeau, S.C and M. McCulloch (2011). SETAC on-line.

Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management

• Development of detailed and explicit project vision & accompanying objectives – Achievable short-long term goals – Metrics of remedy success at beginning of project – Dynamic – adjust • Strategic engagement of stakeholders

•Optimization of risk reduction / risk management & remedy selection Deliberate use of early action remedies (IRMs) to accelerate risk reduction (Bergen Capping Studies) Systematic/sequential development of suite of actions applicable to ultimate remedy Starting with Monitored Natural Recovery and adding engineering actions to meet objectives

• Incentive process that encourages and rewards risk reductions to industry – Don’t sue…

• Pursuit of sediment remediation projects as public-private collaborative enterprises (cost share)

– USEPA Legacy Act

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[Urban] Bergen Harbor Port Sediment Management • Sustainability (long-term)

• Eco-psychology (Urban Sed. Mgmt.) complicated media • Behavioral understanding of moving forward – Open to Change – Urban – City / Port Environment – Leadership – Education (K-12) / Outreach Different brain wiring (political) – short vs. long-term can’t see it • Integrated Sediment Management • Hybrids – Holistic – Treatment Train Approaches – Multi Contaminants / Multi Media / Cultural Resources • Regional Sediment Management (watersheds/basins) – SOURCE CONTROL

• Beneficial Use • Un-renewable resources (economic re-development) • BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Application to Sediment Management (over the years)

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Sediment Management Decision Making: Simple Increasing Concentration

Increasing Hazard

Preindustrial Zone SQV: Background

Judgment Zone

Hazardous Waste Zone

Assessment Tool Depends on Situation

SQV: RCRA

Decreasing Management Options Increasing Cost of Management BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Programs in US that Address Sediments • US Commission on Ocean Policy  (USACE/USEPA) – Regional Sediment Management - Policy  USACE Dredged Material / O&M Navigation)

– HTRW / Sec. 312b environmental dredging (USACE)  USEPA Superfund  Aquatic brownfields (weak link / economic development)  Urban Rivers Restoration Initiative (old)

Urban Waters (new)  Water Programs (USEPA) – Stormwater, CSOs, TMDLs (Chesapeake Bay) – source control – National Estuary Program

– Dredged Material • RCRA / Solid Waste • Enforcement Programs • US Geological Survey

• US Department of Agriculture

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Having the Heretical Debate • Rethinking Risk Assessment / Policy • Sustainable Approaches • Design (early decision making) - Socio-economic-political-structural (defining risk)

Policy-makers will have to face up to making some hard Life Cycle - MCDA Analysis choices and perhaps accepting slightly lower Technology (driver) levels of perceived protection to the public – Sediments J.Waters (ERM)

• Beneficial use

• • •

Contaminated Land Bulletin – July 2010

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Possible Sediment /Disposal Sites

Passaic River, NJ Proposed Cleanup Phase 1 Public Meeting – 2 Dec. 2008 BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Hudson River, NY PCB Rail Transport to west Texas Idaho

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This stuff keeps me up at night…………….

Stern at 0300

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Why do we care? – Complicated media and environmental management of the system [watershed] + Source Control - Innovation / Integration – hybrid approaches

• What is different?  Costs for remediation can be prohibitive

Timelines to remediation can be years/decades Green Remediation/Sustainability

Sustainable Sediment Management Climate Change Adaptation

Regional Sediment Management

 Who Pays? / long-term liability

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Global Sediment Management Challenges • Changes in ocean placement criteria • CDFs/CADs are nearing capacity  Difficulty siting  Loss of benthic habitat / mitigation ($100sM) natural resource damage assessment  Long-term liability  Public opposition

 Costs not including climate change adaptation / long-term monitoring • Dredge – Dewater – Haul (> distances) – Landfill – Cost prohibitive – Paradox to Green Remediation / Sustainability – Long-term liability • Integrating hybrid solutions • Competing regulatory programs

Loading unit train for transport to Idaho landfill from NY – GE Hudson River PCBs

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Basics: Where Does Sediment Go? • After the remedy is selected (easy part) – where does it go? (hard part)

