Author: Raymond Snow

Table of Contents 1 Annual report 2009 of DISC ..................................................................................................1 1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................1 1.2 Organization ......................................................................................................................1 1.3 Research Program DISC 2009 ..........................................................................................6 1.4 Teaching program ..............................................................................................................7 1.5 Summer School ...............................................................................................................27 1.6 Benelux Meeting ..............................................................................................................32 1.7 DISC PhD Thesis Award 2008 .........................................................................................35 1.8 PhD Theses 2009 ............................................................................................................36 1.9 Awards .............................................................................................................................38 1.10 3TU Centre of Excellence Intelligent Mechatronic Systems ..........................................38 1.11 National MSc programmes ............................................................................................39 1.12 Management report 2009 ..............................................................................................40 1.13 Financial report (in Eur) .................................................................................................42 1.14 UNIT DISC .....................................................................................................................43 Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control ....................................................................................44 Delft University of Technology Faculty: Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department: Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics Chair: Optimization and Systems Theory ............................................................................100 Delft University of Technology Faculty of Aerospace Engineering Control and Simulation ........................................................................................................104 Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics and Control Technology Group ...........................................................................113 Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering – Control Systems ....................................................127 University of Twente Control Engineering .............................................................................................................138 University of Twente – Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department of Applied Mathematics Systems, Signals and Control Group ...................................................................................157 i

University of Twente faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical Engineering Department Laboratory of Mechanical Automation and Mechatronics ....................................................164 University of Groningen Industrial Technology and Management ..............................................................................171 University of Groningen, Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Research Program Systems, Control and Applied Analysis ................................................178 Universiteit Maastricht Faculty of Humanities and Sciences ....................................................................................187 Tilburg University Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Econometrics and Operations Research ...........................................................................................................191 Wageningen Universiteit. Departement Agrotechnologie en Voedingswetenschappen, leerstoelgroep Meet-, regelen systeemtechniek .............................................................................................................194

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1 Annual report 2009 of DISC 1.1 Introduction Research school DISC is an interuniversity research institute and graduate school that unites all academic groups in the Netherlands that are active in systems and control theory and engineering. It offers a nationally organized graduate programme for PhD students in this field. Being founded by the Delft and Eindhoven Universities of Technology and the University of Twente, a majority of participants in the school are affiliated with the faculties of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and mathematics of these three universities. A large number of other departments and institutes participate in DISC under various agreements. The ambitions of DISC are: • To provide a PhD programme of high quality and internationally recognized level; • To provide PhD students with a national and international network and to support them in their development towards independent researchers that are part of the international community and whose research is recognized according to international standards; • To develop the field of systems and control through coordinated research in both fundamental and technology directed programs, and to represent this field of science in national and international networks, consortia and boards; • To use the position of DISC as center of expertise for dissemination of knowledge on systems and control theory and engineering in the widest sense.

1.2 Organization DISC is governed by a board consisting of representatives of the 3TU’s, the other universities, and an external member. The daily operation of DISC is directed by the scientific director, who is assisted by the DISC secretariat. Board members

Prof.dr. F. Eising (UT), chairman Prof.dr.ir. P.P.J. van den Bosch (TU/e-EE), until June 30, 2009 Dr. S. Weiland (TU/e-EE), from July 1, 2009 Prof.dr. H. Nijmeijer (TU/e-ME) Prof.dr. A.J. van der Schaft (RUG) Prof.dr. C.W. Scherer (TUD) Prof.dr.ir. S. Stramigioli (UT) Scientific Director

Prof.dr.ir. P.M.J. Van den Hof (TUD) Secretary

Mrs. Agnes van Regteren (TUD), until February 1, 2009 Mrs. Saskia van der Meer (TUD), from February 1, 2009

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Contact information

disc = dutch institute of systems and control Delft University of Technology Mekelweg 2 = 2628 CD = Delft Tel: +31 (0)15 2785572 Fax:+31 (0)15 2786679 Email:[email protected] http://www.disc.tudelft.nl The DISC advisory board, composed of leading representatives from industrial, university and institutional bodies, meets once a year with the DISC board to discuss issues concerning strategy and policy. Members Advisory board

Prof.dr.ir. J. Vandewalle (KU-Leuven) (chairman) Prof.ir. J.C.M. Baeten (TU/e) Dr.ir. H. Borggreve (ASML) Dr.ir. D.A. Schipper (Demcon) Dr.ir. E.J. Sol (TNO-Industrie en Techniek) W. Schinkel (Shell), from November 17, 2009 The scientific director is supported by a management team consisting of all heads of DISC departments. See fig. 1. Management team Prof.dr.ir. J. van Amerongen (UT-EE) Prof.dr.ir. P.P.J. van den Bosch (TU/e-EE) Prof.dr.ir. J.B. Jonker (UT-ME) Prof.dr.ir. J.A. Mulder (TUD-AE) Prof.dr. H. Nijmeijer (TU/e-ME) Prof.dr. G.J. Olsder (TUD-DIAM) Dr.ir. R.L.M. Peeters (MU) Prof.dr. A.C.M. Ran (VU)

Prof.dr. A.A. Stoorvogel (UT-AM) Prof.dr. J.M. Schumacher (TU-CentER) Prof.dr.ir. J.H. van Schuppen (CWI) Prof. J.M.A. Scherpen (RUG-ITM) Prof.dr.ir. M. Steinbuch (TU/e-ME) Prof.dr.ir. G. van Straten (WU) Prof.dr. H.L. Trentelman (RUG-IWI) Prof.dr.ir. P.M.J. Van den Hof (TUD-DCSC) Prof.dr.ir. M. Verhaegen (TUD-DCSC)

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Fig. 1. Organizational structure

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Delft University of Technology

Full-time professors

TUD-DCSC Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering; Delft Center for Systems and Control

Prof.dr. R. Babuska, MSc Prof.dr.ir. B. De Schutter Prof.dr. C.W. Scherer Prof.dr.ir. P.M.J. Van den Hof Prof.dr.ir. M. Verhaegen

TUD-DIAM Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department of Applied Mathematics

Prof.dr.ir. A.W. Heemink

TUD-AE

Prof.dr.ir. J.A. Mulder Prof.dr.ir. M. Mulder

Faculty of Aerospace Engineering Department of Aerospace Design, Integration & Operations; Section Control and Simulation

Eindhoven University of Technology TU/e-ME

Department of Mechanical Engineering Section Dynamics and Control Technology, Section Control Systems Technology

Prof.dr.ir. M. Steinbuch Prof.dr. H. Nijmeijer Prof.dr.ir. W.P.M.H. Heemels

TU/e-EE

Department of Electrical Engineering Section Control Systems

Prof.dr.ir. P.P.J. van den Bosch Prof.dr. S. Weiland *

University of Twente UT-EE

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department of Electrical Engineering Section Control Engineering

Prof.dr.ir. J. van Amerongen Prof.dr.ir. S. Stramigioli

UT-AM

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department of Applied Mathematics Systems, Signals and Control Group

Prof.dr. A.A. Stoorvogel Prof.dr. A. Bagchi

UT-ME

Faculty of Engineering Technology Prof.dr.ir. J.B. Jonker Department of Mechanical Engineering Prof.dr. C. De Persis Group Mechanical Automation and Mechatronics

CWI Amsterdam

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CWI

Center for Mathematics and Computer Prof.dr.ir. J.H. van Science Schuppen Cluster Modelling, Analysis and Simulations Research Group Control and System Theory

VU University Amsterdam - Stieltjes Institute VU

Faculty of Sciences Department of Mathematics Section Mathematical Analysis

Prof.dr. A.C.M. Ran

University of Groningen RUG-IWI

Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Institute of Mathematics and Computing Science

Prof.dr. A.J. van der Schaft Prof.dr. H.L. Trentelman

RUG-ITM

Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Industrial Engineering and Management Department of Discrete Technology

Prof.dr.ir. J.M.A. Scherpen

Maastricht University MU

Faculty of Humanities and Science Prof.dr.ir. R.L.M. Peeters Department of Knowledge Engineering

Tilburg University TU

Faculty of Economics and Business Administration; CentER - Department of Econometrics and Operations Research

Prof.dr. J.M. Schumacher

Wageningen University WU

Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences; Systems and Control Group

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Prof.dr.ir. G. van Straten

1.3 Research Program DISC 2009 The research program of DISC consists of fundamental and applied scientific research in the domain of systems and control theory and engineering. By exploiting the fundamental principle of feedback, control systems enable the realization of high-tech systems in all domains of engineering science with fascinating performance in terms of speed, accuracy, autonomy and adaptability to varying circumstances. The research domain employs modern techniques from information and computer technology to analyze, control and optimize dynamical processes, machines and (high-tech) systems. Modelling tools are essential in analyzing and designing optimal control strategies, e.g. by exploiting optimization theory. Mathematical System Theory provides insight in the formulation of mathematical models, in the derivation of mathematical models from experimental data, and in the design of control and feedback signals. The orientation towards a variety of technological application domains is important for the interplay between theoretical possibilities on the one side, and the urge to advance high-tech applications on the other side, thereby providing a fruitful stimulus for further evolution and development of the scientific area. The research program of DISC is divided in three main areas, each of which contains several themes. • System and control theory • Theory and application of system modelling • Applications of control engineering

The three main areas in the research programme of DISC are further divided into several themes. Within each theme research lines and topics are sketched together with the acronyms of the DISC groups that participate. 1. System and control theory • System theory, nonlinear, distributed, hybrid and embedded systems. • Behavioral systems and control theory (RUG-IWI,UT-AM,TU/e-EE) • Infinite-dimensional systems (UT-AM,WU,TU/e-EE,RUG-IWI) • Hybrid systems (RUG-IWI,CWI,TU/e-ME,TUD-DCSC,UT-AM) • Embedded systems (TU/e-ME, RUG-IWI) • Nonlinear systems and control theory (RUG-ITM,TU/e-ME,TUD-DCSC,RUG-IWI) • Model reduction (RUG-ITM,MU,TU/e-EE) • Control theory for nonlinear, robust, adaptive and optimal control. • Optimization-based control and LMI’s (TUD-DCSC,TU/e-EE) • Distributed sensing and control (TUD-DCSC,TU/e-EE, TU/e-ME) • Adaptive control and learning (TUD-DCSC,TU/e-ME,TUD-AE) • Nonlinear control (TU/e-ME,RUG-IWI)

2. Theory and application of system modelling • System identification, estimation and signal processing; detection and diagnosis • System identification (TUD-DCSC,TU/e-EE,WU,CWI,MU) • Fault detection (TUD-DCSC,TUD-AE) • Parameter and state estimation (TUD-DCSC,WU,TUD-DIAM,TUD-AE)

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• Modelling tools: discrete events, hybrid systems, network theory, variational and geometric methods, fuzzy logic/neural networks; • Discrete event and hybrid systems (TU/e-ME,TUD-DCSC,TUD-DIAM,MU) • Fuzzy systems and neural networks (TUD-DCSC) • Physical modelling (RUG-IWI,TUD-DIAM, RUG-ITM) • Financial engineering (TU,UT-AM)

3. Applications of control engineering • Mechatronics, robotics, precision technology, motion control systems, biomedical, aerospace and transportation systems • Mechatronics (TU/e-ME, TU/e-EE, TUD-DCSC,UT-EE,UT-ME,RUG-ITM) • Aerospace systems (TUD-AE, TUD-DCSC) • Transportation systems (TU/e-EE,TUD-DCSC,TU/e-EE) • Smart optics systems (TUD-DCSC,TU/e-ME) • Automotive systems (TU/e-ME,TUD-DCSC,TU/e-EE) • Robotics (UT-EE,TUD-DCSC,TU/e-ME) • Biomedical systems (TU/e-ME) • Precision tecnology (TU/e-ME,TU/e-EE) • Wind energy systems (TUD-DCSC) • Process control and optimization in (petro)-chemical and agricultural systems; analysis and control of biological systems • Process control and optimization (TU/e-EE,TUD-DCSC, WU) • Experiment design and monitoring (TUD-DCSC,WU) • Biological systems (CWI,WU,TUD-DCSC,MU,RUG-IWI,RUG-ITM) • Agricultural systems (WU, UT-AM) • Nuclear fusion (TU/e-ME)

A detailed report on the progress of the several research projects within DISC can be found in chapter 2. 1.4 Teaching program DISC offers a graduate program in systems and control that leads to a doctor's degree of one of the participating universities. The requirements are: • Completion of a course program of 27 EC credits. • Completion of a doctoral dissertation, to be approved by the adviser and awarded by one of the participating universities in DISC.

During the academic years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 a program consisting of seven / eight courses respectively was offered, as listed in Tables 2 and 3. Classes meet every Monday during four or eight week terms in a central location in Utrecht. Full participation in an eight weeks course including successful completion of the tests is rewarded with 6 EC. Auditing the eight weeks course provides 1.5 EC. The four weeks specialized courses are awarded with 3 EC (for only auditing 1 EC).

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Table 2. Courses 2008-2009 Course program 2008-2009

Term

Data

Morning

Afternoon

Fall 2008

1/9

System identification for control X. Bombois P.M.J. Van den Hof

Mathematical Models of Systems J.W. Polderman H.L. Trentelman

Modeling and Control of Hybrid Systems B. De Schutter W.P.M.H. Heemels

Design Methods for Control Systems G. Meinsma M. Steinbuch

8/9 15/9 22/9 29/9 6/10 13/10 20/10 Winter 2008-2009

10/11 17/11 24/11 1/12 15/12 5/1 12/1

Linear Matrix Inequalities for Control C.W. Scherer S. Weiland

19/1 Spring 2009

2/3 9/3 23/3

Distributed Parameter Systems B. Jacob H. Zwart

30/3 6/4 20/4 27/4 4/5

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System and Control Theory of Nonlinear Systems H. Nijmeijer A.J. van der Schaft

Table 3. Courses 2009-2010 Course program 2009-2010

Term

Data

Morning

Afternoon

Fall 2009

7/9

Flexible Multibody System Analysis for Control Purposes J.B. Jonker R.G.K.M. Aarts J. van Dijk

Mathematical Models of Systems J.W. Polderman H.L. Trentelman

Fuzzy and Neural Control R. Babuška J. Hellendoorn

Linear Quadratic Differential Games J.C. Engwerda

Model Predictive Control A.J.J. van den Boom A.A. Stoorvogel

Filtering Algorithms for Large-scale Systems A.W. Heemink R.G. Hanea

Design Methods for Control Systems M. Steinbuch C.W. Scherer

System and Control Theory of Nonlinear Systems H. Nijmeijer A.J. van der Schaft

14/9 21/9 28/9 5/10 12/10 19/10 26/10 Winter 2009-2010

16/11 23/11 30/11 7/12 4/1 11/1 18/1 25/1

Spring 2010

8/3 15/3 22/3 29/3 12/4 19/4 26/4 3/5

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1.4.1 system identification for control (Fall 2008) lecturers

Dr.ir. X.J.A. Bombois, Delft University of Technology Prof.dr.ir. P.M.J. Van den Hof, Delft University of Technology objectives

System Identification concerns the modeling of dynamical systems on the basis of observed data. Control Design concerns the design of a controller using a model description of dynamical systems. The objective of this course to present methodologies for system identification with a particular emphasis on the question how to obtain models that are suited to serve as a basis for control design. In the first part of the course, different methods of system identification are presented with a particular focus on prediction error methods. In the second part of the course attention is given to the question how to identify models that are control-relevant, i.e. that lead to properly designed model-based controllers. This includes issues like closed-loop identification and model uncertainty. contents • Introduction; concepts; discretetime signal and system analysis. • Parametric (prediction error) identification methods – model sets, identification criterion, bias and variance • Parametric (prediction error) identification methods – model validation, experiment design and approximate modelling. • Extension on model structures and identification methods • Closed-loop identification • Control-relevant models; iterative performance enhancement • Handling model uncertainty • Experiment-based controller validation prerequisites

Calculus and linear algebra. Some knowledge of statistics and linear systems theory and/or time series analysis is helpful, but not required. The lecture notes contain useful summaries of the important notions used during the course. lecture notes

Lecture notes will be distributed during the course. course assessment

The assessment of this course will be in the form of three homework assignments. participants Registered participants: 29

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1.4.2 mathematical models of systems (Fall 2008 and 2009) lecturers

Dr. J.W. Polderman, University of Twente Prof. dr. H.L. Trentelman, University of Groningen objective

The purpose of this course is to discuss the ideas and principles behind modeling using the behavioral approach, and to apply these ideas to control system design. In the behavioral approach, dynamical models are specified in a different way than is customary in transfer function or state space models. The main difference is that it does not start with an input/output representation. Instead, models are simply viewed as relations among variables. The collection of all time trajectories which the dynamical model allows is called the behavior of the system. Specification of the behavior is the outcome of a modelling process. Models obtained from first principles are usually set-up by tearing and zooming. Thus the model consist of the laws of the subsystems on the one hand, and the interconnection laws on the other. In such a situation it is natural to distinguish between two types of variables: the manifest variables which are the variables which the model aims at and the latent variables which are auxiliary variables introduced in the modelling process. Behavioral models easily accommodate static relations in addition to the dynamic ones. A number of system representation questions occur in this framework, among others: • the elimination of latent variables • input/output structures • state space representations

We also introduce some important system properties as controllability and observability in this setting. In the first part of the course, we review the main representations, their interrelations, and their basic properties. In the context of control, we view interconnection as the basic principle of design. In the to–be–controlled plant there are certain control terminals and the controller imposes additional laws on these terminal variables. Thus the controlled system has to obey the laws of both the plant and the controller. Control design procedures thus consist of algorithms which associate with a specification of the plant (for example, a kernel, an image, or a hybrid representation involving latent variables) a specification of the controller, thus passing directly from the plant model to the controller. We extensively discuss the notion of implementability as a concept to characterize the limits of performance of a plant to be controlled. We discuss how the problems of pole-placement and stabilization look like in this setting. contents • General ideas. Mathematical models of systems. Dynamical systems. Examples from physics and economics. Linear time-invariant systems. Differential equations. Polynomial matrices. • Minimal and full row rank representation. Autonomous systems. Inputs and outputs. Equivalence of representations. 11

• Differential systems with latent variables. State space models. I/S/O models. • Controllability. Controllable part. Observability. • Elimination of latent variables. Elimination of state variables. • From I/O to I/S/O models. Image representations. • Interconnection. Control in a behavioral setting. Implementability. • Stability. Stabilization and pole placement. prerequisites

The course is pretty much self-contained. Basic linear algebra and calculus should suffice. course material

The main reference is Introduction to Mathematical Systems Theory: A Behavioral Approach by J.W. Polderman and J.C. Willems (Springer 1998). The last lecture is based on a paper by M.N. Belur and H.L. Trentelman examination

Four sets of homework exercises will be handed out during the course. The average grade of these four assignments determines the final grade. There is no final exam. participants Registered participants 2008-2009: 24 Registered participants 2009-2010: 21

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1.4.3 modeling and control of hybrid systems (Winter 2008-2009) lecturers

Prof.dr.ir. Bart De Schutter, Delft University of Technology Dr.ir. Maurice Heemels, Eindhoven University of Technology framework

Recent technological innovations have caused a considerable interest in the study of dynamical processes of a mixed continuous and discrete nature. Such processes are called hybrid systems and are characterized by the interaction of time-continuous models (governed by differential or difference equations) on the one hand, and logic rules and discrete-event systems (described by, e.g., automata, finite state machines, etc.) on the other. In practice a hybrid system arises when continuous physical processes are controlled via embedded software that intrinsically has a finite number of states only (e.g., on/off control). objectives

This course will offer a brief overview of the field of hybrid systems ranging from modeling, over analysis and simulation, to verification and control. We will particularly focus on modeling, analysis, and control of tractable classes of hybrid systems. contents • General introduction. Examples of hybrid systems & motivation. Modeling frameworks (automata, hybrid automata, piecewise-affine systems, complementarity systems, mixed logic dynamical systems,..) • Properties and analysis of hybrid systems (well-posedness, Zeno behavior, stability, liveness, safety,..) • Control of hybrid systems (switching controllers, model predictive control, ..) • Control of hybrid systems (continued). Verification. Tools. prerequisites

Basic undergraduate courses in systems and control. Basic programming skills (Matlab). lecture notes

The lecture notes will be made available electronically. homework assignments

Four homework assignments will be handed out. The assignments will be graded and the average grade will be the final grade for this course. course website

http://www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/~DISC_hs/course/ participants Registered participants: 23

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1.4.4 design methods for control systems (Winter 2008-2009 and Spring 2010) lecturers

Prof.dr.ir. M. Steinbuch, Eindhoven University of Technology Prof.dr.ir. G. Meinsma, University of Twente (2008-2009) Dr. S. Weiland, Eindhoven University of Technology (2009-2010) objective

The course presents "classical," "modern" and "post modern" notions about linear control system design. First the basic principles, potentials, advantages, pitfalls and limitations of feedback control are presented. An effort is made to explain the fundamental design aspects of stability, performance and robustness. Next, various well-known classical single-loop control system design methods, including Quantitative Feedback Theory, are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses are analyzed. The course includes a survey of design aspects that are characteristic for multivariable systems, such as interaction, decoupling and input-output pairing. Further LQ, LQG and some of their extensions are reviewed. Their potential for single- and multi-loop design is examined. After a thorough presentation of the generalized plant framework and the notions of structured and unstructured uncertainties, design methods based on H-infinity-optimization and mu-synthesis are presented. contents • Introduction to feedback theory. Basic feedback theory, closed-loop stability, stability robustness, loop shaping, limits of performance. • Classical control system design. Design goals and classical performance criteria, integral control, frequency response analysis, compensator design, classical methods for compensator design. Quantitative Feedback Theory. • Multivariable Control Multivariable poles and zeros, interaction, interaction measures, decoupling, input-output pairing, servo compensators. • LQ, LQG and Control System DesignLQ basic theory, some extensions of LQ theory, design by LQ theory, LQG basic theory, asymptotic analysis, design by LQG theory, optimization, examples and applications • The generalized plant framework, parametric and dynamic uncertainty models, the small-gain theorem, stability robustness of feedback systems, structured singular value robustness analysis, combined stability and performance robustness. • H-infinity optimization and mu-synthesis, the mixed sensitivity problem, loop shaping; the standard H-infinity control problem, state space solution, optimal and suboptimal solutions, integral control and HF roll-off, mu-synthesis, application of mu-synthesis. • Appendix on Matrices • Appendix on norms of signals and systems lecture notes

Will be distributed during the course.

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prerequisites

Basic undergraduate courses in systems and control. Some familiarity with MATLAB is helpful for doing the homework exercises. homework assignments

Four homework sets will be distributed via the course website. Homework is graded on a scale from 1 to 10. Missing sets receive grade 0. The final grade for the course is the average of the grades for the four homework sets. participants Registered participants 2008-2009: 31 Registered participants 2009-2010: 53

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1.4.5 linear matrix inequalities for control (Winter 2008-2009) lecturers

Prof.dr. C.W. Scherer, Delft University of Technology Dr. S. Weiland, Eindhoven University of Technology objective

Linear matrix inequalities (LMI's) have emerged as a powerful tool to approach control problems that appear hard if not impossible to solve in an analytic fashion. Although the history of LMI's goes back to the fourties with a major emphasis of their role in control in the sixties (Kalman, Yakubovich, Popov, Willems), only recently powerful numerical interior point techniques have been developed to solve LMI's in a practically efficient manner (Nesterov, Nemirovskii 1994). Several Matlab software packages are available that allow a simple coding of general LMI problems and of those that arise in typical control problems. In particular, the former LMI toolbox has been integrated in the Matlab robust control toolbox. Boosted by the availability of fast LMI solvers, research in robust control has experienced a paradigm shift - instead of arriving at an analytical solution the intention is to reformulate a given problem to verifying whether an LMI is solvable or to optimizing functionals over LMI constraints. aims of the course • to reveal the basic principles of formulating desired properties of a control system in the form of LMI's • to demonstrate the techniques how to reduce the corresponding controller synthesis problem to an LMI problem • to get familiar with the use of software packages for performance analysis and controller synthesis using LMI tools. • The power of this approach is illustrated by several fundamental robustness and performance problems in analysis and design of linear control systems. topics • Some facts from convex analysis. Linear Matrix Inequalities: Introduction. History. Algorithms for their solution. • The role of Lyapunov functions to ensure invariance, stability, performance, robust performance. Considered criteria: Dissipativity, integral quadratic constraints, H2-norm, H  norm, upper bound of peak-to-peak norm. LMI stability regions. • Frequency domain techniques for the robustness analysis of a control system. Integral Quadratic Constraints. Multipliers. Relations to classical tests and to µ-theory. • A general technique to proceed from LMI analysis to LMI synthesis. State-feedback and output-feedback synthesis algorithms for robust stability, nominal performance and robust performance using general scalings. • Extensions to mixed control problems and to linear parametrically-varying controller design. material

The main reference material for the course will be lectures notes and • S. Boyd, L. El Ghaoui, E. Feron and V. Balakrishnan, Linear Matrix Inequalities in System and Control Theory, SIAM studies in Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 1994. 16

• L. El Ghaoui and S.I.Niculescu (Editors), Advances in Linear Matrix Inequality Methods in Control, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2000. • Ben-Tal, A. Nemirovski, Lectures on Modern Convex Optimization: Analysis, Algorithms, and Engineering Applications, SIAM-MPS Series in Optimizaton, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2001. • G. Balas, R. Chiang, et al. (2006). Robust Control Toobox (Version 3.1), The MathWorks Inc. • J. Löfberg, YALMIP, http://control.ee.ethz.ch/˜joloef/yalmip.php. prerequisites

Linear algebra, calculus, basic system theory, MATLAB. examination

Full credit is received for successfully solving at least 50% of the assigned take-home exams. participants Registered participants: 28

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1.4.6 distributed parameter systems (Spring 2009) lecturers

Dr. B. Jacob, Delft University of Technology Dr. H.J. Zwart, University of Twente objective

Modeling of dynamical systems with a spatial component leads to lumped parameter systems, when the spatial component may be denied, and to distributed parameter systems otherwise. The mathematical model of distributed parameter systems will be a partial differential equation. Examples of dynamical sytems with a spatial component are, among others, temperature distribution of metal slabs or plates, and the vibration of aircraft wings. This course provides an introduction to distributed parameter systems. In particular, we will study distributed parameter port Hamiltonian systems. This class contains the above mentioned examples. The norm of such a system is given by the energy (Hamiltonian) of the system.This fact enables us to show relatively easy the existence and stability of solutions. Further, it is possible to determine which boundary variables are suitable as inputs and outputs, and how the system can be stabilized via the boundary. At the end of the course the students should be able to model distributed parameter systems as distributed parameter port Hamiltonian system, and should be able to apply known concepts from system and control theory such as controllability, observability, stability, stabilizability and transfer functions to these systems. contents • Distributed parameter port Hamiltonian system • Wellposedness of distributed parameter port Hamiltonian system • Control and observation at the boundary • Transfer functions • Wellposedness of control and observation operators • Stability, stabilizability, controllability and observability • Equations with diffusion • Extensions prerequisites

Basic undergraduate courses in systems and control lecture notes

Lecture notes are under preparation and will be distributed during the presentations of the course. homework assignments

Four homework assignments will be given during the course lectures. The assignments will be graded and the average grade will be the final grade for the course. participants Registered participants: 26 18

1.4.7 system and control theory of nonlinear systems (Spring 2009 and Spring 2010) lecturers

Prof.dr. H. Nijmeijer, Eindhoven University of Technology Prof.dr. A.J. van der Schaft, University of Groningen objective

This course provides an introduction to the use of modern mathematical techniques in nonlinear system and control theory. The intrinsic difficulties of the control of nonlinear systems, as well as the effectiveness of the newly developed mathematical theory, are illustrated throughout the course by some apparently simple and physically well-motivated examples, for instance from the area of robotic manipulators and mobile robots. contents • Introduction. What is a nonlinear system? Characteristic examples. Limitations of linearization. Nonlinear input-output maps. • Controllability and observability. Lie brackets; rank conditions, relations with controllability and observability of linearized systems, examples. • State space transformations and feedback. State feedback, feedback linearization, computed torque control of robot manipulators, observer design, and examples. • Decoupling problems. Disturbance and input-output decoupling, tracking, geometrical formulation and controlled invariant distributions, examples. • Stability and stabilization. Stabilization and linearization, stabilization of non-controllable critical eigenvalues, zero dynamics and decoupling problems with stability, passivity-based control, DISContinuous feedback, examples. lecture notes

Nonlinear Dynamical Control Systems, by H. Nijmeijer and A.J. van der Schaft, Springer Verlag, New York, 1990 (fourth printing 1999). Some additional lecture notes are distributed during the course. grading

The evaluation will be done on the basis of three take-home exams that will be handed out during the course, and which need to be made individually. prerequisites

An undergraduate course in state space methods for linear control systems. Also a course covering basic knowledge on ordinary differential equations is needed. Likewise, it is highly recommended to have attended a course on linear algebra. participants Registered participants 2008-2009: 29 Registered participants 2009-2010: 34

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1.4.8 flexible multibody system analysis for control purposes (Fall 2009) lecturers

Prof.dr.ir. J.B.Jonker, University of Twente Dr.ir. R.G.K.M. Aarts, University of Twente Dr.ir. J. van Dijk, University of Twente objective

For control design of mechatronic systems it is essential to make use of simple prototype models with a few degrees of freedom that capture only the relevant system dynamics. For this purpose, the multibody system approach is a well-suited method to model the dynamical behaviour of the mechanical part of such systems. In this approach the mechanical components are considered as rigid or flexible bodies that interact with each other through a variety of connections such as hinges and flexible coupling elements like trusses and beams. The method is applicable for flexible multibody systems as well as for flexible structures in which the system members experience only small displacement motions and elastic deformations with respect to an equilibrium position. A mathematical description of these models is represented by the equations of motion derived from the multibody systems approach. For control synthesis a linearized state-space formulation is required in which an arbitrary combination of positions, velocities, accelerations and forces can be taken both as input variables and as output variables, according to the control problem being solved. In this course basic concepts of flexible multibody system dynamics are presented using a non-linear finite element method. This formulation accounts for geometric nonlinear effects of flexible elements due to axial and transverse displacements. The approach offers many possibilities for analysis, simulation and prototype modeling of mechatronic systems. This will be illustrated through a variety of design cases. contents • Scope of flexible multibody kinematics and dynamics. Multibody versus finite element formulations. Description of angular orientation: Euler angles, Quarternions. • Finite element representation of flexible multibody systems. Kinematical analysis: the concept of constraints, degrees of freedom and geometric transfer functions. Dynamic analysis: lumped mass formulation, consistent mass formulation, stiffness matrices, equations of motion, equations of reaction. • Linearized equations for control system analysis. Stationary and equilibrium solutions. Linearized state-space equations. • Illustrative design examples e.g. an active encoder head and a multi axes vibration isolation system. lecture notes

Will be distributed during the course. prerequisites

Basic background in systems modelling and control theory.

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participants Registered participants: 23

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1.4.9 fuzzy and neural control (Winter 2009-2010) lecturers

Prof.dr. R. Babuska, Delft University of Technology Prof.dr.ir. J. Hellendoorn, Siemens Nederland and Delft Center for Systems and Control, Delft University of Technology objective

This course provides basic knowledge of fuzzy and neural (also called "intelligent") methods for the modeling and control of nonlinear systems. An overview of typical applications is given. The participants will have the opportunity to gain hands-on experience by solving Matlab/Simulink oriented assignments. While traditional control engineering methods are based on differential and difference equations, intelligent techniques employ alternative representation schemes such as fuzzy logic rules, which can incorporate human knowledge and deductive processes, or artificial neural networks to realize learning and adaptation capabilities. These techniques can be used for black box and gray-box modeling, knowledge-based as well as model-based control and decision support. contents • Introduction and motivation. • Essentials of fuzzy sets and artificial neural networks. • Knowledge-based design, direct and supervisory control. • Data-driven neural and fuzzy modeling, model-based control using fuzzy and neural models. • Overview of industrial applications. lecture notes

The lecture notes are available electronically. The participants can download the lecture notes as a zipped postscript file (ZIP) or as a portable document format file (PDF). Transparencies and MATLAB/Simulink demos shown at lectures can be downloaded as well. prerequisites

Linear algebra and analysis. Basics of linear systems, control and identification. homework assignments

Three homework assignments will be given during the course lectures. The deadline is always the next following lecture. The assignments will be graded and the average grade will be the final grade for the course. participants Registered participants: 14

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1.4.10 linear quadratic differential games (Winter 2009-2010) lecturers

Dr. J.C. Engwerda, Tilburg University objective

Interaction between processes at various levels takes place everywhere around us. Either in industry, economics, ecology or on a social level, in many places processes influence each other. Particularly in those case where subjects can affect the outcome of a process, the question arises how subjects come to a certain action. To get more grip on this question within mathematics the paradigms of optimal control theory and game theory evolved. As a merge of both strands of this literature dynamic game theory resulted. This theory brings together the issues of: optimizing behavior, presence of multiple agents, enduring consequences of decisions, and robustness with respect to variability in the environment. Within this field, linear quadratic differential games developed and plays an important role for three reasons: first, many applications of differential game theory fall into this category, second, there are many analytical results available and, third, efficient numerical solution techniques can be used to solve these games. The aim of this course is to give an introduction into the theory of differential games. For the above mentioned reasons we will mainly focus on the linear quadratic case. In the linear quadratic case it is assumed that there are several agents which can influence the evolution of the state of a system, described by a linear differential equation. Each agent has his own goals which he likes to achieve. These goals are assumed to be described by a quadratic function of the state of the system, the control efforts of the involved agent and (sometimes) the control efforts used by the other agents. In particular, by viewing ”nature” as a separate player in the game who can choose an input function that works against the other player(s), one can model worst-case scenarios and, consequently, analyze the robustness of the ”undisturbed” solution. We start by analyzing the one-player case. The obtained results are used later on to analyze the multi-player case. After this case, we consider the so-called cooperative case. That is, the case where all agents agree to reach their goals by coordinating their control efforts. In that case the outcome of the game depends strongly on the bargaining concept used. Some bargaining concepts and its numerical calculation will be discussed. In case the agents decide not to coordinate their actions, the information the different agents have about the game turns out to be an important feature in the analysis of the multi-player case. We will consider two information structures. The so-called open-loop and the feedback information case. For both information structures we will derive the individually rational (Nash) outcomes of the game and present numerical algorithms to calculate outcomes. Finally, the consequences of model uncertainty will be discussed for the pursued actions of the agents. The presented theory will be illustrated in a number of examples. contents • Some main results on regular linear quadratic optimal control. 23

• Cooperative games. Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of Pareto solutions. Bargaining theory. Numerical solutions. • Non-Cooperative Open-Loop information games. Nash equilibrium concept. Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a unique Nash equilibrium. Some main results on the linear quadratic case. • Non-Cooperative Feedback information games. Characterization and existence results. Planning horizon convergence issues. • Uncertain Non-Cooperative Feedback information games. Stochastic Approach and Deterministic Approach. prerequisites

Some familiarity with differential equations and linear algebra. course material

J.C. Engwerda, Linear Quadratic Dynamic Optimization and Differential Games, ISBN: 0-470-01524-1, Wiley, 2005, Chapters 5-9. homework assignments

Every week a set of homework exercises has to be handed in. There is no final exam. participants Registered participants: 9

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1.4.11 model predictive control (Winter 2009-2010) lecturers

Dr.ir. A.J.J. van den Boom, Delft University of Technology Prof.dr. A.A. Stoorvogel, University of Twente objective

The model predictive control (MPC) strategy yields the optimization of a performance index with respect to some future control sequence, using predictions of the output signal based on a process model, coping with amplitude constraints on inputs, outputs and states. The course presents an overview of the most important predictive control strategies, the theoretical aspects as well as the practical implications, which makes model predictive control so successful in many areas of industry, such as petro-chemical industry and chemical process industry. Hands-on experience is obtained by MATLAB exercises. objective • Introduction to the basic concepts of model predictive control. • Theoretical foundation as well as the practical issues in MPC. • Overview of current research and future directions for MPC. contents • General introduction. Different type of models and model-structures, advantages and limitations. Signal constraints in control. • Standard predictive control scheme. Relation standard form with GPC, LQPC and other predictive control schemes. Finite/infinite horizon MPC. Solution of the standard predictive control problem. • Stability and the role of endpoint penalties. The effects of model uncertainty and robustness analysis. • The effects of noise on prediction and constraints. • Limitations in MPC: complexity, feasibility, computational requirements, real-time implementation. lecture notes

The lecture notes of the course will be made available electronically. prerequisites

Calculus and linear algebra. Basics of linear system and control (Sections §1.13, §1.15, §1.16, §3.2.C, §3.3.C, §6.10 and appendix A.3 from the book Linear systems by P.J. Antsaklis and A.N. Michel, McGraw-Hill 1998). homework assignments

Two homework assignments will be handed out. The assignments will be graded, and the average will be your final grade for this course. participants Registered participants: 31

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1.4.12 filtering algorithms for large-scale systems (Winter 2009-2010) lecturers

Prof.dr.ir. A.W. Heemink, Delft University of Technology Dr. R.G. Haena, Delft University of Techonology objective

Real-time filtering and prediction of physical phenomena is of great interest and relies on accurate and fast dynamical models.The modeling process, based on first principle models that involve dynamic conservation laws, normally leads to models consisting of many thousands of differential equations. Numerical weather prediction is an example of a very challenging large-scale filtering problem. Efficient reduction techniques are indispensable to simplify the filtering problem to obtain a computationally feasible solution method. The solution of the reduced problem however still have to capture the essential properties of the underlying physical system. This course aims to address various issues of filtering problems of large-scale systems that lead to computationally attractive methods for estimation and prediction purposes. Attention will be concentrated on models that are based upon partial differential equations and that have to be approximated numerically in order to obtain a discrete state space representation of the physical system. contents • General Introduction. Linear filtering problem (Kalman filtering), nonlinear extensions. State space representation of numerical models based on PDE's. • Computational issues in large-scale filtering problems, Square root filtering, Potter algorithm • Ensemble Kalman filtering algorithms (Ensemble Kalman filter, Reduced-Rank square root filtering, Hybrid algorithms, Symmetric versions of the algorithms). • Euler-Lagrange equations. Representer method for linear state estimation. Relation with Kalman filtering. Examples and real-life applications prerequisites

Basic undergraduate courses in systems and control, basic knowledge of pde's, and basic programming skills. lecture notes

Will be distributed during the course. homework assignments

A take-home exam will be handed out after the last lecture. participants Registered participants: 30

