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Technical Information Resistance Thermometer Sensor and Thermocouple Data Collection Introduction Resistance thermometer sensors (RTSs) and thermoco...
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Technical Information

Resistance Thermometer Sensor and Thermocouple Data Collection

Introduction Resistance thermometer sensors (RTSs) and thermocouples are the temperature sensors most widely used in industrial temperature measurement. They have the advantages of simple construction and ease of use, making for convenience in measurement. However, if correct application methods based on the proper standards are not followed, highly accurate measurements cannot be expected. This document is a compendium of the basic data relating to resistance thermometer sensors and thermocouples. *This second edition reflects IEC and JIS revisions (thermocouples) of July 1995. We hope that this document will aid you in comparing the various underlying standards from an international viewpoint, and in deciding which standards to follow. This document also provides information on vital parameters such as operating temperature ranges and tolerances.

Contents 1. RESISTANCE THERMOMETER SENSORS .................................................................................................. 1 1.1

Overview of the IEC Revisions ........................................................................................................................................ 1

1.2

Overview of the JIS Revisions .......................................................................................................................................... 1

1.3

Types of Resistance Thermometer Sensors ...................................................................................................................... 3

1.4

Tolerances vs. Temperature .............................................................................................................................................. 3

1.5

Temperature/Resistance relationships Values in Various Nations ................................................................................... 4

1.6

Copper Resistance Thermometer Sensors ......................................................................................................................... 5

2. THERMOCOUPLES ............................................................................................................................................ 6 2.1

Overview of the JIS '95 Revisions .................................................................................................................................... 6

2.2

Types of Thermocouples ................................................................................................................................................... 7

2.3

Thermal EMF Characteristics ......................................................................................................................................... 10

2.4

Tolerance ......................................................................................................................................................................... 11

2.5

Themocouple Electrical Characteristics .......................................................................................................................... 11

2.6

Thermocouple operating Limits ...................................................................................................................................... 12

2.7

Thermocouple Leadwire Resistances .............................................................................................................................. 13

3. MINERAL INSULATED THERMOCOUPLES ............................................................................................. 14 3.1

Construction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 14

3.2

Tolerances ........................................................................................................................................................................ 15

3.3

Codes and Normal Operating Limits .............................................................................................................................. 16

3.4

Electrical Characteristics ................................................................................................................................................. 17 (Insulation Resistance, Thermocouple Leadwire Resistance) ........................................................................................ 17

4. EXTENTION AND COMPENSATING CABLE ............................................................................................ 18 5. INTERNATIONAL TEMPERATURE SCALE .............................................................................................. 20 5.1

International Temperature Scale Plan ............................................................................................................................. 20

5.2

Essentials of the 1990 International Temperature Scale (ITS-90) ................................................................................. 21

5.3

Influence of ITS-90 on Industrial Thermometers ........................................................................................................... 22

TI 6B0A1-01E Yokogawa Electric Corporation

© Copyright Oct. 1990 (YK) 3rd Edition: May 2003 (YG)

APPENDIX A RESISTANCE THERMOMETER SENSORS APPENDIX TABLE A1

PT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE .......................................................................... 24

APPENDIX TABLE A2

JPT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE ........................................................................ 26

APPENDIX TABLE A3

RT50 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE ........................................................................... 28

APPENDIX TABLE A4

PT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE .......................................................................... 30

APPENDIX TABLE A5

INTERPOLATION EQUATION FOR PT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE ........................ 32

APPENDIX TABLE A6

INTERPOLATION EQUATION FOR JPT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE ....................... 32

APPENDIX B THERMOCOUPLES APPENDIX TABLE B1

TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 33

APPENDIX TABLE B2

TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 37

APPENDIX TABLE B3

TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 41

APPENDIX TABLE B4

TYPE N THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ..................................................... 45

APPENDIX TABLE B5

TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ..................................................... 48

APPENDIX TABLE B6

TYPE E THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 52

APPENDIX TABLE B7

TYPE J THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ....................................................... 55

APPENDIX TABLE B8

TYPE T THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 58

APPENDIX TABLE B9

INTERPOLATION EQUATION OF REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. of JIS'95 (JIS C1602-1995) ....................................................................................................................... 60

APPENDIX TABLE B10

TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 68

APPENDIX TABLE B11

TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 72

APPENDIX TABLE B12

TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 76

APPENDIX TABLE B13

TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ..................................................... 80

APPENDIX TABLE B14

TYPE E THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 84

APPENDIX TABLE B15

TYPE J THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ....................................................... 87

APPENDIX TABLE B16

TYPE T THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ...................................................... 90

APPENDIX TABLE B17.

INTERPOLATION EQUATION OF REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. of JIS'81 (JIS C1602-1981, abolished after July 1995) ............................................................................ 92

APPENDIX TABLE B18

Cu-CuNi THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (DIN 43710 TYPE U) ............... 96

APPENDIX TABLE B19

Fe-CuNi THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (DIN 43710 TYPE L) ................ 98

APPENDIX TABLE B20

W (W5Re/W26Re) THERMOCOUPLE REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (ASTM E988) ........................................................................................................................... 101

APPENDIX TABLE B21

KP/Au•Fe THERMOCOUPLE REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE ......................... 105

APPENDIX TABLE B22

TABLE OF THERMOCOUPLE REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. PRACTICED IN TABLES OTHER THAN THOSE DEFINED IN JIS. ........................................................... 106

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1. Resistance Thermometer Sensors Resistance thermometer sensors (RTSs) are temperature sensors that make use of the physical property where electrical resistance in metal increases proportionally with an increase in temperature. Since platinum RTSs can be expected to provide the most accurate temperature measurement of all industrial temperature sensors, they are widely used, especially in conditions near room temperature. One of the requirements for an industrial thermometer sensor is that its performance and characteristics be guaranteed by a standard. Platinum RTSs have been standardized under JIS C 1604 ("Resistance Thermometer Sensors") and JIS C 1606 ("Sheathed Resistance Thermometer Sensors") in Japan, and standardized under IEC-751 ("Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometer Sensors") abroad. These standards were recently revised one after another. This document explains the revisions and summarizes the essential data based on the new standards.

1.1 Overview of the IEC Revisions IEC-751 was revised in July, 1995. The major change in this revision is to revise reference resistance in accordance with the temperatures of the 1990 International Temperature Scale (ITS-90). ITS-90 has adopted as the new International Temperature Scale since January 1, 1990 (Refer to 5. International Temperature Scale of this document). IEC had started study to revise IEC-751 reference resistance immediately after ITS-90 adoption, and finally accomplished.