– Becomes part of the Materials Handling Train • Secured landfill……. • Nearshore/Upland Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) or Confined Aquatic Disposal (CAD cell) • In/ex-situ treatment technologies • Capping (still requires dredging) • Upland processing facility(s) - Up-front dewatering and/or stabilization - Transport mode ? • Beneficial Use BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Sediment Remediation Challenges:

Experience

Unknowns

Surprises

Cultural Resources

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ITRC Contaminated Sediment Remediation Tech-Regulatory Guidance – in preparation: • Objective of Guidance • Assists the user in the selection of appropriate and effective sediment remedial and monitoring approaches. The aim is to help decision makers and other stakeholders determine the remediation technologies (or combinations thereof) that may be used at their site to select cost effective sediment remedies that achieve long-term protection while minimizing adverse impacts.  The guidance provides an overview of current technologies, including monitored natural recovery, enhanced monitored natural recovery, in situ treatment, capping, and dredging/excavation. • The guidance provides a Technology Selection Process, which assists the user in understanding factors that need to be considered when selecting a remedial technology at a given site and guides the user to applicable technologies. • The guidance includes information to assist the users in developing monitoring approaches that can be employed to evaluate technology performance and remedy effectiveness. • Case studies are used throughout the guidance to illustrate use of technology, remedy selection, and effectiveness. • While several technical sediment remediation guidance documents exist this guidance differs in that it provides the user with a technology evaluation tool to effectively, comprehensively, and transparently support remedial selection at a given site. BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Contaminants Driving Sediment Risk 60% 99 Sediment Areas

51%

40% 33%

30% 18%

20%

15%

10%

7%

5%

4%

3%

Cs VO

Di ox in s/ Fu ra ns

th er O

Pe st ic id es

er cu ry M

Hs PA

et al s M

Bs

0%

PC

Percentage of Areas

50%

+

NR

th re e

M

2%

Al l

g

R

15%

Ca pp in

M N

ca pp in g

20%

Re m ov al +

Re m ov al +

on ly

on ly

10%

M NR

g

60%

Ca pp in

Re m ov al on ly

Percentage of Sites

Sediment Remedies Selected

70% 60 Tier 1 Sites

57%

50%

40%

30%

13% 8%

5%

0% 0%

Sediment options based on grain size:

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Lets talk Dredging: effectiveness / long-term monitoring

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Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness - June 2007 (NRC)

• National Research Council of the National Academies (www.nap.edu) • Committee Charge: – Assess effectiveness of dredging at Superfund Sediment Megasites – Short/long-term changes in contaminant transport and ecological effects – Examined 26 dredging projects – has clean-up goals been met? BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Cost vs. Protection at Superfund Megasites (NRC) • Costs can be significant – Size of the project and technology chosen drive costs

• What remedial costs are reasonable in relation to real risk? – Remedial outcomes are uncertain – Ability to assess current and expected future risks is uncertain

• Remedies costing significantly more may yield similar outcomes • Significant divergences on the use / effectiveness of institutional controls BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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NRC Conclusions: Dredging can be effectively implemented – Technical limitations constrain ability to achieve expected outcomes

Monitoring – Lack of sufficient time to observe long-term changes – Difficulties in separating out the effects of dredging from the effects of other processes - Has dredging alone been effective in risk reduction

– Integrated sediment management plan

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NRC Conclusions: • Environmental monitoring is the only way to evaluate remedial success - Including pre-monitoring/baseline – Has been inadequate (pre and post) at most Superfund sites • Dredging remains as one of a few options but should be considered along with other options – Adaptive management approach • Assemble long-term consistent data set • R&D in rapid field monitoring techniques – Sediment Profiling Imaging (SPI) – Biotic / bioaccumulation / trophic transfer

• Flexible Adaptive Management Approach New Technologies/Application  Field Pilot Tests BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Interim Remedial Measures (IRM): • IRMs: Provide early action/source control to address imminent/continuing threat to human health or the environment – Parallel to Remedial Investigation /Feasibility Study Process