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1.5 Summer School From June 2-5, 2009, DISC organized an International Summer School on Distributed Control and Estimation in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. There were 49 participants, mostly PhD students. The invitation for attending the school was addressed to research students and staff members of the Dutch Institute of Systems and Control (DISC) and to other researchers and engineers engaged in the systems and control and adjacent fields. The main goal of the DISC summer schools is to familiarize young researchers with recent developments in systems and control as well as in neighboring disciplines, and to provide them with the opportunity to enjoy, in an informal atmosphere, discussions with top researchers in systems and control. The summer schools also provide an opportunity for DISC staff members and others to upgrade their knowledge in specific areas of interest. The DISC Summer School 2009 was devoted to “Distributed Control and Estimation”. Complex systems receive growing interest in many fields of contemporary science, including physics, biology, social sciences and economics. In these domains we are uncovering more and more details about system behavior, which can no longer be understood by investigating the single components alone. At the same time, we are creating ever more complicated man-made technological systems (precision-manufacturing, robotics, communication, infrastructures, transportation, production to name a few), that consist of high numbers of components, sensing and actuation tools, which have to fulfill increasing demands. As current large-scale systems advance and new emerging technologies arise, distributed sensing, decision-making and information exchange gets intimately intertwined with feedback loops and dynamic phenomena. Progress in these areas requires advances in fundamentals of systems and control theory, estimation and optimization. In addition to deeper fundamental understanding, diverse engineering tools are needed to analyze and design complex distributed control systems in a systematic way. In order to capture both aspects of this challenging problem, the 2009 DISC Summer School focused on distributed control and estimation both from a fundamental point of view (distributed decision-making and optimization) and an engineering perspective (applications). This is reflected in the list of speakers, which included expert researchers, educators and engineers from leading groups around the world. The main program consisted of the following international speakers: Bassam Bamieh UC Santa Barbara, USA Karl H. Johansson Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden Cedric Langbort University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Reza Olfati-Saber Dartmouth College, USA Michael Rotkowitz University of Melbourne, Australia

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Short presentations of the following national speakers will complete the summer school’s program: Ming Cao University of Groningen, The Netherlands Andrej Jokic Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Tamas Keviczky Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Joris Sijs TNO Science and Industry, The Netherlands

1.5.1 The abstracts of the lectures: Reza Olfati-Saber

Lecture 1 Flocking Theory: Distributed Control of Networked Multi-Robot Systems • Introduction • Reynolds Rules • Basic Notions in Flocking Theory • Distributed Flocking Algorithms • Stability Analysis and Simulation of Flocking • Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance • Peer-to-Peer Networks of Mobile Agents

Lecture 2 Distributed Kalman Filtering for Sensor Networks • Introduction: Sensor Networks and Tracking • Background on Kalman Filtering • Problem Setup: Distributed Kalman Filtering (DKF) 28

• Main DKF Algorithm: Kalman-Consenus Filter • Simulation Results • Stability Analysis • Conclusions Cedric Langbort

Computational and Communication Complexity in Distributed Control • Basic definitions and notions of complexity (P/ NP with examples, bit- communication complexity, real number communication complexity...) - probably one session • Classical lower bounds methods (monochromatic rectangles, rank bound for bit communication complexity, bordered Hessian/ Leontieff theorem and Abelson/Luo-Tsitsiklis bounds for real number communication complexity... • Application to distributed control, decision-making, games and estimation problems (Blondel-Tsitsiklis' proof of NP-hardness of distributed control design, complexity of various distributed decision problems following, e.g., Tsitsiklis & Papadimitriou, • recent results from my and other groups Karl H. Johansson

Event-based control for distributed systems The theory covered will be based on stochastic control and time stopping. It will be shown that event-based sensing and control often provides a more scalable and efficient trade-off between control performance and communication cost than traditional periodically sampled systems. By making transmissions only when needed and taking decisions locally at the sensor nodes, it is possible to utilize the communication resources more efficiently. The presentation will be supported by industrial case studies of wireless networking and control. Bassam Bamieh

Lecture 1 The structure of optimal distributed controllers: what you get for free, and what you can impose Control systems in which dynamics, actuation and sensing are all spatially distributed involve new questions that do not typically arise in traditional control design. These questions mainly concern the architecture of controllers, such as how centralized or distributed they are, as well as the scalability of analysis and design algorithms. Both the controlled system and the controller can be regarded as spatio-temporal systems, and a variety of these structural questions can be recast as questions about the spatio-temporal dynamics. We will concentrate mainly on the special case of linear spatially-invariant systems, which seem to provide useful intuition for more general situations. This is in much the same way that linear time-invariant theory provides useful insights for more general time-varying or non-linear systems. We will see that on the one hand, optimal distributed controllers have some inherent special structure, while on the other hand, some special of additional structural constraints can be tractably imposed in the design procedure. This presentation will emphasize constructive analysis and design techniques as well as general results. 29

Lecture 2 Randomness and Performance in Large Controlled Networks We consider networked control systems in which both additive and multiplicative randomness exist. When these networks become large, several interesting and sometimes unsuspected phenomena occur such as phase transitions. We analyze such network algorithms as linear systems with additive and multiplicative random noise, and explore the asymptotics of various performance measures in the limit of large network sizes. Network topology and how randomness enters the dynamics turn out to play a significant role in how some performance measures scale. We illustrate these phenomena with examples from vehicular formations and consensus algorithms. These lead to the interesting observation that quantifying performance in large-scale systems is a rather subtle issue, especially in the presence of distributed uncertainty. Michael Rotkowitz

Lecture 1 On convex optimization of optimal decentralized Controllers • Sparsity • Symmetry • Delays • Networks • Spatio-temporal systems

Lecture 2 On linear (sub)optimality of decentralized controllers • Motivation: Optimal Constrained Control • Linear Time-Invariant • Quadratic Invariance • Summation • Nonlinear Time-Varying • Iteration • Nonlinear Condition Ming Cao

Rigidity graph theory and formation control of teams of autonomous agents • Multiagent formations • Formation maintenance with distance constraints • Rigidity graph theory • Distributed control of directed triangular formations Andrej Jokic

On control of discrete-time nonlinear systems under arbitrary information constraints In the talk we consider stabilization and optimal control of interconnected discrete-time nonlinear systems under given, arbitrary information constraints on the controller structure. As a prominent example, the considered information constraints on the 30

controller structure include decentralized and distributed control over a given communication network. We present the notion of structured control Lyapunov functions (CLFs) as a suitable tool for stabilizing controller synthesis under information constraints.The control synthesis problem can be formulated as a convex optimization problem and solved efficiently on-line under several different types of information constraints. Tamas Keviczky

On distributed optimization methods in control and estimation • Motivation • General problem formulation • Distributed optimization and decomposition methods • Example: Receding horizon implementation of finite-time • optimal rendezvous • Incremental subgradient methods • Relaxing communication constraints • Combined consensus/subgradient methods • Summary Joris Sijs

State estimation for various sampling methodologies Current state-estimation algorithms are mainly based on receiving measurements (a)synchronous in time. Notice that this is a very specific sampling methodology as the measurement-samples are taken depending only on the current time. Another option is to take samples depending on the measured value, also known as event sampling. In case this type of sampling method is used, it enables new possibilities for state-estimators for updating the state in between two sampling instants.

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1.6 Benelux Meeting Benelux Meeting 2009 The 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control was organized under the auspices of DISC and held from March 16-18, 2009 in Spa, Belgium. The aim of this meeting is to promote research activities and cooperation between researchers in Systems and Control. It is the twenty-eighth in a series of annual conferences that are held alternately in Belgium and The Netherlands. The meeting takes place under the auspices of the Dutch Institute of Systems and Control (DISC) and the Belgian Federation of Automatic Control (IBRA). Scientific program The Scientific Program included two plenary speakers, namely • Navin Khaneja (Harvard University, USA): Control of ensembles • René Vidal (Johns Hopkins University, USA): Binet-Cauchy Kernels for the Recognition of Visual Dynamics

There was also a Mini-Course taught by Jorge Cortés and Sonia Martinez (University of California at San Diego, USA) on Distributed control of Robotic Networks. Finally, there were a numerous (parallel) sessions with contributed lectures covering a wide range of topics in Systems and Control. An overview of the program follows. A total of 220 staff, researchers and PhD students attended the meeting.

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Best junior presentation award – DISC trophy At the end of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, the Best Junior Presentation award was awarded to Frédéric Crevecoeur (Université Catholique de Louvain, Center for Systems Engineering and Applied Mechanics) for his presentation “Motor Commands are Optimized in the Gravity Field” The prize honors the best presentation at the Benelux Meeting by a junior presenter, i.e., a researcher working towards the PhD degree. The award consists of a certificate and the DISC Challenge Trophy. The jury for this year’s award consisted of Joseph Winkin (University of Namur-FUNDP) and Peter Heuberger (Delft University of Technology). 1.7 DISC PhD Thesis Award 2008 During the 2009 Benelux Meeting the first DISC PhD Thesis Award has been awarded to the DISC PhD student that has defended his PhD thesis during 2008 and has been selected as the author of the best PhD Thesis. Eligible candidates are required to have completed a DISC course programme, to defend their thesis before 54 months after the start of their project, and to be nominated by their promotor. Each full professor can only nominate one candidate. Finalists for the 2008 Award were: • Wouter Aangenent (TU/e-ME) • Roland Toth (TUD-DCSC) • Dirk Vries (WU) • Jan Willem van Wingerden (TUD-DCSC)

The DISC PhD Thesis Award 2008 was awarded to Dr.ir. J.W. van Wingerden (TUD-DCSC) for his thesis entitled “Control of Wind Turbines with ‘Smart Rotors: Proof of Concept and LPV subspace identification”.

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1.8 PhD Theses 2009 TUD-DCSC Baskar, LD (2009, november 18).Traffic management and control in intelligent vehicle highway systems.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (156 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. B. De Schutter & Prof.dr.ir. J. Hellendoorn. Busoniu, IL (2009, januari 13). Reinforcement learning in continuous state and action spaces. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (189 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. R. Babuska & Prof.dr.ir. B. De Schutter. Dong, J (2009, november 11). Data driven fault tolerant control: A subspace approach.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (179 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. M Verhaegen. Kalbasenka, AN (2009, december 17). Model-Based Control of Industrial Batch Crystallizers. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.ir. O.H. Bosgra and Dr.ir. H.J.M. Kramer. Lendek, Zs (2009, maart 10). Distributed fuzzy and stochastic observers for nonlinear systems.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (176 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. R Babuska & Prof.dr.ir. B De Schutter. Schagen, KM van (2009, mei 19). Model-based control of drinking-water treatment plants.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (171 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. R Babuska. TUD-DIAM Rommelse, JR (2009, januari 19). Data assimilation in reservoir management.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (160 pag.) (Delft, The Netherlands: TUD Technische Universiteit Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. AW Heemink & Dr.ir. JD Jansen. Sumihar, JH (2009, oktober 19).Two-sample Kalman filter and system error modelling for storm surge forecasting.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (157 pag.) (Delft: TU Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. AW Heemink & Ir. M Verlaan. Stankova, K (2009 februari 2). On Stackelberg and Inverse Stackelberg Games. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. G.J. Olsder. TUe-ME Laan, EP van der, (2009, December 7). Seat Belt Control From Modeling to experiment. TUe Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (Eindhoven). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. M.Steinbuch and Dr.ir. A.G. de Jager. Merry, R.J.E., (2009, November 25). Performance-driven control of nano-motion systems. TUe Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (Eindhoven). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. M.Steinbuch and Dr.ir. M.J.G. van de Molengraft. UT-AM Saha, S. (2009) Topics in Particle Filtering and Smoothing. (2009, September 18). 127 pp. Thales Nederland BV. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. A. Bagchi, Dr. P.K. Mandal. ISBN: 978-90-365-2864-1 36

UT-ME W.B.J. Hakvoort, Iterative learning control for LTV systems with applications to an industrial robot, 978-90-77172-44-5, University of Twente, May, 28, 2009. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. J.B. Jonker, Prof.ir. O.H. Bosgra and Dr.ir. R.G.K.M. Aarts WU Bakker, T. (2009, februari 13). An autonomous robot for weed control : design, navigation and control. WUR Wageningen UR (138 pag.) ([S.l.: s.n.]) (ISBN 9789085853268). Prom./coprom.: Prof dr.ir G. van Straten, J. Mueller & Dr. J. Bontsema. Campen, J.B. (2009, oktober 23). Dehumidification of greenhouses. WUR Wageningen UR (XI, 117 pag.) ([S.l.: s.n.]) (ISBN 9789085854296). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. G.P.A. Bot. RUG-IWI H.B. Minh, Model Reduction in a Behavioral Framework. University of Groningen, The Netherlands, January 23, 2009. Promotor: Prof.dr. H.L. Trentelman. RUG-ITM T.C. Ionescu, Balanced Truncation for Dissipative and Symmetric Nonlinear Systems, September 2009. Promotor: Prof.dr.ir.J.M.A. Scherpen. TUD-AE Borst, C (2009, juni 15).Ecological Approach to Pilot Terrain Awareness.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (264 pag.) (Ridderkerk: Ridderprint). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. JA Mulder & Prof.dr.ir. M Mulder. Damveld, HJ (2009, mei 20). A Cybernetic Approach to Assess the Longitudinal Handling Qualities of Aerolastic Aircraft.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (337 pag.) (Nieuw-Vennep: H.J. Damveld). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. JA Mulder & Dr.ir. MM van Paassen. Lam, TM (2009, mei 11). Haptic Interface for UAV Teleoperation.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (200 pag.) ( T.M. Lam). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. JA Mulder, Prof.dr. FCT van der Helm & Prof.dr.ir. M Mulder. Winter, JCF de (2009, januari 27).Advancing simulation-based driver training.TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (255 pag.) (Delft: TU Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. PA Wieringa & Prof.dr.ir. JA Mulder. MU Karel J.M.H; A wavelet approach to cardiac signal processing for low-power hardware applications; Ph.D. Thesis, Universitaire Pers Maastricht, Maastricht University, 15 December 2009. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. R.L.M. Peeters and Dr. R.L. Westra. CWI Nemcova, J (2009, december 2) Rational Systems in Control and System Theory. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. J.H. van Schuppen

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Sella, L (2009, December 1) Computation of symbolic dynamics of low-dimensional maps. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. J.H. van Schuppen and Dr. P.J. Collins. 1.9 Awards In 2009 the following VENI/VIDI awards were granted to DISC members: VENI • Dr. A. Abate (TUD-DCSC): “Abstraction Techniques for Automatic Verification and Optimal Control of Stochastic Hybrid Systems”. • David Abbink (TUD-AE): “Feeling is Believing”. • Dr. M. Cao (RUG-ITM): “Biologically inspired information architecture for robots”.

VIDI • Frank Vallentin (TUD-DIAM): “Solving Difficult Optimization Problems”.

Paul Frank Theory Paper Award Jianfei Dong, Balazs Kulcsar and Michel Verhaegen, have been awarded the "Paul Frank Theory Paper Award” that is awarded to the authors of the best theory paper presented at the IFAC SAFEPROCESS 2009 Symposium, for their conference paper: J. Dong, B. Kulcsar and M. Verhaegen (2009). Subspace based fault identification for LPV systems. In the Proceedings of the 7th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes (SafeProcess09), pp. 335-341. Barcelona, Spain Andrew P. Sage Best Transactions Paper Award L. Busoniu, R. Babuska, and B. De Schutter have been selected as the recipients of the "2009 Andrew P. Sage Best Transactions Paper Award” that is awarded to recognize the authors of the best paper published annually in the IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, for their publication: L. Busoniu, R. Babuska, and B. De Schutter, "A Comprehensive Survey of Multiagent Reinforcement Learning," Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part C: Applications and Reviews, Volume 38, Issue 2, March 2008, Pages: 156-172. 1.10 3TU Centre of Excellence Intelligent Mechatronic Systems The three leading universities of technology in the Netherlands - Delft University of Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology and the University of Twente have joined forces in the 3TU.Federation. This federation maximizes innovation by combining and concentrating the strengths of all three universities in research, education and knowledge transfer. By clustering research activities into Centres of Competence, the 3TU.Federation aims to strengthen the competitive position of the Dutch knowledge economy. The resulting ‘critical mass’ is essential to create a strong knowledge base. We believe this is inseparable from the drive to achieve and maintain scientific excellence. For this reason, Centres of Excellence have been established within the Centres of Competence. These are partnerships aiming at the creation of synergy and critical mass in specific research topics. In these Centres our best research workers, together 38

with newly recruited top professors, will work together on a number of socially relevant themes in coordinated, focused programmes. The five Centres of Competence / Centres of Excellence are: • CoCHigh Tech Systems / CoE 3TU.Centre for Intelligent Mechatronic Systems • CoC Netherlands Institute of Research on ICT / CoE 3TU.Centre for Dependable ICT Systems • CoC University Research Group on Sustainable Energy Technologies / CoE 3TU.Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies • CoC Applications of Nano Technology / CoE 3TU.Centre for Bio-Nano Applications • CoC Fluid and Solid Mechanics / CoE 3TU.Centre for Multiscale phenomena

On top of these five research domains the three Dutch Technical Universities created a sixth CoE, the 3TU Centre for Ethics and Technology. Each Centre of Competence has a board formed by the dean of each of the three Universities of Technology who is the most involved in the subject area concerned. Furthermore, each Centre of Competence has a Scientific Director who coordinates the work within the Centre of Competence, including the Centres of Excellence within it, and advises the board accordingly. Within the domain of “High-Tech Systems” a 3TU Centre of Excellence in Intelligent Mechatronic Systems was created, incorporating around 10M€ of investments in tenured university positions within the three TU’s, in particular in systems and control, mechatronics and robotics. Scientific Director of the 3TU CoE IMS is Prof. Maarten Steinbuch (TU/e). In the scope of this 3TU CoE the following members of DISC have been appointed: • Prof. Bart De Schutter (TUD-DCSC) Hybrid Control and Intelligent Transportation Systems • Dr. Tamas Keviczky (TUD-DCSC) Distributed Tensing and Control • Dr. Rafaella Carloni (UT-EE) Humanoid Robotics • Prof.dr. Anton Stoorvogel (UT-AM) Mathematical Systems Theory • Prof.dr. Claudio DePersis (UT/ME) Device fabrication Technologies • Dr. Mircea Lazar (TU/e-EE) Hybrid systems • Dr. Dragan Kostic (TU/e-ME) Robotics • Prof.dr.ir. Maurice heemels (Tu/e-ME) Hybrid and Networked Systems

1.11 National MSc programmes In the scope of the 3TU Federation and in particular the 3TU Graduate School, an initiative was further shaped to start a joint 3TU MSc Program in Systems and Control (two-year program). DISC is involved in this initiative in a coordinating and facilitating role. The scientific director of DISC is member of the Team of Education Directors of this programme. The 3 TU program started on 1 September 2007 (www.3tu.nl/en/education/systems_and_control). Furthermore DISC is involved in Mastermath, the Dutch Master Program in Mathematics. (www.mastermath.nl/). Dr.ir. J.W. Polderman represents DISC in the programcouncil.

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1.12 Management report 2009 1.12.1 Course certificates During 2009, 14 certificates for completing a course program of 27 EC were awarded to the following DISC students: • Alejandro Alvarez (TU/e-ME) • Jeroen de Best (TU/e-ME) • Snezana Djordjevic (TUD-DCSC) • Tijs Donkers (TU/e-ME) • Willem-Jan Evers (TU/e-ME) • Jan van Hulzen (TUD-DCSC) • Florian Kerber (RUG-IWI) • Ali Mesbah (TUD-DCSC) • Duy Cuong Nguyen (UT-EE) • Dunstano del Puerto Flores (RUG-ITM) • Erik Steur (TU/e-ME) • Samira Safaei Farahani (TUD-DCSC) • Aydin Tekin (TUD-DCSC) • Satyajit Wattamwar (TU/e-EE)

1.12.2 DISC Board Meetings in 2009 The DISC Board met on March 24, June 2, September 9 and November 17. The meetings took place in Utrecht, one in Eindhoven (November 17), one during the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control (March 24) and one during the Summer School 2009 (June 2). Important agenda items were: selection and evaluation of DISC courses, IFAC World Congress 2017, Relation DISC-KIVI-NIRIA, Benelux Meeting, Winter Course, Best Thesis Award, NWO Graduate Programme and Summer School. 1.12.3 Advisory Board meeting in 2009 The 2009 meeting of the DISC advisory board was on November 17, 2009. Agenda items were the positioning of Systems and Control and the strategic positioning of DISC in the 3TU research and education cooperation (among which the 3TU MSc programme Systems and Control), Reaccreditation of DISC, NWO Graduate Programme application and IFAC World Congress 2017. 1.12.4 Management team meeting 2009 The DISC management team met on March 17 in Spa, Belgium, during the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control. Agenda items in March were reporting activities of DISC in the preceding year, the DISC teaching and course program, IFAC World Congress 2017, NWO Graduate Programme, 3TU-MSc initiatives and upcoming activities. 1.12.5 NWO Graduate Programme Application 2009 In February 2009 DISC submitted an application for participation in the NWO Graduate Programme (Pilot Programme) that offered 800K€ as funding for 4 PhD student positions to be awarded to high potential PhD candidates. The intention of the programme was to stimulate the connection of MSc and PhD programs, and to award 40

PhD positions to high-potential candidates for executing their own research project at a location chosen by themselves, after having had the opportunity to explore the research opportunities in several research groups. After having obtained very positive reviews, DISC was selected for an interview with the NWO jury, but finally was not selected to be among the winning applications. 1.12.6 Initiative IFAC World Congress 2017 On the basis of a discussion within DISC and with KIVI-NIRIA, it was decided to submit to IFAC a letter of interest for the organization of the 2017 IFAC World Congress, to be held in Amsterdam. After the first round of selection that was held in London in June 2009, out of seven proposals the Dutch proposal was selected as one of the three countries (besides France and Japan) that were invited to prepare a full bidbook, to be presented to IFAC during the IFAC Council Meeting in 2010 in Baltimore, USA. The process of preparing this bidbook started in the Fall of 2009 and continued in 2010.

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1.13 Financial report (in Eur) In 2006 the Board of TUD decided to continue its support of DISC with a yearly budget for the remaining part of the KNAW accreditation period until 31 December 2010. This budget is mainly used for all operational costs related to the education program as well as the office of the scientific director and the DISC secretariat. DISC budget 2009 budget 2009

Realized/committed

€ 85.000,00

€ 85.000,00

Income Contribution TUD Course registration fees TOTAL

€ 8.550,00 € 85.000,00

€ 93.550,00

Salaries

€ 35.000,00

€ 59.100,00

Course program

€ 20.000,00

€ 18.000,00

DISC Summer School 2009

€ 20.000,00

€ 12.800,00

Expenditure

Benelux Meeting 2009

€ 1.250,00

Winter Course 2009

€ 6.100,00

IFAC Membership fee

€ 1.250,00

€ 5.000,00

DISC Secretariat/Board meetings

€ 4.750,00

€ 4.100,00

DISC logo/web restyling

€ 3.000,00

€ 3.200,00

Infogids

€ 1.000,00

€ 700,00

Balance

-

-€ 16.700,00

TOTAL

€ 85.000,00

€ 93.550,00

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1.14 UNIT DISC UNIT DISC is the council of research students of DISC. They have regular contacts with the Scientific Director and also are responsible for the course evaluations. In 2008 UNIT DISC was coordinated by the following persons: • Gijs van Oort (UT-EE), [email protected], 053-4892778 • Satyajit Wattamwar (TUe-EE), [email protected], 040-2463588 • Amol Ashok Khalate (TUD-DCSC), [email protected], 015-2781362 • Mark Mutsaers (Tue-EE), [email protected], 040-2473579 • Ruiyue Ouyang (RUG-ITM) [email protected], 050-3633436, from September 1, 2009

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Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control General Information Address Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands. Secretariat: phone: +31–15–2782473. Fax: +31–15–2786679. E-mail: [email protected]

Scientific staff prof.ir. O.H. Bosgra, prof.dr.ir. P.M.J. Van den Hof, prof.dr. C.W. Scherer, prof.dr.ir. R. Babuška, prof.dr.ir. B. De Schutter, prof.dr.ir. J. Hellendoorn, prof.dr.ir. M. Verhaegen, prof.dr.ir. E.G.M. Holweg, dr.ir. J.H.A. Ludlage, dr.ir M. Corno, dr.ir. A.J.J. van der Weiden, dr.ir. A.J.J. van den Boom, dr.ir. A.J. den Dekker, ir. A.E.M. Huesman, dr. P.S.C. Heuberger, dr.ir. X.J.A. Bombois, dr.ir. J.W. van Wingerden, dr.ir. G. Schitter, dr.ir. T. Keviczky, dr.ir. A. Abate,

Technical and administrative staff D. Noteboom, C.J. Slinkman, ing. W.J.M. van Geest, ing. R.M.A. van Puffelen, ing. A.P. van Dijke, ing. J.E. Seiffers, mw. C.J.M. Dukker, Ing. F.P.M. van der Meijden, mw. A.I. van Regteren, mw. N. van den Berg-Moor, ir. O.K. Voorwinde, mw. S.M. van der Meer, mw. E.G.P. de Booij

PhD students M. van den Berg, R.M.L. Ellenbroek, J.F.M. van Doren, R.S. Blom, E.J. Trottemant, D.A. Joosten, S.K. Taamallah, J.R. van Hulzen, S. Djordjevic, H.M.N.K. Balini, H. Song, G.M. van Essen, J. van Ast, O. Naeem, P. Massioni, A. Mesbah, J.K. Rice, M. Gerard, I. Polat, I. Houtzager, S. Kuiper, S.K. Zegeye, A.A. Khalate, G.J. van der Veen, A. Simonetto, S. Farahani, S. Lin, M.D. Doan, A. Haber, P.M. Stano, Z. Hidayat, F. Pinchetti, J. Antonello, Z. Cong, N.B. Groot, I. Grondman, O.A. Tekin, dr.ir L.D. Baskar, Dr.ir. A.N. Tarau, ir. J. Veenman, dr.ir. J.F. Dong

Temporary staff and postdocs ir. J.J. Koopman, dr.ir. D-P. Molenaar, dr. R.R. Negenborn, dr.ir. P.R. Fraanje, dr.ir. R.T. van Katwijk, dr.ir I.L. Busoniu, dr.ir Zs. Lendek, dr. B.A. Kulcsar, dr.ir. S.W. van der Hoeven, dr. A. Tejada Ruiz, dr.ir R. Toth, ir. M. Leskens, dr. N. Nikacevic, dr. H. Koroglu, dr. ir. D. Vries, dr. X. Wie, dr. G.A.D. Lopes

Cooperation with Enclosed is a list of long-term collaborative partners that are involved in joint research projects Fundamentals University collaboration: KTH Stockholm (S), University of Aveiro (P), Hungarian Academy of Sciences (H), University of New South Wales (AU), University of Caen (F), Université Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve (B), University of Antwerp (B), Free University of Brussels (B), University of California at San Diego (USA), University of Nancy (F), Australian National University (AU), University of Linköping (S), Aalborg University (DK), Bogazici University Istanbul (T), Jilin University (PRC), University of California at Los Angelos (USA), University 44

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

of Stuttgart (GE), Eindhoven University of Technology (NL), ETH Zurich (CH), Supelec France (F), University of Siena (I), University of Ghent (B), University of Karlsruhe (GE), University of Cambridge (UK), University of Twente (NL). Industrial/Institutional collaboration: FEI (NL), Embedded Systems Institute (NL), The Scripps Research Institute (USA), TNO Defense Security and Safety (NL), Royal Institute for the Marine, KIM (NL), EADS Astrium (GE), TNO (NL), Siemens AG (GE), ICIS consortium (NL). Mechatronics and Microsystems University collaboration: TUD Department PME/3mE, TUD Department BME/3mE, TUD Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology (NL), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (NL), Leiden University (NL), Graz University of Technology (A), University of Munich (GE), Lund University (SE), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (B), Université Libre de Bruxelles (B), Technical University of Darmstadt (GE), University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg (GE), Budapest University of Technology and Economics (H), Politecnico di Milano (I), University of California at Santa Barbara (USA). Industrial/Institutional collaboration: Océ Nederland B.V. (NL), SKF (NL), Embedded Systems Institute (NL), Dutch Aerospace Laboratory NLR (NL), Veeco (USA), ESA ESTEC (NL), Philips AppTech (NL), Siemens (NL), LMS International (B), ERAS GmbH (GE), Siemens AG (GE), Renault Direction de la Recherche (F), Institute of Mechanics of Materials and Geostructures S.A. (G), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (F), Centro Ricerche FIAT (I), KTH Royal Institute of Technology (S), MicroNed consortium (NL), Britisch Aerospase (UK), CIRA (I), Alenia (I), Israelian Arcraft Industry (Is), IOP Adaptive Optics (NL), IOP Integrale Product Creatie- en Realisatie (NL). Sustainable Industrial Processes University collaboration: RWTH Aachen (GE), NTNU Trondheim (N), Department P&E/3mE, Department MSP/TNW, Faculty CiTG/TUD, Eindhoven University of Technology (NL). Industrial/Institutional collaboration: PSE (UK), Shell Global Solutions (NL), Shell Exploration and Production (NL), Purac (NL), BASF (GE), TNO Industrie en Techniek (NL), IPCOS (NL), DHV (NL), Waternet (NL), Applicon (NL), DSM (NL), IHC (NL). Automotive and intelligent transportation systems University collaboration: Eindhoven University of Technology (NL), TRAIL Research School (NL), TUD/CiTG (NL), TUD/TBM (NL), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (B), University of Ghent (B). Industrial/Institutional collaboration: TNO (NL), Rijkswaterstaat (NL), Siemens (D/NL), Shell (NL), Rups BV (NL), TNO (NL), Ministry of Transportation (NL), Witteveen+Bos (NL), NGI consortium (NL), Transumo consortium (NL). Participation in trans-national networks ERNSI: European Research Network in System Identification. HYCON: Hybrid Control, Network of Excellence, EU 6th FP. SICONOS consortium: Modelling, Simulation, and Control of Non-smooth Dynamical Systems, EU 6th FP. INMAR consortium; European network for Intelligent materials for active noise reduction, EU 6th FP.

Keywords Computational intelligence, condition monitoring, fault tolerant control, fuzzy modeling and control, hybrid systems, inversion of non-linear systems, knowledge-based control, mechatronics, model-based control, multi–variable control, non-linear systems, parameter estimation, physical measurement systems, predictive control, real-time control, robotics, 45

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

robust control, servo-mechanisms, signal processing, system identification, traffic control, vehicle dynamics, x-by-wire.

Brief description Delft Center for Systems and Control (DCSC) coordinates the education and research activities in systems and control at the Delft University of Technology. The core research activity of the DCSC is twofold: the development of new theories and numerical tools for modeling and control of dynamic systems, and the validation of these new contributions in engineering applications. The deliberately selected integration of the fundamental research line with the application oriented one, creates the ideal platform to systematically address problems in emerging technologies and to stimulate the development of innovative industrial control technology. The fundamental research activities concentrate on the three major areas of model based control design, i.e.: • modeling • system identification • controller design The application oriented research aims at the adaptation and integration of fundamental innovations in laboratory demonstrations and for industrial pilot plants covering the following application domains: • industrial process control • mechatronics and micro systems • automotive and intelligent transportation systems • physical imaging systems The research activities in these domains are multi-disciplinary in nature and for the first 3 domains are defined in concurrence with the “Speerpunt” programs of Delft University of Technology.

Fundamentals Research at DCSC covers a variety of conceptual and algorithmic aspects related to modeling of and controller design for dynamical systems. Addressed are first-principal modeling as well as deterministic and statistical data-based system identification, including a description of the potential plant-model mismatch. Techniques for analyzing and designing controllers include the application of physical principles, semi-definite programming and nonlinear optimization, both for off-line and on-line implementation. Particular emphasis is laid on an understanding of how to synthesize structured, robust and fault-tolerant controllers for possibly large scale-systems, and on developing the related computationally efficient algorithms.

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Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

DISC projects Advanced identification and modeling of LPV systems Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof Participants: : R. Toth, P.S.C. Heuberger Sponsored by: NWO

Description Many physical/chemical processes encountered in practice have non-stationary or nonlinear behavior and often their dynamics depend on external variables like space-coordinates, temperature, etc. For such processes, the theory of Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) systems offers an attractive modeling framework. This class of systems is particularly suited to deal with processes that operate in varying operating regimes. Practical use of this framework is stimulated by the fact that LPV control design is well developed, extending results of optimal and robust LTI control theory to nonlinear, time-varying plants. However a major drawback of the LPV framework today is that, despite the advances of the LPV control field, identification and first-principles based modeling of such systems is not well developed as the current methods are unable to support practical control design. This project aims at the development and application of a new LPV identification and modeling tools for nonlinear/time-varying systems, with the goal to bridge this obvious gap between LPV modeling and control. Based on a recent extension of the prediction-error framework to the LPV case, the whole identification cycle from model structure selection to estimation including experiment design is addressed to develop tools that can assist practical applications. In terms of estimation methods, extension of the classical model structures like polynomial ARX, …, Box-Jenkins and also series expansion model structures like Orthogonal Basis Functions models are addressed. In terms of first-principles based modeling, automated conversion tools are developed to convert high fidelity nonlinear/partial differential equations based models to efficient LPV descriptions.

Analysis and Verification of Stochastic Hybrid Systems Projectleader: A. Abate Sponsored by: NWO

Description Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHS) are dynamical models that are employed to characterize the probabilistic evolution of systems with interleaved and interacting continuous and discrete components. The formal analysis, verification, and optimal control of SHS models represent relevant goals because of their theoretical generality and for their applicability to a wealth of studies in the Sciences and in Engineering. Indeed in a number of practical instances the presence of a discrete number of continuously operating modes (e.g., in fault-tolerant industrial systems), the effect of uncertainty (e.g., in safety-critical air-traffic systems), or both occurrences (e.g., in models of biological entities) advocate the use of a mathematical framework, such as that of SHS, which is structurally predisposed to model such heterogeneous systems. In this project, we plan to investigate and develop innovative analysis and verification techniques that are directly applicable to general SHS models, while being computationally 47

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

scalable. The first stage of the study entails mostly analytical work: the project aims at generating results that are both theoretically formal and computationally attractive. It will furthermore develop dedicated software for the analysis of SHS. The theoretical and computational outcomes will be tested in or applied to a number of studies, in particular to models drawn from Biology. This latter stage will thus involve the collaboration with researchers from the Computer Science or the cooperation with experimentalists from the Life Sciences.

Approximate reinforcement learning and dynamic programming for control Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter, prof. R. Babuška Participants: I.L. Busoniu Sponsored by: Senter

Description Reinforcement learning (RL) can optimally solve decision and control problems involving complex dynamic systems, without requiring a mathematical model of the system. Online RL algorithms do not even require data in advance; they learn from experience. If a model is available, dynamic programming (DP), the model-based counterpart of RL, can be used. RL and DP are applicable in a variety of disciplines, including automatic control, artificial intelligence, economics, and medicine. However, to scale up to realistic control problems, RL and DP must employ compact, approximate representations of the solution. In this project, we are investigating sound and efficient algorithms for approximate RL and DP, focusing on control applications. We study the convergence and performance properties of these algorithms, and evaluate them in comprehensive benchmarks on a range of nonlinear control problems. In collaboration to MSc and BSc students, we investigate a number of practical issues in RL, such as applications to real-time robotic control and methods to accelerate learning.

Behavioral approach to LPV systems Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof, Participants: R. Toth, P.S.C. Heuberger

Description In the system theory of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems it has been recently observed that in order to realize a given LPV state-space model as a polynomial input/output form or vice versa, the coefficients of the representation must be allowed to depend on the first and higher order derivatives of the scheduling variable (continuous-time) or its time shifted versions (discrete-time). The necessity of this so called dynamic dependence of the coefficients has been also observed during the conversion of nonlinear models to LPV descriptions. The need of dynamic dependence clearly indicates that state-space and input/output representations used previously to define and specify LPV systems are not equal in terms of dynamics and also not physically motivated. Furthermore, the lack of realization/transformation theory associated with these representations hinders the use of many identification methods based on IO models, like the extension of successful prediction error methods of the LTI case to provide state-space models for control synthesis. The lack of understanding of similarity transformation for state-space and input/output representations 48

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

is also a source of many pitfalls both for identification and control synthesis in general . Furthermore, the collection of transfer functions of LPV state-space and input/output representations for each fixed value of the scheduling variable, the so-called frozen transfer functions, does not specify the behavior of the system for non-constant scheduling trajectories, which is often overlooked in the literature. As no global transfer function theory exists in the LPV case, definitions of input-output behavior of representations need to be considered in terms of solutions of these difference equations in the time-domain.These arguments indicate that the classical definitions of LPV systems and the “assumed” similarity transformation connected to them are inadequate, showing that the current LPV system theory is incomplete. This project aims to show that a parametrization-free definition of LPV systems and an algebraic framework where the previously considered representations and concepts of LPV systems are reestablished can be found by considering a behavioral approach to the problem. The behavioral framework, originally developed for LTI systems, is extended to LPV systems. In this framework systems are described in terms of behaviors that correspond to the collection of all valid signal trajectories. Our aim is to use the behavioral concept to establish well-defined LPV system representations as well as their interrelationships. Our further intention is to develop a unified LPV system theory that establishes connections between the available results.

Distributed control of multi-agent systems on a mobile robot testbed Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. R. Babuška, prof. B. De Schutter, Prof. G. Lodewijks T. Keviczky, T.J.J. van den Boom, G.A.D. Lopes A. Simonetto, E. Stok, M. Duinkerken DCSC department, M&TT department

Description The problem of coordination and autonomous operation of groups of vehicles represents challenges that are becoming increasingly important to address for increased efficiency in diverse application areas such as transportation networks, logistics, high-performance agricultural systems, and mobile sensor networks. Distributed, cooperative control is a key enabling technology for such multi-agent systems. The main research topic of the project is to investigate various methods and develop new techniques in the area of distributed sensing and control for multiple mobile agents. The research efforts will focus on algorithm and methodology development for multi-agent control systems with particular emphasis on developing and testing cooperative path planning methods with coordination and consensus protocols in a distributed environment. The proposed approach should consider constrained dynamics, where communication between agents is limited but at the same time necessary to achieve a common objective. Application examples of interest include coordination tasks such as distributed path planning for groups of automated harvesting vehicles, search-and-rescue operations, and mobile sensor networks. The project will also involve setting up a mobile robot testbed, which will serve as a benchmark for the proposed control strategies and as a research and educational demonstration tool for other students and researchers. This part of the work entails the design of the test setup architecture including the selection of appropriate off-the-shelf components (mobile robots, wireless communication, localization solution). The mobile robot testbed is expected to be matured and enhanced with help from MSc and BSc students attracted through projects proposed and overseen by the research team members. 49

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

To know more, look at: http://www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/~asimonetto

Efficient analysis and synthesis tools for robust and scheduled controller design against time-varying and dynamic uncertainties Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. C.W. Scherer S.G. Dietz H. Koroglu STW

Description In recent years optimization based robust controller analysis and synthesis techniques have emerged as powerful tools in numerous practical control applications. Despite impressive progress, the state of the art algorithms are unable to deal with large scale problems as they exist in industry. In particular, there is a strong demand to better understand how mixtures of dynamic time-invariant and rate-bounded time-varying uncertainties can systematically be included in controller analysis and synthesis algorithms. This project aims at developing a framework that allows for these general uncertainty models, as they occur in practice, to be included in the design. To break the complexity barrier, it is essential to exploit the specific problem-structure and to employ relaxation schemes by which the conservatism of the computations can be reduced. Moreover, numerical reliability of the algorithms must be improved. This fundamentally novel strategy leads to the second goal: development of the corresponding robust and scheduled controller synthesis techniques, with the demonstration of their applicability for regulating systems whose dynamics vary with time or nonlinearly. These schemes will involve a partition of uncertainty value sets such that robust or scheduled controller design will be intimately related to the design of multi-objective and switched controllers for a large number of models. Problems Currently under Investigation • Robust Stability Analysis for Slowly Time-Varying Systems: We consider time-varying uncertainties and investigate the ways to reduce conservatism in stability analysis. Taking into account the bound on the rate of variation of the uncertainty/uncertain parameters, we study this problem in generalized plant framework in two directions by employing LMI methods as efficient numerical tools: • Develop robust stability tests using the well-known frequency domain methods for robust stability analysis (mu-analysis, D-scaling, IQC multipliers). • Construct parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions in a systematic way such that we can more precisely answer the question of robust stability of an LPV system. • LPV Design for Slowly Time-Varying Parameters: In order to reduce conservatism, we intend to employ in LPV design the robust stability tests that we develop for slowly time-varying uncertainties within the study of the above problem.