1.2 Overview of the JIS Revisions Resistance thermometer sensors JIS was revised in February, 1997. This revision made JIS C 1604 completely conform to IEC-751. The major changes are as follows. (1) JIS for Resistance thermometer sensors is uniformed to JIS C 1604 (Resistance thermometer sensors) and JIS C 1606 (Sheathed resistance thermometer sensors) is abolished. (2) Reference resistance table is revised to conform to IEC standard. In the new JIS, reference resistance table is revised in accordance with the temperatures of the 1990 International Temperature Scale (ITS-90) which is adopted in IEC standard. As for the new resistance reference resistance table, refer to Table A5 Resistance table at the end of this document. Figure 1 shows the difference between reference resistance values of JIS'89 Pt100 and those of JIS'95 Pt100. For example, when the measured temperature is 100˚C, the difference is +0.027˚C, at 300˚C, it is +0.083˚C and at 500˚C, 0.242˚C. This difference is bigger than the temperature difference between the old International Temperature Scale (IPTS-68) and ITS-90 (Refer to 5.3 Influence of ITS-90 on Industrial Thermometers). Comparing the temperature differences to the tolerances at measured value 500˚C, it is about one fifth of the tolerance in class A, and less than one tenth in class B, so their influence can be ignored on a practical industrial use level. However, in using digital device which resolution is 0.1˚C or less than that, the influence cannot be ignored. (3) JPt100, which has used for many years in Japan, is abolished. JPt100, which has unique reference resistance values of Japan, is abolished in the new JIS. With regard to JPt100, it was already announced that it would be abolished in the future at the last time revision (January, 1989). However, considering the

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situation that they have been used for more than thirty years and many of them are still in use, the 1989 reference resistance table remains in the guide. It is also described in the guide that the characteristics of JPt100 are almost the same as those of Pt100 so that the quality of supplement is guaranteed. This Technical Information provides reference resistance tables of abolished JPt100, JIS'89 Pt100 and JIS'91 50Ω(Pt50) for reference. 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 ∆t/˚C 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

t/˚C

2

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1.3 Types of Resistance Thermometer Sensors The types of RTSs specified in JIS C 1604 and JIS C 1606 are standardized, as shown in Table 2, according to the standard resistance element R100/R0 value, Class, rated current, operating temperature range, and lead wire system. Table 1

Resistance Thermometer Sensors (JIS C 1604-1989, JIS C 1606-1989) Operating temperature range

Code

R100/R0 value

Class

Rated current

Lead wire system

Pt100

1.3850

Class A Class B

1mA 2mA 5mA*

L M H

-200 to 100˚ C 0 to 350˚ C 0 to 650˚ C

2-wire* 3-wire 4-wire

(JP100)

(1.3916)

Class A Class B

1mA 2mA 5mA*

L M H

-200 to 100˚ C 0 to 350˚ C 0 to 650˚ C

2-wire* 3-wire 4-wire

Note: 1. R100 is the resistance value at 100° C. 2. R0 is the resistance value of 100 Ω at of ° C. 3. An item in parentheses is discontinued. 4. Items marked with an * do not apply in Class A. 5. Sheathed RTSs operating temperature range H is 0 to +500° C. 6. The 2-wire lead wire system is not applicable to sheathed RTSs.

1.4 Tolerances vs. Temperature Tolerances with respect to temperature must be within the ranges in Table 3 throughout the operating temperature ranges. Table 4 shows samples of tolerance versus measured temperature. If the measured temperature t °C in Table 3 includes a fractional value below the decimal point, the tolerance range includes the smaller value. To avoid the risk of disputes in judgment as a result of exceeding measurement capability, the following guidelines are used for rounding off the tolerances: In Class A the number of valid significant digits below the decimal point is two, rounded down from three. In Class B the number of valid significant digits below the decimal point is one, rounded down from two. Table 2 Units:° C Class

Tolerance

Class A

± (0.15+0.002 |t|)

Class B

± (0.3+0.005 |t|)

Note 1: The error in the measured temperature of the resistance element is the measured temperature subtracted from the temperature computed from the resistance value displayed by the resistance element according to Appendix Table A1 ro Appendix Table A2. Note 2: |t| is the absolute value of the measured temperature (°C), irrespective of the + or – sign. Note 3: Although old JIS Class 0.15 has been discontinued, Yokogawa will sell it, but for the JPt100 only. Tolerance for old JIS Class 0.15 is + (0.15+0.0015 t), and applies over the temperature range of 0 to +350 °C.

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Table 3 Units:° C Tolerance

Measured temperature

Class A

Class B

-200

±0.55

±1.3

-100

±0.35

±0.8

0

±0.15

±0.3

100

±0.35

±0.8

200

±0.55

±1.3

300

±0.75

±1.8

400

±0.95

±2.3

500

±1.15

±2.8

600

±1.35

±3.3

650

±1.45

±3.6

Note: 1. The error in the measured temperature of the resistance element is the measured temperature subtracted from the temperature computed from the resistance value displayed by the resistance element according to Appendix Table A1 ro Appendix Table A2. 2. |t| is the absolute value of the measured temperature (°C), irrespective of the + or – sign. 3. Although old JIS Class 0.15 has been discontinued, Yokogawa will sell it, but for the JPt100 only. Tolerance for old JIS Class 0.15 is + (0.15+0.0015 t), and applies over the temperature range of 0 to +350 °C.

Table 4

Temperature/Resistance Characteristics of Resistance Thermometer Sensors

Temperature (° C)

JIS'89 JPt100

JIS'89, Pt100

IEC751-1995 Pt100

-200

17.14

18.49

18.52

-100

59.57

69.25

60.26

0

100.00

100.00

100.00

100

139.16

138.50

138.51

200

177.13

175.84

175.86

300

213.93

212.02

212.05

400

249.56

247.04

247.09

500

284.02

280.90

280.98

600

317.28

313.59

313.71

700

345.13

345.28

800

375.51

375.70

Standard Resistance Table

Appandix A2, A6

Appendix A1

Appendix A4, A5

Note: IEC 751 Standard resistance table was revised in July, 1995. To conform to this change, JIS C 1604 will be revised soon.

1.5 Temperature/Resistance relationships Values in Various Nations Table 5 shows a comparison of resistance thermometer characteristics. IEC standards were standardized in Pub 751 in 1983. Due to intensifying international influence, JIS was revised to accept these in January of 1989. Note that there are significant differences between JPt100 and Pt100.

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1.6 Copper Resistance Thermometer Sensors There are no standards for copper RTSs in JIS, and they have been little used in general industry, but they are found in rotating electrical equipment, primarily to measure temperatures of coils, bearings, etc. The following shows the nominal resistances and the standard resistance element Rt/Ro standardized in JEM 1252 (Japan Electrical Manufacturers’ Association) for RTSs in rotating electrical equipment. Table 5

Nominal Resistance

Type of resistance element Copper RTD

Table 6

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Nominal resistance

Standard temperature

10Ω

25° C

25Ω

0° C

Standard Resistance Element Rt/Ro Copper Resistance Thermometer Sensors

Temperature ° C

Rt/Ro

Temperature ° C

Rt/Ro

0

1.0000

90

1.3825

10

1.0425

100

1.4250

20

1.0850

110

1.4675

25

1.1062

120

1.5100

30

1.1275

130

1.5525

40

1.1700

50

1.2125

60

1.2550

70

1.2975

80

1.3400

5

2. THERMOCOUPLES Thermocouples sense temperatures based on the principle that an electrical current is generated when two different metals are combined in a closed circuit and subjected to a temperature difference; they are widely exploited in industry due to their simple construction and excellent reliability. There are many types of thermocouples in use. Those which are the most widely used, whose characteristics are understood, and which have demonstrated their reliability, have become the objects of standardization. This document deals primarily with those thermocouples standardized in the JIS, plus other typically used thermocouples that have been field-proven in particular applications.