• Objectives for Lower Passaic, NJ IRM o Source removal o Modified by sediment stability (where applicable)

o IRM is implemented while study is underway

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PASSAIC RIVER, NEW JERSEY

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Passaic River, New Jersey Phase 1 & 2 Removal Action (TCDD): Phase 1 – 2011 - 2012 mechanical dredge and membrane filter dewatering at local site

31K m3

61K m3

Hazardous Landfill 61K m3

Newark Bay

CAD Cell ? Phase 2 – 4 years? Sediment Decontamination Treatment is under consideration under the Focused Feasibility Study

October 2010 – design phase/ Construction 2011

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Port of NY & NJ - 3rd largest port in the US Passaic River Superfund Site TCDD Port Newark

Newark Airport

Newark Bay

Claremont Terminal Bayonne, NJ

Arthur Kill

Upper NY Harbor

Kill van Kull Staten Island, NY BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Passaic River, NJ Phase 1 Removal (March 2012)

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Possible Sediment /Disposal Sites

Passaic River, NJ Proposed Cleanup Phase 1 Public Meeting – 2 Dec. 2008 BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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The World of what to do with Bad Mud

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Remediation of Sediments Integrated System Approaches Integrate BMPs to drive sustainable solutions to reduce long-term impacts and liability Multi-complex contaminants – Urban Environments (TCDD, PAHs, Pb, Hg, Cr, TBT…..) • Environmental Precision Dredging – Geophysical surveys – debris fields – Mechanical, Hydraulic • Materials Handling (most critical step - economics) – Pumping slurries – Dewatering (passive – geotubes): mechanical (filter presses) – Transport / Carbon footprint consideration for LCA

• Sediment Remediation Applications:  Capping – Active/Reactive Core Mats – specialized caps (Organoclay, Activated Carbon, Thin Layer Cap), Polymeric Marine Mattress - AquaBloktm, BioBloktm SediMitetm (delivery systems)

 Stabilization/Solidification + (ISCO) (portland cement) + (oxidation) – H202, KMnO4, NaS2O8 BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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 Confined Disposal Facility (upland & nearshore)  Confined Aquatic Disposal (aquatic)  Siting is becoming a challenge / aquatic real estate  Containment Islands (near capacity / expand? $$$$)  Landfills (significant transport – Carbon footprint) / liability?  Mine Reclamation Ex-situ / In-Situ Innovative Sediment Technologies • Thermal • Non-thermals • In-Situ Stabilization (cement injection) / caps In / Ex-Situ Bioremediation – Mudflats – ecosystem restoration - Space limitation

INTEGRATE PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE IN ALL ALTERNATIVES:

Climate Change Adaptation Hurricanes Earthquakes

• Monitored Natural Attenuation/enhanced (eMNR) BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Newark Bay, New Jersey Confined Disposal Facility – capping strategy

•1.2 mil m3 capacity •$36/m3 cost recovery fee BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Sediment Management Decision Making Tools • Life-Cycle Assessment –Evaluating total effects a product has on the environment over its entire existence (production through disposal) - Energy (consumption) + resource use (un-renewable resources/beneficial use) - Transportation (carbon footprint) - Final disposition (landfill, CAD, CDF, capped site) - Applications of beneficial use

- Climate change adaptation - Habitat and ecosystem recovery/restoration - treatment technologies + beneficial use, CDFs/CADs, capping, landfills etc.

» Short vs. long-term options (in it for the long-term) BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Sediment Management Decision Making Tools • SiteWise GSR™ Baseline LCA Assessment Tool (Battelle, Navy, USACE)/Microsoft Excel (not applied to sediments) – GSR metrics: GHGs, energy usage, air pollutants (SOx, NOx), particulate matter, H20 usage and accident risk - Remedial Investigation, Remedial action construction/operations and longterm monitoring - Transportation/material production/equipment use/residual management

• Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis – (ERDC: Linkov, Bates / NGI: Sparrevik, Oen – Supports selection of suitable sediment remediation alternatives - Environmental, technical, social and economics relative to the remedy - Probability and sensitivity analysis (stakeholders/risk perception)

» Critical in making decisions with imperfect information (time and $$) BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Regional Sediment Management Delaware RSM

www.hudsonriver.org

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National Regional Sediment Management Policy Federal – State – City Port Authority/EPA/USACE Public Advocacy/grassroots Cross-Program Academia Contaminated Sediments Dredged Material Management Superfund Restoration/Economic Dev.