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Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

Fuzzy observers for nonlinear systems Projectleader: prof. R. Babuška, prof. B. De Schutter Participants: Zs. Lendek Sponsored by: Senter

Description A generic method for the design of an observer valid for all types of nonlinear systems has not yet been developed. A large class of nonlinear systems can be represented by Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy models, which in theory can approximate a general nonlinear system to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The TS fuzzy model consists of a fuzzy rule base. The rule antecedents partition a given subspace of the model variables into fuzzy regions, while the consequent of each rule is usually a linear or affine model, valid locally in the corresponding region. For a fuzzy model, well-established methods and algorithms exist to analyze the stability or to design fuzzy controllers or observers. Most of these conditions rely on the feasibility of an associated system of linear matrix inequalities that are easy to solve, but are rather conservative. In this project, we aim to extend existing results and reduce their conservativeness, in particular for distributed and adaptive systems. A possible application is state estimation for traffic networks.

Game-theoretic methods for control of large-scale systems Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter Participants: K. Stankova Sponsored by: HYCON2

Description This research focuses on game-theoretic concepts that could be employed for modeling communication and interaction between the various control levels in the control of large-scale intelligent infrastructure systems such as road traffic networks. One of the major challenges in such control problems is how to optimize making decisions and taking actions on several control levels that mutually interact. The trade-offs due to the multi-objective character of the problems have to be taken into account, as well as possibly multiple objectives arising from different control agents and different control levels. A theory that seems to be particularly applicable to tackle these problems is the theory of the Stackelberg and inverse Stackelberg games, because in these games the hierarchy plays an important role. The inverse Stackelberg games are leader-follower games in which the leader announces his strategy as a mapping from the follower's decision space into his own decision space, while taking the possible reactions of the follower into account. The leader and the follower may have different and often conflicting objectives. Morover, the game may involve multiple leaders and followers. The inverse Stackelberg games can be thought of as a generalization of classical Stackelberg games. The problem of finding the optimal strategy for the leader belongs to the realm of composed functions and these problems are known to be very difficult to solve in an analytic way.

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Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

While there are many applications having the inverse Stackelberg game character, only a little amount of theory is known about such problems and the theory that does exist is still in its infancy, focusing on exploring specific phenomena by means of case studies. Little is known about general properties of such games as well as about the inverse Stacklelberg games with incomplete information. This project includes the following three phases: In the first phase several case studies are considered. In these case studies optimization and control system theory techniques (e.g. the Pontryagin minimum principle, the Ricatti equations, or finding the optimal strategy within the prespecified class of functions and showing the global optimality of such a strategy a posteriori) are used in order to obtain the global solution, preferably in a closed form. The second phase of the research focuses on game-theoretic methods that could be employed for modeling communication and interaction between the various control levels in the control of large-scale systems. The Stackelberg type of games seems to be a natural framework to apply here, although this hypothesis still has to be validated. In the third phase of the research the proposed game theoretic methods are applied in road traffic control.

Identification of non-linear systems: identifiability and experiment design Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof Participants: X.J.A. Bombois, P.S.C. Heuberger, R. Toth PhD students: A.G. Dankers

Description System identification is the scientific exercise that consists of determining a mathematical model of a real-life process (the true system) based on input-output data. A very important identification method is the prediction error identification’’ method. In prediction error identification, models can be identified based on data collected both in open loop and in closed loop. Based on these data, the model can be then determined within a given model structure by minimizing a least square criterion. The research in this project deals with prediction-error methods for the identification of non-linear systems. Fundamental research questions are: What are the neccessary and sufficient conditions (such as conditions on the richness of the input signal) that lead to consistent identification of a particular nonlinear model structure? Potential nonlinear model structures that will be investigated includes the linear parameter varying (LPV) model structure. What is the optimal experiment design for a particular nonlinear model structure (such as the LPV model structure)?

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Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

Least costly identification experiment for control Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof, Participants: X.J.A. Bombois, M. Gevers (Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium), G. Scorletti (Université de Caen, France), H. Hjalmarsson (KTH, Sweden), M. Barenthin (KTH, Sweden), M. Gilson (CRAN, France)

Description Model-based control has nowadays reached many industrial sectors (chemical industry, high-tech manufacturing industry, ...) as a crucial technology in realizing optimal process operation. However, the development of model-based control is still restrained by various open issues in control and system theory. In most of these issues, the harmonious interaction between system identification and robust control design is very important. Since the beginning of the nineties, important steps have been taken towards this harmonious interaction. Indeed, it is now possible, given a model and its related uncertainty as delivered by system identification, to check whether a controller meets the robust performance requirements. However, until very recently, there was still a complete lack of results allowing the design of robust controllers based on cheap and plant-friendly identification. Indeed, until then, very few attention had been devoted on the choice of the data used to identify the model and its uncertainty region and the lack of clear guidelines for the choice of these data generally lead to identification experiments that were more expensive than actually necessary, i.e. the identified uncertainty region was either too large (and thus unusable) or smaller than strictly necessary for the required level of performance. Knowing that the generation of informative data for an identification experiment is the most expensive step of the whole robust control design procedure, the related economic loss could be very important. Based on these considerations, a brandnew line of research has recently been defined. This research aims at developing tractable techniques for an optimal design of the identification experiment. In particular, the objective is to determine the least costly identification experiment that delivers sufficient information on the true system dynamics (i.e. that delivers a model with a sufficiently small uncertainty region) for the design of a robust controller with a satisfactory performance. In particular, the influence of short data sets and the extension of the concepts towards performance monitoring and robust filtering are currently investigated.

Model predictive control for discrete-event systems Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter Participants: T.J.J. van den Boom

Description Model predictive control (MPC) is a very popular controller design method in the process industry. An important advantage of MPC is that it allows the inclusion of constraints on the inputs and outputs. Usually MPC uses linear discrete-time models. In this project we extend MPC to a class of discrete-event systems. Typical examples of discrete-event systems are: flexible manufacturing systems, telecommunication networks, traffic control systems, multiprocessor operating systems, and logistic systems. In general models that describe the behavior of a discrete-event system are nonlinear in conventional algebra. However, there is a class of discrete-event systems - the max-plus-linear discrete-event systems that can be described by a model that is "linear" in the max-plus algebra. We have further 53

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

developed our MPC framework for max-plus-linear discrete-event systems and included the influences of noise and disturbances. In addition, we have also extended our results to discrete-event systems that can be described by models in which the operations maximization, minimization, addition and scalar multiplication appear, and to discrete-event systems with both hard and soft synchronization constraints. Our current research in this context is focus on developing efficient algorithms for MPC for the classes of discrete-event systems described above, and on extending the approach to other classes of discrete-event systems.

Model predictive control for hybrid systems Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter Participants: T.J.J. van den Boom, I. Necoara Sponsored by: STW

Description Both academia and industry have recently directed a considerable amount of research effort on hybrid systems. Hybrid systems typically arise when continuous plants are coupled with controllers that involve discrete logic actions. Although hybrid systems are encountered in many practical situations, up to now most controllers for such systems are designed using ad hoc and heuristic procedures. Due to the complex nature of hybrid systems, it is infeasible to come up with generally applicable control design methods. In this project we focus on structured control design methods for specific classes of hybrid systems that are industrially relevant. These methods will be extensions of the model predictive control (MPC) framework for continuous systems, so as to include hybrid systems. The MPC scheme is nowadays very popular in the oil refining and (petrochemical) process industry and has adequately proved its usefulness in practice. MPC offers attractive features that makes this control approach also interesting and relevant for extension to hybrid systems. In this project we will develop high performance MPC controller design techniques for hybrid systems. Currently, we have already obtained some initial results on MPC for special subclasses of hybrid systems, viz. piecewise-affine systems and max-plus linear systems. In this project we keep on extending these results to other relevant classes of hybrid systems, and we thoroughly investigate and formalize the design process, improve optimization procedures to realize real-time implementation, and use the results for practical problems of the partners from industry. This project is done in cooperation with the Control Systems group of Eindhoven University of Technology.

Modeling and control of distributed systems: system-identification based on data Projectleader: prof. M. Verhaegen PhD students: P. Massioni Sponsored by: MicroNed

Description With few exceptions control problems with spatially distributed sensing and actuation up to now have not been thoroughly studied in control theory due to the perception of their technological infeasibility. Recently, however, technological progress is bringing dramatic 54

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

changes to this picture. In particular, advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) make feasible the idea of microscopic devices with actuating, sensing, computing and telecommunications capabilities. Distributing a large array of such devices in a spatial configuration gives unprecedented capabilities for control; examples already include distributed flow control, "smart" mechanical structures, and Cross Directional control in the chemical process industry. For all these applications the control variables can be conveniently and appropriately thought to be distributed in space, in addition to the internal states. Important questions that arise are (i) how to design control algorithms for these systems with regard to global objectives; and (ii) how can these control algorithms be implemented in a distributed array, e.g. in a "localized" way. Needless to say that these questions can be studied from many points of view, and internationally there is a strong emerging activity devoted to exploring different lines of research. This project aims to investigate control methodologies based on the identification. Such methods spring from the control methodology of the Delft Center for Systems and Control, and will lead to development of low order models for high performance feedback control from experimental data. The first innovative research question is to develop identification methods for identifying models to approximate the dynamic behaviour of spatially distributed dynamic systems. The second is to integrate this identification procedure with a robust control method for the class of spatially distributed models.

Nonlinear control systems analysis Projectleader: prof. J.M.A. Scherpen, prof. M. Verhaegen Participants: T.C. Ionescu, T. Voss Sponsored by: NWO, Senter, Microned

Description This research focuses on extensions of linear realization theory to nonlinear control systems. The relation between input-output systems, Hankel operators, state-space realizations, minimality, and balanced realizations is considered. These considerations are important for applications to model and controller reduction, numerical efficiency, nonlinear black box identification and order estimation, sensor and actuator placements, etc. A sequence of papers in this direction has been published. The study towards the relation of Hankel operators, its factorization in an observability and controllability part, and their state-space realizations, has given rise to a generalization of the notion of Hilbert adjoint systems to the nonlinear case. This topic uses concepts from physical systems, namely, Hamiltonian systems and their extensions, Legendre transformations, etc. Based on these methods, a procedure towards a new balancing method for nonlinear system is defined, resulting in a procedure for model reduction that is part of the on-going research. So far, a constructive algorithm is part of the procedure, which aims at the development of implementation tools.

Mechatronics and micro-systems Control engineering methods are developed for mechatronic systems of the scale of millimeters and micrometers. Examples of applications are in adaptive optics where use is made of a deformable mirror with a large array of sensors and actuations, position control in a micro compact disk or hard disk, etc. Also on the macro-scale the DCSC collaborates with industrial partners like Océ, IHC-Systems, SKF, TNO, etc. to develop control strategies for innovative mechatronic designs, such as X-by-wire steering or braking. 55

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

DISC projects Adaptive learning control for offshore windturbines Projectleader: prof. M. Verhaegen Participants: J.W. van Wingerden, D.P. Molenaar Sponsored by: STW

Description The trend with offshore wind turbines is to increase the rotor diameter as much as possible. The reason is that the foundation costs of offshore wind turbines amount to a large part of the total costs. Therefore designers want to increase the energy yield (which increases quadratically with the rotor diameter) per wind turbine as much as possible to reduce the costs The STW project "Smart dynamic rotor control of large offshore wind turbines" will contribute to the development of offshore wind energy by investigating the control of fatigue loads and active damping of structural vibrational modes. The proposed way to go is the use of smart dynamic rotor control: every rotor blade will be controlled separately and the properties of each blade will be altered by making use of distributed control over the blade length. This will be possible by making use of "Smart" actuators and sensors. In this project an innovative approach of model based robust controller design will be developed based on the strong past performance of the members of the DCSC. The development of system identification tools for robust controller design will be extended towards Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. Further, this fundamental experience will be combined with the application expertise the DCSC has acquired in vibration reduction using "Smart" materials.

Application of advanced control concepts to microfactory Projectleader: prof. C.W. Scherer PhD students: H.M.N.K. Balini Sponsored by: MicroNed

Description A micro machining system based on conventional 3-D structuring/cutting technologies, is believed to open new frontiers for the manufacture of MEMS based components. A mechatronic design of a desktop micro machinery constitutes of components such as Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) Spindle, Planar drive/bearing system, hybrid AMB/active air bearing spindle and high precision milling tool. Research is focussed on the following aspects in a generic mathematical framework. • Modelling of selected components, and disturbances. • Study of spindle-workpiece interaction for vibration supression. • Design of H-infinity controller(s). • Identification of model uncertainities. • Explore robustness issues and reduce order of controller from Mu-synthesis. • Explore controller synthesis within the LPV framework • Optimization studies with respect to componentwise and global performance.

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Automatic autorotation of a rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof X.J.A. Bombois S. Taamallah NLR

Description Autorotation is a rotorcraft flight condition in which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of the air when the rotorcraft is in motion with an engine-out situation. During an autorotation, the main rotor is not driven by a power plant, but by air flowing through the rotor disc bottom-up while the vehicle is descending rapidly. The power required to keep the rotor spinning is obtained from the aircraft's potential and kinetic energy. An autorotation is thus used when the engine fails in a helicopter, or when a tail rotor failure requires the pilot to shut down the engine. It is comparable to gliding in a fixed-wing aircraft without an operating power plant. The objective of this project is to design an on-board automatic system which would kick in once engine failure had been detected. Such a system could indeed improve the overall system safety of manned and unmanned helicopters. Its purpose would be to optimally manage the available energy (potential, kinematic in airspeed and rotor RPM) at the instant of engine failure, and perform a safe landing. Four main research areas have been identified in this project: (i) modeling of the helicopter flight dynamics, (ii) model validation, (iii) avionics and sensors data fusion, and finally (iv) control and optimal 3D flight.

Automatic generation of control software for mechatronic systems Projectleader: prof. R. Babuška, prof. B. De Schutter Participants: G.A.D. Lopes Sponsored by: SenterNovem

Description Design of a mechatronic system consists of many domains: mechanics, electronics, embedded hardware and software, and control. The design begins with the functional description of the mechatronic system. In traditional design approach the design continues with the mechanical design followed by the electronics design, and then the embedded hardware and software co-design is completed. Finally the controller which will maintain the global behavior of the mechatronic system is designed and the control code is embedded into the system whose body is almost completed before control design phase. What we want to achieve is a new design methodology for the design of mechatronic systems where the four domains: mechanics, electronics, embedded hardware and software, and control designs are initiated right after the functional description of the system specifications. In this approach, we will need an integration framework to bring these domains together so that all these four domains will interact with each other during the whole design process of the mechatronic system. We will mainly focus on the integration of the control design and the electronics design including the embedded hardware and software design, basically the control board on which

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the generated control software will be validated to meet the system specifications, considering the real-time embedded systems programming issues. The first thing to be done is to find a way to design controllers using the qualitative behaviors of the plant to be controlled and the performance requirements for the closed loop control system. We will investigate which qualitative parameters related to the plant and the performance requirements are necessary to design the controller. After having the qualitative behaviors, some quantitative parameters will be obtained considering the timing issues for real-time implementation of the control algorithm on the actual hardware which is the control board. There will be interaction with the control design and electronics design domains in this sense of having the flexibility of choosing the microprocessor's processing speed to meet the sampling time constraint, and choosing the A/D, D/A converters to meet the resolution needs, choosing the ROM, RAM size such that all the control code and the data to be processed simultaneously can be fit in.

Control of haptic devices for tele-microassembly Projectleader: prof. C.W. Scherer PhD students: I. Polat Sponsored by: MicroNED

Description Accurate control of haptic micro-assembly devices requires fine-tuned multivariable impedance and admittance shaping for the realization of scaling for the two-sided interaction between micro- and macro-domains. A particular challenge arises from the inclusion of stiffness directionality in order to avoid the damage of work-pieces. Model-based H_infinity–synthesis is an ideal tool for optimal loop-shaping which has not been systematically employed in haptic controller synthesis. As a second major challenge in general manipulator systems, one has to keep up stability and performance even if the slave (or operator) interacts with a strongly varying environment. In haptic micro-assembly, the superposition of external forces acting on the workpiece leads to position-dependent nonlinear characteristics. In order to avoid overly conservative designs based on crude passivity techniques for ensuring stability and performance robustness, it is of fundamental relevance to develop suitably structured uncertainty models (such multi-variable sector-conditions on force nonlinearities) for the work-piece environment in haptic micro-assembly. As a substantial benefit, these techniques even offer the opportunity to design controllers that adapt themselves to measurable changes of the environment in order to even further enhance performance. In view of the generic tuning-complexity, classical ad-hoc gain-scheduling techniques seem inferior to recently developed one-shot algorithms for optimization-based scheduled controller synthesis, and their extension to dynamic integral quadratic constraints which are currently under development. Thus it would be beneficiary if the state-of-art modelling techniques can be modified in order to obtain a parameter-varying model so that current advances regarding LPV gain-scheduled controller design can be applied.

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Data-driven control for the next generation of wind turbines Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. M. Verhaegen J.W. van Wingerden G.J. van der Veen Vestas Wind Systems A/S

Description An ongoing trend in wind turbine development is the increase in rotor size. These large rotors inherently become more flexible and introduce more interaction between blades and tower. Several new technologies have been conceived to reduce loads on these future wind turbines. Among these are individual pitch control (IPC) and the smart rotor, where distributed trailing edge flaps are used to influence the lift locally. To allow effective control of fatigue and extreme loads, new measurement techniques are being developed such as LIDAR and local flow measurements. Such measurement techniques may allow a degree of feed-forward control by anticipating wind disturbances. In this research programme we investigate data-driven methodologies to design controllers for future wind turbines. These include, for example, novel system identification techniques, online disturbance modelling and efficient model predictive control. The basis for all methods is formed by numerically reliable and robust algorithms from the fields of linear algebra and convex optimisation.

Distributed control of multi-agent systems on a mobile robot testbed Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. R. Babuška, prof. B. De Schutter, Prof. G. Lodewijks T.J.J. van den Boom, T. Keviczky, G.A.D. Lopes A. Simonetto, E. Stok, M. Duinkerken, DCSC department, M&TT department

Description The problem of coordination and autonomous operation of groups of vehicles represents challenges that are becoming increasingly important to address for increased efficiency in diverse application areas such as transportation networks, logistics, high-performance agricultural systems, and mobile sensor networks. Distributed, cooperative control is a key enabling technology for such multi-agent systems. The main research topic of the project is to investigate various methods and develop new techniques in the area of distributed sensing and control for multiple mobile agents. The research efforts will focus on algorithm and methodology development for multi-agent control systems with particular emphasis on developing and testing cooperative path planning methods with coordination and consensus protocols in a distributed environment. The proposed approach should consider constrained dynamics, where communication between agents is limited but at the same time necessary to achieve a common objective. Application examples of interest include coordination tasks such as distributed path planning for groups of automated harvesting vehicles, search-and-rescue operations, and mobile sensor networks. The project will also involve setting up a mobile robot testbed, which will serve as a benchmark for the proposed control strategies and as a research and educational demonstration tool for other students and researchers. This part of the work entails the design of the test setup

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Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

architecture including the selection of appropriate off-the-shelf components (mobile robots, wireless communication, localization solution). The mobile robot testbed is expected to be matured and enhanced with help from MSc and BSc students attracted through projects proposed and overseen by the research team members. To know more, look at: http://www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/~asimonetto

Fault-tolerant control of industrial systems Projectleader: prof. M. Verhaegen PhD students: J.F Dong Sponsored by: Eruopean Marie Curie FP6 Research Training Programme, SKF

Description In many motion and control systems the controlled process generally consists of: an actuator, a control loop (e.g. software) and feedback information (sensors). Failures in one of these components normally lead to unacceptable performance of the system. In many cases though, the failure itself is not that critical, it is the combination with the control loop or the feedback elements that might lead to an unstable system or unacceptable system performance. By detecting the failure and subsequently adaptation of the control loop in the process, the performance might be adjusted to a level that is still within acceptable limits. The detecting of failure as well as the adjustment of the control loop is defined as 'Fault Tolerant Control'. The goal of fault-tolerant control is to prevent those simple faults in a system or its sensors and actuators develop into serious failures. Fault-tolerant control increases the availability of the system and reduces the risk of safety hazards. To achieve fault-tolerant control, intelligent methods needed to be developed for on-line fault detection and diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial actions or controller reconfiguration. In this research topic the focus will be on novel fault-tolerant control methods and to apply and test them on the drive-by-wire systems of SKF.

High-speed atomic force microscopy Projectleader: G. Schitter PhD students: S. Kuiper, J.R. van Hulzen, Sponsored by: NWO, Delft University of Technology

Description Atomic force microscopes (AFM) enable insights into the nanoworld, visualizing even single molecules and atoms. Taking images, however, is time consuming and does not allow observation of dynamic processes on the nanometer scale with the required temporal resolution. In this project the research focuses on key challenges for the next generation of AFMs, which are based on a new mechanical design in combination with high-performance control techniques. A new generation AFM is developed that will be used for real-time imaging (up to video-rates at 25 frames per second) e.g. of biological processes. This new instrument will enable experiments that investigate significant problems in nanotechnology and 60

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

biotechnology. It will be possible to study biological and chemical processes on the molecular level in real-time as they occur in nature. This series of images of rat tail collagen illustrates how high-speed AFM allows zooming in on areas of interest rapidly [1]. Collagen's characteristic 67-nm banding pattern is clearly resolved. This entire zoom series was taken in less than 1 second. A conventional AFM would need about 15 min of imaging to obtain a comparable series of images. [1] P.K. Hansma, G. Schitter, G.E. Fantner, C. Prater, Science 314, 601 (2006)

Intelligent control of legged robots Projectleader: prof. R. Babuška Participants: G.A.D. Lopes Sponsored by: Delft University of Technology

Description This project aims to study various classes of machine learning tools applied to real legged robots. Nature provides the best inspiration for the field of robotics. The complex neuromechanical tools inherited through DNA endows animals with a collection of sophisticated reactive and learning capabilities. In this project we take inspiration from nature to focus on the study of specific machine learning tools applied to concrete robotics applications. Reinforcement learning, thanks to its attractive bio-inspired mathematical framework, is our main tool of research. The multi-disciplinary nature of this project encompasses the following topics: • Low level control of nonlinear hybrid dynamical systems via traditional control methodology combined with machine learning tools. This includes the synthesis of motion gaits and energetic optimizations of motion. • Supervisory control for navigation augmented with identification/fault detection and fault tolerant control. • Hardware/software development of a modular high dynamical robotic platform. • The development of a vision sensor for odometry and integration of exteroceptive sensors with inertial measurements for state estimation and fault detection.

Mechatronic redesign for active control of a micro fluid jet system Projectleader: prof. O.H. Bosgra Participants: M.B. Groot Wassink Sponsored by: Oce Technologies B.V.

Description In this research project, a printhead is investigated as example of a micro fluid jet system (see figure below). A basic printhead configuration consists of a certain number of channels each actuated by a piezo-actuator. A pressure wave created through actuation of the piezo-actuator is amplified which results in the emitting of a droplet at the nozzle of a channel. The shape of the channels together with the wave form of the pressure field are therefore crucial to the performance of the printhead. Minor actuated modifications on the wave shape under realtime control might considerably amplify the performance. From these considerations stems the idea of the manipulability of the resonator functionality of the printhead by means of active control. 61

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

To make optimal use of abilities of active control, a mechatronic redesign of the printhead is required. For one, proper sensor functionality should be build in. This requires a thorough physical understanding of the printhead that involves a comprehensive model describing the influence of all relevant parameters. At the same time, this knowledge is needed to design sensible controllers for the printhead. Practical applicability is to be shown using a test-rig that is available to perform measurements and validate results.

Model-based sub-nano positioning control systems Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof, prof.dr.ir. J. van Eijk, G. Schitter J.R. van Hulzen Delft University of Technology

Description A common tool for inspection and manipulation in the nano and sub-nanometer range is the scanning probe microscope (SPM). In most SPM applications the required range is in the micrometer range with a high accuracy scanning area of 50-100 nm2. Recently SPM’s having the ability to scan at video rate have started to emerge. For these applications high bandwidth motion control is required. The goal of the project is to research actuation for position and motion control under extreme demands on bandwidth and accuracy. Historically probe positioning is controlled using piezo electric actuators. Piezo actuators have high mechanical stiffness and can operate at the required accuracy and bandwidth. They do however exhibit hysteresis type non-linear behavior, thermal drift and creep. Using feedback we can address these problems. Non-linear control schemes like Preisach model inversion and feedback linearization have been proposed. However, due to their complexity and reliance on exact models they are difficult to implement in high bandwidth applications. Our aim is to provide bandwidth and stability by using simple control in combination with load balancing. By matching actuator and load we can use the driven load to damp the resonant modes of the actuator dynamics enabling high bandwidth without the need to provide damping electrically.

Neuro-fuzzy modeling in model-based fault detection, fault isolation and controller reconfiguration Projectleader: prof. M. Verhaegen, prof. R. Babuška Participants: dr.ir. R. Hallouzi, dr.ir. S. Kanev Sponsored by: STW

Description The aim is the development of fast and reliable algorithms for fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) and controller reconfiguration (CR). In control systems, faults are events that could cause unwanted behavior or a catastrophe of the controlled system. The design of FTC systems has therefore the purpose to prevent the degradation from simple faults into serious system failures, since system failures might lead to huge economical and human losses. A fault-tolerant system consists of two main parts (see Figure 1): one that has the task to detect and diagnose faults that occur in the control system, and another that reconfigures

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the controller accordingly, whenever faults occur in the system, so that the performance of the reconfigured faulty closed-loop system is preserved at some desired level. The goal in the project is the development of numerically fast and robust algorithms for on-line implementation, applicable to the problems of FDD and CR in cases of both abrupt and incipient system faults in the sensors, actuators and physical parameters in the system. The project is subdivided into two work packages, one dealing with fault detection and isolation (researcher R. Hallouzi, started in 2004), and another focused on the problem of controller reconfiguration (researcher S. Kanev, 1999-2003). Within Work Package I the main focus is put on the following items: • the augmented Kalman filter for the estimation of multiplicative and additive sensor and actuator faults, • LPV based FDI for dealing with non-linear systems. • FDI methods that provide information on the uncertainty of the identified faults. • evaluation of FDI methods on a non-linear aircraft model that may include component faults. Within Work Package II different approaches have been developed: • FTC based on multiple-model estimation and predictive control, • reconfiguration strategies for robust LQ regulator/Kalman filter, • a BMI approach to passive FTC, • an ellipsoid algorithm for probabilistic robust controller design, • active LPV-based FTC in the presence of uncertainty in the FDI, • a randomized approach to robust output-feedback MPC.

Vibration isolation and suppression applied to mechanical servo-systems Projectleader: prof. O.H. Bosgra Participants: M.I. Parra Calvache, P. Valk Sponsored by: Delft University of Technology, SIMONA Research Institute

Description The SIMONA Research simulator is a lightweight re-configurable cockpit mounted over a 6-DOF motion platform. It is desired that this simulator work with a wide bandwidth, from 10Hz to 15Hz, that would allow the simulation of special conditions. The requirements of higher speed and acceleration, and the desired high performance forced the use of lighter structures that have as drawback higher flexibility and more susceptibility to unwanted vibrations. Within this framework, it is our main interest to compensate for bending and vibrations over the components of the video display system, namely the projectors, the back projection screen and the mirror and to allow the high performance use of the motion hydraulic system for the simulation of special conditions. As a first approach, it is important to analyze the interaction between Video Display System components and how their performance is affected by the reference motion necessary to give the pilot the impression of real flight. This clearly involves knowledge over the flexible-multi-body cockpit structure and video display system. For this end, we will use experimental modelling tools giving emphasis to identification of multivariable systems in closed-loop and modal identification for mode shape representation. Further, we want to suppress unwanted vibration that deteriorates not only the performance but eventually the structural integrity of mirror or screen. As a first approach input shaping algorithms will be studied as passive damping technique keeping open possibilities of extra feedback (signals related to the performance of the Video Display System) aiming to a final active control of vibration of the cockpit structure. 63

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

Industrial processes The relevant trends in process industry could be summarized as: better profitability, increased flexibility and the incorporation of sustainability. The current research focus is on profitability and flexibility and could be summarized as model-based control/optimization of difficult'' unit operations and complete plants. In this research three aspects can be recognized: Modeling: this includes modeling, validation, identification and reduction. After modeling we should end up with a model that has sufficient accurate predictive power at acceptable computational cost. Observation: Attention is paid to extended Kalman filters and horizon estimators. Control/optimization: The research in this area concentrates on dynamic optimization (sequential and simultaneous approach) but also on the integration of control and optimization.This research is done in close cooperation with the process industry: Bayer, Shell, Solvay, AKZO, Unilever, ...

DISC projects Adaptive State Estimation and Control of a Hopper Dredger Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. R. Babuška Zs. Lendek P.M. Stano IHC Systems B.V.

Description The trailing suction hopper dredger (TSHD) is a ship that excavates sand and sediments from the sea bottom while sailing. Modern TSHDs are advanced ships, equipped with many local automation systems controlled from the bridge via a computer system. A comprehensive mathematical model has been developed in previous research, integrating several sub-processes. The model is used as a basis for model-based predictive control. The main challenge for a successful adoption of the existing techniques in practice is the strongly time-varying nature of the underlying processes and disturbances. The present research project aims at the extension of the existing results to on-line (real-time) algorithms to estimate parameters that strongly vary in time, such as the soil type dependent parameters, the estimation of the states of the system and subsequently the development of adaptive and learning control methods. The main research topic of this research project is to investigate various methods and develop new techniques for adaptive estimation and control that can be applied for the performance improvement of a hopper-dredger. The research efforts is focus on algorithm and methodology development for distributed control systems with emphasis on developing and testing methods for parameter and state estimation in an uncertain environment.

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Advanced Autonomous Model-Based Operation of Industrial Process Systems Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof X.J.A. Bombois, J.H.A. Ludlage A. Mesbah European Union via the Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7).

Description This project is a joint endeavor of an international consortium of industrial and academic partners. Academic partners are Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands), Eindhoven University of Technology (The Netherlands), RWTH Aachen (Germany) and KTH Stockholm (Sweden). The industrial partners are ABB (Sweden), Boliden (Sweden) and SASOL (South Africa). The cost related to the industrial implementation of current model-based operation support systems, like Model Predictive Control (MPC), Real-Time Optimization (RTO) and soft-sensors for large-scale complex dynamic processes are currently very high. Moreover it is widely recognized that the life-time performance of these systems is rather limited, particularly due to the fact that the underlying dynamic models need to be adapted/calibrated regularly, requiring dedicated measurement campaigns executed by highly specialized engineers. Given the importance of increasing demands on economic and sustainable process operation, there is a strong need to reduce the costs and increase the performance of model-based operation support systems. Therefore in this project a model-based operation support technology is developed that enables control and model calibration at a considerable higher level of autonomy than currently possible. The technology to be developed operates on the basis of the least costly principle. The influence of the invasive testing on process’ operation and economics will be minimised, to the extent possible given the necessary accuracy of the resulting identified model. Moreover all decisions are based on an economic trade-off between process operation costs and benefits. This operation support system should be able to optimise plant performance under varying operational conditions and adapting to changing circumstances.

Artificial intelligence for the control of a hopper dredger Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. R. Babuška J.B. Klaassens, C. de Keizer J. Braaksma IHC Systems, Senter

Description This project is a cooperation of the Delft Center for Systems and Control with IHC Systems, a company specialized in the development and manufacturing of automation systems for dredgers. Although modern trailing suction dredgers are equipped with advanced dynamic positioning and tracking systems, there is need for an on-board decision-support system that will advise the operators on a control strategy leading to optimal dredger performance under given operating conditions. The dredging process can be subdivided into two main subprocesses: trailing (propulsion of the ship) and dredging (excavation of the soil from the sea bed and its transport to the 65

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

ship). Set-points for manipulated variables influencing these processes are determined by two human operators. Consequently, the performance and efficiency of the entire dredging process heavily depend on the experience and insight of these operators. Changes of external variables that have large influence on dredging efficiency, such as the type of soil, dredging depth, water current, etc., require that the operators must constantly change the important settings of the manipulated variables. These include the propeller pitch, the pump drives, the visor angle, swell compensators, etc., when these actuators are controlled manually, or the corresponding set-points for trail speed, mixture speed, soil-water mixture density, etc., when controlled automatically. An important constraint is the limited amount of energy available on-board. Proper distribution of the energy among the different subprocesses is thus crucial. In addition, different operating strategies can be used in different dredging projects, such as the maximization of the production rate vs. optimization of efficiency and awareness of maintenance and fuel costs. The goal of this project is to develop an adaptive decision-support system that will advises the operators on the most suitable control strategy, given a specified goal, such as the minimization of the integral dredging costs per m3 or the maximization of the production per time unit. The system will make use of available knowledge in the form of (partial) mathematical models of the process and will also involve on-line learning and adaptation during operation.

Block structured based model reduction Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. O.H. Bosgra A.E.M. Huesman O. Naeem Eurpean Commission, ProMATCH, Delft University of Technology

Description Computational effort (simulation time) has been one of the concerns of modern systems and control research. Large scale industrial process models require lot of computational effort, which is vital, if the model has to be used for closed-loop control and optimization purposes. Model reduction has been considered as one of the method to achieve acceptable computational effort. There are different perspectives of model reduction for example, linear system theory, projection based model reduction, time scale based model reduction, identification based etc. In this research, the focus has been on identification based model reduction. Models with Hammerstein structure have been used to identify and yield a reduced model. Hammerstein model consists of a static non-linear block, followed by linear dynamic block. It is expected, that this methodology and structure will help to achieve the goals. The methodology has been applied on a benchmark. Satisfactory results have been accomplished as far as identification is concerned. Computational effort has to be investigated for more complex benchmarks in future (for example; high purity distillation column).

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Control in reservoir engineering under model uncertainty Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof, prof. O.H. Bosgra Participants: M.J. Zandvliet Sponsored by: Shell, TNO

Description The past few years have seen an increase in the application of system and control concepts in reservoir engineering, all aimed at increasing the value of a reservoir. However, the control schemes involved are often based on an inherently uncertain reservoir model, due to the geological complexity of the reservoir at hand. The goal of this project is to develop control and optimization techniques for the optimal operation of reservoirs on the basis of dynamic models containing quantified model uncertainties. The relevant geological uncertainties must first be quantified in a systematic way, and then taken into account in a subsequent optimization scheme.

Economic optimal plantwide control Projectleader: A.E.M. Huesman Sponsored by: Delft University of Technology

Description The objective of plantwide control (the control of a complete chemical plant) can be formulated as: • support (not guarantee) safety, • realize the required conversion, • minimize the operating costs. It should be noted that the three aspects of the objective are mentioned in the order of economic importance.The support of safety is essential to avoid (economic) loss, the required conversion is a necessary condition to make profit and minimizing the operating costs leads to maximum profit. There are at least two approaches to realize this objective. The first approach is traditional. This approach focuses on the required conversion and tries to realize this by control. If necessary or possible the support of safety and the minimization of the operating costs is also handled by control. An advantage of this approach is that it leads to control problems that can be solved easily real-time. A disadvantage is that it does not minimize the operating cost to the lowest possible level, so potential profit is lost. Another disadvantage is that the traditional approach only works well for continuous processes. The second approach uses the objective to formulate a dynamic optimization problem. The optimization approach is attractive since it leads to economic optimal plantwide control. Furthermore it can not only handle continuous processes but also batch processes. However the typical size of the optimization problems involved is considerable (the number of variables and equations is ). And the effect of disturbances can only be taken into account by repeating the optimization real-time. The current research concentrates on the question how to solve large optimization problems real-time (in a plantwide control context).

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Exploiting the interface between process intensification and process control Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof, prof. A.I. Stankiewicz Participants: N. Nikacevic, A.E.M. Huesman Sponsored by: Delft Centre for Sustainable Industrial Processes

Description Process intensification (PI) aims to significant improvement of process efficiency by implementing novel principles to process design. Additional benefits could be achieved by advancing the operation and the control of intensified processes. An innovative approach, which implies actuation enhancement and full integration of process design, operation and control, will be investigated in this project. In comparison to conventional processes, intensified processes have specific dynamic and operating characteristics. These are elevated barriers for operation and control, which are examined and illustrated by means of examples in the project. Moreover, realization of modern model-based control of PI systems faces technical challenges, at the first place a lack of accurate and reliable mathematical models for novel processes, as well as those related also to the classical processes systems: non-efficient model reducing algorithms and realization of a non-linear model predictive control system. These issues are reviewed in the project in detail. Traditionally, process synthesis consists of three consecutive phases. Although this concept is well established in practice, it does not allow the interaction of design and control and therefore it is usually suboptimal from both economic and control standpoint. A new integral approach, based on dynamic optimization, is developed and studied by means of the industrially relevant examples. In the first stage of the new concept, the integral approach provides both optimal process design and optimal operation. In second phase, controllability analysis for the optimal solution is performed, while the third stage implies control design. This concept includes various process intensification methods and examines possible actuation enhancements like: spatial actuation for distributed systems (e.g. for microreactors), the use of alternative driving forces for actuation (e.g. microwaves for optimal temperature profiles), time-varying actuation of feeding or unsteady state operation, etc.

Grey-box modeling and plant-wide integrated control of water purification processes Projectleader: prof. R. Babuška, prof. J.M.A. Scherpen PhD students: K.M. van Schagen Sponsored by: Senter

Description This project, called Promicit (Process Modeling and Integrated Control of Water Treatment), is a cooperation between Amsterdam Water Supply, ABB, DHV and the Delft University of Technology - Department of Civil Engineering and Delft Center for Systems and Control. Currently, water treatment plants are primarily controlled by experienced operators, based on laboratory and on-line measurement of water quality parameters. The goal and the challenge of this project is to develop models of the complete water purification plant, by using first principles (chemical, biological and physical) as well as novel gray-box, data-driven techniques. Based on these models, an automatic control system will be designed for 68

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

integrated, plant-wide control of the entire process chain. This system can be used both for on-line process control and for decision support. The main treatment steps considered in this project are ozonation, softening and biological active carbon filtration. It is expected that by using advanced modeling and control techniques, water supply companies will gain more insight in the operation principles of the plant, improve monitoring, prediction and control of the processes and thus will consistently produce high-quality drinking water. In a first pilot study, a model-based predictive controller for the softening process stage was developed. This process was selected as it is relatively independent of the other treatment steps, the chemical and physical principles are well understood and a sufficient number of sensors and actuators are available. The softening controller should maintain the desired water hardness and at the same time minimize the super-saturation of calcium in order to prevent calcium deposits in later water treatment steps. First, a model was developed within the Stimela environment under Matlab and Simulink. Sensitivity analysis has been conducted on this model to identify the most important parameters and to compute the uncertainty bounds in the predicted outputs. The parameters of the model were optimized by using process data. A hierarchical control structure was proposed to comply with the requirement of constant effluent hardness and minimal super-saturation. A supervisory control level is responsible for determining optimal water flow and reactor effluent hardness set-points. Local controllers take care of the actual control of the individual softening reactors. The performance of the local controller was evaluated in four different scenarios and it was compared with the controller currently used in the plant.