2.1 Overview of the JIS '95 Revisions JIS standards related to thermocouples were revised as of July 1, 1995. The major purpose of this revision is to make these JIS standards conform to the international standard IEC 584. Thermocouple codes, thermal EMF, and tolerance classes were revised to match IEC584, so JIS standard data are consistent with the standards used abroad now. The major changes are "N thermocouple is newly stipulated" and "standard thermal EMFs revised". As shown in Figure 1, the difference between JIS'89 and JIS'95 thermal EMFs will have little effect on industrial temperature measurement.

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Figure 1

Revised Value of Thermal EMF

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2.2 Types of Thermocouples In most cases, a thermocouple’s type is indicated by a code. Since the codes specified in JIS conform to the IEC standards, they are shared with other international standards, in particular with DIN (Germany) and ANSI (United States) [See Table 10]. Table 8 shows the codes, component materials, operating limits, and other features of thermocouples standardized in JIS. Table 9 shows representative non-JIS-standard-thermocouples in practical use.

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Table 7

Code

B

R

Thermocouple Codes, Component Materials, Normal Operating Limits, and Overheat Operating Limits (JIS C 1602-1981)

Component materials

Old code

Class + side



Contains 30% Rhodium. PlatinumRhodium alloy



Contains 13% Rhodium. Platinum. Rhodium alloy



Contains 10% Rhodium. Platinum. Rhodium alloy

– side

Contains 6% Rhodium. PlatinumRhodium alloy

Class 2 Class 3

Platinum

Element diameter (mm)

0.50

Normal operating limits (° C)

1500

Overheat operating limits (° C)

1700

0.50

1400

1600

0.50

1400

1600

0.65

850

900

1.00

950

1000

1.60

1050

1100

2.30

1100

1150

3.20

1200

1250

0.65

650

850

1.00

750

950

1.60

850

1050

2.30

900

1100

3.20

1000

1200

Class 2 S

Alloy, primarily Nickel, Chrome, and Silicon

N

K

E

J

T

8

CA

Alloy, primarily Nickel and Chrome

Alloy, primarily CRC Nickel and Chrome

IC

CC

Iron

Copper

Platinum

Alloy, primarily Nickel, and Silicon

Alloy, primarily Nickel

Alloy, primarily Copper and Nickel

Alloy, primarily Copper and Nickel

Alloy, primarily Copper and Nickel

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

0.65

450

500

1.00

500

550

1.60

550

650

2.30

600

750

3.20

700

800

0.65

400

500

1.00

450

550

1.60

500

650

2.30

550

750

3.20

600

750

0.32

200

250

0.65

200

250

1.00

250

300

1.60

300

350

Properties Thermal EMF is very small at room temperature. Large differences in characteristics sometimes seen. Otherwise the same as Type R. Very stable. Suitable as standard thermocouple. Suitable for corrosive environments. Sensitive to hydrogen, metal vapors. Small thermal EMF. Very slight secular change. Large extension wire error. Excellent corrosion resistance (several times that of Type K). No error generation due to short-range ordering. Magnetic field influence relatively small. Good EMF linearity. Suitable for corrosine environment. Resistant to metal vapors. Some secular change.

Lower cost than Type K, larger thermal EMF. Non-magnetic. Some drift over time.

Low cost, with fairly large thermal EMF. Good EMF linearity. Suitable for reducing environments. Large sample-to-sample variations in dharacteristics, quality. Rusts easily. Drifts at high temperatures. Low cost, with good low-temperature characteristics. Good linearity, Suitable for reducing environments. Large extension wire error.

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Table 8

Non-JIS Thermocouples in practical Use

Component materials Name + side

-side

Contains 20% Rhodium. Platinum-Rhodium alloy

Contains 5% Rhodium. Platinum-Rhodium alloy

300 to 1500° C (1800° C)

Contains 40% Rhodium. Platinum-Rhodium alloy

Contains 20% Rhodium. Platinum-Rhodium alloy

1100 to 1600° C (1800° C)

Contains 5% Rhodium. Platinum-Rhodium alloy

Contains 26% Rhodium. Platinum-Rhodium alloy

Contains 3% Rhodium. Platinum-Rhodium alloy

Contains 25% Rhodium. Platinum-Rhodium alloy

Tungsten

Contains 26% Rhodium. Platinum-Rhodium alloy

Platinel

Alloy, primarily Palladium, Platium, and Gold

Alloy, primarily Gold and Palladium

Chromel/ Gold-Iron

Alloy, primarily Nickel and Chrome o4?0 (Chromel)

Contains 0.07 mole% Iron. 1 to 300K Gold-Iron alloy

PlatinumRhodium

TungstenRhenium

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Operating temperature range Overheat limit in ( )

Properties

Standard thermal EMF table, and authority

Usable at high temperatures. Small thermal EMF. Appendix Table B22 Otherwise, same as Type R.

Appendix Tables B20 ASTM E988-84

0 to 2400° C (3000° C)

0 to 1100° C (1300° C)

Suitable for reducing environments, inert gasses, hydrogen gas. Fragile.

Appendix Table B22 ASTM E988-84

High resistance to abrasion. Thermal EMF nearly the same as that of Type K.

Appendix Table B22 NBS Journal of Research, vol. 68C. N08

Thermal EMF relatively large at 20 K and below. Good EMF linearity.

ASTM SPT430 Appendix Table B21

9

2.3 Thermal EMF Characteristics The standard thermal EMFs of the various thermocouple types are shown in Appendix Tables B1 through B19. Because JIS C 1602-1995 was written to be consistent with the standards used in other countries, particularly IEC, ANSI, etc., this is beneficial when importing and exporting. However, attention is required since the DIN standard adopts its own unique specifications for Type U and Type L. Table 10 gives a list of the standard thermal EMF document selections for the individual national and international standards. Equations for interpolation of standard thermal EMFs are provided for reference at the end of this document. Table 9

Thermal EMF Document Selection List Thermocouple standard dexignation

Thermocouple generic name

Standard thermal EMF document number

Standard type JIS

IEC

ANSI

Platinum-Rhodium/6-30 Platinum-Rhodium/Platinum

BS

DIN

TYPE B

Appecdix Table-B1

TYPE R

Appendix Table-B2

TYPE S

Appendix Table-B3

Nichrosil/Nisil (N)

TYPE N

Appendix Table-B4

Chromel/Alumel

TYPE K

Appendix Table-B5

Chromel-Constantan

TYPE E

Appendix Table-B6

TYPE J Iron-Constantan





Appendix Table-B7 Type L Appendix Table-B19 (Fe-CuNi)

TYPE T Copper-Constantan

Remarks

Appendix Table-B8 Type U Appendix Table-B18 (Cu-CuNi)

Note: 1. A line drawn in the table indicates that the thermocouple in question is not covered in thet standard. Those for which the same document number is given have the same standard thermal EMFs even if their names are different. 2. ASTM'93 is a national standard of the U.S. which regulates thermocouple reference thermal E.M.F.. : ASTM E230-93.