Regional Sediment Management

Sediment Quality Quantity Dredged Material Management Ecosystem Restoration / Services

Technology Driver

Urban Sediment Management

URRI Urban Waters (Stern, 2011)

(watershed/basin)

EU SedNET 2000

Sustainable Sediment Management Design / Build Long – Term Implementation / Monitoring (NRC)

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Program Commonality Observation:

Urban Rivers Restoration Urban Rivers/ Waters (New) Restoration Containment

Containment Navigation Restoration Planning

Ecosystem Restoration

Urban Watershed RSM

Water Programs

Superfund (remediation)

Brownfields

Watershed/Basin Management Pollution Prevention

National Estuary Program

(Stern, 2009)

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Sponge Park – Gowanus Canal

Develop strategies to Public open space that slows, absorbs and filters direct, collect and absorb surface water runoff to remediate contaminated water, excess SW runoff – activate the private canal waterfront and revitalize the phytoremediation and neighborhood. wetland habitat creation BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Bionautics Bulk and Tiering System

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Capping (You cap it, you own it — forever)

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Capping Focus: well understood • In all cases where capping is chosen as part of a remedy emphasis on source control and the hydrodynamics of the watershed is of prime importance to minimize contamination and long-term viability and success of the cap (or mitigate – breach). Integrated approach to sediment management alternatives to remediation and restoration - Consistent with natural sediment substrate to enhance ecosystem recovery Incorporation of chemically/biologically reactive materials into the sediment cap to improve overall effectiveness and to sequester contaminants from migrating into the overlying aquatic environment BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Ocean Disposal Sand Capping / New York Bight: 1 meter sand cap – 30 m

NY High energy environment

NJ

Experimental Capping Site

USGS, B. Butman Historic Area Remediation Site BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Considerations for Detailed Analysis for Capping Alternatives:

• Understanding the environment / limitations – Ocean, estuarine, riverine, lake / urban/industrial environments - Energy regime, flooding

• Cap stability and maintenance (long-term) • Economic viability of navigation channel / Port activities • Consistency with potential final remedy which might include dredging

• Monitoring tools to determine effectiveness/cap compromise/bioturbation • Delivery mechanisms (critical) – how do u get it there and stay.. BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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In-Situ Caps In Place • Palos Verdes Shelf, CA – 135 Acres (pilot) • Wyckoff/Eagle Harbor, WA – 65 ac • CBNT/St. Paul Waterway, WA – 17 ac • Halby Chemical, DE – 7 ac • Old Navy/Manchester, WA – 5 ac • Koppers/Charleston, SC – 4 ac • GM Central Foundry, NY – 2 ac • Puget Sound Naval, WA – 1ac

• Bayou Bonfouca, LA – few • Reynolds Metals, NY – few (interim) • ALCOA/Grasse River, NY – few (pilot) BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Capping Methods:

Reactive Core Mats

Traditional Capping (sand-silt/clay)

Active/Reactive Capping

I

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Reactive Core Matstm – Engineered Synthetic Materials:

• Thin non-woven (geotextile) mat filled with organosorbent reactive material that have applications for PCB/PAH sediments (1.25cm thick) • Used for difficulty in introducing reagents (high value) into sediments - Activated Carbon, Apatite, Organoclay

– Stability and physical isolation – Helps with hydraulic control (groundwater) – High energy regimes ? (Research) - (Armored) –ballasted mattress

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Venice, Italy Tidal Barriers – M.O.S.E. Project Maccaferri Ballasted Filtering Mattress

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Specialized Cap Amendments  Activated Carbon (sequestration agent) (granular/coconut shell)  Organoclays (clay aggregate/composites) – Permeability/adsorption for insoluble compounds

In-field applications

– NAPL control  Natural Minerals/Phosphate Additives (apatite, zeolite, bauxite, olivine) – Metal sequestration (Pb)  Coke Breeze (economic) Fly-ash  Zero Valent Fe – Dechlorination of chlorinated compounds (PCBs)  Biopolymers – Binder for metals/injected into sediments