Least costly identification experiment for control Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof Participants: X.J.A. Bombois, M. Gevers (Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium), G. Scorletti (Université de Caen, France), H. Hjalmarsson (KTH, Sweden), M. Barenthin (KTH, Sweden), M. Gilson (CRAN, France)

Description Model-based control has nowadays reached many industrial sectors (chemical industry, high-tech manufacturing industry, ...) as a crucial technology in realizing optimal process operation. However, the development of model-based control is still restrained by various open issues in control and system theory. In most of these issues, the harmonious interaction between system identification and robust control design is very important. Since the beginning of the nineties, important steps have been taken towards this harmonious interaction. Indeed, it is now possible, given a model and its related uncertainty as delivered by system identification, to check whether a controller meets the robust performance requirements. However, until very recently, there was still a complete lack of results allowing the design of robust controllers based on cheap and plant-friendly identification. Indeed, until then, very few attention had been devoted on the choice of the data used to identify the model and its uncertainty region and the lack of clear guidelines for the choice of these data generally lead to identification experiments that were more expensive than actually necessary, i.e. the identified uncertainty region was either too large (and thus unusable) or smaller than strictly necessary for the required level of performance. Knowing that the generation of informative data for an identification experiment is the most expensive step of the whole robust control design procedure, the related economic loss could be very important. Based on these considerations, a brandnew line of research has recently been defined. This research aims at developing tractable techniques for an optimal design of the identification 69

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

experiment. In particular, the objective is to determine the least costly identification experiment that delivers sufficient information on the true system dynamics (i.e. that delivers a model with a sufficiently small uncertainty region) for the design of a robust controller with a satisfactory performance. In particular, the influence of short data sets and the extension of the concepts towards performance monitoring and robust filtering are currently investigated.

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of MSWC plants Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof, prof. O.H. Bosgra Sponsored by: TNO

Description The incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), i.e. household waste, is used for the reduction of the amount of waste and for the production of energy. It is typically performed at a plant of the form that is depicted below. Such a MSW combustion plant is subject to both economic and environmental operational and, thereby, control objectives. Economic objectives are e.g. maximization of the waste throughput, maximization of the energy output and maximization of the lifetime of the components of the MSW combustion plant. Environmental objectives are e.g. upper bounds imposed on potentially contaminating components of the flue gas. Part of these objectives are supporting each other, for example maximization of the waste throughput implies maximization of the energy output, and part of the objectives are conflicting, for example the objective of maximization of the waste throughput and energy output conflicts with the demand of maximizing the life time of the components of the MSW combustion plant. Among many MSW combustion plant managers there is a need to improve their process operation performance. This is due to the ever becoming more stringent environmental regulations and ever growing higher energy demands. An essential tool that these managers have available for the fulfilment of the ever becoming higher and tighter economic and environmental objectives is (apart from operators) a combustion control system (which, by the way, does not contain the flue gas cleaning equipment). Such a combustion control system is typically a network of proportional and, sometimes, integrating (PI) controllers which at best fulfils the mentioned objectives in a suboptimal manner. An alternative which is thought to be able to deliver a much better control performance than such conventional combustion controllers is model predictive control (MPC). The reason(s) for this expectation is that MPC is thought to be able to deal much better with the following typical characteristics of the MSW combustion control problem: (i) multiple, conflicting objectives, (ii) the multivariable interacting nature of the process and (iii) constraints. The aim of the research project is to investigate the feasibility of MPC as a tool for improving the process operation performance of MSW combustion plants. Aspects of the research are, amongst others, (i) modelling of MSW combustion plants via linear system identification techniques and (ii) nonlinear MPC using a first-principles model that describes the main dynamical phemona taking place during the MSW combustion process and which is of low complexity (i.e. with respect to the number of (differential) equations of the model). If all works out well, (N)MPC will be tested on a real-life large-scale MSW combustion plant.

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System identification of hydrocarbon reservoirs Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof, prof. J.D. Jansen, prof. O.H. Bosgra PhD students: J.F.M. van Doren Sponsored by: Shell

Description Closed-loop reservoir management is an emerging topic in the oil industry. In this approach the system is the hydrocarbon reservoir including wells and surface facilities, and the goal is optimal performance of the system. Performance can mean a higher net present value of the reservoir or the reduction of uncertainty. Closed-loop reservoir management contains aspects such as model reduction, model-based optimization and system identification and updating. The focus of this project is on system identification and parameter estimation within closed-loop reservoir management, with the aim to quantify and reduce the uncertainty of the reservoir model by assimilating information contained in measurements. In reservoir engineering this is called "history matching". The reservoir model is large-scale (possibly contains millions of states and parameters), nonlinear and has multiple inputs and outputs. One method that can deal with these kind of models is the Ensemble Kalman filter. This method is investigated together with possible improvements.

Imaging and adaptive optics The research activities of DCSC cover the application of (newly developed) methods and tools for modeling, measurement and control to practical problems in various fields of physics. One of the target application domains is formed by physical imaging systems. It is shown how a quantitative model-based approach, accompanied by statistical experimental design, allows precise measurement of the atomic structure of materials from electron microscopy images. Furthermore, optimal statistical tests are developed for the detection of neural activity by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. We also apply modern control strategies to adaptive optics systems, with emphasis on ground-based telescopes.

DISC projects Control for adaptive optics Projectleader: prof. M. Verhaegen Participants: K.J.G. Hinnen, N. Doelman Sponsored by: TNO Science and Industry

Description Adaptive optics (AO) is a technique to actively sense, estimate and correct the wavefront distortions that are introduced in a light beam as it propagates through a turbulent medium. One important application is to counteract the effects of atmospheric turbulence in ground-based astronomical imaging, which results in a considerable improvement of the image resolution. Nowadays, most of the leading ground-based telescopes are equipped or being retrofitted with some kind of AO system. In this project we focus on the control aspects of adaptive optics. The goal is to develop innovative control strategies for AO in general, with a main emphasis on systems dedicated to ground-based imaging. 71

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The control strategy used in the current generation of AO systems is usually not able to take full advantage of the spatio-temporal correlation in the wavefront. In standard AO control design, the temporal evolution of the wavefront is often entirely neglected. Based on physical insights, the standard control law consists of a cascade of a static matrix multiplication and a series of parallel SISO feedback loops. Since atmospheric turbulence is clearly a dynamic process, it is to be expected that the performance of current AO systems may benefit from a more rigorous control approach. By exploiting the spatio-temporal correlation it is possible to anticipate future wavefront distortions and reduce the temporal error caused by the unavoidable delay between measurement and correction. Furthermore it should be possible to reduce the sensitivity to measurement noise as photons collected at different time instants and neighboring wavefront sensor channels may all contribute to improve the wavefront estimate. This might relax the requirements on the magnitude of the guide star. The goal of this project is to develop advanced control strategies that are able exploit the spatio-temporal correlation in the wavefront. Incorporating the spatio-temporal dynamics in the control design requires an accurate model of the wavefront distortion. For this reason, a significant part of this project will be devoted to the modeling the wavefront distortions introduced by the turbulence atmosphere. In particular, we will focus on the development of techniques to identify an atmospheric disturbance model from open-loop wavefront slope measurements from a Shack-Hartmann sensor. Data-driven modeling has the advantage that it yields a good match with the prevalent turbulence conditions and it results in a disturbance model independent from restricting assumptions like the assumption that turbulence has a Kolmogorov power spectrum or that its temporal evolution can be described by the frozen flow hypothesis. The main challenge, both in identifying an atmospheric disturbance model and in the controller design, is dimension of an AO system. Current AO systems typically incorporate a few hundred sensors and actuators, which calls for efficient algorithms. This issue will become increasingly important since the number of sensors and actuators of future AO systems is only expected to grow.

Control of Piezo Deformable Mirror in Adaptive Optical Systems Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. M. Verhaegen P.R. Fraanje, G. Schitter, G. Vdovin H. Song DCMM

Description The field of adaptive optics (AO) has received rapidly increasing attention in recent years. The goal of this project is to implement a low-cost high-speed AO system by solving the challenging problems as follows: 1. To model the nonlinearity (hysteresis and creep) of the piezo actuators in the deformable mirror (DM) and the coupling effect (cross-talk) between actuators, and design a controller based on the accurate DM model such that the accuracy of the DM can be improved. 2. To investigate how to maximize the light intensity at the output of the optical system by optimizing the shape of the DM. During the optimization, accurate DM model will be involved. 3. To implement a low-cost high-speed AO system which makes use of a photodiode instead of a wavefront sensor for feedback control of the shape of the piezo DM.

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Development of advanced statistical tests to detect brain activity from fMRI data Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

A.J. den Dekker J. Sijbers D.H.J. Poot IWT

Description The focus of this project is on signal processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional brain imaging offers a way to image the specific brain areas that are active during a specific action. Brain activation is present in the MRI images due to the BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) response. Since the BOLD response signal is weak compared to the noise level, accurate modeling of the response as well as the disturbances will improve brain activation detection. The main goal of this project is to develop advanced statistical tests to detect brain activity from fMRI data. Within this project the time and space correlations of fMRI signal are modeled. The model will be used to derive detectors for task dependent brain activation. We seek to improve the current standard processing of fMRI datasets in the following ways. Currently, the time correlation is often modeled by an AR(1) process (first order autoregressive process). There are indications that this is not always an accurate description of the disturbances.Therefore, methods are developed that automatically select the best AR order from the data to optimally model the temporal noise structure. Usually, for activation detection, linear regression is performed where the stimulus paradigm is convolved with a hemodynamic response function (HRF) as regression vector. However, it is known that the HRF is not constant among brain regions and subjects. Therefore we will investigate ways to identify the HRF from the measured data. To decide which parts of the brain are active, statistical test have to be performed. In order to make these tests more accurate the noise level of the images often is needed. This noise level can be robustly estimated from background areas present in the images. Traditionally the maximum of the background mode of the histogram is used as an estimator for the noise level. In this project a Maximum Likelihood method is being developed which can robustly determine the noise variance from the histogram of the background mode of the image.

Distributed control for large adaptive optics systems Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. M. Verhaegen, prof. M. Steinbuch (TU/e) R.F.M.M. Hamelinck (TU/e), N. Doelman (TNO-TPD) R.M.L. Ellenbroek TNO-TPD, IOP Precisietechnologie

Description It has been known for a long time that atmospheric turbulence limits the optical telescope image resolution because it distorts the wavefront of the incoming light. Without turbulence, image resolution can be improved by using a larger primary mirror. However, depending on the turbulence strength this trend stops at mirrors with a diameter of approximately half a meter. It is possible to overcome this limitation using an actively controlled deformable mirror or an Adaptive Optics (AO) system. By now, AO systems are commercially available and AO is considered a proven technology. But there are still many open challenges, amongst which are scalability issues. As telescopes 73

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

become ever larger, they require AO systems with ever more sensors and actuators. This yields problems not only for the mechanical design, but also for the control design. Distributed control approaches have to be considered, representing a new research field with many challenges. The goal of this collaboration project between the TU Delft, the TU Eindhoven and TNO, is to design a new AO system consisting of a deformable mirror (DM) and a suitable control system. The distributed control design part is done at the DCSC group of the TU Delft. First steps in controller design consist of system and turbulence modeling. Although models have been created, distributed control requires conversion of those to distributed models. Two bottlenecks in distributing these models arise from the wavefront sensor and from the coupling between actuators of the deformable mirror. Distributing a required processing step of the sensor signals is not trivial while the same holds for the calculation of actuator signals corresponding to a desired mirror shape.

High-speed atomic force microscopy Projectleader: G. Schitter PhD students: S. Kuiper, J.R. van Hulzen, Sponsored by: NWO, Delft University of Technology

Description Atomic force microscopes (AFM) enable insights into the nanoworld, visualizing even single molecules and atoms. Taking images, however, is time consuming and does not allow observation of dynamic processes on the nanometer scale with the required temporal resolution. In this project the research focuses on key challenges for the next generation of AFMs, which are based on a new mechanical design in combination with high-performance control techniques. A new generation AFM is developed that will be used for real-time imaging (up to video-rates at 25 frames per second) e.g. of biological processes. This new instrument will enable experiments that investigate significant problems in nanotechnology and biotechnology. It will be possible to study biological and chemical processes on the molecular level in real-time as they occur in nature. This series of images of rat tail collagen illustrates how high-speed AFM allows zooming in on areas of interest rapidly [1]. Collagen's characteristic 67-nm banding pattern is clearly resolved. This entire zoom series was taken in less than 1 second. A conventional AFM would need about 15 min of imaging to obtain a comparable series of images. [1] P.K. Hansma, G. Schitter, G.E. Fantner, C. Prater, Science 314, 601 (2006)

Integrated High Resolution Observing Through Turbulence Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. M. Verhaegen, P.R. Fraanje F. Pinchetti STW, Delft University of Technology

Description Atmospheric turbulence is the main obstacle achieving diffraction-limited resolution in imaging instruments such as ground-based astronomical telescopes. Adaptive Optics systems aim at reducing the wavefront distortions in real-time, while Post-facto reconstruction techniques 74

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

such as speckle imaging and phase diverse imaging aim at removing the influence of wavefront aberrations on the acquired images. While these techniques have been combined in the past to achieve superior angular resolution, the two approaches have not been studied as a system such as to optimize the performance of the overall system as compared to separately optimizing the real-time and the post-facto methods. Main objective of this research project is to determine which techniques are optimal for an hybrid approach and which is the optimal system structure.

Integrated modeling and model-based auto-tuning of electron microscope systems Projectleader: prof. P.M.J. Van den Hof Participants: A. Tejada Ruiz, A.J. den Dekker Sponsored by: Senter, Embedded Systems Institute (ESI)

Description This research project is part of the Condor project. The Condor project is a joint endeavor of a consortium of industrial and academic partners with the Embedded Systems Institute (ESI) having the Project Management responsibility. The carrying industrial partner is FEI Company, a world-leading supplier of tools for nanotechnology. Academic partners are Delft University of Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, University of Antwerp, whereas Technolution provides industrial software expertise. The Condor project aims for a transformation of the traditional electron microscope from a qualitative imaging instrument into a flexible quantitative nano-measurement tool, allowing automated procedures for calibrated, reproducible, precise measurements. The project is partly funded by the Dutch Government and started in February 2007. The electron microscope is one of the few instruments that are able to image, measure and characterize individual structures on the nano-scale. It is a complex physical system composed of various embedded subsystems, such as the electron optical column (including electron sources, electronics, etc.), stage, detection and imaging system, additional detectors, vacuum system and general subsystems for electrical power and control. In the Condor project, multi-disciplinary models are to be developed that sufficiently capture the physical phenomena (and external disturbances) governing the behavior and performance of the electron microscope system and its constituting subsystems. This includes validation and calibration of these models. Using the behavior knowledge captured in the above mentioned models, and incorporating existing or newly developed techniques in the domains of measurement, parameter estimation, image analysis, image processing, experimental design, feed-forward and feedback control, the Condor project will aim for a transformation of the traditional microscope from a qualitative imaging instrument (with image quality as the key quality parameter) into a flexible quantitative nano-measurement tool, allowing automated procedures for calibrated, reproducible measurements (with accuracy and precision as key quality parameters). Problem-oriented research cases are selected to focus the research in such a way that particular system functionalities, such as focusing and calibration, will be dealt with and various critical design and implementation issues will show up. A challenging target is the development of a model-based auto-tuning method, enabling adaptive adjustment of the settings of the microscope’s column so as to meet pre-specified requirements for various functionalities. Although traditional microscopes are very image-centric, additional sensors may be introduced to realize and improve these functionalities. Functionalities that 75

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

will be focused on are calibrated measurement of nanometer-sized particles using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) instrument and focus and stigmation correction in both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) instruments. To assess (and control) the actual system’s performance for a given functionality, a set of parameters has to be derived from the image content or additional sensors in the system.

Mapping neural activity from EEG data using a Kalman approach Projectleader: prof. dr. G. Castellanos-Dominguez (National University of Colombia), A.J. den Dekker PhD students: E. Giraldo (Technological University of Pereira, Colombia)

Description Functional neuroimaging aims to non-invasively characterize the dynamics of the distributed neural networks that mediate brain function in healthy and pathological states. Well-known and widely used functional neuroimaging techniques are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) source reconstruction. EEG source reconstruction is a technique that reconstructs the sources of electrical currents (i.e. the current distribution) within the brain that give rise to recordable potential fields at the scalp. fMRI records hemodynamic activity (changes in blood flow), which is an indirect marker of the brain’s electrical activity. Both techniques map neuronal activity and are complementary in the sense that fMRI is known to provide a high spatial resolution but a relatively low temporal resolution, whereas EEG source reconstruction, which is also known as electroencephalographic source localization (ESL), allows a high temporal resolution, but a relatively low spatial resolution. This project focuses on EEG source reconstruction, which is known to be an ill-posed problem (as there are an infinite number of different current sources that give rise to identical scalp recordings) that cannot be solved without some kind of regularization. Until recently, most attempts to solve the inverse problem were based on scalp recordings at one single time pint. However, neural activity has inherent strong spatial and temporal dynamics that may be taken into account when solving the inverse problem. In this project this goal is pursued by developing EEG source reconstruction methods that solve the inverse problem in a Kalman filter framework using linear and nonlinear physiology based dynamic models with time varying parameters

Optimal experimental design for quantitative electron microscopy Projectleader: A.J. den Dekker Participants: D. Van Dyck , P. Goos , S. Van Aert , Sponsored by: FWO

Description The aim of this research project is to apply state-of-the-art methods from the field of optimal design of experiments in the field of electron microscopy. These methods will allow electron microscopists to evaluate, to compare, and to optimize experiments in terms of the attainable precision with which structure parameters, the atom positions in particular, can be measured. Moreover, statistical experimental design provides the possibility to decide if new instrumental developments result in significantly higher attainable precisions. The highest attainable precision determines the theoretical limit to quantitative electron microscopy. 76

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Automotive and intelligent transportation systems The traffic and transportation research of DCSC focusses on the control of large-scale transportation system with a main emphasis on freeway and road traffic networks. In addition, we also consider control of railway networks. The primary control strategy is model predictive control. Furthermore, we also consider distributed control of large-scale traffic networks using a distributed and/or hierarchical multi-agent control approach.

DISC projects ABS for Regenerative Braking in Electric Vehicles Projectleader: M. Corno Sponsored by: SKF

Description The economical progress is “jammed” by the continuous increasing traffic and pollution. Currently electric vehicles are considered a viable solution to the urban mobility problem. The research will focus on developing a truly mechatronic approach to the problem of electric vehicle design. By co-designing the hardware and the control algorithms of the vehicle, it will be possible to achieve better performance, safety and sustainability. One of the key features of electric vehicles is the possibility to harvest energy. This proposal is aimed at studying this aspect, particularly focusing on the interactions of energy harvesting with vehicle stability during braking. A considerable amount of effort has been put out in devising regenerative braking strategies, but so far the problem has been studied only from the energy point of view; much there is still to be said regarding the effect of regenerative braking on the vehicle stability. The current strategy in hybrid vehicles is to disable energy harvesting when the ABS system is activated. This strategy is not optimal from the energy or from the vehicle dynamics point of view. Electric vehicles have two complementary braking systems: hydraulic braking system and the electric motor(s). On one side the hydraulic braking system can deliver large braking torques that may be difficult to control in a precise way; on the other side electric motors can generally provide less braking torque but in a more easily controlled fashion. By designing novel ABS strategies that effectively merge the action of the two actuators in a truly multi-input approach, it will be possible to provide safer and more efficient vehicles.

Data-driven Methodologies for Battery Managment and Control Projectleader: M. Corno

Description During the last 10-15 years the secondary battery industry has experienced an explosive growth in terms of volume, value, available products and technologies. The early phase of this growth has been mainly pushed by the need of more portable electronics (cell phones, cameras, laptops, power tools, etc.). In the past several years rising oil price and increasing pollution determined a new driving factor: transportation. The battery industry responded to the energy needs of hybrid and electric vehicles by developing new technologies and by stacking hundreds of cell in battery packs.

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As the energy stored in battery packs increases, new battery control and management strategies are needed to safely take advantage of this development. Traditionally the design of battery control and management strategies is carried out with an indirect approach. According to this approach some apriori knowledge on the system (first principles, battery technology, empirical rules…) is used to derive a physical model of the battery whose parameters are then identified and validated with data obtained by ad-hoc experiments. This task is not always trivial, especially when dealing with batteries. The data-driven approach represents a viable solution to these problems. The idea at its foundation is that of deriving the control and fault detection algorithms directly from data. This approach allows the user to derive models and controllers by making a limited number of choices. With the new methods we limit these questions to structural information about the plant (such as a rough estimate of the system order) instead of relying on precise priors. This would enable an inexperienced user to make use of these tools or to train user's in short time to use them. The data-driven approach, when applied to the battery domain, has several advantages, in particular: • The computational complexity of the controller/model is easily scalable. • The derived models are easily ported between different technologies, as no physical hypothesis is needed. • It can be based on regular usage data and ad-hoc experiments are not needed. • A reduced set of tuning knobs provides an efficient method for the user to still exploit a-priori knowledge on the system (if available). Another advantage of the data-driven approach is that it can be directly extended to fault tolerant control and online estimation problems. The ability of deriving the controller directly from data can be exploited to iteratively adapt the controller to a varying (possibly faulty) plant. We believe that the battery control domain is of particular interest because of its strategic importance and the criticalities involved in deriving and maintaining models. In particular the proposed framework fits well to the problems of 1) charging/discharging control 2) equalization and faulty cells management. 3) Battery life estimation

Development of advanced multi-agent control strategies for multi-class traffic networks Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter, prof. J. Hellendoorn PhD students: M. van den Berg Sponsored by: NWO, CONNEKT

Description This project is part of a larger project "Advanced multi-agent control and information for integrated multiclass traffic networks" (AMICI), and aims at developing an innovative control theory specifically suited to the coordinated control of heterogeneous traffic flow. General control objectives are to optimize network efficiency, to minimize safety-critical traffic conditions, and to minimize societal impacts, by providing class-specific travel information and traffic control. We combine existing control design techniques from the fields of distributed and hierarchical control, supervisory control, model-based control, hybrid systems control and multi-agent control and apply them to the traffic control setting sketched above. These techniques will be used to obtain a structured control design method and adapt them to the typical characteristics of a traffic system.

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Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

The figure above illustrates the multi-agent control framework used in this project. The traffic network is divided in several possibly overlapping regions, each of which is controlled by a local control agent. The agents cooperate and coordinate their actions so as to contribute to the reliable and robust operation and the performance of the entire system. Furthermore, we have one or more higher "supervisory" control levels. In this project we also focus on optimization of the interaction between the urban network and the motorways, by dividing the networks into subregions. Besides being class-specific, integrated and coordinated, another characteristic is that the developed traffic control systems will be anticipatory (i.e., adaptive and predictive).

Global Chassis Control using Load Sensing Projectleader: prof. M. Verhaegen PhD students: M. Gerard Sponsored by: Delft University of Technology, SKF, TNO

Description Active braking, steer-by-wire, hybrid powertrain ... The number of active systems in cars is increasing rapidly. From a global perspective, the vehicle is over-actuated (more actuators than degrees of freedom) and each actuator is constrained (because of tyre saturation). The goal of this project is to define a modular architecture to control all those actuators in a coherent manner. An efficient online optimization technique is developed to handle over-actuated systems. Moreover, each group of actuators is locally controlled using information coming from the newly available Load Sensing Hub Bearing Units. A special focus is set on the further development of Anti-Lock Braking Systems. ABS is the most important active safety system for road vehicles, which maintains lateral stability during heavy braking and shortens the brake distance. Thanks to force measurement, ABS can be made simpler, more robust to changes in road conditions and better performing.

Hierarchical model predictive control for transportation systems Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter Participants: A. Nuñez Sponsored by: HD-MPC

Description Hierarchical model predictive controllers are useful to control systems characterized by significantly different dynamics and where the action of local controllers is coordinated by an algorithm operating at a higher level. The control structure consists of algorithms dealing with different components of the system, working at different temporal and spatial scales. At a higher level a simpler and more abstract model is considered to predict the long-term behavior of the system and to compute the optimal operating conditions. At the lower level, a more accurate model is then used to compute the current control actions by looking at a shorter time horizon. In this project, we aim to extend or adapt the existing algorithms of hierarchical model predictive control for integrated systems (multi-modal) such as dynamic vehicle routing of passengers together with a public transport corridor and its interactions with traffic control in urban areas. The algorithms should be efficient and able to solve the control problem in real-time considering economic factors, performance indexes, robustness, safety, coordination 79

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

issues, etc. Approaches from different disciplines like computational intelligence for optimization, models from the operation research, etc., will be merged in different levels of the hierarchy.

Integrated control of road networks with model predictive control Projectleader: prof. J. Hellendoorn, prof. B. De Schutter, Participants: A. Hegyi Sponsored by: BSIK-TRANSUMO

Description This project is part of the BSIK-TRANSUMO ATMA (Advanced Traffic Management) project and aims at further developing and applying advanced model-based predictive traffic control techniques with practical implementation and assessment in a real-life case study or field test as the ultimate goal. The theoretical basis of the contribution is the work of Papageorgiou on optimal traffic control and the work of Hegyi, De Schutter and Hellendoorn on model predictive traffic control. More specifically, in the PhD work of Hegyi a generic on-line, real-time traffic control approach has been developed that uses a traffic flow model in combination with numerical optimization to determine optimal traffic control signal settings, which are then applied to the traffic network using a receding or rolling horizon approach. The approach proposed by Hegyi allows integrated and coordinated network-wide control of various traffic control measures (such as ramp metering, traffic signals, variable speed limits, dynamic route guidance, etc.). Moreover, the approach allows to include various hard constraints (maximal queue lengths, maximal and minimal metering rates, maximum cycle times, ...), and allows a balanced trade-off between the urban and freeway parts of a network. The main aim of the proposed research is to further extended this approach so as to make it ready for implementation in practice, and then to really implement and assess this model-based traffic control approach in one of the three test regions of ATMA. In this context some theoretical issues will also have to be addressed, such as stability, robustness, efficient implementation, trade-off issues, adaptive re-estimation and re-identification, and scalability.

Intelligent control methods for flood and water management Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter Participants: R.R. Negenborn Sponsored by: BSIK-NGI, DRC-NGI

Description In the near future the importance of an efficient and reliable flood and water management system will keep on increasing, among others due to the effects of global warming (higher sea levels, more heavy rain during the spring season, but possibly also drier summers). Especially in The Netherlands the water management authority is distributed among several local bodies. Local control actions then include activation of pumps or locks, filling or draining of water reservoirs, or opening emergency water storage areas. By cooperating and by coordinating the local water management actions, and by also taking into account predictions or forecasts of future rain fall, future droughts, and the future arrival of increased water flow via rivers, etc. (using various weather and hydrological sensors and prediction models) a more efficient flood and water management can be obtained with less risks and less costs. 80

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

The aim of this project is to develop intelligent model-based predictive control approaches for flood and water management. We will both consider a more centralized approach and a more decentralized approach (which would be better suited for countries like The Netherlands where the water management authority is also distributed). In this project we will develop and assess new control methods that will guarantee the basic requirements and "service levels" to perform adequate flood and water management. As some of these requirements may sometimes be conflicting, this will result in a multi-constraint and multi-objective coordination and control task. In order to attain the goals of the project we will use a multi-disciplinary approach using methods from systems engineering, computer science, optimization, operations research, and control engineering. The coordination and control strategies for flood and water management developed in this project should result in a much more robust, reliable, efficient, and less costly operation of the water management system.

Intelligent Lane Selection Assistance System (ILSAS) Projectleader: M. Corno PhD students: M. Alirezaei

Description Nowadays Improving Safety is an indispensable part of research issues in the automotive industry. It is established, Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) and Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) can save thousands of lives every year. However, LKAS has some disadvantages as, • Instability of system at high velocity and low lookahead distance • Driver inability at controlling the vehicle Therefore, in this project an Intelligent Lane Selection Assistance System (ILSAS) will be developed by integration LKAS, ACC and driver decision. The ILSAS as a new method in Advance Driver Assistance Systems (ADASs) involves three main features: • Appling differential braking along with steering system for improving the stability of the vehicle • Incorporating the driver decision and satisfying driving delight • Integrating ACC and LKAS for Collision Avoidance

Model-Based Traffic Control for the Reduction of Emissions and Fuel Consumption Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter, prof. J. Hellendoorn PhD students: S.K. Zegeye Sponsored by: TU Delft/Shell

Description Despite the improvements in transportation systems, the increase in the cost of natural fuel energy resources, and the imposition of more stringent environmental policies for emission levels, the demand for mobility and transportation is continuously increasing. Consequently roads are frequently congested, creating economical, social, and ecological challenges. These problems can be addressed either by large-scale substitution of natural oil by alternative fuels, enhancing vehicle technology or/and reducing waste of fuels. The first option will be difficult to fully implement on the short to medium term. Therefore, reducing 81

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

fuel consumption by reducing waste of fuel and enhancing vehicle technology are sensible strategies. Reduction of fuel consumption and emissions can be achieved by using different traffic flow control measures (such as traffic signals, on-ramp metering, variable speed limits, opening or closing of shoulder lanes, route guidance etc.). Our goal is to use these traffic control measures to reduce fuel consumption (e.g., due to idling and frequent acceleration and deceleration) and exhaust emissions. These objectives will be addressed using a model-based control approach (also called model predictive control, or MPC for short). In this project, two possible control approaches will be investigated: 1. Infrastructure-based: In this approach, the control strategy will be driven by sensors (such as loop detectors, cameras, etc.) and control equipment (such as traffic signals, speed limit display units, and so on) on the road side. 2. Integrated road-vehicle: In this approach, the infrastructure-based framework will be integrated with the growing availability of in-car communication, sensing, and control systems to obtain an integrated road-vehicle control system, resulting in better and more sustainable mobility.

Multi-agent control of large-scale hybrid systems Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. B. De Schutter R.R. Negenborn L.D. Baskar, A.N. Tarau STW & NWO (via the VIDI Innovational Research Incentives Scheme)

Description Huge traffic congestion after recent incidents (such as the bomb alerts in the tunnels in Amsterdam, or at the IKEA stores), or the problems in the US, The Netherlands, and Italy due to power outages have shown the crucial role of a reliable operation of traffic and transportation systems, electricity distribution networks, and other large-scale complex systems that are one of the corner-stones of our modern society such as water distribution, logistic operations, and telecommunication networks. A reliable and efficient operation of these systems is not only of paramount importance when the systems are pressed to the limits of their performance, but also under regular operating conditions. The systems mentioned above can be modeled as hybrid systems, i.e., systems with both continuous and discrete dynamics. A smooth, efficient and safe operation of these systems is of paramount importance for the economic growth, the environment, and the quality of life. Up to now, most control methods for hybrid systems are based on a centralized control paradigm and/or on ad-hoc techniques. However, centralized control of large-scale systems is often not feasible in practice due to computational complexity, communication overhead, and lack of scalability. Furthermore, a structured control design method is also lacking. Therefore, we propose to develop a structured and tractable design methodology for robust control of large-scale hybrid systems. In this project we will develop both the necessary new theory and a corresponding design framework for control of large-scale hybrid systems using an approach based on: • a multi-level control structure with local "control agents" at the lowest level, and one or more higher "supervisory" control levels, • combination and integration of techniques from computer science and control engineering in order to obtain coordination at and across all control levels.

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Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

This will result in systematic approaches that outperform existing heuristic or case-dependent decentralized control strategies. In addition to performing fundamental research on control of large-scale hybrid systems, we will concentrate on three specific application fields: traffic & transportation, electricity distribution, and logistics.

Optimal and model predictive control of railway systems Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter Participants: T.J.J. van den Boom

Description In this project we extend the model predictive control framework (MPC), which is a very popular controller design method in the process industry, to railway systems. Usually MPC uses linear (or nonlinear) discrete-time models. However, railway networks and subway networks cannot adequately be described by such models. First, we have introduced a modeling framework for railway systems with both hard and soft connection constraints. A typical example of a hard connection constraint in a railway context is when a train should give a guaranteed connection to another train. However, in some cases (e.g., if there are delays) we could allow a train to depart although not all trains to which it should give connections according to the schedule have arrived at the station: if some of these trains have a too large delay, then it is sometimes better -- from a global performance viewpoint -- to let the train depart anyway in order to prevent an accumulation of delays in the network. Of course, missed connections lead to a penalty due to dissatisfied passengers or due to compensations that have to be paid. Synchronization constraints that may be broken (but at a cost) are called soft connection constraints. We also consider an extra degree of freedom for the control to recover from delays by letting trains run faster than their nominal speed if necessary. Of course, this control action will also lead to extra costs (due to increased energy consumption or faster wear of the material). Next, we have extended the MPC framework to railway systems while still retaining the attractive features of conventional MPC. The main aim of the control is to obtain optimal transfer coordination and/or to recover from delays in an optimal way by breaking connections and/or letting some trains run faster than usual (both at a cost). In general the MPC control design problem for railway systems leads to a nonlinear non-convex optimization problem. We have shown that the optimal MPC strategy can be computed using extended linear complementarity problems or integer programming algorithms. Other examples of systems with both hard and soft synchronization constraints for which this approach can be used are subway networks and logistic operations.

Passivity-Based Global Chassis Control Projectleader: prof. M. Verhaegen Participants: J.J. Koopman, D. Jeltsema Sponsored by: Delft University of Technology

Description With the introduction of driver-assisting control systems and X-by-wire technology, the automotive industry is now able to redesign the interface between the driver and the vehicle dynamical behaviour. The control systems help to make the car more consistent, predictable 83

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

and therefore more safe to operate. Besides that, the car can easily be designed to have a specific ‘driving feel’. However, increasing the degrees of control freedom often results in a complex conglomeration of control systems within the car. It is desirable that a single integrated control system is developed, possibly having a structural hierarchy. Other relevant complicating factors are: • Uncertain road conditions • Changing loading conditions • Highly nonlinear tyre behaviour This research aims at applying constructive, physics-based nonlinear control techniques to the problem of Global Chassis Control. It is the objective to shape the vehicle’s dynamical behaviour by applying: • Four-wheel steering • Differential braking and traction • Active suspension control Closed-loop controller synthesis methods can help to keep the controller as simple as possible and preferably physically interpretable. The closed loop should be robust to changes in e.g. friction and loading conditions. In this project, Passivity-Based Control is used. The area of Passivity-Based Control (PBC) focuses on shaping the closed-loop’s energy, interconnection and damping structure. The system’s passivity properties play a key role in this type of controller design. One of the key advantages of Passivity-Based Control is the fact that nonlinearities can be treated in a natural way. An interesting open issue is a general methodology to incorporate performance specifications into the controller synthesis. First results will be validated using the full-car simulation environment of Dymola®.

Reconfigurable handling and flying qualities for degrade flight systems using model predictive control Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof. M. Verhaegen T.J.J. van den Boom D.A. Joosten STW

Description We shall develop a framework for the real-time synthesis, simulation and implementation of aircraft vehicle health and reconfiguration management systems. On the base of a flexible, powerful and theoretically well founded command and control infrastructure a relevant and cost effective in depth study on the handling and flying qualities of crippled aircraft can be performed. We shall make use and, where necessary, extend the latest theoretical results from nonlinear model based predictive control, linear parameter varying control, reconfiguration and optimal trajectory generation in order to develop an on-line self-repairing command and control systems for crippled aircraft. A system as such will enhance the on-board vehicle functionality up to autonomy extending in this way the operational safety of crippled aircraft. The innovation in this project in threefold, 1) in the incorporation of the failure phenomena into the model of the aircraft, 2) the estimation of the achievable level of performance and 3) the control system reconfiguration to allow flight with degraded handling qualities. We aim at demonstrating the MPC concept on the flight 1882 El-Al accident, for which a high fidelity mathematical Boeing-747 model, a complete damage model and full Black-Box flight data recordings are at our disposition. 84

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

Self-organizing moving agents for distributed sensing and control Projectleader: prof. R. Babuška, prof. B. De Schutter PhD students: J. van Ast Sponsored by: BSIK-ICIS

Description This project is part of the ESA cluster within the ICIS framework and aims at further developing the theory of self-organization and swarm-intelligence with practical implementation in a case study on controlling traffic networks. Self-organization is a set of dynamical mechanisms whereby global structural patterns appear from interaction on the local level. When this interaction consists of decision making individuals, the theory belongs to computational swarm-intelligence. The individual elements in a swarm-intelligence system have typically limited memory and computational capacities and base their decisions only on purely local information. As a whole, the system of interacting individuals generate functional or spatial-temporal patterns that are invisible for the individuals. Swarm-intelligence is inspired by biological systems where self-organization describes the global behaviour, such as foraging ants, nest building termites and flocking birds. A swarm-intelligence system is a distributed system, which has several advantages over centralized systems, such as robustness, flexibility and scalability. In this project we want to investigate the theory of self-organization and swarm-intelligence for distributed sensing and control. We will try to determine under which conditions useful structural patterns emerge from local interactions. One of our case studies is the implementation on traffic networks. Rather than controlling the traffic flow primarily from the road-side, the principles of self-organization and swarm-intelligence could result in a more effective use of existing traffic networks by controlling individual vehicles in such a way that desirable global patterns are formed.

Traffic control for large-scale urban traffic networks via MPC Projectleader: prof. B. De Schutter, prof. J. Hellendoorn PhD students: S. Lin Sponsored by: Delft University of Technology

Description As an advanced control methodology, Model Predictive Control (MPC) offers a lot of advantages for controlling urban traffic networks. MPC predicts the future traffic states based on the prediction model, so as to make long-term control decisions. MPC is robust to the uncertainty of the process, which can be caused by the unpredictable disturbances, the (slow) variation over time of the parameters, and model mismatches in the prediction model. MPC can easily coordinate multiple intersections and also multiple control measures. Another advantage of MPC is that one can easily select and replace the prediction model based on the control requirements. However, one problem that needs to be overcome when implementing the MPC algorithm in a real-life traffic environment is the on-line computational complexity. Therefore, our research focuses on designing MPC controllers that are effective and also efficient for application in large-scale urban traffic networks. In order to build more efficient MPC controllers for urban traffic networks, the following approaches are considered: First, 85

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

reducing the urban traffic model, which is taken as the prediction model, to achieve more efficiency for the MPC controller. Second, approximating the optimization problem by one that can be solved more efficiently. Third, dividing the network into small sub-networks, and building distributed controllers. Moreover, as performance objectives for the MPC controllers we consider the reduction of the travel times, the reduction of the traffic emissions, or a combination of both.

Publications Book chapters/parts Bemporad, A, Camlibel, Mk, Heemels, WPMH, Schaft, AJ van der, Schumacher, JM & De Schutter, B (2009). Further switched systems. In Lunze,J & Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue,F (Eds.), Handbook of Hybrid Systems Control (pp. 139-192). Cambridge: CUP De Schutter, B, Heemels, WPMH, Lunze, J & Prieur, C (2009). Survey of modeling, analysis, and control of hybrid systems. In Lunze,J & Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue,F (Eds.), Handbook of Hybrid systems control (pp. 31-56). Cambridge: CUP. Heemels, WPMH, Lehmann, D, Lunze, J & De Schutter, B (2009). Introduction to hybrid systems. In Lunze,J & Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue,F (Eds.), Handboek of Hybrid systems control (pp. 3-30). Cambridge: CUP. Hegyi, A, Bellemans, T & De Schutter, B (2009). Freeway traffic management and control. In Meyers,R.A (Ed.), Encyclopedia of complexity and systems science (pp. 3943-3964). New york: Springerlink. Scherer, CW (2009). Robust controller synthesis is convex for systems without control channel uncertainties. In Van den Hof,P.M.J, Scherer,C.W. & Heuberger,P.S.C. (Eds.), Model-based control (pp. 13-30). SN: Springer. Van den Hof, PMJ, Doren, JFM van & Douma, SG (2009). Identification of parameters in large scale physical model structures, for the purpose of model-based operations. In Van den Hof,P.M.J., Scherer,C.W & Heuberger,P.S.C. (Eds.), Model-based control (pp. 125-143). SN: Springer. Van den Hof, PMJ, Toth, R & Heuberger, PSC (2009). Model structures for identification of linear parameter-varying (LPV) models. In Hangos,K.M. & Nádai,L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the workshop on systems & control theory (pp. 15-34). Budapest: Dr. Zsolt Sukovsky.