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2.4 Tolerance Tolerances with respect to temperature are shown in Table 11: Table 10

Thermocouple Tolerances (JIS C 1602-1995)

Types

Tolerance class 1

Type B Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value Type R, Type S Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value

-

Tolerance class 2 600˚ C to 1700° C ±0.0025 • |t|

Tolerance class 3 600° C to 800° C +4˚ C 800° C to 1700° C ±0.005 • |t|

0˚ C to 100° C ±1° C 1100° C to 1600° C ±[1 + 0.003 (t-1100)] ° C

0° C to +600° C ±1.5° C 600˚ C to 1600° C ±0.0025 • |t|

Type K, Type N Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value

-40° C to 375° C ±1.5° C 375° C to 1000° C ±0.004 • |t|

-40° C to +333° C ±2.5° C 333° C to 1200° C ±0.0075 • |t|

-167° C to +40° C ±2.5˚ C -200° C to -167° C ±0.015 • |t|

Type E Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value

-40° C to +375° C ±1.5° C 375° C to 800° C ±0.004 • |t|

-40° C to +333° C ±2.5° C 333° C to 900° C ±0.0075 • |t|

-167° C to +40° C ±2.5° C -200° C to -167° C ±0.015 • |t|

Type J Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value

-40° C to +375° C ±1.5° C 375° C to 750° C ±0.004 • |t|

-40° C to +333° C ±2.5° C 333° C to 750° C ±0.0075 • |t|

Type T Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value

-40° C to +125° C ±0.5° C 125° C to 350° C ±0.004 • |t|

-40° C to +133° C ±1° C 133° C to 350° C ±0.0075 • |t|

-

-67° C to +40° C ±1° C -200° C to -67° C ±0.015 • |t|

Note: 1. Thermocouple materials are noemally supplied to meet the manufacturing tolerances specified in the table for temperatures above -40˚ C. These materials, however, may not fall within the manufacturing tolerances for low temperatures given under class 3 for types T, E, K and N. If thermocouples are required for meet limits of class 3, as well as those of class 1 or 2 the purchaser shall state this, as selection of materials is usually required.

2.5 Themocouple Electrical Characteristics Electrical characteristics is as shown in Table 12. Insulation resistance is applied to routine unit test. Dielectric strength is applied to type test. Table 11

Electrical Characteristics Item

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Characteristics

Insulation resistance (Only applied to thermocouples with protection tube)

Insulation resistance between terminals and protection tube is more than 10MW/500VDC

Dielectric strength (Only applied to thermocouples with protection tube)

500VAC for one minute

11

2.6 Thermocouple operating Limits Normal operating limits are the temperatures that are generally recommended for continuous use in air. Overheat operating limits are the temperatures for short-period use not sharply defined limiting temperatures, but rather those at which operations for the times indicated in Table 13 will not result in thermal EMF changes greater than the values also shown in that table for continuous operation in clean air. Table 12

Thermocouple Continuous-Operation Times Continuous-operation time(h)

12

Code

At normal operating limit

At overheat operating

Thermal EMF change(%) at any temperaturelimit

B R S N K E J T

2000 2000 2000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000

50 50 50 250 250 250 250 250

±0.5 ±0.5 ±0.5 ±0.75 ±0.75 ±0.75 ±0.75 ±0.75

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2.7 Thermocouple Leadwire Resistances Although electronic instruments almost unaffected by thermocouple leadwire resistance, it can cause problems in the case of moving coil instruments and may require compensation, so the user should follow any directions given in the manual for the instrument. Table 14 shows thermocouple resistance R0 at 0˚C, and resistance R20 at 20˚C. Table 15 shows the resistance ratios Rt/R20 and Rt/R0, between resistance values R20 and R0 and resistance value Rt at t˚C. When compensating for this resistance with moving-coil instruments, it is customary to treat half of the thermocouple’s specified length as being at the operating temperature, and the other half as the room temperature. Table 13

Thermocouple Resistances Unit: Ω/m

Code for component materials Old code (reference) Wire diameter in mm 0.32 0.50 0.65 1.00 1.60 2.30 3.20

Table 14

B

R

S

K

E

J

T

N

-

-

-

CA

CRC

IC

CC

-

1.75 -

1.47 -

1.43 -

2.95 1.25 0.49 0.24 0.12

3.56 1.50 0.59 0.28 0.15

1.70 0.72 0.28 0.14 0.07

6.17 1.50 0.63 0.25 -

3.94 1.66 0.65 0.31 0.16

J IC

T CC

N –

Thermocouple Resistance Ratios (Rt/R0 and Rt/R20)

Code Old code Temperature (t) ˚C 0 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700

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B

R –

S –

K CA

E CRC

Rt/R0 Rt/R20 Rt/R0 Rt/R20 Rt/R0 Rt/R20 Rt/R0 Rt/R20 Rt/R0 Rt/R20 Rt/R0 Rt/R20 Rt/R0 Rt/R20

Rt/R0

1.00 1.03 1.17 1.34 1.50 1.65 1.80 1.95 2.10 2.25 2.39 2.53 2.66 2.79 2.92 3.04 3.16 3.28 3.40

1.00 1.02 1.15

0.97 1.00 1.13 1.29 1.45 1.60 1.74 1.88 2.03 2.17 2.31 2.45 2.57 2.70 2.82 2.94 3.06 3.17 3.29

1.00 1.05 1.24 1.46 1.68 1.94 2.12 2.32 2.52 2.72 2.90 3.04 3.26 3.43 3.59 3.75 3.90

0.95 1.00 1.17 1.40 1.61 1.85 2.02 2.22 2.41 2.60 2.78 2.95 3.12 3.28 3.44 3.59 3.73

1.00 1.05 1.25 1.48 1.71 1.97 2.16 2.37 2.58 2.75 2.97 3.16 3.34 3.52 3.68 3.85 4.00

0.95 1.00 1.17 1.39 1.61 1.83 2.03 2.23 2.43 2.61 2.80 2.97 3.14 3.30 3.46 3.62 3.77