Delivery Mechanisms Benthic Recolonization (Addition of a sand cap) Ecosystem Restoration

 Oxygen and Hydrogen release compounds – Adapted/modified from Reible, 2008 and Madalinski, 2009

Research

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Reactive Capping (general) Limitations: • Limited to net depositional environments (storm surge) • Contaminants are still in the sediments (liability)

• Gas ebulation from organic matter biodegradation / methanogenesis

• Less than 20 case studies

• Long-term monitoring strategies in development

• Design must consider tidal and hydrodynamics

• Bioturbation

• Influence of benthic community

– Life span is unknown – 20-45 cm • Debris

• Climate change adaptation

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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AquaBloktm Capping

Reference: Demonstration of the AquaBloktm Sediment Capping Technology – Innovative Technology Evaluation Report EPA/540/R-07/008 – September, 2007 Costs: $100-200K/acre BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Sedimitetm Capping • Granular low-impact delivery system – Agglomerate with a treatment agent (AC) and Hg sorbent – Weighting Agent – Inert binder - PCBs, Hg, methylmercury,TCDD, PAHs • Native species perform mixing in the Biologically Active Zone – Goal: Minimal impact on benthic habitat

• Costs $100-200K/ acre BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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St. Louis River/Interlake/Duluth Tar Site Dredge/Cap Hybrid Example – Ecosystem Restoration Activated Carbon Reactive Geotextile Mat

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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In-Situ Stabilization: [Cement] Deep Sediment Mixing:

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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In-Situ Stabilization: [Cement] Deep Sediment Mixing: • A. Maher et al.; – Rutgers University (2005) – NJ DOT Office of Maritime Resources

• For highly contaminated sediment hot spots – Newark Bay, NJ - PCBs, PAHs, TCDD

• Triple penetrating auger through unconsolidated sediments • Augers reversed at hot spot depth – Grout mixture/Portland cement injected down shaft into sediment bed – Augers agitate grout mixture as it moves up the auger shaft BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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In-Situ Stabilization: [Cement] Deep Sediment Mixing: • Sediment bed is cured (several months) – Prevents re-suspension / scouring

• Environmental Mgmt: – Left in place as a solidified mass without contaminant loss or migration - Integrated with a cap on top (Gowanus Canal, NY) – Hot spot dredged with minimal re-suspension - Analog is deep freezing of sediments

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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In-Situ Deep Sediment Mixing Management Decision:

5-

Port NewarkPort 3-

Passaic River, NJ – 3D TCDD

Passaic River – Port of NY/NJ Newark Bay Complex / Hg BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Materials Dewatering – Geotubes:

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Geotube Cross Section:

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Ashtabula River, Ohio Remediation Pipeline Route:

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Landfill Construction:

Geo-membrane Liner

Sand Cover to protect liner

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Materials Dewatering – Geotubes: Geotubes can be opened and dewatered sediment used for beneficial use

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Geotube Completion: Ashtabula, Ohio

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Ex-situ Sediment Stabilization:

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Ex-Situ Stabilization/Solidification/Immmobilization • Stabilization/immobilization linked to > pH and natural buffering capacity (dewater) • Adding an amendment will reduce the mobility but not remove the contaminant (added ex-situ / in-place barge) – Portland cement – Calcium aluminates – Fly ash

Beneficial Use Applications Geotechnical Fill Parking lot sub-base Acid Mine Reclamation

– Bentonite – Phosphates – Lime Kiln Dust – Activated Carbon BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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New Directions in S/S/Immobilization: • Portland Cement + oxidation – H2O2/KMnO4, NaS2O8

• Volume reduction with polymer addition – Pit-Dry™ (drilling muds) – MetaFLOtm

• Environmental Management Implication – Reduce organic load by oxidant destruction (haz to nonhaz) – Reduce volume (weight) – Reduce cost + beneficial use BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Bark Camp, PA Mine Reclamation: 320,000 m3 ex-situ S/S beneficial use demo.