International journal papers Anderson, BDO, Lanzon, A, Dehghani, A & Bombois, XJA (2009). Quantitative effects of weight adjustments in Hoo control ++. Optimal control applications & methods, 30, 267-286. Ast, JM van, Babuska, R & De Schutter, B (2009). Novel ant colony optimization approach to optimal control. International journal of intelligent computing and cybernetics, 2(3), 414-434. Bos, R, Bombois, XJA & Van den Hof, PMJ (2009). Accelerating simulations of computationally intensive first principle models using accurate quasi-linear parameter varying models. Journal of process control, 19(10), 1601-1609. Castellini, F, Simonetto, A, Martini, R & Lavagna, M (2009). A mars communication constellation for human exploration and network science. Advances in space research, 45, 183-199. De Schutter, B & Shladover, SE (2009). Introduction to the special section on IV'08. Ieee transactions on intelligent transportation systems, 10(4), 557-559. Dekker, AJ den, Poot, DHJ, Bos, R & Sijbers, JJM (2009). Likelihood based hyphothesis tests for brain activation detection from MRI data disturbed by colored noise: a simulation study. Ieee transactions on medical imaging, 28(2), 287-296. 86

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft Center for Systems and Control

Dekker, AJ den, Poot, DHJ, Bos, R & Sijbers, JJM (2009). Likelihood-based hypothesis tests for brain activation detection from MRI data disturbed by colored noise: A simulation study. Ieee transactions on medical imaging, 28(2), 287-296. Doan, MD, Keviczky, T, Necoara, I, Diehl, M & De Schutter, B (2009). A distributed version of Han's method for DMPC using local communications only. Journal of control engineering and applied informatics, 11(3), 6-15. Dong, J & Verhaegen, M (2009). Cautious H2 optimal control using uncertain Markov parameters identified in closed loop. Systems & control letters, 58, 378-388. Essen, GM van, Zandvliet, M.J., Van den Hof, PMJ, Bosgra, OH & Jansen, JD (2009). Robust waterflooding optimization of multiple geological scenarios. Spe journal, 61(3), 202-210. Gerard, M, De Schutter, B & Verhaegen, M (2009). A hybrid steepest descent method for constrained convex optimization. Automatica, 45(2), 525-531. Gevers, M, Bazanella, A.S, Bombois, XJA & Miskovic, L (2009). Identification and the information matrix: How to get just sufficiently rich. Ieee transactions on automatic control, 54(12), 2828-2840. Gietelink, OJ, Ploeg, J, De Schutter, B & Verhaegen, M (2009). Development of a driver information and warning system with vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulations. Mechatronics, 19, 1091-1104. Hellendoorn, H, Zegeye, SK & De Schutter, B (2009). Milieuvriendelijk verkeersmanagement. Verkeerskunde, 1-8. Helm, AWC van der, Aa, LTJ van der, Schagen, KM van & Rietveld, LC (2009). Modeling of full-scale drinking water treatment plants with embedded plant control. Water science and technology: water supply, 9(3), 253-261. Jeltsema, D & Scherpen, JMA (2009). Multidomain modeling of nonlinear networks and systems. Ieee control systems, 29(4), 28-59. Köroglu, H & Scherer, CW (2009). Generalized asymptotic regulation with guaranteed H2 performance: An LMI solution. Automatica, 45, 823-829. Kose, E. & Scherer, CW (2009). Robust L2-gain feedforward control of uncerttain systems using dynamic IQCs. International journal of robust and nonlinear control, 19(11), 1224-1247. Lendek, Zs, Babuska, R & De Schutter, B (2009). Stability of cascaded fuzzy systems and observers. Ieee transactions on fuzzy systems, 17(3), 641-653. Lombaerts, TJJ, Huisman, HO, Chu, QP, Mulder, JA & Joosten, DA (2009). Nonlinear Reconfiguring Flight Control Based on Online Physical Model Identification. Journal of guidance control and dynamics, 32(3), 727-748. Lukszo, Z, Weijnen, MPC, Negenborn, R & De Schutter, B (2009). Tackling challenges in infrastructure operation and control: cross-sectoral learning for process and infrastructure engineers. International journal of critical infrastructures, 5(4), 308-322. Massioni, P & Verhaegen, M (2009). Distributed control for identical dynamically coupled systems: A decomposition approach. Ieee transactions on automatic control, 54(1), 124-135. Masubuchi, I & Scherer, CW (2009). A recursive algorithm of exactness verification of relaxations for robust SDPs. Systems & control letters, 58(8), 592-601. Mesbah, A, Huesman, AEM, Van den Hof, PMJ & Kramer, HJM (2009). A control oriented study on the numerical solution of the population balance equation for crystallization processes. Chemical engineering science, 64(20), 4262-4277. Necoara, I, De Schutter, B, Boom, TJJ van den & Hellendoorn, H (2009). Robust control of constrained max-plus-linear systems. International journal of robust and nonlinear control, 19(2), 218-242.

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Negenborn, RR, Leirens, S, De Schutter, B & Hellendoorn, J (2009). Supervisory nonlinear MPC for emergency voltage control using pattern search. Control engineering practice, 17(7), 841-848. Negenborn, RR, Overloop, PJ van, Keviczky, T & De Schutter, B (2009). Distributed model predictive control of irrigation canals. Networks and heterogeneous media, 4(2), 359-380 Peni, T., Kulcsar, BA & Bokor, J (2009). Induced L2 norm improvement by interpolating controllers for discrete-time LPC systems. European journal of control, 5, 545-559. Popov, AP, Hegyi, A, Babuska, R & Werner, H (2008). Distributed controller design approach to dynamic speed limit control against shockwaves on freeways. Transportation research record, 2008(11), 93-99. Preitl, Z, Kulcsar, BA & Bokor, J (2009). Nonlinear modeling and piecewise linear parameter varying models for a hybrid electric vehicle. Universitatea politehnica din Timisoara. Buletinul stiintific. Seria automatica si calculatoare, 54, 73-78. Rice, JK & Verhaegen, M (2009). Distributed control: A sequentially semi-separable approach for spatially heterogeneous linear systems. Ieee transactions on automatic control, 54(6), 1270-1283. Rietveld, LC, Helm, AWC van der, Schagen, KM van & Kappelhof, J (2009). Geavanceerde sturing van drinkwaterzuiveringen met een integraal model. H2O: tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en waterbeheer, 12, 37-40. Schagen, KM van (2009). Wiskundig procesmodel verbetert drinkwaterzuivering. NPT Procestechnologie, 4, 24-25. Schagen, KM van, Rietveld, LC, Veersma, A & Babuska, R (2009). Model-based pH monitor for sensor assessment. Water science and technology, 60(3), 709-715. Song, H, Vdovin, G, Fraanje, PR, Schitter, G & Verhaegen, M (2009). Extracting hysteresis from nonlinear measurement of wavefront-sensorless adaptive optics system. Optics letters, 34(1), 61-63. Song, H, Vdovin, G, Fraanje, R, Schitter, G & Verhaegen, M (2009). Extracting hysteresis from nonlinear measurement of wavegrond-sensor-less adaptive optics system. Optics letters, 34(1), 61-63. Steenhoven, TJ van, Schaasberg, W, Vries, WHK de, Valstar, E R & Nelissen, RGHH (2009). Augmentation with silicone stabilizes proximal femur fractures: An in vitro biomechanical study. Clinical biomechanics, 24(3), 286-290. Tarau, A, De Schutter, B & Hellendoorn, J (2009). Model-based control for throughput optimization of automated flats sorting machines. Control engineering practice, 17(6), 733-739. Tarau, AN, De Schutter, B & Hellendoorn, J (2009). Centralized, decentralized, and distributed model predictive control for route choice in automated baggage handling systems. Journal of control engineering and applied informatics, 11(3), 24-31. Toth, R, Heuberger, PSC & Van den Hof, PMJ (2009). Asymptotically optimal orthonormal basis functions for LPV system identification. Automatica, 45, 1359-1370. Valtchev, S, Borges, B, Brandisky, K & Klaassens, JB (2009). Resonant contactless energy transfer with improved efficiency. Ieee transactions on power electronics, 24(3), 685-699. Vries, WHK de, Veeger, HEJ, Baten, CTM & Helm, FCT van der (2009). Magnetic distortion in motion labs, implications for validating inertial magnetic sensors. Gait & posture, 29, 553-541. Wingerden, JW van & Verhaegen, M (2009). Subspace identification of bilinear and LPV systems for open- and closed-loop data. Automatica, 45, 372-381. Worm, GIM, Mesman, GAM, Schagen, KM van, Borger, KJ & Rietveld, LC (2009). Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations. Drinking water engineering and science discussions, 2(1), 15-20. 88

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Berg, M. van den, De Schutter, B, Hellendoorn, H & Hegyi, A (2009). Control of day-to-day route choice in traffic networks with overlapping routes. In Chassiakos,A (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th IFAC symposium on transportation systems (pp. 556-561). Redondo Beach, California, USA: IFAC. Bombois, XJA & Hjalmarsson, H (2009). Optimal input design for robust H2 deconvolution filtering. In Basseville,M. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (pp. 934-939). Saint-Malo, France: SYSID. Bombois, XJA, Dekker, AJ den, Barenthin, MH & Van den Hof, PMJ (2009). Effect of model structure and signal-to-noise ratio on finite-time uncertainty bounding in prediction error identification. In Baillieul,J & Guo,L (Eds.), Proceedings of the combined 48th IEEE conference on decision and control and 28th Chinese control conference (pp. 494-499). Shanghai, China: IEEE. Boom, TJJ van den & De Schutter, B (2009). MPC for max-plus-linear systems with an output cost criterion: steady-state behavior and guaranteed stability. In Baillieul,J & Guo,L (Eds.), Proceedings of the combined 48th IEEE conference on decision and control and 28th Chinese control conference (pp. 2286-2291). Shanghai, China: IEEE. Brak, S, Amini, R & Massioni, P (2009). Studenty Nanosatellite Development: from passive stabilization to three-axis active attitude control. In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of AAS 2009 (pp. 597-606). USA: American Astronautical Society. Busoniu, L, Ernst, D, De Schutter, B & Babuska, R (2009). Policy search with cross-entropy optimization of basis functions. In Derong Liu (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE symposium on adaptive dynamic programming and reinforcement learning (ADPRL 2009) (pp. 153-160). Nashville, USA: ADPRL. Carvalho, J, Ghose, R, Pinto, C & Borges, J (2009). Characterization of a concealed fault zone using P- and S-wave seismic reflection data. In U Yaramanci (Ed.), 15th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics (pp. 1-4). Houten, The Netherlands: EAGE. Deo, P, De Schutter, B & Hegyi, A (2009). Model predictive control for multi-class traffic flows. In A Chassiakos (Ed.), Proceedings 12th IFAC Symposium on Transportation Systems (pp. 25-30). Recondo Beach: IFAC. Djordevic, S, Van den Hof, PMJ, Jeltsema, D & Veen van 't, R. (2009). Control of cavity flow based on a macroscopic observation. In Keviczky,L. (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 (pp. 1233-1238). Budapest, Hungary: ECC. Doan, MD, Keviczky, T, Necoara, I, Diehl, M & De Schutter, B (2009). A distributed version of Han's method for DMPC of dynamically coupled systems with coupled constraints. In Cenedese,A, Johansson,K.H., Ozdaglar,A & Zampieri,S. (Eds.), Proceedings of 1st IFAC workshop on estimation and control of networked systems (pp. 240-245). Venice, Italy: IFAC. Doelman, N, Fraanje, PR, Houtzager, I & Verhaegen, M (2009). Adaptive and real-time optimal control for adaptive optics systems. In Keviczky,L. (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 (pp. 3527-3532). Budapest, Hungary: ECC. Dong, J & Verhaegen, M (2009). Subspace based fault detection and identification for LTI systems. In Gertler,J, Patton,R & Guevedo,J (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th IFAC symposium on fault detection, supervision and safety of technical processes (pp. 330-335). Barcelona, Spain: IFAC. Dong, J , Kulcsar, BA & Verhaegen, M (2009). Fault detection and estimation based on closed-loop subspace identification for linear parameter varying systems. In Frisk,E, Nyberg,M, krysander,M & Aslund,J (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th international workshop on principles of diagnosis (pp. 107-114). Stockholm: DX-09.

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Hoeven, SW van der, Dekker, AJ den & Tejada Ruiz, A (2009). Alignment control of STEM:a Ronchigram based approach. In Woodward,J.H. (Ed.), Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 2009 (pp. 118-119). Richmond, VA: M&M. Hoogerheide, N, Batenburg, DW van, Zwart, AH de, Douma, SG, Brouwer, DR, Rudolph, ESJ & Jansen, JD (2009). Automated history matching of combustion experiments using the ensemble Kalman filter. In s.n. (Ed.), 15th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery (pp. 1-16). Houten, The Netherlands: EAGE. Houtzager, I, Wingerden, JW van & Verhaegen, M (2009). Fast-array recursive closed-loop subspace model identification. In Basseville,M (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th IFAC symposium on system identification (pp. 96-101). Saint-Malo, France: SYSID. Houtzager, I, Wingerden, JW van & Verhaegen, M (2009).VARMAX-based closed-loop subspace model identification. In Baillieul,J & Guo,L (Eds.), Proceedings of the combined 48th IEEE conference on decision and control and 28th Chinese control conference (pp. 3370-3375). Shanghai, China: IEEE. Houwing, M, Negenborn, R, Ilic, M & De Schutter, B (2009). Model predictive control of fuel cell micro cogeneration systems. In Xinkai Chen & Takefumi Kanda (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (pp. 708-713). s.l.: IEEE. Huesman, AEM, Van den Hof, PMJ & Stankiewicz, AI (2009). On the essential role of process control in process intensification. In Stankiewicz,A (Ed.), Proceedings of the European process intensification conference (pp. 1-6). Venice, Italy: EPIC 2009. Hulzen, JR van, Schitter, G, Van den Hof, PMJ & Eijk, J van (2009). Load dynamics in piezoelectric actuation. In Vamos,T (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 (pp. 5009-5014). Budapest, Hungary: ECC. Jansen, JD, Douma, SG, Brouwer, DR, Van den Hof, PMJ, Bosgra, OH & Heemink, AW (2009). Closed-loop reservoir management. In s.n. (Ed.), 2009 SPE Reservoir Simulation (pp. 1-18). Houston, TX, USA: SPE. Joosten, DA & Maciejowski, J.M (2009). MPC design for fault-tolerant flight control purposes based upon an existing output feedback controller. In Gertler,J, Patton.R & Quevedo,J (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th IFAC international symposium on fault detection, supervision ans safety of technical processes (pp. 253-258). Barcelona, Spain: IFAC. Kallen, MJ, Nicolai, R.P. & Safaei Farahani, S (2009). Superposition of renewal processes for modelling imperfect maintenance. In Bris,R (Ed.), Proceedings of ESREL 2009 (pp. 629-634). Prague, Czech Republic: ESREL. Katwijk, RT van, De Schutter, B & Hellendoorn, J (2009). Multi-agent control of traffic networks: Algorithm and case study. In Barth,M (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th international IEEE conference on intelligent transportation systems (pp. 316-321). St. Louis, Missouri, USA: IEEE. Katzourakis, D, Gerard, M, Holweg, EGM & Happee, R (2009). Design issues for haptic steering force feedback on an automotive simulator. In s.n. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE workshop on Haptic Audio Visual environments and games (pp. 1-6). Lecco: IEEE. Khalate, AA, Bombois, XJA, Toth, R & Babuska, R (2009). Optimal experimental design for LPV identification using a local approach. In Basseville,M (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th IFAC symposium on system identification (pp. 162-167). Saint-Malo, France: SYSID. Kovacs, L, Kulcsar, BA, Benyo, B & Benyo, Z (2009). Induced L2-norm minimization of glucose-insulin system for type I diabetic patients. In Andreassen,S (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th IFAC symposium on modelling and control in biomedical systems (pp. 55-60). Aalborg, Denmark: IFAC.

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Tarau, A, De Schutter, B & Hellendoorn, J (2009). Route choice control of automated baggage handling systems. In Skinner Jr., R.E. (Ed.), Proceedings of the TRB 88th Annual Meeting (pp. 1-14). Washington D.C.: TRB. Tarau, AN, De Schutter, B & Hellendoorn, H (2009). Decentralized route choice control of automated baggage handling systems. In Chassiakos,A (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th IFAC symposium on transportation systems (pp. 70-75). Redondo Beach, California, USA: IFAC. Tarau, AN, De Schutter, B & Hellendoorn, H (2009). Hierarchical route choice control for baggage handling systems. In Barth,M (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th international IEEE conference on intelligent transportation systems (pp. 679-684). St. Louis, Missouri, USA: IEEE Tarau, AN, De Schutter, B & Hellendoorn, J (2009). Distributed route choice control in DCV-based baggage handling systems. In Fradkov,A (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Multi-conference on systems and control (pp. 818-824). Saint Petersburg, Russia: IEEE. P-DCSC-000V, P-TT-000V, U-SP-5-C-Mobility, U-SP-8-M-Infra Tarau, AN, De Schutter, B & Hellendoorn, J (2009). Predictive route choice control of destination coded vehicles with mixed integer linear programming optimization. In Chassiakos, A (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th IFAC symposium on transportation systems (pp. 64-69). Redondo Beach, California, USA: IFAC. Tejada Ruiz, A, Broek, W van den, Hoeven, SW van der & Dekker, AJ den (2009). Towards STEM control: Modeling framework and development of a sensor for defocus control. In Guo,L & Baillieul,J (Eds.), Proceedings of the 48th IEEE conference on decision and control and 28th Chinese control conference (pp. 8310-8315). Shanghai, P.R. China: IEEE. Tejada Ruiz, A, Dekker, AJ den & Hoeven, SW van der (2009). Observer development for automatic STEM closed-loop control. In Woodward,J.H. (Ed.), Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 2009 (pp. 1-2). Richmond, VA: M&M. Tejada Ruiz, A, Hoeven, SW van der, Dekker, AJ den & Van den Hof, PMJ (2009). Towards automatic control of scanning transmission electronmicroscopes. In Fradkov,A (Ed.), Proceedings of the 18th international conference on control applications part of 2009 IEEE multiconference on systems and control (pp. 788-793). St.Petersburg, Russia: IEEE. Tekin, OA, Babuska, R, Tomiyama, T & De Schutter, B (2009). Toward a flexible control design framework to automatically generate control code for mechatronic systems. In Hoo,K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 American Control Conference (pp. 4933-4938). Saint-Louis, USA: ACC. Toth, R, Heuberger, PSC & Van den Hof, PMJ (2009). An LPV identification framework based on orthonormal basis functions. In Basseville,M. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th IFAC symposium on system identification (pp. 1328-1333). Saint-Malo, France: SYSID. Toth, R, Heuberger, PSC, Van den Hof, PMJ & Willems, J.C. (2009). Extension of the behavioral approach to linear parameter-varying systems. In Sepulchre,R (Ed.), Proceedings of the 28th Benelux meeting on systems and control (pp. 131-131). Spa, Belgium: Benelux meeting. Toth, R, Lovera, M, Heuberger, PSC & Van den Hof, PMJ (2009). Discretization of linear fractional representations of LPV systems. In Baillieul,J & Guo,L (Eds.), Proceedings of the combined 48th IEEE conference on decision and control and 28th Chinese control conference (pp. 7424-7429). Shanghai, China: IEEE.

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Toth, R, Lyzell, C, Enqvist, M, Heuberger, PSC & Van den Hof, PMJ (2009). Order and structural dependence selection of LPV-ARX models using a Nonnegative Garrote approach. In Baillieul,J & Guo,L (Eds.), Proceedings of the combined 48th IEEE conference on decision and control and 28th Chinese control conference (pp. 7406-7411). Shanghai, China: IEEE. Toth, R, Willems, J.C., Heuberger, PSC & Van den Hof, PMJ (2009). A behavioral approach to LPV systems. In Keviczky,L. (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 (pp. 2015-2020). Budapest, Hungary: ECC. Trottemant, EJ , Weiss, M & Vermeulen, A (2009). Synthesis of robust feedback Missile control strategies by using LMI techniques. In Marcos,A (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-14). Chicago: AIAA. Vaandrager, M, Babuska, R, Busoniu, L & Lopes, GAD (2009). Model-based imitation for learning control. In Hamers,M (Ed.), Proceedings of the Philips conference on applications of control technology (pp. 83-87). Hilvarenbeek, the Netherlands: PACT. Van den Hof, PMJ, Jansen, JD, Essen, GM van & Bosgra, OH (2009). Model-based control and optimization of large scale physical systems-challenges in reservoir engineering. In Wang,F (Ed.), Proceedings of the 21st Chinese control & decision conference (pp. 1-10). Guillin, China: CCDC 2009. Vanek, B., Kulcsar, BA, Falcone, P. & Balas, G.J (2009). Yaw control via combined braking and steering. In Keviczky,L. (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 (pp. 3652-3658). Budapest, Hungary: ECC. Veenman, J, Köroglu, H & Scherer, CW (2009). Analysis of the controlled NASA HL20 atmospheric re-entry vehicle based on dynamic IQCs. In Marcos,A (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-16). Chicago: AIAA. Veenman, J, Scherer, CW & Köroglu, H (2009). IQC-based LPV controller synthesis for the NASA HL20 atmospheric re-entry vehicle. In Marcos,A (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-18). Chicago: AIAA. Viccione, P, Scherer, CW & Innocenti, M (2009). LPV synthesis with integral quadratic constraints for distributed control of interconneced systems. In Palmor, Z.J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th IFAC symposium on robust control design (pp. 13-18). Haifa, Israel: IFAC. Vries, D, Verheijen, PJT & Dekker, AJ den (2009). Hybrid system modeling and identification of cell biology systems:perspectives and challenges. In M Basseville (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th symposium on system identification SYSID 2009 (pp. 227-232). Saint-Malo, France: SYSID. Wei, X & Verhaegen, M (2009). Condition monitoring of large scale offshore wind turbine systems by using model based robust fault detection and estimation techniques. In Zervos, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the European wind energy conference and exhibition (EWEC) (pp. 1-10). Marseille, France: EWEC. Wei, X & Verhaegen, M (2009). Mixed H_/Hoo dynamic observer design for fault detection. In Keviczky,L. (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 (pp. 1913-1918). Budapest, Hungary: ECC. Wei, X & Verhaegen, M (2009). Robust fault detection observer design for LTI systems based on GKYP lemma. In Keviczky,L. (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 (pp. 1919-1924). Budapest, Hungary: ECC. Wei, X & Verhaegen, M (2009). Robust fault detection observer for LTI systems with additive uncertainties. In Gertler,J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th IFAC symposium on fault detection, supervision and safety of technical processes (pp. 756-761). Barcelona, Spain: IFAC.

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Wei, X, Houtzager, I & Verhaegen, M (2009). Fault diagnosis for LTI systems based on subspace identification technique. In Gertler, J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th IFAC symposium on fault detection, supervision and safety of technical processes (pp. 324-329). Barcelona, Spain: IFAC. Wei, X, Liu, L & Verhaegen, M (2009). Fault detection and estimation for LTI systems and its application to a lab robotic manipulator. In Wang,F.. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Chinese control and decision conference (pp. 1606-1611). Guilin, China: CCDC 2009. Wingerden, JW van & Verhaegen, M (2009). Closed loop identification of MIMO Hammerstein models using LS-SVM. In Basseville,M. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th Symposium on System Identification (pp. 1650-1655). Saint-Malo, France: SYSID. Wingerden, JW van & Verhaegen, M (2009). Closed-loop subspace identification of Hammerstein-Wiener models. In Baillieul,J & Guo,L (Eds.), Proceedings of the combined 48th IEEE conference on decision and control and 28th Chinese control conference (pp. 3637-3642). Shanghai, China: IEEE. Worm, GIM, Helm, AWC van der, Schagen, KM van & Rietveld, LC (2009). Integration of a hydraulic model, a process model and a control model for simulation of pellet softening. In s.n. (Ed.), 10th IWA conference on instrumentation, control and automation (pp. 1-6). Cairns: IWA. Zegeye, SK, De Schutter, B, Hellendoorn, H & Breunesse, E (2009). Model-based traffic control for balanced reduction of fuel consumption, emissions, and travel time. In Chassiakos,A (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th IFAC symposium on transportation systems (pp. 149-154). Redondo Beach, California, USA: IFAC. Zegeye, SK, De Schutter, B, Hellendoorn, H & Breunesse, E (2009). Reduction of travel times and traffic emissions using model predictive control. In Hoo,K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 American Control Conference (pp. 5392-5397). St. Louis, MO, USA: ACC. Zegeye, SK, De Schutter, B, Hellendoorn, J & Breunesse, E (2009). Model-based traffic control for the reduction of fuel consumption, emissions and travel time. In Busch,F (Ed.), Proceedings of the international scientific conference on mobility and transport (pp. 1-11). Munich, Germany: ITS. Zhang, W, Abate, A, Vitus, MP & Hu, J (2009). On piecewise quadratic control-lyapunov funcions for switched linear systems. In Baillieul,J & Guo,L (Eds.), Proceedings of the combined 48th IEEE conference on decision and control and 28th Chinese control conference (pp. 1088-1093). Shanghai, China: IEEE.

Ph.D. theses Baskar, LD (2009, november 18). Traffic management and control in intelligent vehicle highway systems. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (156 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. B De Schutter & Prof.dr.ir. J Hellendoorn. Busoniu, IL (2009, januari 13). Reinforcement learning in continuous state and action spaces. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (189 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. R Babuska & Prof.dr.ir. B De Schutter. Dong, J (2009, november 11). Data driven fault tolerant control: A subspace approach. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (179 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. M Verhaegen. Lendek, Zs (2009, maart 10). Distributed fuzzy and stochastic observers for nonlinear systems. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (176 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. R Babuska & Prof.dr.ir. B De Schutter. Schagen, KM van (2009, mei 19). Model-based control of drinking-water treatment plants. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (171 pag.) (Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. R Babuska.

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M.Sc. theses Alves, D.G.A. Ant Dispersion Routing for Traffic Optimization, 2-7-2009 Bergh van den, P.M. Modeling and control of the hopper dredger excavation system (verslag vertrouwelijk), 11-3-2009 Bloemendaal, B.F. Modelling and measurement of rolling resistance on a rollercoaster, 17-12-2009 Bot de, D.J.T. A temperature state estimator for a load sensing hub bearing unit, 21-9-2009 Braake ter, J. Iterative Learning Control for High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy, 18-12-2009 Bruijn de, E. Force Sensing in Wheel Slip Control, 17-2-2009 Ghieratmand, A. Vision based robust control of double rotational pendulum, 24-6-2009 Graaf de, B.J.A. Prediction and simulation models for intelligent vehicle highway systems Assessment, development, and calibration, 31-3-2009 Hansen, B. Least costly detection experiment for the process industry, 29-9-2009 Hijink, W.J. Servo control of a Shape Memory Alloy trailing edge flap (Smart Rotor Concept), 11-12-2009 Huiberts, S.M., 10-6-2009 Korte de, R.B.C. Subspace-Based Identification Techniques for a Smart Wind Turbine Rotor Blade, 12-1-2009 Kroese, H. Feedback control of a piezo deformable mirror for a wavefront- sensorless AO setup, 18-12-2009 Kuiper, I.T.J. Well Testing in the Framework of System Identification, 13-3-2009 Leune, W.K. Model-based operational control of railway networks, 21-9-2009 Mulder, S. Energy management strategy for a hybrid container crane, 16-7-2009 Rezapour, A. Improved Waterflooding Performance using Model Predictive Control, 14-12-2009 Sujoto, S. Improvement of the Control System for flying Gauge changes at Port Tabot Cold Mill, 28-8-2009 Thus, S.J. Soap Particle Clustering for Non-linear System Identification, 29-9-2009 Tong, C. Probabilistic parameter uncertainty bounding in prediction error identification, 12-10-2009 Truffino, J.M. Gait initiation for a biped robot, 23-4-2009 Wang, L. Artifact Correction for EEG Alpha Wave Measurements, 12-10-2009 Witte, J. Robust and LPV control for active magnetic bearings, 16-12-2009

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Delft University of Technology Faculty: Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department: Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics Chair: Optimization and Systems Theory

Delft University of Technology Faculty: Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department: Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics Chair: Optimization and Systems Theory General Information Address Delft University of Technology Mekelweg 4 2628 CD Delft The Netherlands Phone (secretary): +31-(0)15-2784109 Fax (secretary) +31-(0)15-2787295 e-mail (secretary): [email protected]

Scientific staff prof.dr. G.J. Olsder (retired), prof.dr.ir. A.W. Heemink, prof.dr.ir. K.I. Aardal, prof.dr.ir. J.H. van Schuppen, dr.ing. D. Jeltsema, dr.ir. J.G. Maks, dr. J.B.M. Melissen, dr. A. Schürmann, drs. N. Tholen, dr. F. Vallentin, dr. J.W. van der Woude,

Technical and administrative staff C.P.A. Schneider, D. Engering

PhD students M.U. Altaf, E. Budiarto, A. Chaves Jimenez, F.J. von Heymann, I.D.T.F. Garcia, M.P. Kaleta, M.V. Krymskaya, W. Lawniczak, C. Maris, S. Muhammad, J.S. Pelc, J.H. Sumihar, H.S.A.M. Syed, C. van Velzen MScstudents R. van Diggelen, E. Gevers, R. Lichiardopol, C. Maris, C. de Wit

Temporary staff and postdocs prof. S. Alpern (London)

Cooperation with Laboratoire d’Ingènierie des sysètemes automatisés, Université d’Angers, INRIA, France, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA, Laboratoire d’Automatique de Grenoble, France, London School of Economics

Keywords conflict analysis, optimal control, game theory, filter theory, large scale systems, max-plus algebra, dynamical system, differential equation, time table design, production planning, stabilization, traffic planning, road toll, mooring, hierarchy, feedback, structural analysis, discrete events, network analysis.

Brief description Mathematical Systems Theory (MST) is concerned with the study, analysis, and control of input/output phenomena. The emphasis is on the dynamic, i.e. time dependent, behavior of such phenomena. One tries to design control systems such that a desired behavior is 100

Delft University of Technology Faculty: Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department: Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics Chair: Optimization and Systems Theory

achieved as well as possible. MST is at the forefront of the creative interplay of pure mathematics, engineering and computer science. Research in the group is on linear as well as nonlinear systems, and is specifically focused on dynamic game theory and discrete event dynamic systems.

DISC projects Systems theory with algebraic properties Projectleader: prof.dr.ir. A.W. Heemink

Description Control and systems theory with algebraic properties. Study of max-plus and Clifford algebras. Applications of the former in production planning and specifically in timetable design for transportation systems (such as railways). The latter deals with the description (or better: avoidance of) singularities in modelling.

Optimal control and multi-person decision making Projectleader: prof.dr.ir. A.W. Heemink

Description Optimal control and multi-person decision making. In the latter topic hierarchical decision making (Stackelberg equilibria) and “Searcher and Hider” problems are currently investigated.

Filtering, identification and control of large scale systems Projectleader: prof.dr.ir. A.W. Heemink

Description Data assimilation methods are used to combine the results of a large scale numerical modelwith the measurement information available in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction of the dynamic behavior of the model state. A number of new filter algorithms for large scale systems has been developed. Applications are for instance in the areas of mooring ships at oil platforms, air pollution prediction problems.

Publications Books Koren, B, Vuik, C, Hassen, YJ, Gerritsma, MI, Maerschalck, B de, Boer, A de, Zuijlen, AH van, Bijl, H, Heemink, AW, Hanea, RG, Sumihar, JH, Roest, MRT, Velzen, C van, Verlaan, M, Oosterlee, CW, Mulder, WA , Plessix, RE, Veldhuizen, S van, Collignon, TP, Gijzen, MB van, Vermolen, FJ, Andreykiv, A, Aken, EM van, Linden, JC van der, Javierre Perez, E, Keulen, A van, Roekaerts, DJEM, Sluijs, LJ, Meer, FP van der, Stelling, GS, Zijlema, M, Abbate, G , Kleijn, CR , Hoeven, S van der & Coppens, MO (2009). (Virtueel boek) Advanced computational methods in science and engineering (Lecture notes in computational science and engineering, 71). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

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Book chapters/parts Alpern, SR, Fokkink, RJ, Lindelauf, RHA & Olsder, GJ (2009). A numerical approach to the princess and monster. In P Bernhard, V Gaitsgory & O Pourtallier (Eds.), Advances in Dynamic Games and Their Applications (Volume: 10) (pp. 149-157). Boston: Birkhauser. Heemink, AW, Hanea, RG, Sumihar, JH, Roest, MRT, Velzen, C van & Verlaan, M (2009). Data assimilation algorithms for numerical models. In B Koren & C prof.dr.ir Vuik (Eds.), Advanced computational methods in science and engineering (Lecture notes in computational science and engineering, 71) (pp. 107-143). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Thiery, S, Bernhard, P. & Olsder, GJ (2009). Robust control approach to digital option pricing: synthesis approach. In P Bernhard, V Gaitsgory & O Pourtallier (Eds.), Advances in Dynamic Games and Their Applications (Volume: 10) (pp. 293-311). Boston: Birkhauser.

International journal papers Alpern, SR & Katrantzi, I (2009). Equilibria of two-sided matching games with common preferences. European journal of operational research, 196, 1214-1222. Alpern, SR, Baston, V & Gal, S (2009). Searching symmetric networks with utilitarian-postman paths. Networks, 53(4), 392-402. Altaf, MU, Heemink, AW & Verlaan, M (2009). Inverse shallow-water flow modeling using model reduction. International journal for multiscale computational engineering, 7(6), 577-594. Bachoc, C, Nebe, G, Oliveira Filho, FM de & Vallentin, F (2009). Lower bounds for measurable chromatic numbers. Geometric and functional analysis, 19(3), 645-661. Barbu, AL, Segers, AJ, Schaap, M, Heemink, AW & Builtjes, PJH (2009). A multi-component data assimilation experiment directed to sulphur dioxide and sulphate over Europe. Atmospheric environment, 43(9), 1622-1631. Charles, WM, Berg, E van den, Lin, HX & Heemink, AW (2009). Adaptive stochastic numerical scheme in parallel random walk models for transport problems in shallow water. Mathematical and computer modelling, 50(7-8), 1177-1187. Charles, WM, Heemink, AW & Berg, E van den (2009). Coloured noise for dispersion of contaminants in shallow waters. Applied mathematical modelling, 33(2), 1158-1172. Delft, G van, El Serafy, GY & Heemink, AW (2009). The ensemble particle filter (EnPF) in rainfall-runoff models. Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment, 23(8), 1203-1211. Jeltsema, D & Schaft, AJ van der (2009). Lagrangian and hamiltonian formulation of transmission line systems with boundary energy flow. Reports on mathematical physics, 63(1), 55-74. Jeltsema, D & Scherpen, JMA (2009). Multidomain modeling of nonlinear networks and systems. Ieee control systems, 29(4), 28-59. Krymskaya, MV, Hanea, RG & Verlaan, ML (2009). An iterative ensemble Kalman filter for reservoir engineering applications. Computational geosciences, 13(2), 235-244. Lawniczak, W, Hanea, RG, Heemink, AW & McLaughlin, D (2009). Multiscale ensemble filtering for reservoir engineering applications. Computational geosciences, 13(2), 245-254. Muhammad, S & Woude, JW van der (2009). A counter example to a recent result on the stability of non-linear systems. Ima journal of mathematical control and information, 2009(26), 319-323. Olsder, GJ (2009). Phenomena in inverse stackelberg games, part 1: Static problems. Journal of optimization theory and applications, 143(3). Olsder, GJ (2009). Phenomena in inverse stackelberg games, part 2: Dynamic Problems. Journal of optimization theory and applications, 143(3). 102

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Radkova, D & Zanten, AJ van (2009). Constacyclic codes as invariant subspaces. Linear algebra and its applications, 430(2-3), 855-864. Velzen, C van & Segers, AJ (2009). A problem-solving environment for data assimilation in air quality modelling. Environmental modelling & software, 2009. Woude, JW van der (2009). A system of real quaternion matrix equations with applications. Linear algebra and its applications, 2009(431), 2291-2303. Zamani, A, Azimian, A, Heemink, AW & Solomatine, DP (2009). Non-linear wave data assimilation with an ANN-type wind-wave model and Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). Applied mathematical modelling, 1-16. Zamani, A, Azimian, A, Heemink, AW & Solomatine, DP (2009). Wave height prediction at the Caspian Sea using a data-driven model and ensemble-based data assimilation methods. Journal of hydroinformatics, 11(2), 154-164.

International congress papers Budiarto, E, Keijzer, M, Storchi, PRM, Heemink, AW & Heijmen, B (2009). Optimization of radiation therapy planning: geometrical uncertainties problem. In Book of abstracts & Program of the 2nd Dutch conference on bio-medical engineering (pp. 102-102). s.l.: s.n.. Djordevic, S, Van den Hof, PMJ, Jeltsema, D & Veen van 't, R. (2009). Control of cavity flow based on a macroscopic observation. In Keviczky,L. (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009 (pp. 1233-1238). Budapest, Hungary: ECC. Jansen, JD, Douma, SG, Brouwer, DR, Van den Hof, PMJ, Bosgra, OH & Heemink, AW (2009). Closed-loop reservoir management. In s.n. (Ed.), 2009 SPE Reservoir Simulation (pp. 1-18). Houston, TX, USA: SPE. Jeltsema, D (2009). Post-hamiltonian formulation of physical systems containing memristors. In F..Breitenecker I. Troch (Ed.), Proceedings MATHMOD 09 Vienna (pp. 617-628). Vienna, Austria: ARGESIM and ASIM.

Ph.D. theses Radkova, D (2009, januari 26). Constacyclic codes as invariant subspaces. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (101 pag.) (Rotterdam: PrintPartners Ipskamp B.V.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. AJ van Zanten & SM Dodunekov. Rommelse, JR (2009, januari 19). Data assimilation in reservoir management. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (160 pag.) (Delft, The Netherlands: TUD Technische Universiteit Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. AW Heemink & Dr.ir. JD Jansen. Sumihar, JH (2009, oktober 19). Two-sample Kalman filter and system error modelling for storm surge forecasting. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (157 pag.) (Delft: TU Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. AW Heemink & Ir. M Verlaan.

Other publications Olsder, GJ (01-04-2009). Vissers, zonaanbidders en wegafsluitingen. Machazine, jaargang 13, nummer 3, pp. 32-34. Olsder, GJ (01-06-2009). Vissers, zonaanbidders en wegafsluitingen. Machazine, jaargang 13, nummer 4, pp. 28-30.