1.00 1.02 1.10 1.18 1.26 1.32 1.37 1.41 1.45 1.50 1.54 1.59 1.64 1.68

0.98 1.00 1.08 1.16 1.23 1.29 1.34 1.38 1.42 1.47 1.51 1.56 1.61 1.65

1.00 1.01 1.02 1.05 1.08 1.11 1.13 1.16 1.18 1.20

1.00 1.00 1.02 1.05 1.08 1.11 1.13 1.15 1.18 1.20

1.00 1.02 1.10 1.22 1.34 1.55 1.78 2.04 2.35 2.69

0.98 1.00 1.08 1.19 1.34 1.52 1.74 2.00 2.30 2.44

1.00 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03

1.00 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03

13

3. MINERAL INSULATED THERMOCOUPLES 3.1 Construction Mineral Insulated thermocouples are filled with a powdered inorganic insulator (Mgo) between the metal sheath and the thermocouple element, and are of a single construction. Table 16 shoes the dimensions of Mineral Insulated thermocouples. Table 15

Mineral Insulated Thermocouple Dimensions Unit: mm

Metal sheath outer diameter D 1.0 ± 0.05 1.6 ± 0.05 3.2 ± 0.05 4.8 ± 0.05 6.4 ± 0.05 8.0 ± 0.05

Figure 2

Thermocouple element diameter d

15% or more of metal sheath outer diameter

14

10% or more of metal sheath outer diameter

Cross Section of Mineral Insulated Themocouple

(1) Longitudinal section of the measuring junction of an earthed thermocouple

Figure 3

Metal sheath thickness t

(2) Longitudinal section of the measuring junction of an insulated thermocouple

Constructions of Measuring Junctions

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3.2 Tolerances Table 16 shows tolerances. These are determined in conformance with those for general thermocouples. Table 16

Tolerance classes for thermocouples (reference junction at 0˚C) Type

Tolerance class 1

Tolerance class 2

Tolerance class 3

Type T Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value

-40° C to +25° C ±0.5° C 125° C to 350° C ±0.004 • |t|

-40° C to +133° C ±1° C 133° C to 350° C ±0.0075 • |t|

-67° C to +40° C ±1° C 200° C to -67° C ±0.015 • |t|

Type E Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value

-40° C to +375° C ±1.5° C 375° C to 800° C ±0.004 • |t|

-40° C to +333° C ±2.5° C 333° C to 900° C ±0.0075 • |t|

-167° C to +40° C ±2.5° C -200° C to -167° C ±0.015 • |t|

Type J Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value

-40° C to +375° C ±1.5° C 375° C to 750° C ±0.004 • |t|

-40° C to +333° C ±2.5° C 333° C to 750° C ±0.0075 • |t|

Type K, Type N Temperature range Tolerance value Temperature range Tolerance value

-40° C to +375° C ±1.5° C 375° C to 1000° C ±0.004 • |t|

-40° C to +333° C ±2.5° C 333° C to 1200° C ±0.0075 • |t|

– – – – -167° C to +40° C ±2.5° C -200° C to -167° C ±0.015 • |t|

Note: (1) The tolerance is the maximum limit for the difference calculated by subtracting the measurement junction temperature from the temperature converted from the thermal EMF using the standard thermal EMF table. The tolerance is the larger of ° C or % (2) Thermocouple materials are noemally supplied to meet the manufacturing tolerances specified in the table for temperatures above -40° C. These materials, however, may not fall within the manufacturing tolerances for low temperatures given under class 3 for types T, E, K and N. If thermocouples are required for meet limits of class 3, as well as those of class 1 or 2 the purchaser shall state this, as selection of materials is usually required.

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3.3 Codes and Normal Operating Limits The code for a Mineral Insulated thermocouple is the same as that for a regular thermocouple with an S added at the beginning . Table 14 shows the normal operating limits for Mineral Insulated thermocouples. The codes for the materials used for the sheath are as follows: A : Austenitic stainless steel (SUS 347, SU S316) B : Nickel-Chromium heat-resistant alloy (Inconel) Table 17

Code SN

Normal Operating Limits for Mineral Insulated Thermocouples (JIS C 16051995) Sheath Outer Diameter mm

Metal Sheath ° C A

0.5

600

1.0, 1.5, (1.6), 2.0

650

3.0, (3.2)

SK

750

4.5, (4.8)

800

4.5, (4.8)

800

900

6.0, (6.4)

800

1000

8.0

900

1050

0.5

600 650 750

4.5, (4.8)

800

900

6.0, (6.4)

800

1000

8.0

900

1050

0.5

600

1.0, 1.5, (1.6), 2.0

650

3.0, (3.2)

SJ

ST

900

1.0, 1.5, (1.6), 2.0 3.0, (3.2)

SE

B

750

4.5, (4.8)

800

900

6.0, (6.4)

800

900

8.0

800

900

0.5

400

1.0, 1.5, (1.6), 2.0

450

3.0, (3.2)

650

4.5, (4.8)

750

6.0, (6.4)

750

8.0

750

0.5

300

1.0, 1.5, (1.6), 2.0

300

3.0, (3.2)

350

4.5, (4.8)

350

6.0, (6.4)

350

8.0

350

Notes: 1. The normal operating limit is the temperature at which the device can be used continuously in air. 2. The normal operating limits differ from those in JIS C 1602 due to the large dependence on the heatresistance of the metal sheath. 3. ( ) will be removed in the future.

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3.4 Electrical Characteristics (Insulation Resistance, Thermocouple Leadwire Resistance) Insulation resistances and thermocouple leadwire resistances are as shown in Table 19. Table 20 shows sheathed thermocouple leadwire resistances. Due to the large variations in sheathed thermocouple leadwire resistances, no standards are prescribed. Table 20 presents some examples for reference: Table 18

Electrical Characteristics Metal Sheath Outer Diameter (mm)

Item Insulation resistance

0.5, 1.0, 1.5, (1.6), 2.0

Characteristics >20MΩ /100VDC

3.0,(3.2), 4.5, (4.8), 6.0, >100MΩ /500VDC (6.4), 8.0 Dielectric strength

1.0, 1.5, (1.6)

100VAC for one minute

3.0, (3.2), 4.5, (4.8), 6.0, 500VAC for one minute (6.4), 8.0 Notes: (1) These tests should not be applied to earthed thermocouples. (2) For thermocouples with compensating cable, apply the smaller of the above values or insulation resistances regulated in JIS C 1610. (3) ( ) will be removed in the future.