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Harbor Resources™ S/S w/KMnO4

• Harbor Resource Environmental Group –Ex-situ chemical oxidation/stabilization process –KMnO4 and Portland cement added to material –Target low levels of sediment contamination –Produces non-structural fill for beneficial use - Upland ridge levee construction –Completed demonstration for 1,900 m3 in NJ (Jan. 2005) BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Harbor Resources MC / OxidationStabilization

Shaker screen over surge tank

KMNO4 oxidant feed system

Sediment mixing in surge tank

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Harbor Resources MC / OxidationStabilization Oxidant short tank

Mix tank for polymer flocculent

Belt filter press

Dewatered sediment

Filtrate water surge tank

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Harbor Resources MC / OxidationStabilization Sand filter effluent claifier

Ribbon blender mix sediment

Cement storage

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Beneficial Use: Geotechnical Fill / Levee Construction EnCap Golf Course

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Treatment methods for tri-butyl tin (TBT) in Sediments • Liquid/solid separation + flotation (particulate TBT) – Experiments using pilot-scale density separation + floatation for sand fractions resulted in 60-65% cleaning efficiencies • Bioremediation – TBT – DBT – MBT (least toxic) – Tn+ - Aerobic + > To oo - Untreated sediments 10% degradation/yr - Aerated and re-stacked 30% reduction in 10 months

• Stabilization (Mylor Harbor – Cornwall, UK) – Modified organoclay + Portland cement – 28 day curing time – 99% reduction following treatment

• Port of Antwerp TBT Clean Project RITS 2012: Remedial Sediment Management Strategies

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Use of Innovative Sediment Management Programs and Technologies Positioning for the Future Regional Processing Beneficial Use Sustainability

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Sediment Treatability Treatment Train Development: (Ex/In-situ)

outside the box

TECHNOLOGY

Bench Pilot Full-scale Commercial

BLACK BOX We can figure this out Basic vs Applied Research Proof of Concept FRONT END MATERIALS HANDLING

Does it Work???

?

POST TREATED BENEFICIAL USE

Impediment to Technology Development BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Ex-SituTreatment Technologies Tested USEPA/NJDOT Decontamination Programs (1995-2010)

Sediment Washing *

Thermo-Chemical Rotary Kiln * Plasma-Arc Vitrification Base-Catalyzed Decomposition Rotary Kiln -Thermal Desorption Solvent Extraction

Solidification/Stabilization with Oxidation * Fluidized Bed Reactor * Full – Commercial Scale BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Ex-situ Technologies with Beneficial Use Cement-Lock tm Technology* ++ F • Commercialized by Volcano Partners LLC • Thermo-chemical rotary kiln (cement and WTE) BioGenesis tm Enterprises* ++ F • Sediment washing (soils, bricks, polymer coating) • Upcycle / BayCycle Aggregates * ++ • Existing Rotary Kiln (light-weight aggregate) Harbor Resource Environmental Group, Inc * • Oxidation/dewaterimg/Stabilization (structural fill) • Westinghouse/The Solena Group + * • Plasma-arc vitrification (glass tiles / gasification – biofuels / BA) •Full Scale F

Pilot Scale *

•ERDC Review ++ BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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BioGenesis Sediment Washing EPA/NJDOT-OMR - 2007

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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1994

1999

2004 – Port Authority of Venice, Italy

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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BioGenesistm Sediment Washing Process Flow:

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Sediment Washing Post-treated Material: Physical Forces Pre-Processor Collision Chamber

Oxidation Hydrocyclone / Centrifuge

Treated Sediment 1st centrifuge and hydrocyclone

Rework Sediment / Blending Final Product Manufactured Soil

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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They’re making people every day, but they ain’t making any more dirt – Will Rodgers • Topsoil is being depleted avg/yr 18X faster than what is being built up in nature – Takes 2000 yrs to build up 2.5cm of topsoil – Lost to erosion, overuse of inorganic N fertilizers and farming practices • US/California – CA agriculture depleting as much as 2.5cm TS every 25 years. 80x faster than nature • Developing Nations – 36x – Foods grown in nutrient deficient soils / nutritional values re decreased / disease - malnutrition • China – 54x • At this rate 48 years of topsoil left*