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Delft University of Technology Faculty of Aerospace Engineering Control and Simulation General Information Address Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Control and Simulation, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands. Phone (secretary): +31–15–2782094. Fax (secretary): +31–15–2786480.

Scientific staff Prof.dr.ir. J.A. Mulder, Prof.dr. ir. M. Mulder, dr.ir. M.M. van Paassen, dr. Q.P. Chu, ir. A.C. in ’t Veld, ir. T.J.J. Lombaerts

Technical and administrative staff Ing. H. Lindenburg, ing. A. Damman, ing. A. Muis, F.N. Postema, M.M. Klaassen, G.F. den Toom, ing. E.H.H. Thung

PhD students ir. C. de Wagter, ir. E. de Weerdt, E. van Kampen, ir. J.L. de Prins, ir. J. Lorga, ir. J. Oliveira, ir. L. Sonneveldt, ir. E.R. van Oort, ir. M.H.J. Amelink, ir. P.M.T. Zaal, ir. S.J.B. van Dam, ir. T.J.J. Lombaerts, ir. J. Ellerbroek, ir. D.M. Pool, ir. A.R. Valente Pais, ir. C.C. de Visser, ir. W. Falkena, A.M.P. de Leege, B.J. Correia Gracio, F.M. Nieuwenhuizen, J. Comans, J. Venrooij, M.A. Rahman, P.M.A. de Jong, S. Bouarfa.

Cooperation with ESA/ESTEC, Deimos Space, Dutch Space, EADS, LM, Navionex, RAF, NAL, Boeing, Minnesota University, NLR, TNO/FEL, NIVR, DLR, Garteur, Misat/MicroNed, NASA, Victoria University, Wright State University, Max Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Georgia Tech, MIT, Boeing Research and Technology Europe.

Brief description Within the research programme ‘Control and Simulation’, two fields of aerospace science play an equally important role. The first is concerned with the flight dynamics of aerospace vehicles as aircraft, rotorcraft and spacecraft, their mathematical models, the analysis of their dynamic properties, and the design and analysis of manual and automatic guidance and control of these vehicles through computers. It is in this field, ‘Aerospace Guidance Navigation and Control (AGNC)’, that a variety of control-theoretic concepts are the focus of interest. The second field studies the interaction of the human operator with the aerospace vehicle, in many cases in the context of a complex operational environment. In this field of aerospace science, ‘Aerospace Human-Machine Systems (AHMS)’, the cybernetic properties of human operators are studied, i.e., their perception and control behaviour in manual control tasks, but also aims at supporting human operators in a more automated environment, acting as a ‘supervisor’. While the two fields AGNC and AHMS are distinct in their subjects, theories and mathematics, they are often closely interlinked and mutually dependent in many problems such as in the design of manual flight control systems leading to good handling qualities and in the optimal design of flight simulator motion cueing systems.

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Aerospace Guidance, Navigation and Control (AGNC) The goal of our research within AGNC can be formulated as to enhance manoeuvring performance, safety, and survivability of aerospace vehicles ranging from small Uninhabited Areal Vehicles (UAV) to transport aircraft, and from rotorcraft to re-entry vehicles and satellites. The long track record in research in dynamic flight test techniques and identification of nonlinear aerodynamic models of a variety of aircraft enabled the group to naturally move its research towards nonlinear, robust and fault-tolerant GNC systems as its main focal point. The research is more than just a pure theoretical development, and aims at applying a wide range of available theoretical concepts to problems of practical significance. The group is thought to be in a very good position to do just that as it can combine expertise from control theoretical subjects as linear and nonlinear control, state estimation, system identification, nonlinear optimisation and intelligent and knowledge based systems with deep domain knowledge of subjects as flight dynamics, aerodynamics, structural dynamics, flight test procedures, flight instrumentation, carrier phase based GPS navigation and attitude determination, dynamic manoeuvre design, aircraft handling qualities and orbit and attitude dynamics. Also, as the group includes several professional pilots including the chair holder, our extensive operational experience is a guarantee that the proposed systems and solutions are not just academically sound but do make practical sense too. While academic research on GNC often remains in the realm of feasibility studies using simplified models and off-line computer simulations, the strength of our group is also in actual implementation of algorithms for real-time evaluation in the flight simulator as well as in the Cessna Citation laboratory aircraft, to be evaluated by professional civil transport aircraft- and air force test pilots. The field of ‘Aerospace Human-Machine Systems’ (AHMS) The interest in the area of human-machine interaction started during the second World War. Large groups of (military) personnel were required to operate complex machinery. The key to success of these combined human-machine systems was often found in the proper design of the interface between the system and its human operator. This has led to an interdisciplinary research field called cybernetics with contributions from engineering (mainly control system engineering), psychology (including cognitive and perceptual psychology), and from physiology. Cybernetics is therefore the first core area of research within the field of Aerospace Human-Machine Systems. With the advent of automated systems, research was started on the role of the human operator as an observer of largely automated processes, and as a supervisor issuing commands and set-points to the automation. Increases in scale and system complexity led to the development of various new approaches to the design of human-machine interfaces. One very powerful of these is currently known as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE), which uses the ‘work domain’ of the human-machine system to be (re-) designed as its starting point. This in contrast to earlier techniques that start with an analysis of and a focus on the proposed task that the human will have in the new system, or on the knowledge that experts have acquired in existing (similar) systems. By starting with an analysis of the work domain, however, cognitive systems engineering has proven to be more suitable to human-machine system and interface design for future applications of large scale and complexity. CSE is the second core area of research within AHMS.

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Publications International journal papers Abbink, DA & Mulder, M (2009). Exploring the Dimensions of Haptic Feedback Support in Manual Control. Journal of computing and information science in engineering, 9(1), 1-18. Beerens, GC, Damveld, HJ, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Vaart, JC van der (2009). Investigation into Crossover Regression in Compensatory Manual Tracking Tasks. Journal of guidance control and dynamics, 32(5), 1429-1445. Clercq, K.M.E De, Kat, R de, Remes, B, Oudheusden, BW van & Bijl, H (2009). Aerodynamic experiments on DelFly II: Unsteady lift enhancment. International journal of Micro Air Vehicles, 1(4), 255-262. Croon, GCHE de, Clercq, K.M.E De, Ruijsink, HM, Remes, B & Wagter, C de (2009). Design, aerodynamics, and vision based control of micro air vehicles. International journal of Micro Air Vehicles, 1(2), 71-97. Croon, GCHE de, Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, IG & Postma, EO (2009). Comparison of Active Vision Models. Image and vision computing, 27(4), 374-384. Heiligers, MM, Holten, T van & Mulder, M (2009). Predicting pilot task demand load during final approach. International journal of aviation psychology, 19(4), 391-416. Hermes, P, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van, Boering, JHL & Huisman, HO (2009). Solution-Space-Based analysis of the difficulty of aircraft merging tasks. Journal of aircraft, 46(6), 1995-2015. Kampen, EJ van, Weerdt, E De, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Applied Interval Based Integer Ambiguity Resolution. Navigation, 56(3), 205-219. Lam, TM, Boschloo, HW, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Artificial Force Field for Haptic Feedback in UAV Teleoperation. Ieee transactions on systems man and cybernetics part a-systems and humans, 39(6), 1316-1330. Lam, TM, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van, Mulder, JA & Helm, FCT van der (2009). Force-Stiffness Feedback in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle. Journal of guidance control and dynamics, 32(3), 821-835. Leege, AMP de, Veld, AC in t', Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009).Three-Degree Decelerating Approaches in High-Density Arrival Streams. Journal of aircraft, 46(5), 1681-1691. Lombaerts, TJJ, Huisman, HO, Chu, QP, Mulder, JA & Joosten, DA (2009). Nonlinear Reconfiguring Flight Control Based on Online Physical Model Identification. Journal of guidance control and dynamics, 32(3), 727-748. Lombaerts, TJJ, Smaili, H, Stroosma, O, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Piloted Simulator Evaluation Results of New Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm. Journal of guidance control and dynamics, 32(6), 1747-1765. Sonneveldt, L, Oort, ER van, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Nonlinear Adaptive Trajectory Control Applied to an F-16 Model. Journal of guidance control and dynamics, 32(1), 25-39. Valente pais, AR, Wentink, M, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, M (2009). Comparison of Three Motion Cueing Algorithms for Curve Driving in an Urban Environment. Presence-teleoperators and virtual environments, 18(3), 200-221. Veld, AC in t', Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Clarke, J.P. (MIT) (2009). Pilot Support Interface for Three-Degree Decelerating Approach Procedures. International journal of aviation psychology, 19(3), 287-308. Visser, CC de, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). A New Approach To Linear Regression with Multivariate Splines. Automatica, 45(12), 2903-2909. 106

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Weerdt, E De, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Neural Network Output Optimization Using Interval Analysis. Ieee transactions on neural networks, 20(4), 638-653. Weerdt, E De, Kampen, EJ van, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). New Approach for Integer Ambiguity Resolution using Interval Analysis. Navigation, 55(4), 293-307. Zaal, PMT, Pool, DM, Bruin, J de, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Use of Pitch and Heave Motion Cues in a Pitch Control Task. Journal of guidance control and dynamics, 32(2), 366-377. Zaal, PMT, Pool, DM, Chu, QP, Paassen, MM van, Mulder, M & Mulder, JA (2009). Modeling Human Multimodel Perception and Control Using Genetic Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Journal of guidance control and dynamics, 32(4), 1089-1099. Zaal, PMT, Pool, DM, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Multimodal Pilot Control Behavior in Combined Target-Following Disturbance-Rejection Tasks. Journal of guidance control and dynamics, 32(5), 1418-1428.

International congress papers Alwi, H, Edwards, C, Stroosma, O & Mulder, JA (2009). A Fault Tolerant Sliding Mode Control Allocation Benchmark Evaluation. In Teresa.Escobet Joseba Quevedo & Vicenç Puig (Eds.), Proceedings of the Safeprocess '09, 7th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes (pp. 265-270). Laxenburg, Austria: IFAC. Alwi, H, Edwards, C, Stroosma, O & Mulder, JA (2009). Sliding Mode Propulsion Control Tests on a Motion Flight Simulator. In John D. Schierman (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-23). Reston (VA): AIAA. Amelink, MHJ, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, M (2009). Examples of Work Domain Analysis Applied to Total Energy Control System. In J. Flach (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 479-484). Dayton (OH): Wright State University. Arents, RRD, Groeneweg, J, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Predictive Landing Guidance in Synthetic Vision Displays. In J.D. Schierman & D.B. Bowman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-15). Reston (VA): AIAA. Beerens, GC, Damveld, HJ, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Design of Forcing Functions for the Identification of Human Control Bahavior. In E. Burnett (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference (pp. 1-25). Reston (VA): AIAA. Beukers, H, Stroosma, O, Pool, DM, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Investigation into Pilot Perception and Control During Decrab Maneuvers in Simulated Flight. In Terry J. Burress (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference (pp. 1-29). Reston (VA): AIAA. Borst, C, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Ecological Synthetic Vision Display to Support Pilot Terrain Awareness. In Michael Vidulich (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 ISAP (pp. 503-508). Dayton (OH): Wright State University. Borst, C, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Experimental Evaluation of an Ecological Synthetic Vision Display. In David Riley (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-19). Reston (VA): AIAA. Borst, C, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Theoretical Foundations of an Ecological Synthetic Vision Display. In David Riley (Ed.), Proceedings of the Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-20). Reston, VA: AIAA. Clercq, K.M.E De, Kat, R de, Remes, B, Oudheusden, BW van & Bijl, H (2009). Flow Visualization and Force Measurements on a Hovering Flapping-Wing MAV 'Delfly II". In J. Johnson (Ed.), Proceedings of the 39th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA 2009-4035 (pp. 1-6). Texas: AIAA. 107

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Comans, J, Stroosma, O, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, M (2009). Optimizing the Simona Research Simulator Visual Display System. In John D. Schierman (Ed.), Proceedings of 2009 AIAA GNC/AFM/MST (pp. 1-19). Reston (VA): AIAA. Correia Gracio, BJ, Wentink, M, Feenstra, P, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Bles, W. (2009). Motion feedback in advanced driving manoeuvres. In A. Kemeny (Ed.), Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference Europe (DSC Europe 2009) (pp. 145-160). Monaco: IMAGINA. Croon, GCHE de, Wagter, C de, Remes, B & Ruijsink, HM (2009). Local sampling for indoor flight. In T. Calders & K. Tuyls (Eds.), Proceedings of the BNAIC 2009 (pp. 1-8). Eindhoven: TU Eindhoven. Dam, SBJ van, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). The use of intent information in an airborne self-separation assistance display design. In J.D. Schierman & D.B. Bowman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation & Control Conference (pp. 1-19). Reston (VA): AIAA. Dam, SBJ van, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Towards a Meaningful Presentation of FMS Trajectory Information for Tactical Self-Separation. In J. Flach (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 38-43). Dayton (OH): Wright State University. Damveld, HJ, Abbink, DA, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van, Helm, FCT van der & Hosman, RJAW (2009). Measuring the Contribution of the Neuromuscular System during a Pitch Control Task. In E. Burnett (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference (pp. 1-19). Reston (VA): AIAA. Dijk, ES, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Roerdink, MI (2009). An Interface for Inbound Traffic Management by Air Traffic Control. In J.D. Schierman & D.B. Bowman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation & Control Conference (pp. 1-23). Reston (VA): AIAA. Dijk, ES, Paassen, MM van, Mulder, M & Roerdink, MI (2009). An Interface for Inbound Traffic Route Planning. In J. Flach (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 44-49). Dayton (OH): Wright State University. Eijk, A van der, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Veld, AC in t' (2009). Assisting Air Traffic Control in Planning and Monitoring Continuous Descent Approach Procedures. In J. Flach (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 184-189). Dayton (OH): Wright State University. Eijk, A van der, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Veld, AC in t' (2009). Assisting Air Traffic Control in Planning and Monitoring Continuous Descent Approach Procedures. In J.D. Schierman & D.B. Bowman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-23). Reston (VA): AIAA. Ellerbroek, J, Visser, M, Dam, SBJ van, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Towards a Four-Dimensional Separation Assistance Cockpit Display. In J. Flach (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 575-580). Dayton (OH): Wright State University. Ellerbroek, J, Visser, M, Dam, SBJ van, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Towards an Ecological Four-Dimensional Self-Separation Assistance Display. In D.B. Doman & J.K. Thienel (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit (pp. 1-18). Reston (VA): AIAA. Ellerbroek, J, Visser, M, Dam, SBJ van, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Towards an Ecological Four-Dimensional Self-Separation Assistance Display. In Dick Schaefer (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eurocontrol 8th Innovative Research Workshop & Exhibition (pp. 79-89). Brétigny sur Orge, France: Eurocontrol Experimental Centre.

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Filipe, NRS, Weerdt, E De, Kampen, EJ van, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Terminal Area Energy Management Trajectory Optimization Using Interval Analysis. In John D. Schierman (Ed.), Proceedings of 2009 AIAA GNC/AFM/MST (pp. 1-32). Reston (VA): AIAA. Groot, S de, Winter, JCF de, Mulder, M & Wieringa, PA (2009). The Effect of Brake Pedal Stiffness on Race Car Driving Performance. In O..Ayad M.S. Mouchaweh & L. Chevrier (Eds.), Proceedings of the European Annual Conference on Human Decision-Making and Manual Control (pp. 1-13). Reims, France: Université de Reims. Groot, S de, Winter, JCF de, Wieringa, PA & Mulder, M (2009). An analysis of braking measures. In s.n. (Ed.), An analysis of braking measures (pp. 233-244). Monaco: s.n.. Hermes, P, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van, Boering, JHL & Huisman, HO (2009). Solution Space Based Analysis of the Difficulty of Aircraft Merging Tasks. In J.D. Schierman & D.B. Bowman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation & Control Conference (pp. 1-26). Reston (VA): AIAA. Hermes, P, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van, Huisman, Hans & Boering, JHL (2009). Solution Space-Based Complexity Analysis of ATC Aircraft Merging Tasks. In J. Flach (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 172-177). Dayton (OH): Wright State University. Heylen, FM, Dam, SBJ van, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Design of an Ecological Vertical Separation Assistance Cockpit Display. In J. Flach (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 367-372). Dayton (OH): Wright State University. Kampen, EJ van, Weerdt, E De, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Aircraft Attitude Determination Using GPS and an Interval Integer Ambiguity Resolution Algorithm. In John D. Schierman (Ed.), Proceedings of 2009 AIAA GNC/AFM/MST (pp. 1-15). Reston (VA): AIAA. Koning, MP, Damveld, HJ, Stroosma, O, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). A Comparison Between Three Handling and Flying Quality Assessment Methods. In S. Dunn (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference (pp. 1-17). Reston (VA): AIAA. Lam, TM, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Haptic Interface in UAV Tele-operating using Force-stiffness Feedback. In C.L. Philip Chen (Ed.), Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (pp. 851-856). Los Alamitos, California, USA: IEEE. Lam, TM, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van, Mulder, JA & Helm, FCT van der (2009). Force-stiffness Feedback in UAV Tele-operation with Time Delay. In J.D. Schierman & D.B. Bowman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-22). Reston (VA): AIAA. Lombaerts, TJJ, Chu, QP, Mulder, JA & Joosten, DA (2009). Flight Control Reconfiguration based on a Modular Approach. In Joseba Quevedo & Vicenç.Puig Teresa Escobet (Eds.), Proceedings of the Safeprocess'09, 7th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technial Processes (pp. 259-264). Laxenburg, Austria: IFAC. Lombaerts, TJJ, Oort, ER van, Chu, QP, Mulder, JA & Joosten, DA (2009). On-Line Aerodynamic Model Structure Selection and Parameter Estimation for fault Tolerant Control. In Agamemnon Crassidis (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics (AFM) Conference and Exhibit 2009 (pp. 1-24). Reston (VA): AIAA. Marwijk, BJA van, Mulder, M, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Borst, C (2009). A Human-Machine Interface for Replanning 4D Trajectories. In J. Flach (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 160-165). Dayton (OH): Wright State University.

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Masselink, B, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Veld, AC in t' (2009). Design and Evaluation of a Flight Director for Zero and Partial Gravity Flight. In J.D. Schierman & D.B. Bowman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-27). Reston (VA): AIAA. Meijer, LK, Gelder, N de, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Veld, AC in t' (2009). Time-based Spaced Continuous Descent Approaches in busy Terminal Manoeuvring Areas. In J.D. Schierman & D.B. Bowman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-23). Reston (VA): AIAA. Mulder, M, Lubbers, B extern, Zaal, PMT, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, JA (2009). Aerodynamic Hinge Moment Coefficient Estimation Using Automatic Fly-By-Wire Control Inputs. In Terry J. Burress & Bimal L. Aponso (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit (pp. 1-24). Reston (VA): AIAA. Nieuwenhuizen, FM, Paassen, MM van, Mulder, M, Beykirch, KA & Bulthoff, HH (2009). Towards Simulating a Mid-size Stewart Platform on a Large Hexapod Simulator. In T.J. Burress & B.L. Aponso (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit (pp. 1-10). Reston (VA): AIAA. Nieuwenhuizen, FM, Zaal, PMT, Teufel, H.J. & Mulder, M (2009). The effect of Simulator Motion on Pilot Control Behaviour for Agile and Inert Helicopter Dynamics. In Dr. Klausdieter Pahlke (Ed.), Proceedings of the 35th European Rotorcraft Forum, Hamburg, Germany (pp. 1-13). Bonn, Germany: German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR). Pina, P, Cummings, M, Crandall, JW & Della Penna, M (2008). Indentifying Generalizable Metric Classes to Evaluate Human-Robot Teams. In Catherina R. Burghart & Aaron Steinfeld (Eds.), Proceedings of Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 13-20). School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire. Pool, DM, Zaal, PMT, Damveld, HJ, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, M (2009). Pilot Equalization in Manual Control of Aircraft Dynamics. In C.L. Philip Chen (Ed.), Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (pp. 2554-2559). Los Alamitos, California, USA: IEEE. Pool, DM, Zaal, PMT, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, M (2009). Effects of Heave Washout Settings in Aircraft Pitch Disturbance Rejection. In Terry J. Burress (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference (pp. 1-20). Reston (VA): AIAA. Pool, DM, Zaal, PMT, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, M (2009). Identification of Roll Attitude Control Behavior During Turn Maneuvers. In Terry J. Burress (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference (pp. 1-19). Reston (VA): AIAA. Smaili, H, Breeman, J, Lombaerts, TJJ & Stroosma, O (2009). A Benchmark for Fault Tolerant Flight Control Evaluation. In Teresa.Escobet Joseba Quevedo & Vicenç Puig (Eds.), Proceedings of the Safeprocess '09, 7th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes (pp. 241-246). Laxenburg, Austria: IFAC. Sonneveldt, L, Oort, ER van, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control Law Design and Handling Qualities Evaluation. In A. Astolfi (Ed.), Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (pp. 7333-7338). Shanghai, China: IEEE. Sonneveldt, L, Oort, ER van, Chu, QP, Visser, CC de, Mulder, JA & Breeman, J (2009). Lyapunov-based Fault Tolerant Flight Control Designs for a Modern Fighter Aircraft Model. In E. Glenn Lightsey (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit (pp. 1-23). Reston (VA): AIAA. Stroosma, O, Smaili, H & Mulder, JA (2009). Pilot-In-The-Loop Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems. In Teresa.Escobet Joseba Quevedo & Vicenç Puig (Eds.), Proceedings of the Safeprocess '09, 7th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes (pp. 271-276). Laxenburg, Austria: IFAC.

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Valente pais, AR, Paassen, MM van, Mulder, M & Wentink, M (2009). Perception Coherence Zones in Flight Simulation. In E. Burnett (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference (pp. 1-13). Reston (VA): AIAA. Venrooij, J, Abbink, DA, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, M (2009). Relating Biodynamic Feedthrough to Neuromuscular Admittance. In C.L. Philip Chen (Ed.), Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (pp. 1-6). San Antonio, Texas USA: IEEE. Visser, CC de, Mulder, JA & Chu, QP (2009). Global Nonlinear Aerodynamic Model Identification with Multivariate Splines. In Dr. Ravindra Jategaonkar (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference (pp. 1-15). Reston (VA): AIAA. Vroome, AM, Valente pais, AR, Pool, DM, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, M (2009). Identification of Motion Perception Thresholds in Active Control Tasks. In E. Burnett (Ed.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference (pp. 1-20). Reston (VA): AIAA. Weerdt, E De, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Global Fuel Optimization for Constrained Spacecraft Formation Rotations. In John D. Schierman (Ed.), Proceedings of 2009 AIAA GNC/AFM/MST (pp. 1-21). Reston (VA): AIAA. Weerdt, E De, Visser, CC de, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Fuzzy Simplex Splines. In Michele Basseville & Antonio Vicino (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (pp. 1340-1345). IFAC. Westerlaken, M, Veld, AC in t', Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Leege, AMP de (2009). Conceptual Development of the Free-Degree Decelerating Approach. In J.D. Schierman & D.B. Bowman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference (pp. 1-23). Reston (VA): AIAA. Zaal, PMT, Pool, DM, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Multimodal Pilot Control Behavior in Combined Target-Following Disturbance-Rejection Tasks. In Terry J. Burress & Bimal L. Aponso (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit (pp. 1-18). Reston (VA): AIAA. Zaal, PMT, Pool, DM, Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, JA (2009). Multimodal Pilot Model Identification in Real Flight. In Terry J. Burres & Bimal L. Aponso (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit (pp. 1-20). Reston (VA): AIAA. Zaal, PMT, Pool, DM, Postema, FN, Veld, AC in t', Mulder, M, Paassen, MM van & Mulder, JA (2009). Design and Certification of a Fly-By-Wire System with Minimal Impact on the Original Flight Controls. In John D. Schierman & Julie.K..Thienel David B. Doman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit (pp. 1-15). Reston (VA): AIAA.

Ph.D. theses Borst, C (2009, juni 15). Ecological Approach to Pilot Terrain Awareness. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (264 pag.) (Ridderkerk: Ridderprint). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. JA Mulder & Prof.dr.ir. M Mulder. Damveld, HJ (2009, mei 20). A Cybernetic Approach to Assess the Longitudinal Handling Qualities of Aerolastic Aircraft. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (337 pag.) (Nieuw-Vennep: H.J. Damveld). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. JA Mulder & Dr.ir. MM van Paassen. Lam, TM (2009, mei 11). Haptic Interface for UAV Teleoperation. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (200 pag.) ( T.M. Lam). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. JA Mulder, Prof.dr. FCT van der Helm & Prof.dr.ir. M Mulder. 111

Delft University of Technology Faculty of Aerospace Engineering Control and Simulation

Winter, JCF de (2009, januari 27). Advancing simulation-based driver training. TUD Technische Universiteit Delft (255 pag.) (Delft: TU Delft). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. PA Wieringa & Prof.dr.ir. JA Mulder.

Other publications Lam, TM (Ed.). (2009). Intelligent Aerial Vehicles (Advanced Robotic Series). Wenen, Oostenrijk: IN-TECH. Lam, TM, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Stiffness-Force Feedback in UAV Tele-Operation. In Lam T.M. (Ed.), Intelligent Aerial Vehicles (Advances Robotic Series) (pp. 359-374). Wenen, Oostenrijk: In-tech. Lombaerts, TJJ (2009). Surviving the Improbable, Fault Tolerant Control for Civil Transport Aircraft using a Modular Physical Approach. Belgocontrol, België: Steenokkerzeel (2009, november 19 - 2009, november 19). Mulder, JA (2008). Bio-Geïnspireerde Micro- en Nanovliegtuigjes (Micro Aerial Vehicles). In Dr. H. Weijma (Ed.), Natuurkundige Voordrachten (pp. 121-125). Den Haag: Koninklijke Maatschappij voor Natuurkunde. Mulder, M & Abbink, DA (2009). How to design Optimal Steering Wheel Charateristics for Steer-by-Wire. Delft: Nissan Motor Company, Ltd. Mulder, M & Luijerink, HR (2009). TRC472-F Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainer Type I - Master Qualification Test Quide. Delft: The Real Cockpit (TRC). Mulder, M (Ed.). (2009). ACM transactions on applied perceptions. Mulder, M (Ed.). (2009). The open aerospace engineering journal. Paassen, MM van (Ed.). (2009). Ieee transactions on systems man and cybernetics part a-systems and humans. Pool, DM (2009). A Cybernetic Approach to Assess Simulator Fidelity. Presentation at the Human-Centered Motion Cueing Workshop: Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology (2009, mei 18 - 2009, mei 18). Stroosma, O & Damveld, HJ (2009). TU Delft's Cybernetic Approach to Handling Qualities Research. EADS Military Air Systems: Manching, Germany (2008, november 11 - 2008, november 13). Stroosma, O, Wentink, M & Fischer, Martin (2009). 4th Human-Centered Motion Cueing Workshop. 4th Human-Centered Motion Cueing Workshop: Delft (2009, mei 18 - 2009, mei 18). Visser, CC de & Mulder, JA (2009). Aerodynamic Model Identification and Flight Control Design with Multivariate Splines. DISC Benelux Meeting 2009: Spa, Belgie (2009, maart 16 2009, maart 18). Weerdt, E De, Chu, QP & Mulder, JA (2009). Fuel optimization for constrained rotations of spacecraft formations using interval analysis. 28th Benelux Meeting of Systems and Control: Spa, Belgium (2009, maart 16 - 2009, maart 18). Zaal, PMT, Pool, DM, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Cybernetic Approach to Simulator Fidelity. Poster included on CD-ROM with proceedings of the Royal Aeronautical Society Spring 2009 Flight Simulation Conference: Royal Aeronautical Society, no.4 Hamilton Place, London, UK (2009, juni 03 - 2009, juni 04). Zaal, PMT, Pool, DM, Mulder, M & Paassen, MM van (2009). Multimodal Pilot Model Identification. Poster included on CD-ROM with proceedings of the Royal Aeronautical Society Spring 2009 Flight Simulation Conference: Royal Aeronautical Society, no.4 Hamilton Place, London, UK (2009, juni 03 - 2009, juni 04).

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Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics and Control Technology Group

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics and Control Technology Group General Information Address Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section: Dynamics & Control (D&C, H. Nijmeijer) Control Systems Technology ( CST, M. Steinbuch) and Hybrid & Networked Systems ( H&NS, W.P.M.H. Heemels) Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Phone (secretary) : + 31-40-2474817/2796. Fax (secretary) +31-40-2461418. E-mail (secretary): [email protected] or [email protected]

Scientific staff Prof.dr. H. Nijmeijer, Prof.dr.ir. P. Jonker, Prof.dr.ir. N.B. Roozen, Dr.ir. J.J.M. Besselink, Dr.ir. R.H.B. Fey, Dr.ir. M.F. Heertjes, Dr.ir. A.D. de Kraker, Dr.ir. D. Kostic, Dr.ir. S. Koekebakker, Dr.ir. R. Huisman, Dr.ir. I. Lopez, Dr.ir. N. v.d. Wouw, Prof.dr.ir. M. Steinbuch, Prof.ir. O.H. Bosgra, Prof.dr. M.R. de Baar, Prof.dr.ir. W.P.M.H. Heemels, Dr.ir. M.F. Heertjes, Dr.ir. T. Hofman, Dr.ir. A.G. de Jager, Dr.ir. M.J.G. v.d. Molengraft, Dr.ir. P.W.J.M. Nuij, Dr.ir. P.C.J.N. Rosielle, Dr.ir. F.P.T. Willems

Technical and administrative staff P.G.M. Hamels, P.W.C. v. Hoof, E. Meinders, C.M. Neervoort-Sanders, P.R.M. Aspers, R. v.d. Bogaert, M.A.P.M. v. Gils, H.C.T. v.d. Loo, W.J. Loor, J.G.M. de Vries

PhD students M.Sc. A.A. Alvarez Aguirre, M.Sc. S. Adinandra, N. Bauer MSc, Ir. B. Besselink, Ir. B. Biemond, Ir. A. Denasi, Ir. N.J.M. van Dijk, Ir. M.C.F. Donkers, J. Pena MSc, S. Öncü, Ir. M. Hoeijmakers, Ir. R.W. v. Gils, Ir. S.W. Boere, I. Aladagli, M.Sc., Ir. J.J.T.J. de Best, Ir. K. van Berkel, Ir. J.D.B.J. v.d. Boom, Ir. C.H.A. Criens, Ir. J. Elfring, Ir. A.J. den Hamer, Ir. R.M.A. van Herpen, Ir. R. Hoogendijk, Ir. R.J.M. Janssen, Ir. T.A.C. van Keulen, M.Sc., Ir. H.C.M. Meenink, Ir. S.H. v.d. Meulen, Ir. G.J.L. Naus, Dac Viet Ngo, M.Sc., Ir. D.J. Rijlaarsdam, Ir. M.J.C. Ronde, Ir. J. Ploeg, Ir. E. Steur, Ir. G. Witvoet

Temporary staff and postdocs Dr.Ir. B. Bonsen, Ir. J.D.B.J. v.d. Boom, Ir. R.W. v. Gils Dr.Ir. J. Caarls, Dr.Ir. S. Lichiardopol, Dr. N. El Ghouti.

Cooperation with Structure of cooperation Department of Mechanical Engineering The (D&C) Dynamics and Control at the Department of Mechanical Engineering is involved in the national research schools Engineering Mechanics and DISC. The control activities in the Department of Mechanical Engineering are comprised in the Dynamics and Control Technology group and the Control Systems Technology group headed by Prof.Dr.Ir. M. Steinbuch. Where possible the control activities, in particular teaching graduate and undergraduate courses are combined under the umbrella of the Dynamics and Control group, the combination of the D&C group and CST group. They offer in cooperation with the section 113

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics and Control Technology Group

Systems Engineering the Master Track Dynamical Systems Design (DSD). Various other co-operations within the Department exist. Eindhoven University of Technology Local cooperation exists in particular with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering (Control Systems group, Electro-mechanics and Power Electronics group), Department of Physics and with the Department of Mathematics and Computing Science, Department of Industrial Engineering & Innovation Sciences. National Research Schools Besides participation in DISC the DCT group also takes part in the National Research School EM (Engineering Mechanics). National research institutes As far as national research institutes are concerned, important co-operation exists with TNO Science and Industry in the following areas: in the field of structural acoustics, plasma fusion processesl, high-speed chattering; on automotive power trains , on active control of vehicle restraint systems, and on vehicle dynamics and control. Given the large interest and numerous activities in the automotive field, effort has been put into establishing jointly between TNO, TU/e and industrial partners a Competence Centre on Automotive Research (CCAR). Also a Senter funded project “Falcon” is running in cooperation with the Embedded Systems Institute and VanderLande. Industrial Contacts Apart from the mentioned Falcon project, co-operations with industrial partners exist in the form of a number of PhD projects. Other PhD and MSc projects are running with DTI, GCI, NXP, DAF, CCM, Bosch RexRoth Control, 2M, Vredestein, OTB and many others. The D&C group is actively involved in the innovation programs High Tech Automotive Systems (HTAS) and PointOne. International co-operation Within the EU 6th and 7th framework programmes the DCT group participates in a number of European Projects, such as SICONOS (non smooth dynamics and control) and the Network of Excellence HYCON (Hybrid Control Network). In the year 2008 again a large number of students went abroad for their 14 weeks training period, to various colleagues in the field (Australia, Detroit, Florida, Amherst, Aalborg, San Diego, Buffalo, Mexico, Japan, Singapore, Shanghai …)

Brief description Research in the Dynamics and Control Technology Group The general research objective of the Dynamics and Control Technology group is the study of all aspects related to design, dynamics and control of high-performance mechanical systems. This covers the full range of topics such as design, modelling and analysis of systems, controller synthesis, signal and performance analysis. Practical and experimental validation is, where possible, part of the research. The increasing requirements on accuracy, energy consumption, environmental aspects, and human comfort for many technical products urge the need for a better understanding, modelling, analysis, and synthesis to improve performance. This requires an accurate modelling of the dynamics, preferably in a form suitable for analysis and, where possible, also for the synthesis of control systems. In particular for mechanical systems such an approach is feasible and promising, due to the existing broad experience in the modelling of these systems. In other physical disciplines the situation is different and first principles are usually not so well developed. The inherent dynamic properties of mechanical systems are physical and geometric nonlinearities, possibly 114

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics and Control Technology Group

a large number of degrees of freedom, interactions between the degrees of freedom and, often, a relatively high speed of operation. The combination of these properties easily leads to difficulties in the modelling and analysis, and thereby also in bringing a model-based controller design to a successful end in practice. This is the basic challenge throughout the research in the DCT-Group, thereby aiming at methods and tools of practical value. Clearly, it is the ambition of the group to work at the forefront of present-day technology and to aim at a highly recognisable research stature within the department, but also within and outside the Netherlands. The research in the Dynamics and Control Technology groups comprises DISC-related, research in the following areas: • Advanced Motion systems • Process-control • Automotive technology

Special Activities The Dynamics and Control group rated at the 2009 QANU research assessment of Mechanical Engineering as excellent regarding quality, productivity, relevance and viability.

Overview of results and future developments Advanced Motion Systems DISC projects Advanced Motion Control. Projectleader: Nijmeijer, P.P. Jonker Participants: R. Pieters, Zhenyu Ye

Description In motion systems, such as robots, pick-and-place machines and disc drives, the fundamental limitation with respect to controlled performance is primarily due to causality. Because high accuracy plant models are relatively easy to acquire, feed forward is used for servo tasks whereas the primary role of feedback is to suppress disturbances. The causality is expressed by the Bode sensitivity integral theorem, stating that a reduction of the low-frequent disturbances will always be accompanied with an amplification of high frequent signals, e.g. measurements noise (the waterbed effect). This fundamental limitation is the driving force for a few lines of research: (i) further exploration of feed forward, including iterative learning control, (ii) disturbance- and data-based control, i.e. using the internal model principle and the principle of ‘machine-in-the-loop’ for adjusting the controller parameters on the basis of on-line measurements, (iii) non-linear control of linear motion systems and, finally, (iv) multivariable control of mechanical systems. Related to these areas, also the possible extension of frequency response analysis towards non-linear dynamics is addressed. Here, the group has a track-record with respect to identification and control of systems with friction. Several research projects have started in the area of vision in the loop. Various projects address mechatronics research questions. One project is on the control of lightweight motion systems with more actuators (and sensors) than rigid body degrees of freedom.The combined 115

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics and Control Technology Group

motion and vibration task and the co-operation with researchers from the mechanical design and the electrical domain make the project multidisciplinary and challenging. New activities, concentrate on medical robotics, in particular on minimally invasive robotic surgery systems.

Control of nonlinear mechanical systems Projectleader: H. Nijmeijer, N. v.d. Wouw, D. Kostic Participants: N.J. van Dijk, Ir. B. Besselink, M.Sc. S. Adinandra, M.Sc. J. Pena. Dr. S. Lichardopol.

Description In the nonlinear control area emphasis lies on (i) controllability and observability of nonsmooth/piecewise linear systems, (ii) stability and stabilization of nonlinear systems (iii) tracking control of underactuated systems. In the latter case one should think of systems with less independent inputs than degrees of freedom. Typically this includes certain flexibilities in robot-like constructions as well as non holonomic systems like mobile robots, vehicles and ships. An illustrative example forms the RRR robot with only two actuators active. Also, related results on observability of piecewise linear systems have been derived, and tested on the nonlinear beam in the DCT lab. In the context of stability and stabilization of non smooth systems a number of results have been obtained, and demonstrated on a lab set up of a drill system. A new IOP project on chatter control is running in cooperation with TNO. Also a new IOP project on human robot interaction in cooperation with the dept of Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences has been granted.

Embedded Systems. Projectleader: H. Nijmeijer, N. v.d. Wouw, D. Kostic, Participants: J. Caarls, S. Adinandra

Description It is our vision that the further development of embedded dynamical systems is very important for modern state-of-the-art motion system design. Also, Event driven control is a ESI funded program. We developed a dedicated motion control course for the TWAIO-OOTI (Ontwerpers Opleiding Technische Informatica) education, including hands-on experimentation. For the near future we foresee further activities with the ESI. In the same spirit we continued our Robocup activities on midsize and humanoid robots. An ESI Project in cooperation with vanderLande entitled Falcon is running with as main theme the development of the distribution center of the future.

Mobile robot structures Projectleader: H. Nijmeijer, N. v.d. Wouw, D. Kostic, Participants: A.A. Alvarez Aguirre, J. Caarls, S. Adinandra

Description This research line in the Dynamics & Control Technology Motion Laboratory has been initiated in 2000. Mobile, autonomous structures are very attractive for numerous application 116

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics and Control Technology Group

areas (space traveling, mail delivery, cleaning, inspections in hazardous environments etc.). Apart from mechanical design issues, these systems exhibit specific control challenges, especially because the systems are often under actuated and accurate measurement information is not available. The aims for this research line are: (i) development of an experimental set-up for validation of (theoretical) non-linear control concepts, (ii) development and validation of non-linear models, controllers, and observers, (iii) development of a representative demonstration object for mobile and under actuated mechanical structures. (iv) development of a test environment of autonomous guided vehicles (AGVs). Upcoming activities in this direction is the activity regarding humanoid robotics under the 3TU-umbrella. Cooperation in this area exists with TNO-Automotive regarding the control and a design of a moving base (AGV) for the TNO-VEHIL lab in Helmond.

