Teachers Resource. Crime and Anti-Social Behaviour

Teachers’ Resource Pack May 2008 Crime and Anti-Social Behaviour Foreword By Steve Devine Assistant Chief Constable It was with a little trepidat...
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Teachers’ Resource Pack May 2008

Crime and Anti-Social Behaviour

Foreword

By Steve Devine Assistant Chief Constable

It was with a little trepidation I approached preparing a foreword, on behalf of Hertfordshire Constabulary, to this first Teachers Resource Pack on Crime and Antisocial behaviour. PSHE and Citizenship schemes of work are challenging to design and deliver. There is the need and the desire to shape such work to the needs of individual school communities. It has been our intention to work with partners in providing a set of resources from which you may make informed and professional choices. I will leave the final judgement on its usefulness to your own skills as evaluators and the pragmatic use you may make of it. I take some small comfort from being advised that the topic Hertfordshire’s Youth Shadow Board indicated it most wished to discuss was ‘crime and antisocial behaviour’. As a parent, a member of my own local school’s board of governors and as a one time member of the teaching profession, I appreciate both the challenges and the potential of this important area of the curriculum and the dedication and commitment of staff in schools helping our young people achieve their full potential. Hertfordshire is intrinsically a safe county where crime and antisocial behaviour levels are low. Building on this foundation, we are keen to continue engaging with young people and those who work with them in dealing with their experiences of crime and antisocial behaviour. Fortunately for most young people such experiences will only be at a distance, whether through news or media or through discussion with their friends or in the classroom. Unfortunately for some, their comprehension will be shaped by more immediate experience as victims of either crime or antisocial behaviour. For a very small number of young people experience as a perpetrator will shape their understanding. I hope we can work closely with you in safeguarding young people, in helping protect young people from becoming victims, in empowering them to protect themselves, in letting them be comfortable with both their rights as citizens and their responsibilities as members of their community, in preventing those at risk of offending from doing so, in helping those who ‘go off the rails’ recover their potential. It is a difficult but very worthwhile joint endeavour for us all. My thanks go to colleagues in Standards and Schools Effectiveness for their support and professional input in producing the resources pack. I am particularly grateful to the individual teachers who gave up time in their busy schedules to provide us with feedback and guidance.

Foreword By Gill Jones

Head of Standards and School Effectiveness Welcome to the first Teachers Resource Pack, Crime Anti-Social Behaviour, produced by Hertfordshire Constabulary in partnership with Hertfordshire Healthy Schools. The pack focuses on issues related to crime and anti social behaviour and links these to the secondary PSHE and citizenship curriculum. The issues covered reflect national and local priorities and contain detailed and relevant information for school staff including references to practical lesson activities. The development of this resource pack has included consultation with PSHE teachers in schools who have helped to shape the format and inform the content. I would strongly encourage schools to use this resource to complement and enhance their existing PSHE and Citizenship schemes of work. PSHE is an essential part of children and young people’s education and ensures they are able to achieve their full potential in line with the five Every Child Matters outcomes. PSHE is also a key theme within the Hertfordshire Healthy Schools Programme and these materials provide comprehensive and up to date resources to support work against this strand. I am delighted that Standards and School Effectiveness have been partners with Hertfordshire Constabulary in the development of this teachers’ resource pack. It represents an excellent example of effective joint working to support schools and the children and young people of Hertfordshire.

Introduction This pack has been designed for secondary schools in Hertfordshire as an additional resource for teachers.The pack focuses on crime and anti social behaviour and has been linked to the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum. By linking the pack to the curriculum the Constabulary have tried to ensure that the information in it is relevant to young people and schools. The aim of this resource is to give all secondary schools access to the same information on crime and anti social behaviour, which is consistent and appropriate. This includes defining crimes relevant to young people, explaining the consequences of committing crime, looking at how victims of crime are affected and looking at the effects of anti social behaviour etc.The pack has been designed as a reference document for teachers and it is not intended for distribution to students. Although this pack has been designed for Hertfordshire schools it is not a reflection of crime in Hertfordshire.The content of the pack has been determined by the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum and is not an indication of crime levels. It is intended that this pack will supplement the role of the Youth Crime Reduction Officer (YCRO) and the School and Youth Police Community Support Officer (S&YPCSO). All schools have a local YCRO and a S&YPCSO who will be able to give advice and support when delivering information on crime and anti social behaviour to young people. For your local YCRO and S&YPCSO visit www.herts.police.co.uk Although Domestic Violence is not included in this pack work is ongoing to produce a package for schools. ‘Domestic Violence/Abuse affects one in four women and one in six men, many of whom have children.Teen dating violence can also present an issue. Hertfordshire recognises that teachers need to be provided with the correct resources to support children and young people who may be experiencing domestic/teen violence/abuse. Hertfordshire County Council and Hertfordshire Constabulary are currently developing a rolling educational training package for schools across the county.The programme will aim to support both young people and teachers.’ If you have any ideas on how the pack could be improved or if there are any other topics you would like included we would be happy to hear your comments. Please contact Geraldine Smith at: [email protected]

Content Alcohol Drugs Anti-social behaviour Race and Hate Crime Street Crime Vehicle Crime Arson Domestic Burglary Sexual Offences Activities Cardsort Activity Anti-social behaviour Alcohol Activity Additional Resources

Appendices Alcohol Drugs Anti-social Behaviour

Race and Hate Crime Street Crime Vehicle Crime

Arson Domestic Burglary Sexual Offences

Alcohol

This Alcohol section has been developed in consulation with the Hertfordshire Drug Education Forum (DEF). The DEf is a multi-agency group that provides expert advice and guidance to the county Young Persons Substance Misuse Partnership on issues concerning drug education and prevention and co-ordinates work with young people. Alcohol is seen by many as a more socially acceptable drug and it is not considered problematic to use it in many everyday situations. For example, it is widely used in celebrations such as weddings and during leisure time such as with meals. However, this does not mean that alcohol is any less powerful than other drugs. It is associated with fun and having a good time but the affects of alcohol can go far beyond having a good time. Alcohol if used irresponsibly can be dangerous and have far reaching affects in terms of crime and personal safety. An alcohol related offence is any offence that is reported and recorded as having involved alcohol and can include any type of crime. Drinking large amounts of alcohol in a short space of time can result in criminal or anti-social behaviour, because it can change your character. For example, a large amount of alcohol can affect your judgement or make you more inclined to do things you normally would not do. It can make you vulnerable and put you in danger of either having an accident or being seriously assaulted.

The law The law around alcohol use is: • Under 5 - It’s illegal to give an alcoholic drink to a child under 5 except in certain circumstances (e.g. under medical supervision). • 14 or 15 - They can go anywhere in a pub but can't drink alcohol. However, some pubs do not allow entry to people under 18 years or under 21 years and this is at the discretion of the licensee. • 16 or 17 - They can be bought beer, cider or wine so long as it's bought by someone who is over 18 and is accompanying the young person to drink with a meal, but not in a bar (i.e. only in a place specifically set aside for meals). • Under 18 - It's against the law for anyone under 18 to buy or consume alcohol in a pub, offlicence or supermarket. It's also illegal to buy alcohol in a pub for someone who's under 18 (except in the above circumstances). • Anyone over 18 can buy and drink alcohol legally in licensed premises in Britain. Any young person who attempts to buy alcohol and is found to have fake identification can be arrested. Any young person under the age of 18 years who attempts to buy alcohol can be dealt with by the 1

police.The police no longer solely target licensed premises that sell alcohol to underage young people, but also target the young people attempting to buy the alcohol. Remember it is a criminal offence to buy or attempt to buy alcohol if you are under 18 and you can be prosecuted. Hertfordshire Constabulary and Hertfordshire County Council support the nationally recongnised PASS (Proof of Age Standards Scheme) and are introducing the Validate card for 16-18 year olds in this county. This card is an acceptable form of ID for use in shops and comes with many discount advantages. For information on this proof of age card scheme please visit www.validateuk.co.uk Penalty Notice for Disorder (PNDs) PNDs have been designed to tackle low-level anti-social behaviour and can be issued by the police for a number of offences, such as using threatening words or behaviour, damaging property up to the value of £500 and behaviour that is likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to others. The police can issue PNDs specifically for alcohol related offences that include: • • • •

Drunk and disorderly behaviour in a public place. Sale of alcohol to a person under 18 (anywhere, not just in licensed premises). Purchase of alcohol by a person under 18. Purchase or attempt to purchase alcohol on behalf of a person under 18 (includes licensed premises and off licence). • Consumption of alcohol by persons under 18 or allowing consumption in licensed premises. • Delivery of alcohol to a young person under 18 or allowing such delivery. PNDs can be issued by the police and can be given to someone who is 16 years and over, and are for either £50 (under 18) or £80 depending on the severity of the behaviour. If you receive a fixed penalty notice you will also have a police record. Alcohol related offences are taken very seriously by the police. If young people come to police notice for alcohol related offences they can be dealt with. For the period of January to December 2007 90 PNDs were issued to young people under 18 for alcohol related offences.

Young people under 16 years Young people under 16 years cannot receive a Fixed Penalty Notice for disorder but can receive other punishments. If a young person under 16 years commits an offence, such as those listed above, they can be dealt with under the Youth Justice System. For example, the young person could be given a reprimand or final warning for drunk and disorderly behaviour in a public place or for purchasing alcohol.The important message to give to young people here is that they will be dealt with for alcohol related offences, and sanctions such as reprimands and final warnings are police records, which are kept on file and could, if relevant, be disclosed for employment purposes at any time in the future.

Affects of alcohol use on communities Alcohol misuse does not just affect the people using alcohol; it can also affect the area or community that the person is in at the time. If you drink enough alcohol to change your mood or character you could end up acting in an anti-social manner, which could affect the quality of life for the people living in your community. For example, this type of behaviour includes:

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• Rowdy and nuisance behaviour. • Verbal abuse. • Damaging property.

This type of behaviour, especially on a regular basis, can have damaging affects on the community such as: • Reduce the quality of life for residents. • Increase the fear of crime. • Contribute to neighbourhood decline where people do not want to live, visit or invest in the area. Communities can be weakened by the behaviour of the people that visit or live in them. Useful helplines: Drinkaware Trust For information on alcohol limits and health visit www.drinkaware.co.uk or www.truthaboutbooze.com Validate UK Validate UK is a voluntary proof of age card which is ‘pass’ accredited (Proof of Age Standard Scheme) for more information visit www.validateuk.co.uk Crucial card This credit card sized card lists useful telephone numbers and websites that provide important advice along with information on local services. Please contact Health Promotion Hertfordshire 01923 281630 or visit www.hpherts.nhs.uk

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Drugs

This drugs section has been developed in consultation with the Hertfordshire Drug Education Forum (DEF). The DEf is a multi-agency group that provides expert advice and guidance to the county Young Persons Substance Misuse Partnership on issues concerning drug education and prevention and coordinates work with young people.