– C.J. Barrow. Land Degradation, Cambridge U. Press. (1981)National Resources Inventory. Soil Conservation Service. USDA, Washington, DC (1992) – Nutrition Security Institute, Bellevue, Washington (2006)* BUSINESS SENSITIVE

85

Montclair State University, NJ Manufactured Soil and EcoMelttm Sustainable Landscape Demonstration (2010)

Passaic River, NJ Sediment

39.3%

BioGenesis Sediment Washing Process

12.3%

Sand

42.6%

5.8%

Manufactured soil compared against residential/non-residential soil criteria BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Treated Manufactured Soil / Constructiongrade Cement: MSU/Fall 2011

Meets NJ Residential Soil Criteria

30-40% replacement for Portland cement

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Cement-Lock – Volcano Partners Full-Scale Demo Plant / IMTT – Bayonne, NJ (2005-2008):

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

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Volcano Partners Cement-Locktm Process Flow: WTE Screened/dewatered Passaic River Sediments Stratus Petroleum

MODIFIERS

SECONDARY COMBUSTION

REACTIVE MELTER 2400° - 2500°F 1316-1371C

WASTE HEAT BOILER

FLUE GAS CLEAN UP

STEAM TO POWER GENERATION

CLEAN FLUE GAS

ECOMELT QUENCH ADDITIVES

Natural AIR/O2 Gas Feed

GRINDER/ PULVERIZER/ BLENDER

High Quality CONSTRUCTIONGRADE CEMENT

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

89

EcoMelttm

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

90

Pulverized EcoMelttm Cementitious Properties Pulverized EcoMelt – 30% Replacement for Portland Cement

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

91

EcoMelttm used for MSU Sidewalks / Demonstration

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

92

Montclair State University, NJ Manufactured Soil and EcoMelttm Sustainable Landscape Demo (2010)

Mallory Hall

BG

EM

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

93

Large-Scale Food Composting Montclair State University, NJ – Kean University: 97% of food waste end up in landfills

• Aerobic Composter – Process 2 m3 / food residue day – $3/day

• 54.5o C – Rotated 4x/hr / 4x/day – add wood chips – 3 days to process

• Upgrade to large composter for entire university • Combine with decontaminated sediment for manufactured soil blending (Kean University) • Dr. Nicholas Smith-Sebasto BUSINESS SENSITIVE

94

Green Roof Sediment in Vegetative L

Sediment Based Products

Monotech Wall Panels Sediment in Monocrete Shell

Polymer/Composite Research BASF Corporation SUNY Stony Brook Brookhaven National Laboratory USEPA Region 2/ORD

Polymer / Sedimen Spray Coating

Sediment / Polymer Wall Panels Sediment / Polymer Decorative Block

(after Stern, 2005) Sediment / Polymer Structural Block

Topsoil for Landscaping Topsoil for Eco Restoration

Gravel from Crushed Cobbles

Sediment / Polymer Pavers Sediment / Polymer Landscaping Blocks

Sediment / Polymer Floor Tiles

Sediment / Polymer Belgium Block Curb

Doug Reid Green - BASF BUSINESS SENSITIVE

95

BASF Kearny Point Restoration

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

96

Direction of Ex-Situ Sediment Treatment Management • Develop Long-term Self Sustaining Enterprises in the Environmental Management of Sediments – Integrate Technologies (front and back end)

- Urban centers / waste priorities

- Regional Processing Centers - Mainstream (combine) regional sediment remediation / restoration projects »Combine timelines/critical paths

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

97

Regional Sediment Processing: Hackensack Berrys Creek

Regional Sediment Management Processing

Hudson River

Manhattan East River

Passaic

Newtown Creek

Port Newark + USACE O&M Nav Material Start-up in 2014

Gowanus Canal

Parallel timelines and critical paths

JFK

Jamaica Bay

Brooklyn Staten Island BUSINESS SENSITIVE

98

Passaic, Gowanus, Newtown Navigation / O&M

Regional Processing Facility

Renewable

CDF/CAD Compartment cells

Storage (1) Dewatering / Stabilization - Landfill (Haz/non-H) (2) Treatment / Beneficial Use