Synchronisation of non-linear systems Projectleader: H. Nijmeijer, N. v.d. Wouw, D. Kostic Participants: A.A. Alvarez Aguirre, J. Pena Ramirez, S. Lichiardopol

Description In this project fundamental methods are investigated for the design of synchronizing controllers for various types of mechanical systems. Also, the robustness and stability of synchronized controllers are studied. Synchronization, or co-ordination as it is often called, is relevant in various mechanical systems, for instance in case two or more robots, ships or vehicles are asked to coordinate their motions. As an experimental test-bed the pizza steppers are used. Similarly mobile robots are used for experimental vehicle coordination and formation. Future research in this field will concentrate on synchronization of mobile robots and AGVs. Also, network synchronization, i.e. the synchronization of a large ensemble of systems, is becoming an important research theme. Potential applications are in coupled electromechanical systems for secure communication and coupled neural cells. These activities are coupled with the recent TU/e - initiative TELEMAN, with focus on robotic applications. A project in cooperation with Computer Science (Prof. C. van Hee) called Teleservice Robotics aims at the master slave control of a service robot for care. Industrial partners as well as care organizations cooperate in this project.

Process Control DISC projects Dynamic stabilization of combustion, suppression of acoustic instabilities Projectleader: H. Nijmeijer, I. Lopez, P. de Goey Participants: J.D.B.J. v.d. Boom, Ir. M. Hoeijmakers

Description Jointly with the Combustion Technology Group two projects on model based control for suppression of acoustic instabilities in gas-fired household boilers and heaters are running. Experimental result are promising, and match well with earlier obtained simulation results. Several publications have been prepared on the subject. 117

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics and Control Technology Group

Pool boiling Projectleader: H. Nijmeijer Participants: R. v. Gils

Description A novel control algorithm for the dedicated control for thermal management – so called pool boiling – is developed in cooperation with the Energy Technology group at the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Automotive Technology DISC projects Vehicle Dynamics Control and Tyres Projectleader: H. Nijmeijer, I.J.M. Besselink, I. Lopez, N. v.d. Wouw Participants: W.J.E. Evers, R. v.d. Steen, J. Ploeg, S. Öncü, B. Bonsen

Description During the year about 10 students have been working on internal and external (TNO, DAF, LMS, Vredestein) master thesis projects. Several Bachelor projects and internal and external (BMW, DAF, Daimler-Chrysler, Goodyear, Intec) traineeships have been performed. In the AES lab the Flat Plank Tyre Tester has been used for various experiments (e.g. motorcycle tyre measurements, stiffness measurements, cleat tests). A four wheel steered vehicle has been obtained from TNO and several students have been working on a design of a suitable controller for this vehicle. The Tyre Measurement Tower with strain gauge measuring hub has been obtained from Delft University of Technology and work is ongoing to get the Tyre Measurement Tower operational. During 2006 a large effort is devoted to the renewal of the large drum facility in the AES laboratory. The completion of this, which is expected in the Spring of 2007, will provide an important test facility in the AES lab. For instance, vehicle and truck power train experiments become possible. Also tire test experiments can be cone on the large drum at realistic vehicle velocities. Research has been done in three main areas: tyre modelling, truck modelling and vehicle control. A PhD student is working in cooperation with DAF and TNO on truck modeling and actgive cabine control. Extensive research is initiated around cooperate driving in the frame of a HTAS project Çonnect and Drive and in cooperation with TNO. Finally, for the TUE Formula Student Racing Team a multibody vehicle model has been built that is used as a tool for designing the 2006 racing car.

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Publications Book chapters/parts A. Bemporad, M.K. Camlibel, W.P.M.H. Heemels, A.J. van der Schaft, J.M. Schumacher, B. De Schutter, Chapter 5: Further switched systems, in HYCON Handbook of Hybrid Systems Control Theory-Tools-Applications; Editors: F. Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue and J. Lunze, -, Cambridge University Press, Book Chapter 9780521765053 (2009) B. De Schutter, W.P.M.H. Heemels, J. Lunze, C. Prieur, Chapter 2: Survey of modelling, analysis and control of hybrid systems, in HYCON Handbook of Hybrid Systems Control Theory-Tools-Applications; Editors: F. Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue and J. Lunze, 31-55, F. Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue and J. Lunze, Book Chapter ISBN 9780521765053 (2009) E. Garcia Canseco, R. Ortega, R. Pasumarthy, A.J. van der Schaft, Analysis and Control of Finite-Dimensional Systems , in Modeling and Control of Complex Physical Systems: the Port-Hamiltonian Approach; Editors: The Geoplex Consortium, To appear, Springer, Book Chapter (2009) M. Lazar, W.P.M.H. Heemels, A. Jokic, Self-optimizing Robust Nonlinear Model Predictive Control, in Assessment and Future Directions of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences 384; Editors: -, 27-40, Springer Verlag, Book Chapter (2009) M. Lazar, W.P.M.H. Heemels, D. Munoz de la Pena, T. Alamo, Further results on Robust MPC using Linear Matrix Inequalities\'\', in Assessment and Future Directions of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences; Editors: -, -, Springer-Verlag, Book Chapter (2009) M. Steinbuch, J.J.M. van de Wijdeven, T.A.E. Oomen, K. van Berkel, G. Leenknegt, Recovering Data from Cracked Optical Discs using Hankel Iterative Learning Control, in Model-Based Control: Bridging Rigorous Theory and Advanced Technology; Editors: Paul M. J. Van den Hof, Carsten Scherer, and Peter S. C. Heuberger, 147-166, Springer, Book Chapter 978-1-4419-0894-0 (2009) M.C.F. Donkers, L.L. Hetel, W.P.M.H. Heemels, N. van de Wouw, M. Steinbuch, Stability Analysis of Networked Control Systems using a Switched Linear Systems Approach, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 12th International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control; Editors: Rupak Majumdar and Paulo Tabuada, 150-164, Springer, Book Chapter (2009) R.L. Tousain, S.H. van der Meulen, Advances in Data-driven Optimization of Parametric and Non-parametric Feedforward Control Designs with Industrial Applications, in Model-Based Control: Bridging Rigorous Theory and Advanced Technology; Editors: Paul M.J. Van den Hof, Carsten Scherer, and Peter S.C. Heuberger, 167-184, Springer, Book Chapter 978-1-4419-0894-0 (2009) W.P.M.H. Heemels, D. Lehmann, J. Lunze, B. De Schutter, Chapter 1: Introduction, in HYCON Handbook of Hybrid Systems Control Theory-Tools-Applications; Editors: F. Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue and J. Lunze, 3-30, Cambridge University Press, Book Chapter ISBN 9780521765053 (2009)

International journal papers B. Brogliato, W.P.M.H. Heemels, Observer design for Lur'e systems with multivalued mappings: a passivity approach, IEEE Trans. on Aut. Control, 54(8), 1996-2001, (2009)

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B.A. Hennen, E. Westerhof, J.W. Oosterbeek, P.W.J.M. Nuij, D. De Lazzari, G.W. Spakman, M.R. de Baar, M. Steinbuch, A closed loop control system for stabilization of MHD events on TEXTOR, Fusion Engineering and Design, 84, 928-934, (2009) D. Thoen, W.A. Bongers, E. Westerhof, J.W. Oosterbeek, M.R. de Baar, M. van den Berg, V. van Beveren, A. Buerger, A.P.H. Goede, M. Graswinckel, B.A. Hennen, F.C. Schueller, Development and testing of a fast Fourier transform high dynamic-range spectral diagnostics for millimeter wave characterization, Rev. Sci. Instr., 80(10350), --, (2009) D.J.H. Bruijnen, E. Tabak, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, Energy Buffered Carriage Reversal for Wide Format Printing Systems, Mechatronics, 19, 735-747, (2009) D.Y. Wang, S. Yao, M. Shost, J.H. Yoo, D. Cabush, D. Racine, R. Cloudt, F.P.T. Willems, Ammonia Sensor for Closed-Loop SCR Control, SAE Int. J. Passeng.Cars - Electron Electr. Syst., 1(1), 323-333, (2009) E. Steur, I. Tyukin, H. Nijmeijer, Semi-passivity and synchronization of diffusively coupled neuronal oscillators, Physica D, 238(21), 2119-2128, (2009) E. Westerhof, S.K. Nielsen, J.W. Oosterbeek, M. Salewski, M.R. de Baar, W.A. Bongers, A. Buerger, B.A. Hennen, S. Korsholm, F. Leipold, D. Moseev, M. Stejner, D. Thoen, Strong Scattering of High Power Millimeter Waves in Tokamak Plasmas with Tearing Modes, Phys. Rev. Lett., 103, 125001, (2009) E.P. van der Laan, F.E. Veldpaus, A.G. de Jager, M. Steinbuch, Control-oriented Modelling of Occupants in Frontal Impacts, Int. J. of Crashworthiness, 14(4), 323-337, (2009) F. Castaños, B. Jayawardhana, R. Ortega, E. Garcia Canseco, A class of nonlinear RLC circuits globally stabilizable by proportional plus integral controllers, Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, 28(4), 609-623, (2009) H.J.C. Huijberts, W. Michiels, H. Nijmeijer, Stabilizability via Time-Delayed Feedback: An Eigenvalue Optimization Approach, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Sys., 8(1), 1-20, (2009) J.C.A. de Bruin, A. Doris, N. van de Wouw, W.P.M.H. Heemels, H. Nijmeijer, Control of mechanical motion systems with non-collocation of actuation and friction: a Popov criterion approach for input-to-state stability and set-valued nonlinearities, Automatica, 45(2), 405-415, (2009) J.D.B.J. van den Boom, A. Konnov, A.M.H.H. Verhasselt, V.N. Kornilov, L.P.H. de Goey, H. Nijmeijer, The effect of a DC electric field on the laminar burning velocity of premixed methane/air flames, Proc. Combust. Inst., 32, 1196-1203, (2009) J.J.M. van de Wijdeven, M.C.F. Donkers, O.H. Bosgra, Iterative Learning Control for Uncertain Systems: Robust Monotonic Convergence Analysis, Automatica, 45(10), 2383-2391, (2009) J.M.M. Rovers, J.W. Jansen, E. Lomonova, M.J.C. Ronde, Calculation of the static forces among the permanent magnets in a Halbach array, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, 45(10), 4372-4375, (2009) L. Wu, J. Lam, W. Paszke, K. Galkowski, E. Rogers, A. Kummert, Control and filtering for discrete linear repetitive processes with H_inf and l_2– l_inf performance, Multidimensional Systems and Sigal Processing, 20(3), 235-264, (2009) M. Koitka, O. Kahrs, R.M.A. van Herpen, V. Hagenmeyer, SISO-Closed-Loop Identifikation: Eine Toolbox für den Einsatz in der industriellen Praxis, Automatisierungstechnik, 57(4), 177 - 186, (2009) M. Lazar, W.P.M.H. Heemels, A.R. Teel, Lyapunov functions, stability and input-to-state stability subtleties for discrete-time discontinuous systems, IEEE Trans. on Aut. Control, 54(10), 2421-2425, (2009) M. Lazar, W.P.M.H. Heemels, Predictive control of hybrid systems: Input-to-state stability results for sub-optimal solutions, Automatica, 45(1), 180-185, (2009) M. Steinbuch, Mechatronics in Control!, Mechatronics, 19(1), 1, (2009) 120

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M.B.G. Cloosterman, N. van de Wouw, W.P.M.H. Heemels, H. Nijmeijer, Stability of Networked Control Systems with Uncertain Time-varying Delays, IEEE Trans. on Aut. Control, 54(7), 1575 - 1580, (2009) M.F. Heertjes, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, Set-Point Variation in Learning Schemes with Applications to Wafer Scanners, Control Engineering Practice, 17, 345-356, (2009) M.F. Heertjes, X.G.P. Schuurbiers, H. Nijmeijer, Performance-Improved Design of N-PID Controlled Motion Systems with Applications to Wafer Stages, ICS, 56(5), 1347-1355, (2009) R. Cloudt, F.P.T. Willems, P. Van der Heijden, Cost and Fuel Efficient SCR-only Solution for post-2010 HD Emission Standards, SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 2(1), 399-406, (2009) R. Cloudt, R.S.G. Baert, F.P.T. Willems, M. Vergouwe, SCR-only concept for heavy-duty Euro-VI applications, Motortechnisch Zeitschrift, 70(9), 682-689, (2009) R.J.E. Merry, M. Uyanik, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, K.R. Koops, M.G.A. van Veghel, M. Steinbuch, Identification, control and hysteresis compensation of a 3 DOF metrological AFM, AJC, 11(2), 130-143, (2009) R.J.E. Merry, N.C.T. de Kleijn, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, Using a walking piezolegs actuator to drive and control a high precision stage, IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, 14(1), 21-31, (2009) R.M.C. Mestrom, R.H.B. Fey, H. Nijmeijer, Phase feedback for nonlinear MEM resonators in oscillator circuits, IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, 14(4), 423-433, (2009) S.K. Ravensbergen, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, Improving Maneuverability and Tactile Feedback in Medical Catheters, by Optimizing the Valve Towards Minimal Friction, J. of Medical Devices, 3(1), 011003, (2009) T. Hofman, M. Steinbuch, R.M. van Druten, A.F.A. Serrarens, Design of CVT-based hybrid passenger cars, IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, 58(2), 572-587, (2009) T. Hofman, S.G. Van der Tas, W. Ooms, E.W.P. Van Meijl, B.M. Laugeman, Development of a Micro-Hybrid System for a Three-Wheeled Motor Taxi, WEVA Journal, 3, 1-9, (2009) T. Hofman, T. Purnot, A Comparative Study and Analysis of an Optimized Control Strategy for the Toyota Hybrid System, WEVA Journal, 3, 1-9, (2009) T.A.C. van Keulen, G.J.L. Naus, A.G. de Jager, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, N.P.I. Aneke, Predictive Cruise Control in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, WEVA Journal, 3, ISSN 2032-6653,, (2009) T.A.E. Oomen, J.J.M. van de Wijdeven, O.H. Bosgra, Suppressing Intersample Behavior in Iterative Learning Control, Automatica, 45(4), 981-988, (2009) W. Michiels, T. Vyhlidal, H.J.C. Huijberts, H. Nijmeijer, Stabilizability and stability robustness of state derivative feedback controllers, SIAM J Control Optimization, 47(6), 3100-3117, (2009) W.H.T.M. Aangenent, R. de Jong, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, Time-domain performance based nonlinear state feedback control of constrained linear systems, Int. J. of Control, 82(2), 352-364, (2009) X.L.J. Seykens, R.S.G. Baert, L.M.T. Somers, F.P.T. Willems, Experimental Validation of Extended NO and Soot Model for Advanced HD Diesel, SAE Int. J. Engines, 2(1), 609-619, (2009)

International congress papers A.J. den Hamer, S. Weiland, M. Steinbuch, Model-free norm-based fixed structure controller synthesis, in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control; Shanghai, China, 0-0, (2009) A.J. den Hamer, S. Weiland, M. Steinbuch, Worst-case inter frequency grid behavior of transfer functions identified via finite frequency response data, in Proc. of European Control Conference 2009; Budapest, Hungary, 0-0, (2009) 121

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics and Control Technology Group

A.V. Pavlov, E. Steur, N. van de Wouw, Controlled synchronization via nonlinear integral coupling, in joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference; Shanghai, China, 5263 -- 5268, (2009) B. Besselink, N. van de Wouw, H. Nijmeijer, An error bound for model reduction of Lur'e-type systems, in Proceedings of the joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference; Shanghai, China, 3264-3269, (2009) C. Werner, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, Design and realization of a long-stroke translation stage for SPM, in Euspen 2009; San Sebastian, Spain, 4, (2009) D. Kostic, S. Adinandra, J. Caarls, N. van de Wouw, H. Nijmeijer, Collision-free Coordination of a Group of Unicycle Mobile Robots, in 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control; Shanghai, China, 5667-5672, (2009) D.V. Ngo, T. Hofman, M. Steinbuch, A.F.A. Serrarens, Performance Indices for Vehicular Propulsion Systems, in The 15th Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference – APAC15; Editors: -, HaNoi, Viet Nam, 1-9, (2009) D.V. Ngo, T. Hofman, M. Steinbuch, A.F.A. Serrarens, Shifting Strategy for Step Change Transmission Vehicle – A Comparative Study and Design Method, in The 24th International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS24); Stavanger, Norway, xx, (2009) E. Garcia Canseco, J.M.A. Scherpen, M. Kuindersma, Modeling for Control of a Wobble-Yoke Stirling Engine, in 2009 International Symposium on Nonlinear Theory and its Applications; Sapporo, Japan, 544-547, (2009) E. Steur, I. Tyukin, H. Nijmeijer, Semi-passivity and synchronization of neuronal oscillators, in CHAOS 09; Editors: H. Huijberts, London, United Kingdom, 6, (2009) E. van den Eijnden, R. Cloudt, F.P.T. Willems, P. Van der Heijden, Automated model fit tool for SCR control and OBD development, in SAE World Congres; Detroit, United States, SAE 2009-01-1285, (2009) E.P. van der Laan, A.G. de Jager, F.E. Veldpaus, M. Steinbuch, E. van Nunen, D. Willemsen, Continuous Restraint Control Systems: Safety Improvement for Various Occupants, in 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), June 15-18, 2009; Stuttgart, Germany, Germany, 1-11, (2009) F.P.T. Willems, D. Foster, Integrated Powertrain Control to meet future CO2 and Euro-6 emission targets for a diesel hybrid with SCR-deNOx system, in Proc. of 2009 American Control Conference; St.Louis, MO, United States, 3944-3949, (2009) G. Witvoet, E. Westerhof, M. Steinbuch, N. Doelman, M.R. de Baar, Control oriented modeling and simulation of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion tokamak plasmas, in 48th Conference on Decision and Control; Editors: IEEE, Shanghai, China, 1360-1366, (2009) G.J.L. Naus, R.P.A. Vugts, J. Ploeg, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, Towards on-the-road implementation of cooperative adaptive cruise control, in 16th ITS World Congress; Stockholm, Sweden, -, (2009) H. Moneva, J. Caarls, J. Verriet, A Holonic Approach to Warehouse Control, in 7th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (PAAMS); Editors: Demazeau, Y., Pavón, J., Corchado, J.M., Bajo, J., Salamanca, Spain, 1-10, (2009) H. Nijmeijer, N. van de Wouw, A. Pavlov, Convergency and Regulation, in ACD 2009; Editors: ACD, Zielona Gora, Poland, CD Rom 3 p., (2009) H.C.M. Meenink, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, M.D. de Smet, Instrument manipulator for a master-slave robot for vitreo-retinal ophthalmic surgery, in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference of Society for Medical Innovation and Technology; Sinaia, Romania, 53, (2009)

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J.H. Richter, S. Weiland, W.P.M.H. Heemels, J. Lunze, Decoupling-based reconfigurable control of linear systems after actuator faults, in Proc. European Control Conference; Editors: -, Budapest, Hungary, -, (2009) J.J. Slob, M.R.L. Kuijpers, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, A new approach to extended linear motion technology: the wall is the limit, in Driving Simulation Conference 2009; Editors: ., Monaco, Monaco, 6p., (2009) J.J.T.H. de Best, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, Direct Dynamic Visual Servoing at 1 kHz by using the Product as 1.5D Encoder, in IEEE International Conference on Control & Automation (ICCA'09); Christchurch, New Zealand, -, (2009) J.M.M. Rovers, J.W. Jansen, E. Lomonova, M.J.C. Ronde, Calculation of the static forces among the permanent magnets in a Halbach array, in Proc. IEEE International Magnetics Conference; Sacramento, California, United States, 1-6, (2009) J.M.W. van de Weem, J.G. Barajas Ramirez, R. Femat, H. Nijmeijer, Conditions for synchronization and chaos in networks of â-cells, in CHAOS 09; Editors: H. Huijberts, London, United Kingdom, 6, (2009) L. Hladowski, Z. Cai, K. Galkowski, E. Rogers, M.A.R. Freeman, P.L. Lewin, W. Paszke, Repetitive Process based Iterative Learning Control designed by LMIs and Experimentally Verified on a Gantry Robot, in American Control Conference ; St. Louis, MO,, United States, 949-954, (2009) L.J.M. van den Bedem, J.C,. Groen, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, Design of a Slave Robot for Minimally Invasive Surgery, in Proceedings of the 21st International Conference of Society for Medical Innovation and Technology; Sinaia, Romania, 52, (2009) L.J.M. van den Bedem, R. Hendrix, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, H. Nijmeijer, Design of a Minimally Invasive Surgical Teleoperated Master-Slave System with Haptic Feedback, in Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation; Changchun, China, 60--65, (2009) L.L. Hetel, M.B.G. Cloosterman, N. van de Wouw, W.P.M.H. Heemels, J. Daafouz, H. Nijmeijer, Comparison of stability characterisations for networked control systems, in Proceedings of the joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference; Editors: //, Shanghai, China, 7911-7916,, (2009) L.L. Hetel, M.B.G. Cloosterman, N. van de Wouw, W.P.M.H. Heemels, J. Daafouz, H. Nijmeijer, Comparison of stability characterisations for networked control systems, in Proceedings of the joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference; Editors: //, Shanghai, China, 7911-7916,, (2009) M. Steinbuch, K. van Berkel, G. Leenknegt, T.A.E. Oomen, J.J.M. van de Wijdeven, Reading of Cracked Optical Discs Using Iterative Learning Control, in Proceedings of the 2009 American Control Conference; Saint Louis, MO, United States, 258-263, (2009) M.F. Heertjes, D.W.T. Hennekens, A. van Engelen, M. Steinbuch, dynamic decoupling in motion systems using a gradient approximation-based algorithm, in conference on decision and control; Shanghai, China, 5086-5091, (2009) M.F. Heertjes, G. Leenknegt, B. van Goch, H. Nijmeijer, Improved noise sensitivity under high-gain feedback in nano-positioning motion systems, in American Control Conference; St.Louis, United States, 283-288, (2009) M.F. Heertjes, G. Leenknegt, B. van Goch, H. Nijmeijer, Improved noise sensitivity under high-gain feedback in nano-positioning motion systems, in American Control Conference; St.Louis, United States, 283-288, (2009) M.F. Heertjes, R. Rampadarath, R. Waiboer, Nonlinear Q-filter in the Learning of Nano-Positioning Motion Systems, in European Control Conference; Budapest, Hungary, 1523-1528, (2009)

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M.J.C. Ronde, R.J.E. Merry, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, K.R. Koops, M. Steinbuch, Multivariable control of a metrological Atomic Force Microscope, in European Control Conference (ECC); Budapest, Hungary, 2265-2270, (2009) M.R. de Baar, B.A. Hennen, J.W. Oosterbeek, P.W.J.M. Nuij, M. Steinbuch, E. Westerhof, A tearing mode track-and-suppress system for TEXTOR, in 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on ECRH Physics and Technology for Large Fusion Devices; Gandhinagar, India, --, (2009) O. Zweigle, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, R. D'Andrea, K. Haussermann, RoboEarth: connecting robots worldwide, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Interaction Sciences: Information Technology, Culture and Human; Editors: -, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 184-191, (2009) R. Cloudt, F.P.T. Willems, P. Van der Heijden, Cost and Fuel Efficient SCR-only Solution for post-2010 HD Emission Standards, in SAE World Congres; Detroit, United States, SAE 2009-01-0915, (2009) R. Henselmans, L.A. Cacace, G.F.IJ. Kramer, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, Development and performance demonstration of the NANOMEFOS non-contact measurement machine for freeform optics, in Euspen Annual meeting 2009; San Sebastian, Spain, 164-168, (2009) R. Henselmans, L.A. Cacace, G.F.IJ. Kramer, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, Freeform optics measurements with the NANOMEFOS non-contact measurement machine, in SPIE Optifab 2009; Rochester, NY, United States, ??, (2009) R. Henselmans, L.A. Cacace, G.F.IJ. Kramer, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, Nanometer level freeform surface measurements with the NANOMEFOS non-contact measurement machine , in SPIE Optics & Photonics 2009: Optical Manufacturing and Testing VIII; Editors: Proceedings of SPIE Volume 7426, San Diego, United States, 7426-5, (2009) R.J.E. Merry, D.J. Kessels, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, Repetitive control applied to a walking piezo actuator, in International Conference on Control & Automation; Christchurch, New Zealand, 6 pages, (2009) R.J.E. Merry, M. Uyanik, K.R. Koops, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M.G.A. van Veghel, M. Steinbuch, Modeling and compensation of asymmetric hysteresis in a piezo actuated metrological AFM, in American Control Conference; St. Louis, United States, 6, (2009) R.J.E. Merry, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, Modeling of a walking piezo actuator, in International Conference on Control & Automation; Christchurch, New Zealand, 6 pages, (2009) R.S. Pieters, P.P. Jonker, H. Nijmeijer, Real-time centre detection of an OLED structure, in ACIVS; Bordeaux, France, 9, (2009) S. Lichiardopol, N. van de Wouw, H. Nijmeijer, Control Scheme for Human-Robot Co-manipulation of Uncertain, Time-varying Loads, in Proceedings of the 2009 ACC Conference; Editors: ., St. Louis, United States, ., (2009) S.H. van der Meulen, A.G. de Jager, E. van der Noll, F.E. Veldpaus, F. van der Sluis, M. Steinbuch, Improving Pushbelt Continuously Variable Transmission Efficiency via Extremum Seeking Control, in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Multi-conference on Systems and Control; Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 357-362, (2009) S.K. Ravensbergen, R.F.M.M. Hamelinck, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, Deformable mirrors: design fundamentals for force actuation of continuous facesheets, in SPIE Optics & Photonics 2009; Advanced Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications VII; Editors: Richard A. Carreras; Troy A. Rhoadarmer; David C. Dayton, San Diego, United States, 74660G-8, (2009)

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T. Hofman, A comparative study and analysis of an optimized control strategy for the Toyota Hybrid System, in Int. Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exposition; Editors: Prof. J. van Mierlo, Stavanger, Norway, 1-9, (2009) T. Hofman, D. Van Leeuwen, Analysis of modeling and simulation methodologies for vehicular propulsion systems, in Vehicle Propulsion and Power Conference; Editors: IEEE-VPPC, Dearborn, United States, 1-8, (2009) T. Hofman, Development of a Micro-Hybrid System for a Three-Wheeled Motor Taxi, in Int. Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exposition; Editors: Prof. J. van Mierlo, Stavanger, Norway, 1-6, (2009) T. Oguchi, H. Nijmeijer, N. Tanaka, A Synchronization Condition for Coupled Nonlinear Systems with Time-delay -A Circle Criterion Approach-, in CHAOS 09; Editors: H. Huijberts, London, United Kingdom, 6, (2009) T.A.C. van Keulen, G.J.L. Naus, A.G. de Jager, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, N.P.I. Aneke, Predictive Cruise Control in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, in EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium; Editors: -, Stavanger, Norway, -, (2009) T.A.E. Oomen, J.J.M. van de Wijdeven, O.H. Bosgra, Low-Order System Identification and Optimal Control of Intersample Behavior in ILC, in Proceedings of the 2009 American Control Conference; Saint Louis, MO, United States, 271-276, (2009) T.A.E. Oomen, O.H. Bosgra, M.M.J. van de Wal, Identification for Robust Inferential Control, in Proceedings of the 48th Conference on Decision and Control; Shanghai, China, 2581-2586, (2009) T.A.E. Oomen, O.H. Bosgra, Well-Posed Model Quality Estimation by Design of Validation Experiments, in Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (SYSID 2009); Saint-Malo, France, 1199-1204, (2009) T.A.E. Oomen, R.M.A. van Herpen, O.H. Bosgra, Robust-Control-Relevant Coprime Factor Identification with Application to Model Validation of a Wafer Stage, in Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (SYSID 2009); Saint-Malo, France, 1044-1049, (2009) T.H.A. van den Broek, N. van de Wouw, H. Nijmeijer, Formation Control of Unicycle Mobile Robots: a Virtual Structure Approach, in Proceedings of the joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference; Editors: IEEE, Shanghai, China, 3264-3269, (2009) W. Paszke, Iterative Learning Control by Linear Repetitive Processes Theory, in 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control; Editors: M. Gevers and R. Sepulchre, Spa, Belgium, 149-150, (2009) W. Paszke, O. Bachelier, New Robust Stability and Stabilization Conditions for Linear Repetitive Processes, in 6th International Workshop on Multidimensional (nD) Systems ; Editors: N. Karampetakis, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1-6, (2009) W. Paszke, P. Rapisarda, E. Rogers, M. Steinbuch, Dissipative stability theory for linear repetitive processes with application in iterative learning control, in Proc. of Symposium on Learning Control at IEEE CDC 2009 ; Editors: -, Shanghai, China, -, (2009) W.H.T.M. Aangenent, C.H.A. Criens, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M.F. Heertjes, M. Steinbuch, LPV control of an active vibration isolation system, in 2009 American Control Conference; Hyatt Regency Riverfront, St. Louis, MO, United States, 6, (2009) W.H.T.M. Aangenent, C.H.A. Criens, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M.F. Heertjes, M. Steinbuch, LPV control of an active vibration isolation system, in American Control Conference; St.Louis, United States, 3730-3735, (2009)

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W.H.T.M. Aangenent, W.P.M.H. Heemels, M.J.G. van de Molengraft, M. Steinbuch, Linear Control of Time-Domain Constrained Systems, in 48th Conference on Decision and Control; Editors: IEEE, Shanghai, China, 5339-5344, (2009) W.J.E. Evers, I.J.M. Besselink, A. Teerhuis, A.C.M. Knaap, van der, H. Nijmeijer, Controlling active cabin suspensions in commercial vehicles, in American Control Conference; Saint Louis, United States, 683-688, (2009) W.P.M.H. Heemels, A.R. Teel, N. van de Wouw, D. Nesic, Networked control systems with communication constraints: Tradeoffs between transmission intervals and delays, in Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009; Editors: //, Budapest, Hungary, //, (2009) W.P.M.H. Heemels, A.R. Teel, N. van de Wouw, D. Nesic, Networked control systems with communication constraints: Tradeoffs between transmission intervals and delays, in Proceedings of the European Control Conference 2009; Editors: //, Budapest, Hungary, //, (2009) W.P.M.H. Heemels, D. Nesic, A.R. Teel, N. van de Wouw, Networked and Quantized Control Systems with Communication Delays, in Proceedings of the joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference; Editors: //, Shanghai, China, 7929-7935, (2009) W.P.M.H. Heemels, D. Nesic, A.R. Teel, N. van de Wouw, Networked and Quantized Control Systems with Communication Delays, in Proceedings of the joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference; Editors: //, Shanghai, China, 7929-7935, (2009) W.P.M.H. Heemels, J. Daafouz, G. Millerioux, Design of observer-based controllers for LPV systems with unknown parameters, in Proc. Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) and 28th Chinese Control Conference; Editors: IEEE, Shanghai, China, 1836-1841, (2009) X.L.J. Seykens, R.S.G. Baert, L.M.T. Somers, F.P.T. Willems, Experimental Validation of Extended NO and Soot Model for Advanced HD Diesel, in SAE World Congres 2009; Detroit, United States, SAE 2009-01-0683, (2009)

Ph.D. theses E.P.van der Laan, Seat Belt Control: From modeling to experiment, PhD. Thesis, 2009, TU/e Advisors: M. Steinbuch, A.G. de Jager L.A. Cacace, An Optical Distance Sensor - tilt robust differential confocal measurement with mm range and nm accuracy, PhD. Thesis, 2009, TU/e Advisors: M. Steinbuch, P.C.J.N. Rosielle R. Henselmans, Non-contact Measurement Machine for Freeform Optics, PhD. Thesis, 2009, TU/e Advisors: M. Steinbuch, P.C.J.N. Rosielle R.J.E. Merry, Performance driven control of nano-motion systems, PhD. Thesis, 2009, TU/e Advisors: M. Steinbuch, Co-advisor: M.J.G. van de Molengraft

Other publications patent H.C.M. Meenink, Surgical Robot , Patent: NL233598 (2009)

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Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering – Control Systems

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering – Control Systems General Information Address Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands. Phone: 040–247 23 00. Fax. 040–243 45 82 @E–mail: [email protected]

Scientific staff Prof. dr. ir. A.C.P.M. Backx, Prof. dr. ir. P.P.J. van den Bosch, Prof. Ir. O.H. Bosgra, Dr. ir. A.A.H. Damen, Ing. W. Hendrix, Dr. A. Jokic, M.Sc., Dr.ir. J.T.B.A. Kessels, Dr. M. Lazar, M.Sc., Dr.ir. C.M.M. van Lierop, Dr. L. Ozkan, M.Sc., Dr.ir. A. Veltman, Dr. S. Weiland, Dr. ir. Y. Zhu.

PhD students Ir. J. Achterberg, Ir. F. van Belzen, Ir. C. Bikcora, Ir. P.J. van Bree, C. Ding, M.Sc., M. Ezzeldin, M.Sc., M. Gajdusek, M.Sc., Ir. R. Gielen, Ir. R. Hermans, Ir. P. van der Hulst, Ir. R.A.M. Hol, A. Katalenic, M.Sc., Ir. M. Musters, Ir. J. Sijs, Ir. J. Stolte, Ir. E. Tazelaar, Ir. J.A.W. Vissers, S. Wattamwar, M.Sc.,

Cooperation with APX (Amsterdam), ASML (Veldhoven), Assembleon, Bayer (Belgium/Germany), ECN (Petten), FEI (Eindhoven), Ford Research (Aachen), Ford (USA), IPCOS Technology, Kema (Arnhem), Océ (Venlo), Philips ApTech, Philips Lighting, PPG Fiberglas, Prodrive (Eindhoven), REXAM (Dongen), Shell (Amsterdam), SORG (Germany), Thales (Hengelo), TenneT (Arnhem), Vereenigde Glasfabrieken With partners in the EU–Brite Euram programs EURON and 6th FW EU project PROMATCH and NoE HYCON, 7th FW EU project E-Price.

Keywords Modeling, identification, system analysis, control system synthesis, model reduction, predictive control, spatial-temporal systems, automotive control, embedded and network controlled systems, motion control, process control.

Brief description Mastering complexity, present in mechatronics, power systems, automotive systems or industrial processes, is a driving force in our area. CS recognizes this challenge and is directing its fundamental research into the following phenomena: • Lyapunov methods for real-time control: Our ideas of flexible Lyapunov functions support a much better and less conservative framework for stability analysis and stabilizing controller synthesis for complex (hybrid) nonlinear systems with hard constraints, compared to the 100 years old standard stability theory of Lyapunov. • Model reduction: Easily-created complex models need model reduction strategies to allow analysis and synthesis. • Distributed systems: The abundance of (local) computer power and measurement information and affordable communication have stimulated decentralized and distributed identification, estimation and control strategies. 127

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering – Control Systems

• Spatial-temporal systems: Spatial effects of non-rigid-body mechanics and electromagnetic phenomena in electromagnetic materials such as eddy currents and hysteresis in advanced actuator design have stimulated over-actuation with spatial effects. CS searches for interesting problems which mutually influence theory development and applications. Moreover, they have to be relevant for industrial partners to achieve sufficient financial support for both our applied and fundamental research. The selection is also being influenced by the department's research agenda, the interaction among the chairs in the department, the university and the research school DISC.

DISC projects System identification for control Projectleader: prof. dr.ir. P.P.J. van den Bosch

Description In the very center of our research, we consider mathematical system theory and control technology research. This research delivers the tools and technologies needed for model-based monitoring, analysis and control in the selected application areas of CS. We have selected tools that allow us to contribute in the areas of embedded controllers, intelligent power nets, automotive applications, and process control. As a consequence and considering the capabilities and interests of the staff members, the following focus points have been selected as our core research: modeling, model reduction of high-dimensional models, identification of nonlinear and multi-mode systems, analysis and synthesis of multi-mode models and synthesis with convex optimization with Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI). Looking back, our selection has been quite successful and major scientific and industrial results have been achieved. We can convince industry that our technology contributes to the solution of their problems. In close cooperation with our partners we are allowed to carry out the experiments in their environment, e.g. electromechanical devices at Philips or ASML, embedded systems in copiers at Oce, energy management of vehicles at Ford, vehicle engines at TNO, distillation column at Shell and Bayer, glass production process at Rexam, etc. The estimated costs of these processes are several dozens of millions to hundred million Euros. These high costs are avoided for CS as these experimental research facilities become available to us. The ability to discuss experiments with technicians in industry and our ability to cooperate with the partners to set up experimental prototype systems by connecting our measurement and control computers to their process is of paramount importance.This expertise, which, amongst other things, requires up-to-date knowledge of new relevant technologies, has to be and is present in the permanent technical staff of our group.