Drugs and Law Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 This is the main piece of legislation covering drugs and categorises drugs as class A, B and C. These drugs are termed as controlled substances, and Class A drugs are those considered to be the most harmful. Class A Cocaine Crack Heroin LSD Ecstasy Magic Mushrooms* Methadone Methamphetamine Opium Any Class B drug which is injected

Class B Amphetamine Barbiturates Codeine Dihydrocodeine (DF118) Ritalin

Class C Cannabis (Herbal, Resin, Oil) Anabolic Steroids Ketamine GHB (Gammahydroxybutyrate) Rohypnol

*Mushrooms containing psilocin or psilocybin

Offences under the Misuse of Drugs Act There are four common offences that may be committed under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Possession of a controlled substance unlawfully i.e. • To have illegal custody or control of a controlled drug. For example, having an illegal drug in your locker or bag. • To look after an illegal drug. For example, looking after an illegal drug for a friend. Possession of a controlled substance with intent to supply i.e. • Possessing an illegal drug with intent to supply it to another person. For example, having an illegal drug with the intention of selling it to other people. • Packaging a drug in a way that indicates it will be supplied. For example, putting an illegal drug into individual bags. • Carrying a large amount of a drug on you.

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• Growing cannabis in your home. Supply or offering to supply a controlled drug (even when there is no charge made for the drug) • Giving or selling to another person or group of people. This includes passing a cannabis joint between friends or buying drugs for a group of friends. • There is no differentiation made between giving a drug to someone free of charge, or selling a drug for profit. Production • To produce a controlled drug or to be concerned in the production of such a drug, e.g. making crack cocaine from cocaine powder. Allow premises you occupy or manage to be used for the purpose of drug taking • This offence is committed when you knowingly allow premises you occupy or manage to be used for the supply, production or cultivation of a controlled drug. This also includes allowing premises to be used for the smoking of cannabis or opium, and the preparation of opium.

Exceptions and complications The law is made even more complicated by the fact that some drugs are covered by other laws, are not covered at all, or are treated in an exceptional way under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. For example, benzodiazepines such as Valium, Librium and Rohypnol are Class C drugs; they can only be supplied and produced by those authorised to do so, but it’s not an offence to be in possession of them if a doctor has prescribed them to you. However, if you have been prescribed a controlled drug and then give that drug to someone else you are committing an offence.

Maximum penalties under the Misuse of Drugs Act OFFENCE

CLASS A

CLASS B

CLASS C

Possession

7 years imprisonment and/or a fine

5 years imprisonment and/or a fine

2 years imprisonment and/or a fine

Supply

Life imprisonment and/or a fine

14 years imprisonment and/or a fine

14 years imprisonment and/or a fine

Unlawful production

Life imprisonment and/or a fine

14 years imprisonment and/or a fine

14 years imprisonment and/or a fine

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Even though a young person under 18 years may not receive the maximum penalties above, there are still penalties for young people under 18 years (under the Youth Justice System) who have committed drug related offences. Depending upon the seriousness of the offence a young person under18 years could receive one of the following: Reprimand - this is a formal verbal warning given by a police officer to a young person who admits their guilt. It can only be given for a minor first offence. Final Warning - a final warning is a formal verbal warning given by a police officer to a young person who admits their guilt for a first or second offence. Unlike a reprimand, however, the young person is also assessed to determine the causes of their offending behaviour and a programme of activities is identified to address them. Charge - sent to court. When a young person commits a drug related offence the Youth Offending Team (YOT) will take into account the seriousness of the offence when deciding how to deal with the young person. Below is a table that sets out guidance for drug related offences and the possible penalties.

Gravity factors for offences committed Offence

Penalty

Supply/possession with intent to supply a Class A drug

Normally result in charge

Supply/possession with intent to supply a Class B or C drug

Normally result in charge

Possession of a Class A drug

Normally final warning for first offence. If offender does not qualify for final warning then charge. Only in exceptional circumstances should a reprimand be given.

Possession of a Class B or C drug

Normally reprimand for first offence. If offender does not qualify for reprimand but qualifies for a warning then give warning. If offender does not qualify for warning then charge.

Production of a Class A Drug

Normally result in charge

Production/cultivation of Class B or C drug

Normally result in charge

Permit the use of premises for smoking of Cannabis or Cannabis Resin

Normally a reprimand for first offence. If offender does not qualify for reprimand but qualifies for a warning then give warning. If offender does not qualify for warning then charge. 6

The above table is guidance only and is one of a number of factors that is considered when dealing with a young person.There are gravity factors covering other types of crime but these are not listed here. For more information on the Youth Justice System visit the Youth Justice Board website at www.yjb.gov.uk

Enforcement To enforce this law the police have special powers to stop, detain and search people on ‘reasonable suspicion’ that they are in possession of a controlled drug.

Other drug legislation since 1968 Medicines Act 1968 This law governs the manufacture and supply of medicine.There are three categories: • Prescription Only drugs can be sold by a pharmacist if prescribed by a doctor. • Pharmacy medicines may be sold by a pharmacist without prescription. • General sales list medicines may be sold without a prescription in any shop. Possession of Prescription Only medicines without a prescription is a serious offence. Drugs such as amyl nitrite, GHB, ketamine and Methadone are regulated under the Medicines Act. Road Traffic Act 1972 • Makes it an offence to drive while under the influence of drugs and drink. • Drugs include illegal and prescribed substances. • Causing death by dangerous driving could lead to a long prison sentence and an unlimited fine. Customs and Excise Management Act 1979 In conjunction with the Misuse of Drugs Act • Makes it illegal to import or export controlled drugs without authorisation. • A successful conviction leads to the same penalties as under the Misuse of Drugs Act, although the fines can be more substantial, based on the value of the drugs seized. Cigarette Lighter Refill (Safety) Regulations 1999 Is an amendment to the Consumer Protection Act 1987 • It makes it illegal to supply gas cigarette lighter refills to anyone under the age of 18. • Retailers could face a hefty fine or a prison sentence.

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Intoxicating Substances (Supply) Act 1985 • Makes it an offence for a retailer to sell solvents to anyone under the age of 18, knowing that they are being purchased to be abused. • It doesn't make it illegal to own or buy solvents.

Children and Young Persons (Sale of Tobacco etc.) Order 2007 • Makes it illegal to sell tobacco products, which includes cigarettes, to people under the age of 18. • It also makes it mandatory to display warning signs. This includes school premises where warning signs must be displayed. Failure to display the correct signage could result in a fine. Drug Traffickers Offences Act 1994 • Gives police the power to seize the assets and income of anyone who is found guilty of drugs trafficking, even if that income isn't related to the trafficking of drugs. • It also makes it illegal to manufacture or sell equipment for the preparation or use of controlled drugs. Crime and Disorder Act 1998 • Makes it legal to force offenders who are convicted of crime committed in order to fund their drug habit into getting drug treatment. • It also allows for them to be tested for drug misuse. The Drugs Act 2005 • Requires Courts to take into account aggravating factors - such as dealing near a school when sentencing offenders. • Gives the police power, in certain circumstances, to test drug offenders aged 18 and over at the time of arrest and, in certain circumstances, to require a person with a positive test to undergo assessment by a drugs worker. • Creates a new presumption of intent to supply when a person is found in possession of a quantity of controlled drugs which is judged by the court to be greater than would be reasonable for personal possession only. 2008 Drugs Strategy - Drugs: protecting families and communities The 2008 - 2018 Drug Strategy aims to restrict the supply of illegal drugs and reduce the demand for them.The strategy focuses on four key strands:

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• Protecting communities through tackling drug supply, drug-related crime and anti-social behaviour. • Preventing harm to children, young people and families affected by drug use. • Delivering new approaches to drug treatment and social re-integration. • Public information campaigns, communications and community engagement. Smoking • The legal age for buying cigarettes was increased to 18 years in October 2007. • Smoking is banned in all indoor public places. Indoor public places include pubs, restaurants, nightclubs and private members clubs. Smoking is allowed outdoors in the home or places considered to be the home i.e. prisons, care homes and hotels etc. Cannabis - what is the law? • Possession of Cannabis is NOT legal and has never been legal. • Cannabis in all its forms is a Class C drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Possession - the law for young people under 18 For a first offence of cannabis possession, young people under 18 may be given a formal warning or reprimand, with further offences leading to a final warning or charge. This process may involve the young person being arrested and taken to a police station. Possession - the law for persons aged 18 and over Most offences of cannabis possession would result in a ‘Cannabis Warning’ and confiscation of the drug. However, an arrest might be necessary, for example: • for repeat cannabis offending • in a locality where there is fear of public disorder associated with the use of cannabis • where a person is smoking cannabis in the company or vicinity of young or vulnerable people • where it is necessary to prevent the offender suffering physical injury or causing injury to someone else • where it is necessary to allow the prompt and effective investigation of the offence Consequences of the offence of possession, supply or unlawful production of a controlled drug Young people need to be aware that police or criminal convictions, such as final warnings, reprimands and convictions, are kept on police record and could, if relevant, be disclosed for employment purposes at any time in the future. If you intend on a career or job where you are in a position of

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trust or authority, for example dealing with vulnerable people (i.e. children or the elderly), or you wish to join a regulated profession, or want to be involved in the administration of justice, some convictions (such as a drug related conviction) are exempt from the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974 and can be taken into account by a prospective employer. These include: • • • • • • • • • • • •

all health professionals veterinary surgeons pharmacists solicitors and barristers accountants probation officers prison staff police officers traffic wardens teachers employees of social services departments who have access to vulnerable groups any employment concerned with the provision of services to persons under 18

Other consequences: • Travel - a criminal record can stop you from obtaining a visa to travel abroad either for work or a holiday. A good example is the USA.