Table 19 Sheath Outer diameter (mm)

Mineral insulated Thermocouple Leadwire Resistances SK Standard resistance

SJ

Maximum Standard resistance resistance

Unit: Ω/m

ST Maximum Standard resistance resistance

SE

Maximum Standard resistance resistance

Maximum resistance

219.49















1.0

40.32

55.22

23.81

32.44









1.6

16.34

19.75

9.65

11.65

7.94

9.61





3.2

3.15

3.74

1.87

2.2

1.61

1.90

3.77

4.46

4.8

1.40

1.50

0.84

0.93

0.70

0.78

1.70

1.80

6.4

0.79

0.89

0.48

0.54

0.40

0.45

0.94

1.10

8.0

0.66

0.73

0.38

0.44

0.32

0.37

0.77

0.87

2.2

16.31

19.8













3.2

7.72

8.79

4.60

5.20

3.80

4.40





4.8

3.43

4.08

2.10

2.50

1.70

2.10





6.4

1.93

2.20

1.20

1.30

0.94

1.10





8.0

1.24

1.44

0.75

0.82

1.63

0.69

1.48

1.73

Note: Resistance dispersion is ±20%

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17

4. EXTENTION AND COMPENSATING CABLE Table 21 shows the types (codes), component materials, operating temperatures, tolerances and colors for compensating cable. In the revision of JIS C1610 (Compensating cable) of July 1995, types (codes), operating temperatures, tolerances, and colors were changed. Especially for the color of the cable cover, Division 1 is newly added to conform to IEC standard. However, the former JIS color regulation still remains as Division 2 so as not to cause accidents due to the color change when expanding or retrofitting existing systems. Use Division 2 as necessary. Usage classification is shown in Table 22. Since operating temperature high limit extended to 200˚C, FEP (teflon) is newly added to insulator types. As usage classification is determined by insulator material, conditions are described in the notes of Table 22. Table 23 shows insulator resistance. Standard values differ according to the materials. Table 20

Compensating Cable Characteristics

Types of TC combined

Compensating Cable Types

Code

Code

Old Code

+ side

- side

B

BC

BX

Copper

Copper

Copper

Alloy, primarily 0 to 100 Copper and 0 to 100 Nickel

R

RCA

RX

Component Materials

RCB

Temp. range Tolerance (for tolerance) (µV) (° C)

Surface Color Code

Class 1

Class 2

Div. 1

Div. 2





Gray

Gray



⫾30

Orange

Black



⫾60

0 to 100



⫾30

Orange

Black

0 to 200

Pink



Green

Blue

0 to 100

S

SCA



⫾60

N

NX



Alloy, primarily Alloy, primarily – 25 to 200 Nickel and Nickel and Chrome Silicon

⫾60

⫾100

NC



Alloy, primarily Alloy, primarily 0 to 150 Copper and Copper and Nickel Nickel



⫾100

KX

KX

⫾60

⫾100

KCA



– 25 to 200 Alloy, primarily Alloy, primarily Nickel and Nickel Chrome 0 to 150



⫾100

KCB

WX

Icon

Alloy, primarily 0 to 150 Copper and Nickel



⫾100

KCC

VX

Copper

Alloy, primarily 0 to 100 Copper and Nickel



⫾100

E

EX

EX

Alloy, primarily Alloy, primarily – 25 to 200 Nickel and Copper and Chrome Nickel

⫾120

⫾200

Purple

Purple

J

JX

JX

Iron

Alloy, primarily – 25 to 200 Copper and Nickel

⫾85

⫾140

Black

Yellow

T

TX

TX

Copper

Alloy, primarily – 25 to 100 Copper and Nickel

⫾30

⫾60

Brown

Brown

SX

SCB

K

Note: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point should be within the tolerance of conductors, and as for cable operating temperature range, table 22 usage classification is given a higher priority.

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Table 21

Usage Classification Unit: ° C

Usage Classfication

Code

Old Code

Materials of Insulator

Operating Temperature

General use

G

G

Vinyl

-20 to +90

1) Not applicable for RCB and SCB 2) Operating temperature range of BC, RCA, SCA, NC, KCA, LCB KCC is from 0° C to +90° C

Middle range

H

H

Glass yarn

0 to +150

Not applicable for BC, RCA, SCA, KCC or TX.

High range

S



FEP

-25 to +200

1) Not applicable for compensating conductors. 2) Operating temperature range of TX is from -25° C to +100° C

Table22

Notes

Insulator Resistance Unit: MΩ • km

Usage Classfication

Codes

Insulation Resistance

General use

G

Vinyl

50

Middle range

H

Glassyarn

0.05

High range

S

FEP

1000

Table 23

Extension and Compensating Cable Resistance

Extention cable Copper (BC both sides/ RC, SC, KCC, TX + side) Iron (KCB, JX + side)

Electrical resistance of twisted Electrical resistance (leadwire diameter, 0.65mmat conductors at 20° C Ω /km 20° C, Ω /km) 7 wires 4 wires 55.29 448.0

Copper-Nickel alloy (RC, SC-side)

204.0

Alumel (KX – side)

882.0

Chromel (KX + side)

2141

Copper-Nickel alloy (JX-side)

1597

Chromel (EX + side)

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Materials of Insulator

882.0

7.90 65.92 30.02

14.24 115.4 52.53

126.0

220.5

305.8

535.2

233.5

411.2

126.0

220.5

Copper-Nickel alloy (EX-side)

1597

233.5

411.2

Copper-Nickel alloy (TX-side)

1597

233.5

411.2

Copper-Nickel alloy (KCC-side)

1597

233.5

411.2

19

5. INTERNATIONAL TEMPERATURE SCALE 5.1 International Temperature Scale Plan As with other physical quantities, because temperatures must be expressed the same internationally, they are expressed with a temperature scale based on a resolution passed at a general meeting of the International Weights and Measures Committee. The old international temperature scale, the 1968 International Practical Temperatures Scale (IPTS-68), was revised by the 78th International Weights and Measures Commuitee in September of 1989 based on a resolution from the 18th general meeting of the International Weights and Measures Committee which met in 1987. The 1990 International Temperature Scale (ITS-90) was adopted as the new international temperature scale, and has been in effect internationally since January 1,1990. These changes in the international temperature scale solved problems found in IPTS-68 through advances in measurement technology centering on the latest thermodynamic temperature measurements. The international temperature scale plan is guided by the following three principles: (1) The plan specifies repeatable thermal equilibrium states, which are assigned temperatures to define fixed points. (2) The plan assigns a standard thermometer for each temperature range, calibrated to the defining fixed points. (3) The plan establishes interpolation formulas that decide the relationships between temperatures (international temperatures) and standard thermometer indicated temperatures (output values) in order to interpolate between the defining fixed points. Although the temperature concepts are based on thermodynamic temperatures, since absolute measurement of thermodynamic temperatures is not possible, improvements that bring the international temperature scale closer to thermodynamic temperatures are a matter of repetition along with progress in measurement techniques. Gas and radiation thermometers are used as thermodynamically well-defined thermometers in the measurement of thermodynamic temperatures. However, although a gas thermometer in principle determines thermodynamic temperature from a comparison of pressure at ideal states using ideal gasses, in fact since no ideal gas actually exists and an ideal state cannot be perfectly attained, we can only arrange conditions close to the ideal and add corrections to the best of our ability to determine the true values. Thus, in keeping with progress in measurement techniques, corrections are incorporated into the temperatures of the defining fixed points. Previously, a new international temperature scale had been adopted roughly every twenty years. The ITS-90 now in use has been adopted as an attempt to faithfully arrive at the thermodynamic temperatures using state-of-the-art techniques. However, because advanced techniques were required to achieve ITS-90, these endeavors are entrusted to the techniques of specialists at organizations studying temperature measurements.