Regional Sediment Management Integrated Approach BUSINESS SENSITIVE

99

Remediation Who Pays Strategies Principal Responsible Parties (PRPs – legacy polluters) – Superfund

-------------------------------------------------------------Non-Superfund • USACE EcoSystem Restoration Authority – Federal – State sponsor cost share (65/35%) - USACE and NYC Department of Environmental Protection

– Feasibility Study (4 years) - Local non-federal sponsor

• Construction Authority (Build) (65/35%) – Remedial / Restoration Dredging / Capping

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

100

USEPA Great Lakes Legacy Act Cost Share Model • Goal: Accelerate the pace of sediment remediation at Areas of Concern (AOCs) • Mechanism: Use partnerships as an innovative approach to conducting sediment remediation Cost Sharing: Requires a minimum 35% nonfederal cost share

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

101

Great Lakes Legacy Act Project Types

• Must be in U.S. Areas of Concern (AOCs) and:

–1) Implement a plan to remediate contaminated sediment (highest priority) –2) Monitor or evaluate contaminated sediment –3) Prevent further or renewed sediment contamination –4) Habitat Restoration in conjunction with sediment remediation

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

102

Conceptual Regional Processing

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

103

USEPA Legacy Act Industry Project Cost Share (2011) • DuPont Co.

• CBS Operations (Viacom Intl)

• GenCorp Inc.

• Elkem Metals

• Honeywell International Inc.

• Perstorp Polyols, Inc.

• Illinois Tool Works, Inc.

• Chevron USA

• United Technologies Refining

• Sunoco, Inc

BP-Husky

• Cleveland Illuminating Co.

• Mallinckrodt Inc • Millenium Inorganic Chemicals • Ohio Power • Olin Corp • Occidental Chemical

• RMI Titanium Co • Sherwin Williams • Union Carbide

• Pilkington North America, Inc • Allied Waste Industries, Inc.

• Phelps Dodge (Now Freeport-McMoRan) • Cabot Corp • Detrex Corp • XIK Corp • Consumers Energy • Varta Microbattery, Inc. • The Mosaic Co.

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

104

GLNPO Regional Sediment Treatment Program •

Partner with GLNPO (Legacy Act) to provide non-federal cost share (65-35%)



Dredge, decontaminate, recycle to useful products instead of placement in CDF or landfill



PROCESS AT CENTRAL LOCATION •

Standardized materials handling approach



Combine several projects for sediment volume throughput: Regional facilities (Lake Michigan/Erie)



Improved efficiencies

Sustainable reclamation of a non-renewable resource

Long Term Disposal and Placement Options CDFs nearing capacity Landfills? Long-term monitoring LEGACY?

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

105

Summary: [environmentalists] have become more equity conscious, and through their adoption of the sustainable growth logic of the appropriate technology movement, they have largely cast off changes of obstructionism – Cicin-Sain and Knecht (1998) - Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management

….Need to be open to new ideas – behavioral (shift) • Innovation grinds to a halt (no intellectual motivation) if the most desired outcomes are long-term dumps or that clean-ups continue to take decades BUSINESS SENSITIVE

106

• Need to balance remedial project cost with:  risk/environmental protection  liability  sustainability (green remediation?)  regulatory and public/political challenges  depth (maturity) of technology development, and  long-term management of the system

• Can you have it all? – I don’t think so…. (New Yorker speaking…)

– There is no magic technology…. – Integrated approaches to sediment management – Watersheds (outside the project box)

– Regional systems – transferable ?

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

107

• Don’t believe when someone tells you If it ain’t broken – don’t fix it. – It probably is broken and you just don’t quite yet know how to fix it.. - stuck in the mud… – Impedes innovative technology development

• Don’t discount sediment treatment as too expensive. Technologies over a decade that have stayed in the game have advanced through bench/pilot/full-scale programs with better economic data. – This has caught up (w/in magnitude) with other alternatives – Determine Life Cycle Assessment / MCDA Environmental Cost Benefit of paying more in the shortterm as it relates to long-term sustainable approaches BUSINESS SENSITIVE

108

No Sunset slide Just my dog..

Quinlan from Limerick, Ireland Lives in New Jersey….

BUSINESS SENSITIVE

109

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