Risks from using drugs All drug use involves risk, but the risks vary according to the circumstances of the use, the motivation and knowledge level of the user, their mood and expectation at the time of use, how it is used, size of dose, purity (or otherwise) of the sample, etc. Each drug carries its own long and short term risks whether legally or illegally produced, but the following are particular risk factors involved in using any illicitly manufactured drug: • Users can never be sure of exactly what they are taking. • Not knowing the strength of what has been bought could lead to an accidental overdose (which may be life-threatening). • Users can't be precisely sure of the effect the drug will have, even if they have taken it before. • Environment - For example, where the drug is being used will have an affect on how dangerous it is e.g using the drug near a canal or motorway. Legal drugs, such as medicines or volatile substances, will have been controlled in their manufacture but this does not necessarily rule out all these risks when they are used for a different purpose, or at too high a dose. The impact of drug use can have far reaching effects on a young person’s future, as well as having an

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immediate impact on their life at the time of drug use. If a young person is involved in drug taking the affects can include: • Psychological and physiological effects - general health both physically and mentally can be damaged. For example, a link has been made between the use of cannabis and mental illness, such as schizophrenia, especially if there has been a history of mental illness in the family. • Limit social circles - if a young person is involved in drug use their group of friends can become restricted to other young people who are also involved in drug use.This could make drug taking the norm and difficult to break away from. • Some young people who are involved in drug taking often lose interest in school. Low educational achievement is linked to fewer employment prospects later on in life. • Early initiation to drug use can lead a young person to use drugs in their adult life. • There is a link between criminal offending and drug use.Young people and adults who use drugs often have to resort to crime to fund their habit. This can include stealing money or valuable items from family or friends etc. • Young people involved in drug use are more likely to receive drugs related convictions. A criminal record, especially a drugs related criminal conviction, can affect your future. For example, when seeking employment. • Loss of appetite, drowsiness, poor hygiene or appearance and mood swings are all behavioural changes which could indicate drug use. Other risks include: • Whatever the drug, sharing dirty needles or syringes carries a risk of serious infections (such as HIV and hepatitis B or C) being spread or septicemia being contracted. • Mixing drugs, or drugs with alcohol. • Effects on relationships, financial pressures, reducing judgement or performance etc. Support for schools The Hertfordshire Development Centre offers support to schools around drug issues. Richard Boxer, Drug Education Consultant, provides free support, advice, information and training to all LEA schools in Hertfordshire.This is a service that schools are encouraged to use to help them deal with drugs issues in a balanced and consistent way. Schools can get support and advice on the following: • Development of whole school drug policies. • Provision of basic awareness training for staff and/or governors. • Responding to drug related incidents. • Development of resources/lesson plans for schools.

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Schools can contact the Drug Education Consultant using the details below: Richard Boxer Drug Education Consultant Hertfordshire Development Centre Butterfield Road Wheathampstead Herts AL4 8PY Tel: 01582 830108 Email: [email protected] Independent schools and Colleges Independent schools and colleges can contact Rob Bacon, Education Officer, for support and advice on drug related issues within their school. Rob Bacon can be contacted using the details below: Rob Bacon Drug Education Officer Young People’s Substance Misuse and Crime Reduction Service Valley Way Stevenage SG2 9AB Tel: 01438 843875 Email: [email protected] CRIMESTOPPERS It may be appropriate to mention Crimestoppers as a way of passing on information about those who commit crime. Crimestoppers is a safe and confidential route for giving information about those who commit crime. You can feel safe from reprisal because your identity will never be disclosed to the police.You can contact Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111. Useful helplines and numbers Frank 0800 77 66 00 National, free, confidential, 24 hour drugs helpline. The website contains useful information about drugs and local services. www.talktofrank.com A-DASH 01923 427 288 (Adolescent Drug & Alcohol Service Hertfordshire) A specialist service for young people under 18 years with drug or alcohol problems, who live in Hertfordshire, attend a Hertfordshire school, or have a Hertfordshire GP. To get support and advice about referrals please call 01923 427288. Young people can also self refer.

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Connexions Direct 080 800 13219 Helpline and information service for 13-19 year olds. www.connexions-direct.com Adfam 020 7553 7640 Information & advice to families and friends of drug users. www.adfam.org.uk NHS Smoking Helpline 0800 169 0169 www.gosmokefree.co.uk Parental Drug Awareness Service (PDAS) 01707 393 934 A local service in Hertfordshire for parents whose children are using drugs. [email protected] Hertfordshire Drug Education Forum (DEF) The DEF is a multi agency group that can provide support and guidance on a range of drug education issues. For more information visit: www.hertsdef.org.uk Parentline Plus 0808 800 2222 Information for every single stage of your child’s life from 0-18+ years. www.parentlineplus.org.uk The Drinkaware Trust For more information on alcohol units and health visit www.drinkaware.co.uk or www.truthaboutbooze.com Re-solv A national charity dedicated to the prevention of solvent and volatile substance abuse. For more information visit www.re-solv.org Validate Validate UK is a voluntary proof of age card which is PASS (Proof of Age Standards Scheme). For more information visit www.validateuk.co.uk

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Anti-social behaviour

What is anti-social behaviour? Anti-social behaviour covers a variety of behaviours which causes or is likely to cause alarm, distress or harassment to somebody who does not live in your house. Examples of anti-social behaviour include: • Rowdy and nuisance behaviour. • Vandalism, graffiti and fly-posting. • Intimidating groups taking over public spaces. • Dealing and buying drugs on the street. • Drinking alcohol on the streets. • Damaging property.

What you may think is acceptable behaviour or just a bit of fun may not be acceptable or funny to another person. Anti-social behaviour is taken seriously by the police and by local councils. What happens if you are anti-social?

Acceptable Behaviour Contract (ABC) An ABC is primarily used for young people but can also be used for adults.The purpose of an ABC is to address low level anti-social behaviour, which is causing nuisance to the local community. A behaviour contract is drawn up, which is signed by the young person and their parents/carers or by the person displaying the anti social behaviour. If the terms of the contract are breached this can be used as evidence towards a Anti-Social Behaviour Order (ASBO)

Anti-Social Behaviour Order (ASBO) An ASBO is a court order which prohibits the perpetrator from specific anti-social behaviours, such as those listed above. An ASBO can be applied for by the police and /or the local authority and can be issued to anyone over the age of 10 years, who exhibits anti-social behaviour and causes distress, alarm or harassment to other people, and is issued for a minimum of two years. The aim of an ASBO is to protect the public from anti-social behaviour, rather then to punish the perpetrator.The conditions within the order are designed to stop the anti-social behaviour in question and reflect the behaviour exhibited by the perpetrator. An ASBO is a civil order, not a criminal penalty - this means that it won’t appear on an individuals criminal record. However, breach of an ASBO is a criminal offence and can carry a fine, five years imprisonment, or both. 14

Dispersal Orders The police and local authorities work together to identify problem areas where people feel threatened by groups hanging around causing intimidation and acting in an anti-social manner. Senior police officers can designate areas which have a persistent problem with groups for up to six months with local authority agreement. These are areas where groups often gather and could be as small as a cash point or shopping arcade, or it could be as wide as a whole local authority area.To designate such an area for dispersal there has to be evidence of anti-social behaviour. Within designated areas, police officers have the power to order groups of people to leave an area after a certain time if they suspect that anti-social behaviour has or may happen, and can exclude people from the area for up to 24 hours. A police officer can take home anyone under 16, who is not under the care of a responsible adult after 9pm. Refusal is an offence.

Affects of anti-social behaviour Anti-social behaviour can damage community cohesion and damage the quality of life for its residents. It is important to remember that communities are shaped by the people that belong to them, so your behaviour will affect your community! Affects of anti-social behaviour include: • Neighbourhood decline - where neighbourhoods become places where people do not want to visit, live or invest in. • The quality of life for vulnerable adults may decline due to the fear of crime and the longterm affects of victimisation. • Anti-social behaviour can ruin public places such as shopping precincts, parks, playgrounds, town centres and railways etc. For example, graffiti can downgrade the environment and make it look dirty and neglected.This can send the community into decline, where people start to accept the deterioration in their community and it becomes the norm.

Anti-social behaviour and persistent offending There are links between anti-social behaviour and persistent offending. If you are regularly involved in anti-social behaviour you can easily fall into a cycle of persistent offending.

What is a persistent young offender? A persistent young offender is a young person aged 10-17 years who has been sentenced by any criminal court in the UK on three or more separate occasions for one or more recordable offences, and within three years of receiving their last sentence is subsequently arrested or is subject to a further recordable offence.

Long-term affects of being a persistent offender Young people need to be aware that police records or criminal convictions, such as final warnings,

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reprimands and convictions, are kept on police record and, if relevant, could be disclosed for employment purposes at any time in the future. If you intend on a career or job where you are in a position of trust or authority, for example dealing with vulnerable people (i.e. children or the elderly), or you wish to join a regulated profession, or want to be involved in the administration of justice, some convictions (such as a drug related conviction) are exempt from the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974 and can be taken into account by a prospective employer.These include: • • • • • • • • • • • •

all health professionals veterinary surgeons pharmacists solicitors and barristers accountants probation officers prison staff police officers traffic wardens teachers employees of social services departments who have access to vulnerable groups any employment concerned with the provision of services to persons under 18

A police record, for example a record of reprimands and final warnings, or a criminal conviction could also affect your chances of training for certain careers/jobs. For example, if you wish to go to college/university to train to be a teacher or nurse background checks will be done to ensure you are suitable to be in a position of trust/authority.The list above includes some of the professions/jobs you could be prohibited from training for. A police record or a criminal record could affect where you, and even your family, can travel to. For example, a criminal record can stop you from obtaining a visa to travel abroad either for work or a holiday. A good example is the USA. Many persistent young offenders fail to get the best out of their education. Persistent offending can lead to a lack of attendance at school and lower educational attainment. A lack of educational attainment is linked to low employment opportunities later in life, which can also impact on the likelihood of being involved in criminal activity in adulthood.

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Sentences, Orders and Agreements When young people first get into trouble, behave anti-socially or commit minor offences, they can usually be dealt with by the police and local authority, outside of the court system, using a variety of orders and agreements.This is to stop young people getting sucked into the youth justice system too early, while still offering them the help and support they need to stop offending. Some of the most common orders or agreements that most young people receive when committing low level anti social behaviour or minor offences are listed below.This is not an exhaustive list. More information can be found on the Youth Justice Board website at www.yjb.gov.uk

Pre-court measures Reprimand A Reprimand is a formal verbal warning given by a police officer to a young person who admits they are guilty of a minor first offence. A reprimand is not a criminal record. You can only get a conviction when found guilty at court. However, the police will keep a record of the reprimand on the Police National Computer (PNC) indefinitely and Hertfordshire Constabulary will hold the record locally indefinitely.The record of the reprimand can be disclosed at anytime in the future, for example, a CRB disclosure for employment purposes.The police record of the reprimand can be made available to potential employers in certain circumstances, for example for jobs where you are in a position of trust or authority, such as where you are dealing with vulnerable people (i.e. children or the elderly). Final Warning A final warning is a formal verbal warning given by a police officer to a young person who admits their guilt for a first or second offence. Unlike a reprimand, however, the young person is also assessed to determine the causes of their offending behaviour and a programme of activities is identified to address them. A final warning is your last chance to stop breaking the law before it is too late. If you break the law again it is likely the police will send you to court. If within two years of receiving a final warning you go to court and get a conviction, the option of a conditional discharge will only be open to the court in exceptional circumstances. A conditional discharge is when the court does not punish you at the time. But if you go to court for another offence you can be punished for the old offence and the new one! A final warning is not a criminal record.You can only get a conviction when found guilty at court. However, the police will keep a record of the final warning on the Police National Computer (PNC) indefinitely and Hertfordshire Constabulary will hold the record locally indefinitely.The record of the final warning can be disclosed at anytime in the future, for example, a CRB disclosure for employment purposes.The police record of the final warning can be made available to potential employers in certain circumstances, for example for jobs where you are in a position of trust or authority, such as where you are dealing with vulnerable people (i.e. children or the elderly).