20

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5.2 Essentials of the 1990 International Temperature Scale (ITS-90) ITS-90 is intended to solve certain problems found in the 1968 International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS-68). The main corrections are as follows: (1) The low temperature range is expanded, and is defined to 0.65K. (2) The range previously defined by thermocouples (630.74 to 1064.43˚C) is replaced by a range up to 961.78˚C defined using a platinum resistance thermometer, while the range above 961.78˚C is defined using a radiation thermometer. (3) The defining fixed points have been changed, with the boiling points of oxygen, water, and neon being eliminated and replaced by several triple points and freezing points, and the temperatures at the defining fixed points overall have been changed. The relationship between the defining fixed points of the ITS-90 and the instruments for interpolation is shown in Table 25. Because the temperatures for the defining fixed points have changed overall, the t90-t68 Temperature Difference shown in Table 26 has been changed based on these definition changes Table 24

Comparison of IPTS-68 and ITS-90

Interpolation instruments

T68/K

T90/K

t90/˚C

Interpolation instruments

0.65 Helium vapor pressure scale He (V)

3 to 5

e - H2 (T) (B)e - H2 (V) (B)e - H2 (V) Ne (T) Ne (B) O2 (T) Ar (T) O2 (C) Hg (T) H2O (T) Ga (M) H2O (V) In (F) Sn (F) Zn (F) Al (F)

13.8033 to 17 to 20.3 24.5561

-248.5939

54.3584 83.8058

-218.7916 -189.3442

234.3156 273.16 302.9146

-38.8344 0.01 29.7646

429.7485 505.078 692.677 933.473

156.5985 231.928 419.527 660.323

1234.93 1337.33 1357.77

961.78 1064.18 1084.62

Gas thermometer 13.81 17.042 20.28 27.102 54.361 83.798 90.188 Platinum resistance thermometer 273.16 373.15 505.1181 692.73

S thermocouple Plank's law of radiation

903.9 1235.58 1337.58

Ag (F) Au (f) Cu (F)

-29.3467

Platinum resistance thermometer

Plank's law of radiation

Note: Descriptions of defining fixed-point states: B: Boiling point (state of equilibrium between the liquid phase and gas phase at one atmosphere of pressure) C: Condensation point (state of equilibrium between the liquid phase and gas phase at one atmosphere of pressure at which the liquid phase condenses) F: Freezing point (state of equilibrium between the liquid phase and solid phase) M: Melting point (state of equilibrium between the solid phase liquid phase) T: Triple point (state of equilibrium between the solid phase, liquid phase, and gas phase) V: Vapor pressure point (state of equilibrium between the liquid phase and gas phase)

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21

5.3 Influence of ITS-90 on Industrial Thermometers Because industrial thermometers conform to JIS, the temperature differences due to definition changes, and their relationship to JIS, are matters of importance. Since the temperature differences accompanying definition changes are small, on a practical level their influence can be ignored (see Figure 4). The areas where the effects of ITS-90 become a problem for the temperature related JIS standards are in the standard thermal EMF tables for thermocouples, and the standard resistance are in the standard thermal EMF tables for thermocouples, and the standard resistance tables for resistance thermometers sensors. Because the temperatures for the current standard tables are regulated by IPTS-68, the switch to ITS-90 requres that these be changed by the temperature difference (t90 - t68). Because the JIS tolerances for temperature sensors are specified with respect to the standard tables, the influence of ITS-90 becomes clear when the temperature differences due to definition changes are compared to the tolerances. The maximum temperature difference due to a definition change in the region up to 1100˚C is + 0.36˚C at 780˚C. The value of this corresponds to 11% of the tolerance (3.1˚C) of a Class 0.4 thermocouple, and can, in practice, be ignored. Although for a Class 0.25 thermocouple the change at 780˚C reaches nearly half of the tolerance, this presents no problems because Class 0.25 applies only to Types R and S thermocouples, and these are usually used at 1000˚C and above. The operating limits for RTSs are 650˚C for Pt100, and 500˚C for JPt100. The largest change in the range up to 650˚C is 0.115˚C at 600˚C; this value is 10% of the tolerance of + 1.35˚C for a Class A type, and can be ignored in practice.

accuracy ˚C

Although as explained above there is no problem in viewing the transition to ITS-90 as having no practical effect on industrial thermometry, there are instances in which the application of ITS-90 required for precision measurements such as temperature measurement in scientific research for determining physical constants. In such cases, temperature measurements should be converted according to the values in Table 26.

Figure 4

22

Temperature Difference in International Temperature Scales, and JIS Tolerances

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Table 25

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Differences Between ITS-90 and IPTS-68

23

APPENDIX TABLE A1-1 PT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE This table shows values specified by JIS C 1604-1989 and JIS C1606-1989. ■ Pt100 Resistance thermometer sensor (JIS C1604-1989) (JIS C1606-1989)

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APPENDIX TABLE A1-2 PT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCES

The reference resistances in Appendix Table A1 are calculated in the following equations: -200˚C to 0˚C range: Rt = R0 [1 + At + Bt2 + C (t - 100) t3] 0˚C to + 650 ˚C range: Rt =R0 (1 + At + Bt2) Where: A = 3.90802 x 10-3˚C -01 B = -5.802 x 10 - 7˚C - 2 C = -4.2735 x 10 - 12˚C - 4 Notes: 1. R0 is 100Ω, and Rt represents the resistance at t˚C. 2. The above expressions were used to calculate the reference resistances for this standard, and are not intended to be used to determine the characteristics of any individual RTS.

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25

APPENDIX TABLE A2-1 JPT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE This is the JPt100 reference resistance table defined in JISC1604 and JISC1606. ■ JPt 100RTS (JISC1604-1989) (JISC1606-1989)

26

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APPENDIX TABLE A2-2 JPT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE ■ JPT100RTS continued from the previous page.

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27

APPENDIX TABLE A3-1 RT50 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE Abolished after January 1, 1989. ■ Pt 50 Ω RTS.

28

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APPENDIX TABLE A3-2 PT50 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE Abolished after January 1, 1989. ■ Pt 50 Ω (Continued from the previous page)

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29

APPENDIX TABLE A4-1 PT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE This is the reference resistance table defined in IEC Pub 751-1995. JIS C 1604-1997.

30

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APPENDIX TABLE A4-2 PT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE A5 INTERPOLATION EQUATION FOR PT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE The reference resistances in Appendix A4 Pt100 reference resistance table (IEC 7511995) are calculated in the following equations; -200˚C to 0˚C range: Rt = Ro [1 + At + Bt2 + C(t - 100)t3] 0˚C to 850˚C range: Rt = Ro (1 + At + Bt2) Where; A = 3.9083 x 10-3˚C-1 B = -5.775 x 10-7˚C-2 C = -4.183 x 10-12˚C-4 Notes: 1. Ro is 100Ω, and Rt represents the resistance at t˚C. 2. The above expressions were used to calculate the reference resistances for this standard, and are not intended to be used to determine the characteristics of any individual RTS.