Anti social behaviour measures Anti Social Behaviour Contract (ABC) An ABC is primarily used for young people but can also be used for adults.The purpose of an ABC is to address low level anti-social behaviour, which is causing nuisance to the local community. A behaviour contract is drawn up, which is signed by the young person and their parents/carers or the person displaying the anti social behaviour. 17

If the terms of the contract are breached this can be used as evidence towards a Anti-Social Behaviour Order (ASBO).

Anti-Social Behaviour Order (ASBO) Anti-Social Behaviour Order (ASBO) An ASBO is a court order which prohibits the perpetrator from specific anti-social behaviours. An ASBO can be applied for by the police and /or the local authority and can be issued to anyone over the age of 10 years, who exhibits anti-social behaviour and causes distress, alarm or harassment to other people, and is issued for a minimum of two years. The aim of an ASBO is to protect the public from anti-social behaviour, rather then to punish the perpetrator.The conditions within the order are designed to stop the anti-social behaviour in question and reflect the behaviour exhibited by the perpetrator. An ASBO is a civil order, not a criminal penalty - this means that it won’t appear on an individuals criminal record. However, breach of an ASBO is a criminal offence and can carry a fine, five years imprisonment, or both.

Sentences in the community Community Rehabilitation Order This sentence is available to courts for young people aged 16-17 years. It is equivalent to a Supervision Order, but for this specific age range. It is supervised by a Youth Offending Team (YOT) and can include activities such as repairing the harm caused by their offence, programmes to address offending behaviour or an Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programme (ISSP). Community Punishment Order This sentence is available for young people aged 16 - 17 years. It requires a young person to complete unpaid community work for a period of 40 - 240 hours. Examples of the type of activities involved are: • • • •

carpentry conservation decorating working with the elderly or vulnerable

The sentence is supervised by the Probation Service Community Service Team.

Attendance Centre Order An Attendance Centre Order sentences a young person to attend an attendance centre.The main purpose of attendance centres is to put a restriction on young offenders’ leisure time - they are open on Saturdays for two or three hours.Their programmes concentrate on group work to give attendees basic skills - literacy and numeracy, life skills, cookery, first aid and money management, for example as well as encouraging attendees to make better use of leisure time. The programme also includes victim awareness sessions, which consider the impact of offending on individuals and the community and how the young person might make amends; and sessions on drug and alcohol awareness, and sexual health matters The order can last up to 36 hours depending on the age of the offender and the seriousness of the offence.

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Reparation Order Reparation Orders are designed to help young offenders understand the consequences of their offending and take responsibility for their behaviour.They require the young person to repair the harm caused by their offence either directly to the victim (this can involve victim/offender mediation if both parties agree) or indirectly to the community. Examples of this might be cleaning up graffiti or undertaking community work.The order is overseen by the Youth Offending Team (YOT).

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Race and Hate Crime What is a racial incident? It is when you, your family or property is subjected to violence, damage or harassment because of your racial origins or the colour of your skin. A racist incident is any incident which is perceived to be racist by the victim or any other person.This means that if anyone believes that any incident is racist, then it is recorded as one by the police. A racist incident does not have to be classified as a crime for it to be taken seriously by the police. What is hate crime? Hate crime is any criminal offence committed against a person or property, perceived by the victim or any other person, as being motivated by prejudice or hate because of someone’s: • • • • •

race, colour, ethnic origin, nationality or national origins religion gender or gender identity sexual orientation disability

What is a hate incident? A hate incident is any incident, which may or may not constitute a criminal offence, perceived by the victim or any other person, as being motivated by prejudice or hate. Other forms of hate crime include: Racism - when a person commits a crime against someone because of the colour of their skin, their ethnic background and nationality etc. Religious - when someone is attacked or threatened because of their religion or belief. Homophobia - when someone is victimised because of their sexuality, because they are, or the perpetrator thinks they are gay, lesbian, bisexual or transsexual. Transphobia - where a person is motivated by hatred or fear of people who are transgendered.This includes transsexuals, transvestites and people who consider themselves a different sex to their birth gender. (This form of hate crime is optional for lesson plans and is included because it is officially a form of hate crime) Disability - any incident that is perceived to be aimed at a person because of their disability or impairment by the victim or any other person.

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Examples of race/hate incidents are: • • • • • • • • • • •

physical attacks or assault threats arson name calling or any verbal abuse offensive behaviour, such as people swearing at you or making abusive remarks insulting messages scrawled on your property or printed on leaflets or posters spitting people doing things that frighten, intimidate or distress you bullying at school or college text messages or phone calls emails

Impact of hate crime Hate crime in any form can have a negative impact on the victim’s quality of life. Effects of being a victim of hate crime can include: • • • • • •

fear of going out alone fear of staying in the house alone loss of confidence panic attacks depression anxiety related illness

Hate crime has a destructive effect, not only on the victims but on whole communities.The effect of hate crime can go far beyond the individual and affect how a community feels. For example, if members of a particular group/community are the target of hate crime it can breed suspicion, mistrust and fear within a community towards those outside of the community. Hate crime can promote isolation and set up barriers to communication. If you believe you are the victim of a race/hate incident you should report it to police.This sort of behaviour is wrong because it can hurt people and make them feel vulnerable and isolated.You should also report it if you witness someone else being the victim of such incidents. Hate crime and racial incidents need to be reported to the police so this sort of behaviour can be tackled. What can the police do to help you? A racial/hate incident can be easy to identify if it is in the form of verbal or written threats using racist remarks. However, a personal attack or damage to property may not contain evidence to suggest it was racially or otherwise motivated.This does not matter.The police will help you identify what has happened and make sure that appropriate action is taken. There are specialist officers dealing with racial incidents and hate crime in Hertfordshire. Their primary role is to help people affected by racist incidents and provide a sympathetic and supportive service to victims of hate crime. Hate crime officers will: • advise you • support you 21

• give you guidance • stay in touch • find help for you Reporting a racial incident/hate crime to the police 1.

Call the police • In an emergency, where you need immediate police assistance, dial 999. • If it is not an emergency dial 0845 33 00 222. • Tell the call taker you have been involved in an incident that you believe was racist.They will take details and deal with your call appropriately. • Keep a record of the Unique Reference Number you are given and ask the officer who attends their name, warrant number and contact number.

2. 3. 4.

Call into any police station.Tell the Enquiry Officer you have been involved in an incident and you believe it was racist.They will take your details and arrange for an officer to speak to you. Online.You can report a racist incident or any other hate crime by logging onto the police website www.herts.police.uk. True Vision Self Reporting Pack.The pack contains a regional hate crime reporting form, which allows a victim, witness, parent, carer, or any concerned person to report a race, religious, homophobic or transphobic incident to the police, by giving as much or as little information as you wish.You do not have to attend a police station or other reporting centre to report the incident.

There are two packs: • A race and religion pack covering racism and religious hatred. • A lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) pack covering homophobia and transphobia. Each pack contains information on bullying, personal safety, local contact groups, domestic violence and a self-reporting form. The project website www.report-it.org.uk/ allows you to download a self-reporting form.The packs are available from police stations or some community establishments. Possible consequences of committing Race or Hate Crime • Arrest and taken to police station. • Reprimand, final warning, referral order or imprisonment. • Police/criminal record. • ASBO could also be obtained that would place restrictions on your life for a number of years. CRIMESTOPPERS It may be appropriate to mention Crimestoppers as a way of passing on information about those who commit crime. 22

Crimestoppers is a safe and confidential route for giving information about those who commit crime. You can feel safe from reprisal because your identity will never be disclosed to the police.You can contact Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111. What other help is available? • Childline 0800 1111 www.childline.org.uk • London Lesbian and Gay Switchboard (LLGS) 020 7837 7324 www.llgs.org.uk • Broken Rainbow 08452 6044 60. A 24 hour helpline for lesbian, gay and transgender people who are experiencing domestic violence. www.broken-rainbow.org.uk • Educational Action Challenging Homophobia (EACH) 0808 1000 143 A dedicated freephone helpline for any young person affected by homophobia. www.eachaction.org.uk

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Street crime What is street crime?

Street crime is a loose term for criminal offences taking place in public places. Crimes that would come under street crime include: • Robbery Robbery is when you steal something from somebody using violence, or the threat of violence. • Snatch theft/mugging A snatch theft is when property is stolen from the physical possession of the victim with some degree of force attached to the property, but not to the victim. • Pick pocketing • Graffiti/Vandalism of public property • Offences against private property This would include offences such as stealing hub caps etc. • Disorder This would include disorder that takes place on the street such as drunkenness, fighting and criminal damage etc. Theft The offence of theft is not specific to street crime; however, it may be appropriate to mention this offence within this section. Theft is defined as: “a person is guilty of theft if he dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it…”(Theft Act 1968). If you take something from somebody with the intention of not giving it back then it is theft. The property in question could be anything, for example a mobile phone, money, clothes or any item that does not belong to you. Who are the victims of street crime? Anybody can be a victim of street crime. Crimes such as snatch thefts, mugging and robbery are opportunist and happen when you least expect them. What affects does street crime have on the victims? Street crime can have severe affects on victims, financially, socially and emotionally. There is no such thing as a victimless crime; there is always somebody who suffers when a crime is committed. It is important to note that a community can also be a victim of crime, because the affects of crime can damage communities.

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Examples of the impact of crime: How would a crime such as a snatch theft, where your grandmother has had her monthly pension stolen, impact on your grandmother’s life? The impact could be: • Your grandmother has not got enough money to live on for the month and has to reduce her standard of living by going without things. For example, she may not be able to buy all of the food she needs, pay all of the bills or go out socially etc. • Your grandmother may be too frightened to go out on her own and may become housebound because of her fear of being mugged again. In the long-term her quality of life could suffer greatly because the fear of the same thing happening again may never go. How would throwing stones at a bus affect the community? The impact could be: • The driver could be injured. • Throwing stones at the bus could cause a road accident causing injury to the passengers and/or other road users/pedestrians. • Bus companies could withdraw routes.This could prevent local people from being able to travel, for example, the bus may be the only way an elderly person can visit the local town. How would vandalising the local shop affect the community? The impact could be: • The shop has to charge higher prices for its goods to repair the vandalism. • Higher prices could force some customers to shop elsewhere.This could inconvenience local people who may have to travel further to a shop; this may not be as easy for elderly people. • Fewer customers may result in the shop closing down. If local businesses are forced to close down because of crime and anti-social behaviour this could lead an area into decline, as fewer businesses will want to invest in the area. • In the long-term the local community will suffer. The shop or the business can move elsewhere but the community can’t! How would disorderly behaviour, such as drunkenness and criminal damage to private and public property affect the community? The impact could be: • This sort of behaviour is not victimless, even though property is often damaged at random. Someone, whether it is an individual, a group of people or a business, will have to pay for the damage to be repaired. Some people will not be able to afford to repair/replace property. If damage is committed in the local community services could be cut to meet the costs,

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businesses may have to increase prices or move out of the area. All of this can make an area susceptible to economic and social decline because community spirit/relations are weakened. • If a community is characterised by graffiti, vandalism, criminal and anti-social behaviour it may attract criminal and anti-social behaviour and it will not be a nice place to live . It may give the appearance that nobody cares about the community and people will not want to live or invest in the area. Knife/offensive weapons Any item which has a blade or is sharply pointed can be classified as an offensive weapon.The term ‘offensive weapon’ also includes any item which has been changed or altered so that it can be used to cause injury to another person. Examples of offensive weapons could include guns, knives, broken bottles and baseball bats etc. Carrying a knife, whether for self defence, as part of a gang, to look cool or feel confident is dangerous and illegal. If you carry a knife you risk injury, having the knife turned on you by an attacker or even killing somebody. Carrying a knife or an offensive weapon in a public place, whether for self-defence or not, is a criminal offence and carries a maximum penalty of four years imprisonment and/or a fine.This would be the maximum penalty for someone who is 18 years or older.Young people under 18 years would be dealt with by the Youth Justice System. For example, a young person under 18 years who comes to police notice for possession of a sharp pointed blade (i.e. a knife) could be given a final warning.The sanction a young person may receive would depend on circumstances such as the severity of the offence, previous offences and circumstances around the offence etc. More information on the Youth Justice System can be found on the Youth Justice Board site at www.yjb.gov.uk Possible consequences for committing street crime: • Arrest and taken to the police station. • Police/criminal record. • Final warning, referral order, attendance centre order, fine, community punishment order and imprisonment. • An anti-social behaviour order could also be obtained that would place restrictions on your life for a number of years. CRIMESTOPPERS It may be appropriate to mention Crimestoppers as a way of passing on information about those who commit crime. Crimestoppers is a safe and confidential route for giving information about those who commit crime. You can feel safe from reprisal because your identity will never be disclosed to the police.You can contact Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111. Neighbourhood policing Safer Neighbourhoods is the policing style of the Constabulary and seeks to deliver community safety, in its widest context, at neighbourhood level. The success of Safer Neighbourhoods depends on the

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active involvement of the community, stakeholders and partners in the identification of policing priorities, the development of plans to address the issues and monitoring of progress and success. It is important to emphasise that the police do not view young people as the cause of all street crime. Just because a Police Officer or a Police Community Support Officer may speak to a young person about a crime does not mean that they are being accused of committing the crime. Often, the police will talk to young people to gather information.They may want to know why young people hang around a certain area or how young people feel about something etc.The police want to know this information so they can work with partners, such as the local council and Youth Service, to try and help young people access the appropriate services and provisions to address their needs.The aim of the police is to make all members of the community feel safe, this includes young people! The police are keen for young people to share information with them because this is the only way that young people can be protected from issues such as bullying, being a victim of crime and being dragged into crime.Views of young people are important and as members of the community have a right to have their fears, concerns and ideas listened to, so they can be taken into account when developing solutions to community problems. Each district will have a Neighbourhood Officer supported by Police Community Support Officers who have responsibility for the area, who you can contact if you need to discuss any issues.To find out your local Neighbourhood Team Contacts visit our website: www.herts.police.co.uk

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Vehicle Crime

What is vehicle crime? Vehicle crime is defined as the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle and theft or the attempted theft from a motor vehicle. Theft of a motor vehicle Taking someone’s vehicle without the owner’s permission, this is legally known as taking without the owners consent (TWOC). It is important to note that it is not just motor vehicles that are subject to theft. Pedal cycles or bikes are often the target for thieves. Other vehicles which are likely to be stolen are scooters, mopeds and motorbikes etc. Theft from a vehicle This includes stealing items from inside a car such as stereos, mobile phones and lap tops etc. Consequences of stealing or damaging vehicles One crime can result in many consequences! It is important to explore how the consequences of crime are far reaching, both for the perpetrator and victim. Consequences for the perpetrator include: • Arrest and taken to the police station. • Police/criminal record. • Final warning, referral order, attendance centre, fine, community punishment and imprisonment. • An anti-social behaviour order could also be obtained that would place restrictions on your life for a number of years. Financial consequences for the victim include: • If a vehicle is stolen or damaged the owner will have to meet the costs of repairing or replacing the vehicle. Not everyone will be able to afford to do this! For example, this may stop someone from being able to get to work and could have a severe impact on their quality of life. • If items are stolen from a vehicle the owner will have to meet the costs of replacing any stolen items. Not everyone will be able to afford this! • Insurance companies often charge an excess which the owner will have to pay and future premiums may well increase after a claim has been made.

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Social consequences for the victim • If a vehicle is stolen or damaged and needs to be taken off the road for repair it can cause the owner inconvenience. Imagine if your parent’s car was stolen. Perhaps they would not be able to get to work, or get to an important appointment or give you a lift to somewhere you needed to go. Joyriding Joyriding is a slang term for taking a vehicle without the owners consent. Generally a joyrider will tend to be young, often too young to legally drive, and therefore likely to be driving without a licence and putting their own and other people’s lives at risk by driving dangerously. There are two charges relating to joyriding: Taking a vehicle without the owners consent (TWOC) for your own use or another’s use.The offence can also be committed by someone who knows that a vehicle has been taken without consent and proceeds to drive it or travel in it. The offence carries with it: • a maximum prison sentence of six months and/or • a maximum fine of £5000 • discretionary disqualification from driving Aggravated vehicle taking without the owner’s consent. This offence is committed when a person takes a vehicle without the owner’s consent and additionally it is then proved that after the vehicle was taken and before it was recovered one of the following occurred: • The vehicle was driven dangerously on a road or other public place. • Due to the way the vehicle was driven, an incident occurred where damage was caused to any property (other than the vehicle). • That damage was caused to the vehicle. The offence can either be tried at a Magistrates Court or a Crown Court. If tried at a Magistrates Court, the offence carries a penalty of: • a maximum prison sentence of six months and/or • a fine up to £5000 • disqualification from driving If tried at a Crown Court, the offence carries a penalty of: • a maximum prison sentence of two years • a maximum prison sentence of 14 years if death was caused, “owing to the driving of the vehicle” • Disqualification from driving All of the penalties listed above apply to offenders who are 18 years and over. A young person under 18 years would not face the same penalty as a person over 18 years, and would be dealt with under the Youth Justice System. For vehicle crime a young person under 18 years could face a penalty from a referral order to imprisonment in a Young Offenders Institution, depending on the offence committed. It is important to note that all cases would be dealt with on an individual basis and factors such as the 29

severity of the offence, the circumstances around the offence and previous offending history etc. would be taken into account. More details on the Youth Justice System can be found on the Youth Justice Board site at www.yjb.gov.uk Risks associated with joy riding If you are joyriding, whether you are driving the car or are the passenger, you could be putting yourself and others at risk.The risks of joyriding include: • You don’t know if the driver has had driving lessons or can even drive! • Anyone who cannot drive will not have insurance. Uninsured drivers are more likely to break speed limits, ignore other rules on the road and are more likely to be involved in road crashes. • Joy riding can escalate into further risk taking behaviour. For example, in some cases joy riders set fire to the vehicles they have stolen.This can be very dangerous because they may not know if the car contains items such as gas cylinders, which could explode if ignited. Consequences of joyriding Below are some case studies to illustrate how devastating the consequences of joyriding can be. Eight-year-old dies after being hit by stolen car Eight-year-old Daniel Conroy Curtin died in hospital after being hit by a stolen car on a cycle path on Teesside.The youngster was left fighting for his life after the incident on 16 May 2006. Immediately following Daniel’s death it was reported that a 15-year-old boy had already appeared in court accused of aggravated vehicle taking and was remanded to secure accommodation. A police spokesman said that charges would be reviewed following Daniel's death.Two 19-year-olds and a 15-year-old had been charged with being carried in a vehicle taken without consent. A 14-yearold was on police bail pending further inquiries. Couple killed in hit-and-run Pearl Whyne, 59, and her husband Keith,71, were killed in a hit-and-run incident involving a stolen car in Birmingham.The couple were driving to the City Hospital in Birmingham where Mrs Whyne, a nurse for 30 years, was due to be on duty.Two men got out of a Mercedes car, which was involved in the collision, and ran off. Police said the vehicle was stolen from a local supermarket car park about half an hour before the fatal crash. Teenagers killed in joyride Dwayne Gerarghty, 16, and Daryle Gilmour, 13, died when the stolen car Dwayne was driving crashed head-on into another vehicle in Luton. A post-mortem examination showed Dwayne had consumed alcohol and cannabis before he stole a Vauxhall Nova. A few minutes later, they crashed into another car. Collision investigation officers found the steering lock of the Nova had been forced. It had been stolen just over a mile from the scene of the incident.The coroner recorded a verdict of accidental death. What are the police doing to tackle vehicle crime? The police take vehicle crime seriously and actively try to combat this. Some of the measures the police take to tackle vehicle crime include:

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• Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR). Covert and overt systems are used to check vehicles on the road to ensure motorists have MOT and insurance etc. ANPR can also detect cars that have come to police notice, for example if they have been reported as stolen.The ANPR system can carry out checks whilst a vehicle is being driven on the road without the knowledge of the driver. If you are driving a car that has been reported stolen it is possible that an ANPR system could detect that the vehicle you are in is stolen. • The police have increased reporting systems that alert them of crimes/incidents, which as a result produce more intelligence that can be used to detect crimes. For example, there has been an increase in the number of Police Community Support Officers who regularly patrol their local community.Their main priority is to reassure communities and keep them safe; vehicle crime is an obvious crime that would fall into this. Drug driving 'Drug Driving' is driving under the influence of a substance which affects your ability to drive. This includes not only illegal drugs such as cannabis, heroin, cocaine and amphetamines but some prescription and over-the-counter drugs which can impair a person’s ability. Driving under the influence of drugs - whether prescribed medication or illegal substances - is just as dangerous as driving under the influence of alcohol. It's also against the law. Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs means you are not in full control because it can affect the way your body and mind works and responds to situations. Ways your body can be affected by drugs: • slower reaction times • poor concentration • sleepiness/fatigue • confused thinking • distorted perception • over confidence • erratic behaviour The Law If you are convicted for a drink drive offence you will: • lose your licence for a minimum of one year • you may go to prison for up to six months • you may have to pay a fine of up to £5,000 • you may lose your job (15 per cent of those convicted do) • have a criminal record - this can prevent you from travelling to some countries, such as the USA 31

• face exceptionally high insurance costs once you get your licence back • have difficulty hiring a car within ten years of your conviction If you are convicted of causing death by careless driving while under the influence of drink or drugs you face: • up to 14 years in prison • an unlimited fine • a minimum two-year driving ban Driving under the influence of drugs carries the same penalties as drink driving. Drink/Drug Driving • Field Impairment Tests Under the Road Traffic Act 1988, it is an offence to drive while under the influence of drugs. Hertfordshire Constabulary has introduced roadside tests called Field Impairment Tests (FIT) which are administered by trained officers if they think that a driver’s ability is affected by drugs. The FIT comprises of five tests: • Examination of the eye pupil size and condition. • Romberg test: the subject is asked to tilt their head back slightly, close their eyes and estimate the passage of 30 seconds. • Walk and Turn test: the subject is asked to take 9 heel to toe steps along a line while counting out loud and looking at their feet. • One leg stand test: the subject is asked to stand on one leg with the foot raised 150-200mm (6-8 inches), look at their foot and count aloud for a period of 30 seconds. • Finger to nose test: the subject is asked to tilt their head slightly backwards, close their eyes, and then touch the tip of their nose with the tip of the finger of the hand indicated by the officer. The police officer conducts the test in a systematic and standardised way in order to reach an informed decision as to whether the person is fit to drive. The evidence gained from a FIT is sufficient for a driver to be arrested immediately and taken to a police station where a blood test is taken to confirm what type of drug is in the driver’s system. The law does not state any legal limit for drugs as it does for alcohol, and the nature of the drug taken is irrelevant - it does not have to be a drug classified under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. CRIMESTOPPERS It may be appropriate to mention Crimestoppers as a way of passing on information about those who commit crime. Crimestoppers is a safe and confidential route for giving information about those who commit crime.You can feel safe from reprisal because your identity will never be disclosed to the police.You can contact Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111.

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Useful Contacts Helen Godsave Road Safety Officer County Hall 01992 556811 The Road Safety Unit at County Hall is willing to work with schools and have many road safety resources specifically designed for schools. Website addresses

www.brake.org.uk

www.thinkroadsafety.gov.uk

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Arson

Arson is when people deliberately set fire to property or buildings. As well as setting fire to buildings examples of arson include setting light to dustbins, grass, trees, piles of rubbish and cars. Reasons why people may deliberately set a fire: • • • • • • • • •

vandalism excitement mental illness revenge curiosity crime concealment racist/hate crime fraud abuse

Affects of arson Loss of life and serious injury • People can lose their lives and end up with serious injuries, which can dramatically affect a person’s quality of life. • When fire fighters are called to inappropriate jobs, for example small fires in bins, other people’s lives are being put at risk. If a fire crew are attending a call where a bin has been set on fire and a serious fire takes place at the same time, they may not have the resources to attend the serious fire immediately. • Hoax calls. Fire fighters have to respond to every 999 call, so if they are attending a hoax call they may not be able to get to the real fire in time and people could die.

Financial loss • Arson results in huge costs for us all. There are higher home and car insurance costs as a result of buildings and vehicles being the target of arson. When owners have to claim from insurance companies to repair the damage caused by arson, the costs are passed on to us in higher insurance premiums. • When commercial premises such as offices, factories and warehouses are subject to arson it can result in employees losing their jobs, which has a huge impact on the quality of life for their families.

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Environmental damage • Fire can cause long-term damage to the environment. For example, water can become polluted from the run off water used in the fire fighting operations and air can become polluted as a result of the smoke from the fire. • The environmental effects of a fire are long lasting. For example, if a hedge is set on fire all of the wildlife that live in it is killed and it could take many years to re-establish what has been destroyed.

Other loss • Many schools face arson attacks, but have you thought about the wider consequences of damaging buildings such as schools with fire? If somebody sets fire to a school it is not just the building that is damaged or destroyed. Everything that is in the school is damaged or destroyed, including property such as course work. If course work is destroyed hours and months of work are lost, it maybe that some of it can not be replaced which could impact on exam results. If a school is set on fire it will disrupt everybody that goes to that school. It will disrupt the lives of many people, such as parents who may have to get their children to a school that is further away. It is important to remember that fire is dangerous and should not be played with.What might start out as a small fire could escalate into something that you did not expect and cannot control. The Law Arson carries a maximum punishment of a life sentence. This maximum penalty would apply to anyone 18 years or over. A young person under 18 years would not face the same penalty as a person over 18 years, and would be dealt with under the Youth Justice System. Penalties for the offence of arson could range from a final warning to being charged and sent to court. It is important to note that all cases would be dealt with on an individual basis, and factors such as the severity of the offence, the circumstances around the offence and previous offending history would be taken into account. More details on the Youth Justice System can be found on the Youth Justice Board website at www.yjb.gov.uk CRIMESTOPPERS It may be appropriate to mention Crimestoppers as a way of passing on information about those who commit crime. Crimestoppers is a safe and confidential route for giving information about those who commit crime. You can feel safe from reprisal because your identity will never be disclosed to the police.You can contact Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111.

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Domestic burglary What is burglary?

Burglary with entry Incidents in which the offender entered the building as a trespasser with the intention of committing theft, grievous bodily harm (GBH) or unlawful damage.To be classified as burglary with entry the offender must have entered the property but does not need to have carried out his/her intention. Burglary with loss As above but once inside the building the accused did steal or inflict GBH. Attempted burglary Incidents in which there is clear evidence that the offender tried to enter the dwelling as a trespasser but failed. Burglary does not necessarily entail the theft, or attempted theft, of property, it could involve forced entry or damage to property. Entry could be through an open window or involve the use of false pretences. Aggravated burglary A person is guilty of aggravated burglary if they have with them any weapon of offence at the time of committing the burglary. Distraction Burglary These types of burglary are often referred to as ‘bogus callers’ or ‘burglary artifice.’ This is a crime primarily targeted at vulnerable older people. Offenders pose as officials (including council, police and utility workers) in order to gain access to homes. Once inside the victim is distracted and the burglary is committed. Trespass If you are invited into somebody’s house, for example as a guest at a party, and whilst you are there enter parts of the house where you think you are not allowed you could be trespassing. If you then steal property from the house you could be committing burglary. Items most stolen in domestic burglaries include: • • • •

car keys cash jewellery mobile phone

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• ipod • video equipment • stereo equipment Items that tend to be stolen are things that are easy to carry and easy to sell on. It is important to remember that most homes have many items which are a target for thieves, such as lap tops, mobile phones and ipods etc. Young people should be aware of the steps that can be taken to keep their homes secure.This will help to prevent young people and their families from becoming victims of burglary. Below is some safety advice to help people avoid becoming a victim of burglary: Keeping your home safe • Always lock your doors and close windows (locked if possible) even if you are only out for a short time or if you are spending time upstairs. • Leave any keys well away from doors and windows; put them somewhere out of sight and safe inside the house. • Don't use outside hidey-holes, such as under flowerpots or door mats for house keys where they could easily be found.

Keeping your home secure Door security • Make sure that you have a sound, secure door which is fitted with good locks, appropriate to the type of door. • Consider fitting a good quality door chain. An entry viewer is a good idea so that you can see who is calling. Don’t forget to use the chain when answering the door! • If you are moving house, consider changing the locks on your doors to make sure that you have the only keys. • Consider fitting a letterbox cage that prevents access through the letterbox and the offender releasing the locks or reaching in for any valuables or car keys in reach. Window security • Window locks which are visible from the outside may deter thieves because the lock forces the thief to break the glass and risk attracting attention. Thieves are also reluctant to climb over broken glass. • Pay particular attention to making sure that ground floor windows are secure, as well as windows that are accessible from flat roofs, close to drain pipes or in reach of fire escapes.

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Keeping your valuables secure within your home Opportunist burglars will be attracted by valuables, so keep them safely hidden. • Make sure that expensive items for example,TV, music equipment, home computer etc. are not easily visible from the road, attracting unwanted attention. • Keep special property such as expensive jewellery out of sight by wearing it or keeping it in a well-hidden place, ideally under lock and key. • Try not to keep important or very valuable property at home. Items such as house deeds should be placed with a bank. Remember, burglars may look through drawers, under mattresses and even in the loft! • Keep cash or credit cards with you or in a safe place at home. Never keep large amounts of cash at home. Keeping your garden secure Your garden could be the first step that a burglar may take on the way to getting into your home. • Make sure that you have a strong garden gate and always lock it. Paths giving access at the side of houses should have lockable gates. • Remember to lock away gardening tools etc. in your shed or garage, so they can't be used to break in. Keep ladders securely locked with a substantial chain and padlock. • Use additional locks for garages, shed doors and outside storage areas. Don't store valuable items, such as golf clubs or fishing gear, in a garden shed unless it has additional security. • Keep garden fences in good repair and consider having trellising on the top. • Roses, a thorny hedge and spiky plants can act as natural deterrents to stop would-be intruders climbing walls or fences. Keeping your house secure while you are away When you go on holiday avoid drawing attention to the fact that your house is unoccupied. • Fit timers to lighting and radios to go on and off to make the house appears lived-in. • If you have a driveway, park a car in it. Protecting your valuable items It is a good idea to security mark all valuable items, such as mobile phones, ipods, lap tops, cameras and video equipment etc. Security marking your property will make it easier to identify and give you a better chance of getting it back if it is lost or stolen. • Publicise the fact that your property is marked by displaying stickers on view from the outside of your home.These are available from your local Crime Prevention Officer. • You can mark your property by using UV security marker pens, which leaves a mark that is

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not visible to the naked eye.These pens are available from good stationery stores at a reasonable cost. • Mark your property with your postcode followed by your house number or the first two letters of its name to identify each article. • Register your property with Immobilise. Immobilise is an organisation that works with UK police forces and is a property registration and recovery service.This is an online system which allows you to register the serial number of as many items as you wish.You can also report lost or stolen items which will appear on the Police Stolen Property Database. By registering your property with Immobilise you stand a better chance of getting it back if it is lost or stolen.Visit www.immobilise.com for more information. Suggested activity To support this topic get young people to go home and assess how secure their homes and personal property are. Get them to report their findings within a group discussion. A follow up activity to this could be to get the young people to suggest how they could make their homes and personal property more secure.