APPENDIX TABLE A6

INTERPOLATION EQUATION FOR JPT100 REFERENCE RESISTANCE

The reference resistances in Appendix A2 JPt100 reference resistance table (JIS C 1604-1989) are calculated in the following equations: For 0°C to 630°C range, Rt = Ro (1 + At1 + Bt12) Where; A = 0.3974973 x 10-2 B = -0.58973 x 10-6 t' is obtained in equation (2) t' = t - 0.045 ( t' ) ( t' - 1) ( t' - 1) ( t' - 1) 100 100 419.58 630.74

(1)

(2)

For -200°C to 0°C range, =7 ∑ ai ti i=0 i

Rt = Ro

(3)

Where; a0 = 0 a1 = 3.971686 x 10-3 a2 = -1.157433 x 10-6 a3 = -2.051844 x 10-8 a4 = -3.629438 x 10-10 a5 = -3.157615 x 10-12 a6 = -1.369914 x 10-14 a7 = -2.303654 x 10-17 Notes: 1. R0 is 100Ω, and Rt represents the resistance at t°C. 2. The tolerance of calculation error in the equation (2) is less than 0.000019°C. 3. The tolerance of calculation error in the equation (3) is less than 0.0035°C.

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APPENDIX TABLE B1-1 TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JIS C1602-1995.

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33

C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B1-2 TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

34

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B1-3 TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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35

C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B1-4 TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B2-1 TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JIS C1602-1995

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B2-2 TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B2-3 TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B2-4 TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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APPENDIX TABLE B3-1 TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JIS C1602-1995.

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41

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APPENDIX TABLE B3-2 TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B3-3 TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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43

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APPENDIX TABLE B3-4 TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

44

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B4-1 TYPE N THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JIS C1602-1995.

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APPENDIX TABLE B4-2 TYPE N THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B4-3 TYPE N THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C. TI 6B0A1-01E

47

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APPENDIX TABLE B5-1 TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JIS C1602-1995.

48

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APPENDIX TABLE B5-2 TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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49

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APPENDIX TABLE B5-3 TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B5-4 TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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APPENDIX TABLE B6-1 TYPE E THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JIS C1602-1995.

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B6-2 TYPE E THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B6-3 TYPE E THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

54

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B7-1 TYPE J THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JIS C1602-1995.

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55

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APPENDIX TABLE B7-2 TYPE J THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B7-3 TYPE J THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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57

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APPENDIX TABLE B8-1 TYPE T THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JIS C1602-1995.

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C 1602-1995

APPENDIX TABLE B8-2 TYPE T THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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APPENDIX TABLE B9

INTERPOLATION EQUATION OF REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. of JIS'95 (JIS C1602-1995)

These equations are applied to Appendix Tables B1 to B8. E: Reference thermal e.m.f. t: Temperature (˚C)

Remarks: This table is applied to calculate Appendix table B1 type B thermocouple thermal e.m.f..

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Remarks: This table is applied to calculate Appendix table B2 type R thermocouple thermal e.m.f..

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Remarks: This table is applied to calculate Appendix table B3 type S thermocouple thermal e.m.f..

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C 1602-1995

Remarks: This table is applied to calculate Appendix table B4 type N thermocouple thermal e.m.f..

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Remarks: This table is applied to calculate Appendix table B5 type K thermocouple thermal e.m.f..

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C 1602-1995

Remarks: This table is applied to calculate Appendix table B6 type E thermocouple thermal e.m.f..

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65

C 1602-1995

Remarks: This table is applied to calculate Appendix table B7 type J thermocouple thermal e.m.f..

66

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C 1602-1995

Remarks: This table is applied to calculate Appendix table B8 type T thermocouple thermal e.m.f..

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67

APPENDIX TABLE B10-1 TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JISC1602-1981.

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APPENDIX TABLE B10-2 TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B10-3 TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B10-4 TYPE B THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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71

APPENDIX TABLE B11-1 TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JISC1602-1981.

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APPENDIX TABLE B11-2 TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B11-3 TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B11-4 TYPE R THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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APPENDIX TABLE B12-1 TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JISC1602-1981.

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APPENDIX TABLE B12-2 TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B12-3 TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B12-4 TYPE S THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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79

APPENDIX TABLE B13-1 TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JISC1602-1981 (Type K) JISC16051982 (Type SK).

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APPENDIX TABLE B13-2 TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B13-3 TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B13-4 TYPE K THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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APPENDIX TABLE B14-1 TYPE E THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JISC1602-1981 (Type E) and JISC1605-1982 (Type SE).

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APPENDIX TABLE B14-2 TYPE E THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B14-3 TYPE E THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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APPENDIX TABLE B15-1 TYPE J THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JISC1602-1981 (Type J) and JISC1605-1982 (Type SJ).

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APPENDIX TABLE B15-2 TYPE J THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

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APPENDIX TABLE B15-3 TYPE J THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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89

APPENDIX TABLE B16-1 TYPE T THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE This is the reference thermal e.m.f. table defined in JISC1602-1981 (Type T) and JISC1605-1982 (Type ST).

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APPENDIX TABLE B16-2 TYPE T THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

Remarks: The temperature at the reference-junction compensation point is set at 0˚C.

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APPENDIX TABLE B17.

INTERPOLATION EQUATION OF REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. of JIS'81 (JIS C1602-1981, abolished after July 1995)

These equations are applied to Appendix Table B10 to 16. E: Reference thermal e.m.f t: Temperature (˚C)

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93

94

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95

APPENDIX TABLE B18-1 Cu-CuNi THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (DIN 43710 TYPE U)

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APPENDIX TABLE B18-2 Cu-CuNi THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (DIN 43710 TYPE U)

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APPENDIX TABLE B19-1 Fe-CuNi THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (DIN 43710 TYPE L)

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APPENDIX TABLE B19-2 Fe-CuNi THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (DIN 43710 TYPE L)

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99

APPENDIX TABLE B19-3 Fe-CuNi THERMOCOUPLE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (DIN 43710 TYPE L)

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APPENDIX TABLE B20-1 W (W5Re/W26Re) THERMOCOUPLE REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (ASTM E988)

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101

APPENDIX TABLE B20-2 W (W5Re/W26Re) THERMOCOUPLE REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (ASTM E988)

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APPENDIX TABLE B20-3 W (W5Re/W26Re) THERMOCOUPLE REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (ASTM E988)

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103

APPENDIX TABLE B20-4 W (W5Re/W26Re) THERMOCOUPLE REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE (ASTM E988)

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APPENDIX TABLE B21

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KP/Au•Fe THERMOCOUPLE REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. TABLE

105

APPENDIX TABLE B22

106

TABLE OF THERMOCOUPLE REFERENCE THERMAL E.M.F. PRACTICED IN TABLES OTHER THAN THOSE DEFINED IN JIS.

Subject to change without notice. Printed in Japan, 703/b(YG)

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