What are the effects of burglary on the victim? Economic/financial Burglary can have a severe effect on someone’s financial position because they have to replace the stolen items. • The victim has to claim from their insurance to replace stolen property or repair damaged property. A claim on your insurance could result in paying an excess and higher premium the next year. • The victim may not have contents insurance and may have to meet the total cost of replacing the stolen items themselves. If the victim cannot afford to replace the items they will have to go without them. A burglar has reduced their standard of living! Physical and emotional distress Having your house burgled can be a traumatic experience.The physical and emotional affects can be long lasting and can impact on the quality of life of the victim. In many cases where elderly people have been burgled they have never recovered! Physical and emotional affects include: • • • • • •

anger shock worry fear frightened to leave the house not wanting to stay on your own

Consequences of committing burglary Burglary is a very serious offence and is treated seriously by the courts.The consequences are as follows: 39

• A minimum of three years imprisonment, if the perpetrator has two prior convictions for burglary. • A maximum of 14 years imprisonment. • Aggravated burglary (where a weapon is present) up to life imprisonment. The above are examples of possible consequences for an offender aged 18 years or over. A young person under 18 years would not face the same penalty as a person over 18 years, and would be dealt with under the Youth Justice System. For offences of domestic burglary, a young person under 18 years could face penalties from a final warning to being charged and sent to court. It is important to note that all cases would be dealt with on an individual basis and factors such as the severity of the offence, the circumstances around the offence and previous offending history would be taken into account. More details on the Youth Justice System can be found at the Youth Justice Board site at www.yjb.gov.uk CRIMESTOPPERS It may be appropriate to mention Crimestoppers as a way of passing on information about those who commit crime. Crimestoppers is a safe and confidential route for giving information about those who commit crime. You can feel safe from reprisal because your identity will never be disclosed to the police.You can contact Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111.

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Sexual Offences What is a sexual offence?

Rape Under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, it is an offence for any male to penetrate with his penis the vagina, anus or mouth of a female or male without their consent. A person guilty of this offence is liable, on conviction, to imprisonment for life. Assault by penetration The Act makes it an offence for any male or female to penetrate the vagina or anus of another person without their consent.The offence is committed where the penetration is by a part of the body (for example, a finger) or anything else (for example, a bottle) for sexual intent. Sexual Assault Section 3 of the Act makes it an offence for any male or female to intentionally touch another person sexually without his or her consent. A person guilty of this offence is liable, on conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years. Causing sexual activity without consent It is an offence to cause or encourage another person to engage in sexual activity without his or her consent. If penetration is involved then a person guilty of this offence is liable, on conviction, to imprisonment for life. If no penetration is involved then a person guilty of this offence is liable, on conviction, to imprisonment for ten years. What does 'consent' mean? The definition of a sexual offence often revolves around consent. In simple terms, it's all about permission (or agreement).This is something that must be clearly established between two people before any kind of sexual act or behaviour.The individual must have the freedom and capacity to consent, for example, they must understand what they are consenting to and are not being forced into consenting through fear, and must be in a position to make the decision. If an individual is accused of a sex offence, they must show that they reasonably believed consent had been given by the other person. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 Under this law, the legal age for young people to consent to have sex is still 16, whether you are straight, gay or bisexual. The aim of the law is to protect the safety and rights of young people and make it easier to prosecute people who pressure or force others into having sex they don’t want. Forcing someone to have sex is a crime. Although the age of consent is still 16, the Government says that the law will not be used to prosecute young people under 16 who are of similar ages and mutually agree to engage in sexual activity, unless it involves abuse or exploitation.

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The law has been tightened to protect young people from broader methods of sexual exploitation. The following is now an offence: • grooming • trafficking and moving children in, out and within the UK for sexual purposes • whatever is an offence offline is also an offence online The age of consent is still 16, however, there are some crucial caveats to this. If there is a proven 'abuse of trust' between a young person and an adult the age of consent is 18. So for example, if you work as a Connexions Advisor or a Residential Social Worker and you were considering becoming sexually involved with any of the young people you work with, it would be illegal to do so if they were 16 or 17. Similarly, even if you are not blood related to a young person but you live with the family and sometimes take part in family life (such as a longstanding lodger or an extended family member) then the age of consent would also be 18. Sexual relations by an adult with a young person aged 13, 14, 15 The adult penalties for anyone engaging in sexual activity with a young person aged 13, 14, 15 are now much more severe: a maximum of life for rape/penetrative assault and 14 years for non penetrative assault. Previously this was 2 years. The only defence for this is a 'reasonable belief' that the child was 16. It must be proved that you took reasonable steps to verify the young person's age. The penalty is 5 years if the offender is under 18. Sexual relations with a child aged 13 and under Rape of a child under 13 years carries the same penalty - a life sentence. Sexual relationships between young people aged between 13- 15 years It is an offence for children under the age of 16 to have a sexual relationship and this includes sexual touching. However, it is not the intention to prosecute young people involved in consensual sexual experimentation. The definition of 'sexual' has been broadened The law now covers circumstances that are deemed sexual because of their nature. For example, watching pornography with a child under 16. Personal safety advice • If you meet someone in a bar or club don’t go home with them, and don’t invite them back to your home or accept a lift, until they are better known to you. • Always arrange to meet a new person in a busy public place, until you are sure of the other person's identity and feel comfortable about them. • Tell someone where you are going, who you are going with (including name, phone number and address) and when you will be back. • Pay attention to your instincts. If you feel uneasy about someone, there may be a reason. 42

Don't tell yourself that you're being silly, trust your instincts. • Remember that alcohol and drug use will dull your awareness of danger, will reduce your ability to make safe choices and will make you look more vulnerable. Internet Safety The Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) is an agency designed to tackle child abuse and indecent images on the internet. CEOP works across the UK and maximises international links to tackle child sex abuse wherever and whenever it happens. Suspicious activity can be reported to the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre 24 hours a day. Further information can be found at www.ceop.gov.uk Advice for keeping young people safe whilst using the internet • Know what your children are doing online and who they are talking to. Ask them to teach you to use any applications you have never used. • Help your children to understand that they should never give out personal details to online friends - personal information includes their messenger ID, email address, mobile number and any pictures of themselves, their family or friends - if your child publishes a picture or video online - anyone can change it or share it. • If your child receives spam / junk email & texts, remind them never to believe them, reply to them or use them. • It's not a good idea for your child to open files that are from people they don't know.They won't know what they contain - it could be a virus, or worse - an inappropriate image or film. • Help your child to understand that some people lie online and that therefore it's better to keep online friends online.They should never meet up with any strangers without an adult they trust. • Always keep communication open for a child so they know that it's never too late to tell someone if something makes them feel uncomfortable. • Teach young people how to block someone online and report them if they feel uncomfortable. Helplines/links Childline - 0800 1111 NSPCC - www.nspcc.org.uk/kidszone/there4me.htm CEOP - www.ceop.gov.uk

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Activities

Here are some suggested lesson activities you may find useful when trying to raise issues or get important messages across to young people.We have focussed on three areas but all of the chapters within this pack would benefit from additional activities for students.

Card sort activity Anti social behaviour Alcohol Activity Additional Resources

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Card sort activity Card sort activity covering Anti Social Behaviour, Street Crime and the Youth Justice System.

The card sort activity could be used in a quiz style format for any of the sections within the pack to check the knowledge level of the students. Aim/learning outcome To reinforce the key points already covered in the Anti Social Behaviour and the Street Crime sections.

Key Stage This activity is aimed at Key Stage 3 & 4 Theft

A person who dishonestly takes property belonging to another with the intention of permanently keeping it.

Snatch theft/mugging

When property is stolen from a person with some degree of force to take the item but no force used on the victim. ( For example, if your handbag is stolen and it is tugged away from you).

Robbery

When you steal something from someone using violence or the threat of violence.

Burglary

When you steal something from a property or building.

Acceptable Behaviour Contract (ABC)

This is for young people but can also be used for adults who have shown low level anti-social behaviour. It is a contract signed between a young person and their parents/careers or the person displaying the antisocial behaviour and a third party such as the police or school.

Anti-Social Behaviour Order ( ASBO)

This can be issued to anyone over the age of 10 who exhibits anti-social behaviour and causes distress, alarm or harassment to other people.The conditions reflect the anti social behaviour shown. For example, if the person has been calling people racist names then they could be banned from going near the people they have caused distress to.

Dispersal Orders

The police and local authorities work together and may identify specific areas where people feel threatened by groups of people acting in an anti-social way. The area is then given this and the police then have the powers to order groups of people to leave that area if they suspect anti-social behaviour has or may happen. 45

The police can exclude people from that area for up to 24 hours. Reprimand

This is a formal verbal warning given by a police officer to a young person who admits that they are guilty of a minor first offence.

Final Warning

This a formal verbal warning given by a police officer, and it is your last chance to stop breaking the law before it is too late. It is given for more serious offences and the young person is assessed and a program of activities is identified for the young person.

Community Rehabilitation Order

This is given by the court and is for 16 and 17 year olds. It is to try to repair the harm caused by their offence with mutual consent between the Youth Offending Team and the offender.

Community Punishment Order

This is available to courts for 16 and 17 year olds and it requires a young person to complete unpaid community work for between 40-240 hours. It is supervised by the Probation Service.

Attendance Centre Order

This sentences a young person to attend an attendance centre on a Saturday for two to three hours. It restricts the leisure time of the offender and concentrates on life skills such as money management, cookery, literacy and numeracy.

Reparation Order

This is designed to help offenders understand the consequences of offending and take responsibility for their behaviour.The difference between this and a Community Punishment Order is that the order is clearly linked to the crime committed and supervised by the Youth Offending Team.

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Anti social behaviour Key Stage

This activity is aimed at Key Stage 3 & 4 Aim/learning outcome To help young people understand the affects of anti social behaviour on individuals and the community. This activity could also be used to highlight the need for rules within society. Activity 1- Why do we need laws? Create the atmosphere of a scenario for the following situation: A helicopter descends on the school and a loud speaker announces that from now on there are no laws.The reality will be that everyone will be able to act as they please. For example, there will be no police as there will be no laws to break. Everyday life will be different for example, shops would be closed as people may not bother to go to work any more etc. Students to consider the following in groups: • If you were in this situation what will you do for the next 10 minutes? • The next two days? • The next month? Students discuss the above for 5 minutes and then feed back to the rest of the class. Facilitate a group discussion with the student feedback.The aim of the session is to raise the ramifications of the student’s ideas/answers. For example, students may say “I will leave school and go down the town” Staff might question “Do you really think that it is safe to be on the street when there are no laws? The aim is to make the young people think through their answers and how a lack of rules/laws would restrict what they could do and how it would affect their quality of life. Activity 2 - anti social behaviour - considering all sides of a situation Create the following Scenario: A group of students are standing outside a shop talking, joking, messing around and being a bit loud. The groups intention is not to cause trouble but to meet and have fun, however, their presence is very intimidating to some local people in the area. Using some of the characters below create role plays to explore the possible situations as a result of the young people meeting up outside of the shop.

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Each group could act out the scenario and have the following characters in the group: • Your character is very loud, jokey, and confident. • Your character is short tempered and you react to confrontation.When you are challenged you answer back cheekily, can get aggressive and make other people wary and even frightened of you. • Your character is easy going and you tend to go along with what everyone else does/says. You will side with your friends instead of giving your opinion or following what you think you should do. • Your character is the strong silent type but you will calmly put your and other people’s point of view across.You will often point out the consequences of any behaviour or action. • You are an elderly person going in to buy a pint of milk. You are nervous when entering the shop as you have to pass the group of young people. You can choose whether to appear quiet and frightened by the group or react by labelling the young people as trouble and not being very respectful to them. • You are the shopkeeper and are fed up with the group of youths hanging around outside your shop, putting off your customers.You go outside and speak to them which results in confrontation between you and several members of the group. • You are a mother with a young child in a baby buggy and it is difficult for you to get by the group of young people and enter the shop.You ask them politely and respectfully to let you pass. Possible questions for students to discuss after watching the role-plays. • How did the elderly person, the shopkeeper and the mother feel in the role play? • Do you think that young people are always thought of as trouble? Why do you think that is? How do you think that this could be addressed? • How could a group of young people have fun in a group without other people feeling nervous about going past them? • Do you think that most young people think about the effect of their behaviour on other people? Should they? • Should all young people take responsibility for their actions, words and looks? How would they do this? • How do you feel when you have to walk past a group of young people gathered on a street corner? What action, if any, do you take? • In many parts of France if an older person walks past a group of youths then the youths will greet them and say “BON SOIR” This simple greeting makes the person feel at ease. Do you think this is common in this country? If not, why do you think this is? 48

Alcohol Activity Managing risk and making safe choices

Key Stage This activity is aimed at Key Stage 3 & 4

Aim/learning outcome To help young people understand the risks associated with using alcohol and to help them acquire the knowledge to use it safely.

Suggested activities: Problem Solving 1. How could too much alcohol affect your judgement and personal safety? • All students think of one example and write it on individual white boards/ plain white paper hot seat some students for replies to provoke discussion. 2. Beer Goggles activity (on loan from Health Promotions Hertfordshire, 01923 281 630 or visit www.hpherts.nhs.uk ) Prepare cards with the following activities which students undertake wearing the beer goggles: • Using your mobile phone contact your parents to ask them to pick you up, as you feel too unwell to get home on your own. • Catching the bus home. Students to try and recognise the right bus, how easy it is to get on the bus, get your money out, sitting down, and knowing when it is your stop etc. • Finding your front door keys and being able to use them. • Picking up a glass from the table and drinking from it. • Opening a condom packet and putting it on an applicator (contact Health Promotion Hertfordshire or speak to your school nurse) Select a pair of students for each scenario, where one uses the goggles and one does not to illustrate to the class the effect of alcohol. Students could feed back to the class how it felt and this could form the basis of a discussion.

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3. Get the students either as individuals or in groups to design a poster/’club flyer’ to encourage young people to have a hangover free night or event. Things that should be included or considered are issues such as what are the benefits of staying hangover free? How would the idea be promoted to young people? List the top five reasons for staying hangover free during a night out. Group role-play to explore the issue of alcohol related behaviour The aim of this activity is to make young people aware that alcohol can make you act out of character and get you into dangerous situations. Divide the group into two and get each group to produce a role-play about a group of young people who have gone on a night out in the local town and have ended up drunk by the end of the night. Get the groups to focus on the likely situations they could get themselves into and the dangers associated with being drunk. The session could end with a discussion on ways to reduce alcohol related anti social behaviour in your local town. Group debate Divide the students into two groups and debate increasing the age to 21 years for purchasing alcohol. One group to argue for the minimum age to stay at 18 years and the other group to argue for increasing the age to 21 years. Homework activity To list reasons for staying alcohol free during a night out with friends. List five ways you can refuse alcohol if offered by a friend. For 100% hangover free posters and cards to support your lesson contact Health Promotion Hertfordshire on 01923 281630 or visit www.hpherts.nhs.uk

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Additional Resources

There are additional resources available to schools to supplement some of the topics in this pack. ‘Keeping Your Child Safe’ presentation tool kit A presentation toolkit aimed at parents and carers has been produced by the Hertfordshire Drug Education Forum. The toolkit provides relevant information needed to plan and deliver an event where parents and carers are given the opportunity to gather information and ideas that can help towards keeping their child safe.To access the toolkit visit www.hertsdef.org.uk/safetoolkit Are you OK? Victim Support Victim Support is a charity for anyone affected by crime.The site has information for young people who have been the victims and witnesses of crime and has an education resource pack for teachers which can be downloaded. For more information visit www.are-you-ok.org.uk

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Appendices Alcohol Drugs Anti-social Behaviour Race and Hate Crime Street Crime Vehicle Crime Arson Domestic Burglary Sexual Offences

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Alcohol Appendix 1

This topic could be used to supplement the following areas of the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum:

PSHE Key Stage 3 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2g - to recognise when pressure from others threatens their personal safety and well-being, and to develop effective ways of resisting pressures including knowing when and where to get help Developing good relationships and respecting the difference between people 3j - to resist pressure to do wrong, to recognise when others need help and how to support them

PSHE Key Stage 4 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2b - to use assertiveness skills to resist unhelpful pressure 2e - about the health risks of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, early sexual activity and pregnancy, different food choices and sunbathing, and about safer choices they can make

Citizenship Key Stage 3 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, basic aspects of the criminal justice system, and how both relate to young people

Citizenship Key Stage 4 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal and civil justice systems

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Drugs

Appendix 2

This topic could be used to supplement the following areas of the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum:

PSHE Key Stage 3 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2d - basic facts and laws including school rules about alcohol and tobacco, illegal substances and the risks of misusing prescribed drugs

Key Stage 4 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2b - to use assertiveness skills to resist unhelpful pressure 2e - about the health risks of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, early sexual activity and pregnancy, different food choices and sunbathing, and about safer choices they can make

Citizenship Key Stage 3 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, basic aspects of the criminal justice system, and how both relate to young people

Key Stage 4 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal justice systems

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Anti-social behaviour Appendix 3

This topic could be used to supplement the following areas of the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum:

PSHE Key Stage 3 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2g - to recognise when pressure from others threatens their personal safety and well-being, and to develop effective ways of resisting pressures including when and where to get help Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people 3j - to resist pressure to do wrong, to recognise when others need help and how to support them

PSHE Key Stage 4 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2b - to use assertiveness skills to resist unhelpful pressure Developing good relationships and respecting the difference between people 3c - to challenge offending behaviour, prejudice, bullying, racism and discrimination assertively and take the initiative in giving and receiving support

Citizenship Key Stage 3 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, basic aspects of the criminal justice system, and how both relate to young people

Citizenship Key Stage 4 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal and civil justice system

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Race and Hate Crime Appendix 4

This topic could be used to supplement the following areas of the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum:

PSHE Key Stage 3 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2g - to recognise when pressure from others threatens their personal safety and well-being, and to develop effective ways of resisting pressures including when and where to get help Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people 3a - about the effects of all types of stereotyping, prejudice, bullying, racism and discrimination and how to challenge them assertively 3b - how to empathise with people different from ourselves 3d - how to recognise some of the cultural norms in society, including a range of life style and relationships

Key Stage 4 Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people 3a - about the diversity of different ethnic groups and the power of prejudice 3c - to challenge offending behaviour, prejudice, bullying, racism and discrimination assertively and take the initiative in giving and receiving support

Citizenship Key Stage 3 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, basic aspects of the criminal justice system, and how both relate to young people 1b - the diversity of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the UK and the need for mutual respect and understanding

Key Stage 4 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal and civil justice systems 1b - the origins and implications of the diverse national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the UK and the need for mutual respect and understanding

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Street crime Appendix 5

This topic could be used to supplement the following areas of the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum:

PSHE Key Stage 3 Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people 3j - to resist pressure to do wrong, to recognise when others need help and how to support them

Key Stage 4 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2b - to use assertiveness skills to resist unhelpful pressure

Citizenship Key Stage 3 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, basic aspects of the criminal justice system, and how both relate to young people

Key Stage 4 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal and civil justice systems

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Vehicle Crime

Appendix 6

This topic can be used to supplement the following areas of the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum:

PSHE Key Stage 3 Developing good relationships and respecting the difference between people 3j - to resist pressure to do wrong, to recognise when others need help and how to support them

Key Stage 4 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2b - to use assertiveness skills to resist unhelpful pressure

Citizenship Key Stage 3 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, basic aspects of the criminal justice system, and how both relate to young people

Key Stage 4 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal justice systems

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Arson Appendix 7

This topic could be used to supplement the following areas of the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum:

PSHE Key Stage 3 Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people 3j - to resist pressure to do wrong, to recognise when others need help and how to support them

PSHE Key Stage 4 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2b - to use assertiveness skills to resist unhelpful pressure

Citizenship Key Stage 3 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, basic aspects of the criminal justice system, and how both relate to young people

Citizenship Key Stage 4 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal justice systems

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Domestic burglary Appendix 8

This topic could be used to supplement the following areas of the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum:

PSHE Key Stage 3 Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people 3j - to resist pressure to do wrong, to recognise when others need help and how to support them

Key Stage 4 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2b - to use assertiveness skills to resist unhelpful pressure

Citizenship Key Stage 3 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, basic aspects of the criminal justice system, and how both relate to young people

Key Stage 4 Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1a - the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal and civil justice systems

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Sexual Offences Appendix 9

This topic could be used to supplement the following areas of the PSHE and Citizenship curriculum:

PSHE Key Stage 3 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2e - in a context of the importance of relationships, about human reproduction, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, HIV and high risk behaviours involving early sexual activity

Key Stage 4 Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle 2b - to use assertiveness skills to resist unhelpful pressure

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