Ongoing work Model reduction: Mathematical models have proven to be indispensable tools to condense information, knowledge and understanding of dynamic phenomena. Due to an ever increasing performance of computer and modeling software, such models can often be generated automatically from first principle equations or from observed or measured data. Depending on the required accuracy such models become increasingly complex, of large-scale (> 103-105 equations) and require large amounts of calculation time for their analysis and 128

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering – Control Systems

simulation. In many applications the complexity of such models becomes prohibitive to allow for real-time and on-line applications. Research on model reduction in CS is motivated by the need to develop methodologies to infer simple substitute models for these high-complexity (or large-scale) models that still retain the accuracy of the original, complex model. CS conducts research in spectral and projection methods for the simplification of large-scale non-linear systems in computational fluid dynamics.The dynamic behavior in such processes is dominated by convective and diffusive phenomena. Key in this research is the investigation of data dependent methods. We extended the method of proper orthogonal decompositions to allow for a direct construction of reduced-order controlled systems in a number of applications. We investigated (data dependent) spectral analysis and spectral decomposition methods for signals in multiple independent and in multiple dependent variables. For general tensor descriptions of multivariable signals we developed a novel concept of tensorial singular values and singular value decompositions. This has led to novel insights in the question of reconstruction of continuous time multivariable signals from sampled data. We developed a novel algorithm for the computation of tensorial singular value decompositions and currently investigate its convergence and accuracy properties. Using reduced order models, we made advancements in the understanding and detection of bifurcation phenomena in tubular reactors and glass furnaces as part of investigations in two specific projects. For these investigations we developed nonlinear system identification techniques for the modeling of Fourier (or modal- or spectral-) coefficients of observed data. Solutions have been found for multi-way arrays and low rank approximation of tensors by singular value decomposition. As reduced models are ultimately used for control, a novel strategy has been formulated and solved to design a reduced order controller directly based on the complex model, omitting the explicit step of model reduction. These tools are being applied for some industrial processes, an industrial glass furnace and the particle filter in an exhaust catalytic converter. Flexible Lyapunov Functions for Real-time Control: The research is based on the VENI grant of Dr. Lazar, which was awarded in 2008.This project generalizes and relaxes classical Lyapunov stability theory to build real-time viable stabilizing controllers. Since 1892 Lyapunov theory has been the central tool in systems theory for constructing controllers that achieve stability. However, there is still a significant gap in real-life application of Lyapunov theory. The main reason is conservativeness of Lyapunov conditions, expressed in terms of Lyapunov functions (LFs). They are often over conservative and not suited for tailoring the behavior of real-time systems. Classically, a LF enforces that all trajectories describing the evolution of a system in time are contained within a contracting tube with a fixed, predefined shape, which is centered at and converges to a desired converging point. A novel idea that generalizes Lyapunov functions and makes them flexible is proposed, so as to allow viable system evolutions. In contrast with the century-old, classical approach, the focus is on designing optimization problems that allow the shape, centre and radius of a tube associated with a LF to be free variables that can be optimized on-line. This approach, sustained by the increased capability of digital processors, makes flexible LFs more suitable for stabilization of nonlinear and hybrid systems, which exhibit limit cycles and discontinuous behavior. The project is investigating the potential of flexible LFs for robust control via on-line optimization of disturbance attenuation and stabilization of network systems via dissipativity and on-line optimization of supply rates. Conservativeness is significantly reduced compared to classical, off-line stabilizing controller design. These results are relevant for fast systems (order of milliseconds sampling, e.g., power circuits, mechatronics, automotive systems), electrical energy distribution networks and intelligent road estimation networks. The VENI project already delivered 6 journal papers in CS's most prestigious journals, 6 book chapters and 10 papers in the top conferences, such as IEEE CDC, ACC and HSCC. 129

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering – Control Systems

Dr. M. Lazar was invited by Prof. Allgöwer (IST Stuttgart) to give guest lectures and to organize in 2011 the next NMPC conference as program chair. Also, he is the chair and organizer of an invited session on networked control systems at ACC 2010. Model predictive control of hybrid and embedded systems: The exploitation of model predictive control (MPC) beyond the traditional slow systems in the process industry based on linear models is of high practical value. The research conducted at our group has taken away much of the confusion around the precise interpretation of the robustness and stability of hybrid and nonlinear model predictive controllers. We have shown for the first time that the existing stable hybrid predictive control schemes can have zero robustness, a property that hampers any practical implementation of a hybrid MPC controller. To enable practical implementation of hybrid MPC, we exploited the input-to-state stability framework. In doing so, we developed various new algorithms for synthesizing MPC controllers for hybrid systems for which the desirable practical property of robustness (input-to-state stability) is guaranteed. We also proposed novel stabilizing MPC schemes for nonlinear discrete-time systems that only need knowledge of the output of the system (not the full state), which has substantial practical value. Furthermore, the classical stability concepts of MPC have been generalized to allow for discrete dynamics. This extends the applicability of the developed results significantly, as discrete dynamics can be used to represent robot tasks and sequences of operations in industrial batch processes, or computer program executions in embedded and software-enabled control systems. Next to these theoretical contributions, we kept a clear eye towards the practical feasibility in the sense of minimizing computational complexity of the algorithms derived. Compared to existing sub-optimal MPC schemes, the algorithms developed by our group are computationally less demanding, which enables application to fast systems. This was achieved using simpler stabilization constraints that can be implemented as a finite number of linear inequalities, so the control law can be computed by solving a single linear program. We applied the algorithms to control high frequency DC-DC power converters. In this way we showed, for the first time, that sample times below 1 millisecond are feasible for model predictive control. Novel research in this direction looks at even faster FPGA implementations via approximate explicit solutions that can lead to computational times in the order of nanoseconds. With Ford USA we have used the same control strategy for controlling the fuel injection of their engines. Our approach showed better accuracy and faster behavior than other existing state-of-the-art approaches and received a best master thesis and conference paper award from IEEE. This opens up roads towards a wide range of new applications with fast dynamics in mechatronics, automotive, robotics and aerospace. Applications: Smart actuators The common research with EPE on advanced actuator concepts, especially 6 DOF floating platforms, has continued successfully. In spite of many initial hesitations about our concept, industry is starting to realize that our approach is an attractive alternative of their present solutions. They increasingly support us with advice, and technical and financial support. The research on a flying manipulator with wireless communication and energy transfer has resulted in a convincing demonstration. Research continues on active vibration isolation based on both passive and actively-controlled electromagnetic forces and on a high-accurate power amplifier with an extreme accuracy of up to 30 bits. A new common research project Xtreme has become operational to deal with extreme motion (up to 100 ms-2 acceleration and up to 0.2 nm accuracy) and non-rigid body dynamics. With such accelerations, mechanical constructions have to become light-weight and start to bend and vibrate. With spatial distributed forces and torques, these spatial vibrations will be actively damped. As 130

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering – Control Systems

a consequence of their higher energy efficiency, reluctance actuator will enter application. For CS these devices pose additional challenges owing to their non-linear stiffness, saturation, hysteresis and eddy currents. Based on our added value for ASML, they consider us the university group for their research on lithographic processes. The head of research on metrology and control in ASML has been appointed as part-time professor on Lithographic Process Control in CS. We will cooperate even more with ASML owing to the largest KWR project Metrology. In cooperation with FEI we have found a solution to improve the speed of focusing their electron microscopes. Based on a novel sensor for magnetic fields with a resolution of 1 microTesla, we are able to control the magnetic field of their lenses much faster, which results in a much higher throughput, and so new industrial applications like online inspection, of their microscopes. Price-based control of power systems Our proposed price-based control strategy has now gained international recognition, illustrated by invited and awarded papers and invited presentations. It is the only known approach that can guarantee a reliable supply of electric energy in the presence of less-predictable renewable energy sources (micro-turbines, wind, solar), market liberalization, physical constraints in the grid and continents spanning transmission systems. Furthermore, it is proven to ensure economically optimal operation of the system. As we have proposed a distributed controller structure, the size and the complexity of the EU power net can be dealt with. Research is going on to implement an MPC controller which guarantees dynamic optimality and constraint satisfaction during transients. A new, granted EU research proposal, with CS as main author and project leader, will study the control and computer science aspects of such price-based systems. The research with EPS will continue to find a solution for the Dutch power system in cooperation with APX, Kema and TenneT. Process control Research has continued to better understand the physical and chemical behavior of reactions during non-homogeneous and non-stationary process conditions. It is believed, and has already been illustrated with experiments, that e.g. a non-uniform temperature distribution can stimulate catalytic chemical reactions at much lower temperatures and, consequently, with much less energy requirements. If these assumptions hold, completely new approaches for process design and control have been created, yielding processes with much higher efficiencies, lower investments and better controllable product quality. With the Department of Chemical Engineering an experimental setup is being created to test and validate the many research hypotheses on controlling these advanced catalytic reactions. A new project on improving crystallization processes, and a KWR project on gas turbines have started. As pulsed-power plasma's and our approach has much in common, common research initiatives are being proposed. Wireless sensor networks As cables in machines have to be avoided, wireless connections are becoming desirable alternatives. Initial attempts with adjusted commercially-available WiFi channels had yielded useful results for closed loop operation at about 1 kHz. Still, the latency and the jitter in these connections are still too large for higher-demanding control applications with 10 to 20 kHz sampling rates. Basic problem is the packet-switched character of this type of connections and the sharing of the same physical channel by all control loops, mutually reducing each other performance. Next we have explored light as communication medium. It has yet no formal protocols, so emphasis is being put on latency and jitter and is in full operation now with negligible delays. Moreover, each channel can utilize its own light beam, so no capacity reduction is to be expected when more loops become operational. We plan to design within the department's CWTE center research dedicated to minimal latency and jitter characteristics 131

Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering – Control Systems

of wireless communication channels for real-time control. Our contribution is based on our fundamental research on stabilization of networked control systems via non-monotone control Lyapunov functions, on the stabilization of linear systems with time-varying delays and on optimal decentralized Kalman filters. Automotive The research of energy management systems has been extended to include plug-in vehicles. Coping with real-time varying prices of the grid, the energy management system of the vehicle has to be extended with plug-in capabilities, where decisions can be made when to retrieve and when to store electric energy. With 9 million vehicles in The Netherlands, plug-in vehicles introduce a considerable impact on the public power system. Both power and energy constraints prevent a quick and easy introduction. We will continue to study an “optimal” interface, we will start cooperating in a new Dutch D-INCERT initiative on the introduction of electrical vehicles in the near future and in new HTAS programs and participate in KWR program Energy Management with DAF and in KWR program FlexPower with Philips AppTech.

Publications Book chapters/parts Gielen, R.H., Olaru, S. & Lazar, M. (2009). On polytopic approximations of systems with time-varying input delays. In L. Magni, D.M. Raimondo & F. Allgoewer (Eds.), Nonlinear model predictive control: Towards new challenging applications (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, 384) (pp. 225-233). Berlin: Springer. Lazar, M. & Jokic, A. (2009). Synthesis of trajectory-dependent control Lyapunov functions by a single linear program. In Proceedings 12th international conference on Hybrid systems: computation and control, HSCC 2009, April 13-15, 2009, San Francisco, California (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5469) (pp. 237-251). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Lazar, M., Heemels, W.P.M.H., Munoz de la Pena, D. & Alamo, T. (2009). Further Results on “Robust MPC Using Linear Matrix Inequalities”. In Nonlinear Model Predictive Control : Towards New Challenging Applications (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, 384) (pp. 89-98). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Sijs, J. & Lazar, M. (2009). On event based state estimation. In Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5469) (pp. 336-350). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

International journal papers Bree, P.J. van, Veltman, A., Hendrix, W.H.A. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009).Prediction of battery behavior subject to high-rate partial state of charge. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 58(2), 588-595. Jansen, J.W., Lierop, C.M.M. van, Lomonova, E.A. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). High-precision 'flying carpet'. Mikroniek, 49(1), 5-9. Jokic, A., Lazar, M. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). On constrained steady-state regulation: dynamic KKT controllers. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 54(9), 2250-2254. Jokic, A., Lazar, M. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Real-time control of power systems using nodal prices. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 31(9), 522-530. Kessels, J.T.B.A., Foster, D.L. & Bleuanus, W.A.J. (2009). Fuel penalty comparison for (electrically) heated Catalyst technology. Oil and Gas Science and Technology, 65(1), 47-54. 132

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Koroglu, H. & Scherer, C.W. (2009). Generalized asymptotic regulation with guaranteed H2 performance: an LMI solution. Automatica,45(3),823-829. Lazar, M. & Heemels, W.P.M.H. (2009). Predictive control of hybrid systems: input-to-state stability results for sub-optimal solutions. Automatica,45(1),179-185. Lazar, M., Heemels, W.P.M.H. & Teel, A.R. (2009). Lyapunov functions, stability and input-to-state stability subtleties for discrete-time discontinuous systems. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 54(10),2421-2425. Lierop, C.M.M. van, Jansen, J.W., Damen, A.A.H., Lomonova, E.A., Bosch, P.P.J. van den & Vandenput, A.J.A. (2009). Model-based commutation of a long-stroke magnetically levitated linear actuator. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 45(6), 1982-1990. Oomen, T.A.E., Wijdeven, J.J.M. van de & Bosgra, O.H. (2009). Suppressing intersample behavior in iterative learning control. Automatica, 45(4), 981-988. Raimondo, D.M., Limon, D., Lazar, M., Magni, L. & Camacho, E.F. (2009). Min-max model predictive control of nonlinear systems: a unifying overview on stability. European Journal of Control, 15(1), 5-21. Tazelaar, E., Bruinsma, J., Veenhuizen, P.A. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Driving cycle characterization and generation, for design and control of fuel cell buses. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 3, 1-8. Xu, Zuhua, Zhao, Jun, Qian, Jixin & Zhu, Y. (2009). Nonlinear MPC using an identified LPV model. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 48(6), 3043-3051. Zhu, Y. (2009). System identification for process control: recent experience and outlook. International Journal of Modelling,Identification and Control, 6(2), 89-103.

International congress papers Achterberg, J., Lierop, C.M.M. van & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Control of a moving magnet planar actuator at industrial specifications. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 84-84). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center. Achterberg, J., Rovers, J.M.M., Lierop, C.M.M. van, Jansen, J.W., Bosch, P.P.J. van den & Lomonova, E. (2009). Model based commutation containing edge coils for a moving magnet planar actuator. In Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Linear Drives for Industry Applications (pp. 4-284). Incheon, Korea: LDIA. Belzen, F. van & Weiland, S.(2009). Approximation of nD systems using tensor decompositions. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Multidimensional (nD) Systems, June 29th - July 1st, 2009, Thessaloniki, Greece (pp. 1-8). Piscataway: IEEE Service Center. Belzen, F. van, Weiland, S. & Ozkan, L. (2009). Model reduction of multi-variable distributed systems through empirical projection spaces. In Proceedings Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, 16-18 December 2009, Shanghai, China (pp. 5351-5356). Piscataway: IEEE. Bosch, P.P.J. van den, Jokic, A., Frunt, J., Kling, W.L., Nobel, F., Boonekamp, P., Boer, W. de & Hermans, R.M. (2009). Incentives-based ancillary services for power system integrity. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM 2009) 27-29 May 2009, Leuven, Belgium (pp. 1198-1/7). Piscataway: IEEE. Bree, P.J. van, Lierop, C.M.M. van & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Characterization of hysteresis within magnetic electron lenses. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 81). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center. Bree, P.J. van, Lierop, C.M.M. van & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Control-oriented hysteresis models for magnetic electron lenses. In Proceedings 7th International Symposium on Hysteresis Modeling and Micromagnetics (HMM-2009), 11-14 May 2009, Gaithersburg, Maryland Vol. 45.IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (pp. 5235-5238). Piscataway: IEEE. 133

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Damoiseaux, A.C.R., Jokic, A., Lazar, M. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Non-centralized model predictive control of power networks. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 164-164). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center. Ding, C., Damen, A.A.H. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). A simple LPV identification and control scheme for an electromagnetic suspension system. In Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Linear Drives for Industry Applications, LDIA 2009, 20-23 September 2009, Incheon, Korea (pp. 1-4). Ding, C., Damen, A.A.H. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Stabilization & vibration control of Gaussmount suspension system. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 175-175). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center. Ezzeldin Mahdy Abdelmonem, M., Bosch, P.P.J. van den & Waarsing, R. (2009). Improved convergence of MRAC design for printing system. In Proceedings of the 28th American Control Conference, (ACC '09) 10 – 12 June 2009, St. Louis, MO, USA (pp. 3232-3237). Piscataway: IEEE. Ezzeldin Mahdy Abdelmonem, M., Jokic, A. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Modeling and control of inkjet printhead. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 68-68). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center. Foster, D.L., Kessels, J.T.B.A., Aneke, E. & Rojer, C. (2009). Hybrid-assisted DPF regeneration in distribution trucks. In Proceedings of the 24th International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition (EVS 24), Stavanger, Norway, May 13-16, 2009 (pp. 1-8). New York: Electric Vehicle Council. Gajdusek, M., Damen, A.A.H. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Auto-alignment procedure for magnetically levitated planar actuator with moving magnets. In Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Linear Drives for Industry Applications, LDIA 2009, 20-23 September 2009, Incheon, Korea (pp. 170-173). Gajdusek, M., Damen, A.A.H. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Comparison of error causes in commutation of magnetically levitated planar actuator with moving magnets. In Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Linear Drives for Industry Applications, LDIA 2009, 20-23 September 2009, Incheon, Korea (pp. 166-169). Gajdusek, M., Overboom, T.T., Damen, A.A.H. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Infrared wireless data transfer for real-time motion control. In Proceedings of the IFAC workshop on Programmable Devices and Embedded Systems (PDeS 2009), 10-12 february 2009, Roznov, Czech Republic (pp. 1-6). Oxford: Pergamon. Gielen, R.H. & Lazar, M. (2009). Further results on stabilization of linear systems with time-varying input delay. In Proceedings of 8th IFAC Workshop on Time-Delay Systems, 1-2 September 2009, Sinaia, Romania (pp. 1-6).Oxford: Pergamon. Gielen, R.H. & Lazar, M. (2009). Stabilization of networked control systems via non-monotone control Lyapunov functions. In Proceedings Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, 16-18 December 2009, Shanghai, China (pp. 7942-7948). Piscataway: IEEE. Hamer, A.J. den, Weiland, S. & Steinbuch, M. (2009). Model-free norm-based fixed structure controller synthesis. In Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference (CDC / CCC) 16-18 December 2009, Shanghai, China (pp. 4030-4035). Piscataway: IEEE. Hamer, A.J. den, Weiland, S. & Steinbuch, M. (2009). Model-free optimal control synthesis. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 57-57). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center.

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Hamer, A.J. den, Weiland, S. & Steinbuch, M. (2009). Worst-case inter frequency grid behavior of transfer functions identified via finite frequency response data. In Proceedings of the 10th European Control Conference (ECC'09), 23-26 August 2009, Budapest, Hungary (pp. 466-471). Europea Union Control Association (EUCA). Hermans, R.M., Lazar, M., Di Cairano, S. & Kolmanovsky, I. (2009). Low-complexity model predictive control of electromagnetic actuators with a stability guarantee. In Proceedings of the 28th American Control Conference, (ACC '09) 10-12 June 2009, St. Louis, Missouri (pp. 2708-2713). Piscataway: IEEE. Hermans, R.M., Lazar, M., Di Cairano, S. & Kolmanovsky, I. (2009). Low-complexity model predictive control of electromagnetic actuators. In Proceedings of the IEEE EUROCON 2009 Conference, 18-23 May 2009, St.Petersburg (pp. 1972-1977). Piscataway: IEEE. Jokic, A. & Lazar, M. (2009). On decentralized stabilization of discrete-time nonlinear systems. In Proceedings of the 28th American Control Conference, (ACC '09) 10-12 June 2009, St. Louis, MO, USA (pp. 5777-5782). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. Jokic, A. & Lazar, M. (2009). On stabilization of discrete-time nonlinear systems under information constraints. In Proceedings 1st IFAC Workshop on Estimation and Control of Networked Systems, 24-26 September 2009, Venice, Italy (pp. 1-6). Oxford: Pergamon. Jokic, A., Bosch, P.P.J. van den & Hermans, R.M. (2009). Distributed, price-based control approach to marketbased operation of future power systems. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM 2009) 27-29 May 2009, Leuven, Belgium (pp. 5207170-1/6). Piscataway: IEEE. Kessels, J.T.B.A., Foster, D.L. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Integrated powertrain control for hybrid electric vehicles with electric variable transmission. In Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference 2009, VPPC'09, 7-10 September 2009, Dearborn, Michigan (pp. 376-381). Piscataway: IEEE ServiceCenter. Kessels, J.T.B.A., Sijs, J., Hermans, R.M., Damen, A.A.H. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). On-line identification of vehicle fuel consumption for energy and emission management: an LTP system analysis. In Proceedings of the 2008 American Control Conference (ACC2008), June 11-13, 2008, Seattle, Washington, (pp. 2070-2075). Piscataway: IEEE. Keulen, T.A.C. van, Steinbuch, M., Kessels, J.T.B.A. & Foster, D.L. (2009). Energy management in hybrid electric vehicles: benefit of prediction. In Proceedings 8th International Symposium & Transmission Expo Innovative Fahrzeug-Getriebe, 30 November-3 December 2009, Berlin, Germany (pp. 1-11). Lazar, M. (2009). Flexible control Lyapunov functions. In Proceedings of the 28th American Control Conference, (ACC '09) 10 - 12 June 2009, St. Louis, MO (pp. 102-107). Piscataway: IEEE. Lazar, M., Heemels, W.P.M.H. & Jokic, A. (2009). Self-optimizing robust nonlinear model predictive control. In M. Thoma, F. Allgöwer & M. Morari (Eds.), Nonlinear model predictive control : towards new challenging applications Vol. 384. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences (pp. 27-40). Berlin: Springer. Mutsaers, M.E.C. & Weiland, S. (2009). Model reduction and controller synthesis for L2 systems. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 51-51). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center. Mutsaers, M.E.C., Weiland, S. & Engelaar, R.C. (2009). Reduced-order observer design using a Lagrangian model. In Proceedings Joint 48th IEEE conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, December 16-18, 2009, Shanghai, P.R. China (pp. 5384-5389). Piscataway: IEEE.

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Oomen, T.A.E. & Bosgra, O.H. (2009). Well-posed model quality estimation by design of validation experiments.In E. Walter (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (SYSID 2009) 6-8 July 2009, Saint-Malo, France (pp. 1199-1204). Oxford: Pergamon. Oomen, T.A.E., Bosgra, O.H. & Wal, M. van de (2009). Identification for robust inferential control. In Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference (CDC /CCC) 16-18 december 2009, Shanghai, China (pp. 2581-2586). Piscataway: IEEE Service Center. Oomen, T.A.E., Herpen, R.M.A. van & Bosgra, O.H. (2009). Robust-Control-Relevant Coprime Factor Identification with Application to Model Validation of a Wafer Stage. In E. Walter (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (SYSID 2009) 6-8 July 2009, Saint-Malo, France (pp. 1044-1049).Saint Malo, France: IFAC. Oomen, T.A.E., Herpen, R.M.A. van, Bosgra, O.H. & Wal, M.M.J. van de (2009). High performance beyondrigid-body control of next-generation Flexible Stages. In Proceedings of the 10th Philips Conference on Applications of Control Technology, February 3-4, 2009, Hilvarenbeek, The Netherlands (pp. 1-2). Oruc, S., Sijs, J. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Optimal decentralized Kalman filter. In Proceedings of the 17th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, MED '09, 24-26 June 2009, Thessaloniki, Greece, (pp. 803-808). Piscataway: IEEE. Richter, J.H., Weiland, S., Heemels, W.P.M.H. & Lunze, J. (2009). Decoupling-based reconfigurable control of linear systems after actuator faults. In Proceedings of the 10th European Control Conference, ECC'09, August 23-26, 2009, Budapest, Hungary (pp. 2512-2517). Sijs, J., Meer, S.M. van der, Kruithof, M.C. & Baan, J. (2009). A Modular Architecture for Object Tracking and Migration in Self-Organizing, Distributed Systems. In Proceedings of the 1st IFAC Workshop on Estimation and Control of Networked Systems (NecSys'09), 24-26 September 2009, Venice, Italy. Stolte, J., Backx, A.C.P.M. & Bosgra, O.H. (2009). Extremely fast catalyst temperature pulsing: design of a prototype reactor. In S. Engell & Y. Arkun (Eds.), Proceedings International Symposium on Advanced Control of Chemical Processes 2009, ADCHEM 2009, 12-15 July 2009, Istanbul, Turkey (pp. 219-1/6). Oxford: Pergamon. Stolte, J., Backx, A.C.P.M. & Bosgra, O.H. (2009). Very fast temperature pulsing: catalytic reactor design. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 161-161). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center. Tazelaar, E., Bruinsma, J., Veenhuizen, P.A. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Driving cycle characterization and generation, for design and control of fuel cell buses. In Proceedings EVS24, International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium, 13-16 May 2009, Stavanger, Norway (pp. 1-8). Veenman, J., Koroglu, H. & Scherer, C.W. (2009). Analysis of the controlled NASA HL20 atmospheric re-entry vehicle based on dynamic IQCs. In Proceedings AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, 10-13 August 2009, Chicago, Illinois (pp. 5637-1/16). New York: AIAA. Veenman, J., Scherer, C.W. & Koroglu, H. (2009). IQC-based LPV controller synthesis for the NASA HL20 atmospheric re-entry vehicle. In Proceedings AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, 10-13 August 2009, Chicago, Illinois (pp. 5636-1/18). New York: AIAA. Vissers, J.A.W. & Weiland, S. (2009). Model based kinetics estimation for crystallization processes. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 98-98). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center.

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Wattamwar, S.K., Weiland, S. & Backx, A.C.P.M. (2009). Identification of low order model for large scale systems. In Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, March 16-18, 2009, Spa, Belgium (pp. 157-157). Spa: Solcress Seminar Center. Wattamwar, S.K., Weiland, S. & Backx, A.C.P.M. (2009). Identification of low order models for large scale systems. In S. Engell & Y. Arkun (Eds.), Proceedings International Symposium on Advanced Control of Chemical Processes 2009, ADCHEM 2009, 12-15 July 2009, Istanbul, Turkey (pp. 214-1/6). Oxford: Pergamon. Wattamwar, S.K., Weiland, S. & Backx, A.C.P.M. (2009). Identification of low order parameter varying models for large scale systems. In Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification, SYSID 2009, July 6-8, 2009, Saint Malo, France (pp. 1-6). Oxford: Pergamon. Wattamwar, S.K., Weiland, S. & Backx, A.C.P.M. (2009). Reduced order modeling for glass manufacturing process. In Proceedings Glass Performance Days (GPD) 2009, June 12-15, 2009, Tampere, Finland (pp. 1-7). Zhang, Xiangping, Zhu, Y. & Bosch, P.P.J. van den (2009). Improve recursive identification using multi-iteration. In Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification, SYSID 2009, July 6-8, 2009, Saint Malo, France (pp. 444-449). Oxford: Pergamon. Zhu, Y. & Ji, Guoli (2009). LPV model identification using blended linear models with given weightings. In Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification, SYSID 2009, July 6-8, 2009, Saint Malo,France (pp. 1674-1679). Oxford: Pergamon.

M.Sc. theses Bikcora, C. (2009). Estimation of the disturbances in focus and dose of a lithographic process. Gielen, R.H. (2009). Results on Stabilization of Networked Control Systems: a Flexible Lyapunov Function Approach. Herpen, R.M.A. van (2009). Experimental Modeling and Validation for robust Motion control of next generation wafer stages. Ou Yang, R.Y. (2009). Modeling and Control of a System with Magnetic Hysteresis. Schobben, R. (2009). Identification & CFD Model Based Control of a Glass Furnace. Veek, B.J. van der (2009). Seismic Hazard Mitigation of Structures by Semi Active Magneto-Rheological Mass-Dampers.

Other publications Jansen, J.W., Rovers, J.M.M., Lierop, C.M.M. van & Lomonova, E. (09-12-2009). Reduction of the force ripple in a permanent magnet linear synchronous motor. no EP 2131484 (A1).

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University of Twente Control Engineering General Information Address University of Twente, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Electrical Engineering, Control Engineering group, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. Phone (secretariat): 053 – 489 2606. Fax (secretariat): 053 – 489 2223. E–mail (secretary): [email protected], web: http://www.ce.utwente.nl

Scientific staff Prof.dr.ir. Job van Amerongen, Dr.ir. Peter Breedveld, dr.ir. Jan Broenink, Dr. Raffaella Carloni, Prof.dr. Anton Eliens, Dr. Maarten Korsten, dr. Angelika Mader, dr. Sarthak Misra (since 01-08-2009), prof.dr.ir. Paul Regtien (until 31-12-2009), Prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli, Dr.ir. Theo de Vries

Technical and administrative staff Jolanda Boelema-Kaufmann (CE) (since 15-05-2008), Carla Gouw-Banse, ing. Gerben te Riet o/g Scholten, ing. Marcel Schwirtz, Alfred de Vries

PhD students MSc Bayan Babakhani, ir. Maarten Bezemer (since 16-01-2009), MSc Windel Bouwman (since 17-08-2009), MSc Yury Brodskiy (since 01-09-2009), MSc Phong Dao, ir. Edwin Dertien, MSc Michel Franken, ir. Marcel Groothuis (until 01-06-2009), MSc O uzcan O uz (since 01-10-2009), MSc Gijs van Oort, MSc Bart Peerdeman (since 27-11-2009), MSc Rob Reilink, MSc Ramazan Unal, ir. Martijn Visser, MSc Ludo Visser, ir. Martin Wassink, MSc Cagri Yalcin (since 01-09-2009)

Temporary staff and postdocs MSc Giovanni Azzone (since 01-10-2009) (visitor) , Matthijs Bakhuis (since 03-12-2009), Jim Bradley (since 01-07-2009) (until 31-08-2009) (visitor) , dr.ir. Dannis Brouwer (visitor) , MSc Fanny Ficuciello (since 07-09-2009) (visitor) , Andrea Galletto (since 19-04-2009) (until 03-05-2009), ir. Marcel Groothuis (since 01-06-2009), dr.ir. Martin Hoeijmakers, MD PhD Massimo Mariani (visitor) , dr.ir. Aditya Mehendale (until 01-06-2009), PhD Shodhan Rao (since 01-05-2009), dr. Satoru Sakai (since 17-08-2009) (until 28-08-2009) (visitor) , MSc Hans van der Steen (until 15-08-2009), PhD Hao Sun (since 01-12-2009), PhD Heng Wang (since 01-10-2009)

Cooperation with DLR (DE), ETHZ (CH), University of Bologna (IT), University of Napels (IT), University of Bergamo (IT), Centro Piaggio, Pisa (IT), Superlec (FR), DEMCON (NL), PHILIPS (NL), MEDTRONIC (USA), OSSUR (IS), RDD (NL), Fraunhover IPA (DE), KU Leuven (BE), Kuka (DE), Kiwa Gastech (NL), Van der Lande (NL), ANU (AU), UMCU (NL), UMCR (NL), UMCG (NL), RUNMC (NL), University of Utrecht (NL), TUD (NL), Xivent (NL), Siemens BV (NL)Italian Institute of Technology (IT, Imperial College (UK), Alstom Inspection Robotics (CH), Radboud University Nijmegen (NL), TU/e (EE) (NL), Oce research (NL, ASML (NL), University of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK), Engineering College Aarhus (DK), C.H.e.S.S. Embedded Technology BV (NL), Controllab Products BV (NL), Neopost Technologies BV (NL), Verheart New Products and Services NV (B), GPS (DE), Bluebotics (DE), HAN (NL), TCNN (NL), FH 138

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Munster (DE), FH Gelsenkirchen (DE), University of Duisburg-Essen (DE), Leadpartner en NL adviseurs: Euregio (DE/NL), Syntens (NL), STODT (NL)

Keywords control, modelling, simulation, intelligent control, embedded control systems, robotics, measurements, instrumentation, walking robots, haptics, tele manipulation, mechatronics, mechatronic design, micro mechatronics, design tools, port-based modelling, bond graphs, controller agents, distributed control

Brief description The goal of CE is to develop novel technology and scientific methodologies for the design and development of complete robotic systems and similar automated devices. This means that the innovation, the scientific contribution and its core expertise lies in the means to realize robotic systems rather than in the application domains of the systems that are developed. Clearly, problem solving for a specific domain of application will also require domain specific knowledge like the field of medical robotics. Examples of novel technologies are novel actuators or mechatronics concepts, energy scavenging systems, tools for supporting modeling of multi-physical systems, vision in the loop algorithm for automatic steering of robotics systems etc. Examples of developments of novel scientific methodologies are novel mathematical methods for modeling flexible structures via PDE with variable boundary conditions or novel non linear control methods or methods able to stably cope with time delays inherent in data transmission or processing. The core knowledge residing in the group is composed of embedded systems and especially issues related to real time constraints (Broenink), analytical and geometrical mechanics (Stramigioli), modeling, non-linear control and differential geometry (Stramigioli, Carloni, Misra), port-based modeling, simulation and design of physical systems and related tools (Breedveld, Stramigioli), medical domain expertise (Misra, Stramigioli), tissue modeling (Misra), distributed control (Carloni), robust autonomy (Breedveld, Broenink), a recent focus on (technical) cognition and perception (Breedveld). The chair is part of the 3TU Center of Excellence on Intelligent Mechatronic Systems for its activities and expertise in the Robotics field. The research of Control Engineering is carried out in the IMPACT, MIRA and CTIT Institutes. One unique and characterizing feature of the philosophy with which research is performed is the use of the port based’ way of thinking like bond graphs and port Hamiltonian systems for the modeling and control of multi-domain systems. Strong collaborations with the Mechatronic Valley Twente and national industries like Philips, TNO, ESA, OCE, Thales are taking place. The Chair has a leading role in the LEO initiative. LEO Center of Service Robotics is at this stage a cluster of regional enterprises and groups working in robotics and will have a physical space to display what robotics is and what can be used for in our society. The ambition is to become a reference point for robotics in the Netherlands. Results of research by PhD and MSc students also find their way into tools for mechatronic design. Due to the cooperation with our spin-off company Controllab Products these results become globally available after some time, mostly in the form of extensions of the mechatronic design programme 20-sim.

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DISC projects Medical Robotics Projectleader: dr. Sarthak Misra Participants: Dr.Jorn Op Den Buijs, Dr. Carloni, Dr. Shodhan Rao, Prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli PhD students: MSc. Bart Peerdeman, Msc. Rob Reilink, Msc.Michel Franken, Msc. Ramazan Unal, Sponsored by: MIRA Institute

Description In this program developments are taking place which have directly or indirectly to do with the human body. The program is composed of two parts. • Robotic Surgery in which new robotic instruments and methodologies are studied with projects like Teleflex and Miriam. • Prosthetics is related to the development or artificial limbs like transradial hand prosthesis (MyoPro) and transfemoral leg prosthesis.

Ongoing work Several medical robotics projects have been initiated in 2010 - which include MIRIAM, Biomechanical models based on ultrasound elastography for robot-assisted medical interventions, robotic needle steering, and medical microrobotics

Inspection Robotics Projectleader: dr. Raffaella Carloni Participants: prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli PhD students: ir. Edwin Dertien, Msc. Abeje Yenehun Mersha

Description In this program the use of robotics technologies is investigated for tasks in which inspection of not easily reachable structures is necessary. This can be the case for underground gas mains like in the project Pirate, high structures or plans like in the flying robot Airobots, continuous monitoring of the dutch dikes like in the project Rose or even modeling for inspection of space rovers in collaboration with ESA for the Exomars. For the latter the modeling of altitude maps and their use in the prediction of the navigation of the ExoMars rover is considered. Problems which arise in this study relate a combination of sparse altitude data with precise terramechanics simulations. This is tackled using a hybrid use of differential geometric techniques and computational geometric methods.

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Humanoid Robotics Projectleader: dr. Raffaella Carloni Participants: dr. Shodhan Rao, prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli, Theo de Vries PhD students: Msc. Ramazan Unal, Msc. Ludo Visser, ir. Martijn Wassink, ir. Edwin Dertien, ir. Gijs van Oort, Msc. Tadele Tadele Shiferaw, Msc. Ludo C. Visser, Msc. Rob Relink.

Description The goal of this project is to build a fully functional humanoid robot in the next decade. With this purpose, the group is putting effort in doing research on different parts of humanoids. In particular a humanoid head-neck system, a dexterous robotic hand, an energy efficient knee locking mechanisms and, finally, by continuing on earlier work of the group, extended knowledge on bipedal walking. The complete humanoid project realizes a really multidisciplinary platform, which requires the close collaboration with other Departments and Faculties of the University of Twente, in particular with the Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design. Moreover, in this context, the group has extended the collaboration network with various companies of the Mechatronic Valley Twente and the research groups of the other Technical Universities of The Netherlands.

Ongoing work Humanoid Head: A humanoid head-neck has been developed. The system realizes a multidisciplinary platform interesting from mechanical, control and human-machine interaction point of view. The project has been done in collaboration with Demcon, a hi-tech mechatronic company situated in Oldenzaal. The humanoid head has seven degrees of freedom (four in the neck and three in the eyes) and reacts in a human-like way to its environment (e.g. it looks around, using saccades, dynamically searching for interesting things to look at). The external design and implementation of expression by means of light projection from the internal part have taken place. Together with the UT research group Human Media Interaction, the group is now working on improving the behavior, in order to integrate speech recognition and synthesis, audio interaction and human-like emotions. Recently the project ONE (Orienting in Natural Environments) has been submitted to NWO and is still under review. The project addresses the problem of selecting and orienting to auditory and visual goals in natural environments that contain a myriad of unknown stimuli and background noise, in a task that requires a fast goal-directed response of the eyes and the head. Humanoid Walking: Several MSc and BSc projects have taken place on the implementation of walking theory to bipedal robots in the context of the "Dutch Robotics" team. This initiative is a collaboration with TU Delft, TU Eindhoven and Philips, which aims at working closely together in the field of dynamic walking and, more specifically, on the soccer bipedal robot TUlip. Some of the novel developments involve an innovative, energy efficient, knee locking mechanism for the bipedal walker Dribbel and a differential elastic actuation for Tulip.

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Embedded and Control Systems Projectleader: dr.ir. Jan Broenink Participants: dr Angelika Mader, ir Ditske Kranenburg-de Lange PhD students: ir Maarten Bezemer, Windel Bouwman MSc, Cagri Yalcin MSc, Oguzcan Oguz MSc, Xiaochen Zhang MSc, Yunyun Ni MSc, ir Marcel Groothuis

Description This project deals with the realisation of control schemes on digital computers. The ultimate goal is to support the mechatronic / robotic design engineer such that implementing controllers according to “do it the first time right” becomes business as usual. Simulation and formal methods are used as a means for verification at all stages of the design process. This facilitates concurrent engineering. Robot Software Architectures are tuned to fit in our design approach, to obtain an effective realization trajectory. Furthermore, the use of parallel hardware and parallel software is investigated, to exploit the inherent parallel nature of embedded systems and their control.

Ongoing work Design tools for embedded system implementation. Work on TeleFLEX, BRICS, DESTECS, MDDSW projects contribute to the redesign of the real-time execution library LUNA (formerly known as CTC++), and design tool TERRA (the follow-up of gCSP) for editing and compiling process-oriented diagrams describing the embedded software. Currently, the basis of LUNA is redesigned and implemented on the QNX real-time operating system.

Modeling and Simulation Projectleader: dr.ir. Peter Breedveld Participants: dr.ir. Peter Breedveld, prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli, prof.dr.ir. Job van Amerongen PhD students: Msc. Yury Brodskiy

Description The central theme of this research is an inter-disciplinary, integrated, port-based approach to the modelling of physical system behaviour in various engineering domains, in particular those related to robotics and mechatroncis. It follows an energy-based approach, making extensive use of the (multi-)bond graph notation, and is subdivided in several classes of projects. Where applicable, the modelling activities of the laboratory are used as a basis to generate re-usable, generic (sub-) model structures of various engineering systems.

Ongoing work -modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems (controlled mechanism) and robots (autonomous mechanisms) -model-based fault detection and robust autonomy (BRICS project) -modelling and simulation of bouncing and/or switching objects -generalization of the developed approach to arbitrary spatial objects 142

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-modelling of rotating electric machines -modeling and simulation of a high pressure reciprocating positive displacement pump

Advanced Robotic Methodologies Projectleader: prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli Participants: dr. Raffaella Carloni, dr. Sarthak Misra, dr. Shodhan Rao, dr. Heng Wang PhD students: Msc. Ludo Visser, Msc. Michel Franken, ir. Gijs van Oort

Description In this program more conceptual problems in robotics are tackled like complex rigid or flexible multi-body modeling using screw theory or Lie groups. One unique and characterizing feature of the philosophy with which research is performed is the use of the port based’ way of thinking like bond graphs and port Hamiltonian systems for the modeling and control of multi-domain systems. This has brought to new results in the passive interconnection of systems separated by time delayed communication channels and the passive interaction with unknown environments which is clearly fundamental for safety in robotic interaction. Another topic is haptic interaction in which haptic feedback is an important source of information for human beings when interacting with objects. However in the applications we consider the object with which the user is interacting can be remote or even virtual. In such applications the user is interacting with the object through a device and this device can be used to present the user with the appropriate haptic feedback (only force feedback is considered). In this research project we are looking into new methods of implementing such haptic feedback/bilateral controllers in a stable manner. Two well known sources of stability problems are the discrete nature of virtual environments and possible time delays in the communication channel of a telemanipulation system. Both of these problems can be formuled in terms of physical energy exchange. When more energy can be drawn by an interaction with an object than was injected, that interaction can become unstable. For impedance type displays (measured position/velocity, force output causality) the physical energy exchange can be exactly computed. For virtual environments our work focuses on computing the interaction responses based on an energy distribution framework, which maintains a proper energy balance with respect to the modelled physical object. For bilateral telemanipulation systems we have derived a two-layered framework in which any bilateral controller with the correct causality can be implemented in an energy neutral manner.

BRICS Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

dr.ir. Peter Breedveld dr.ir. Jan Broenink, prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli MSc. Yury Brodskiy, MSc. Cagri Yalcin. EU-FP7

Description Even after 50 years of robotics development and research the process of developing a new robot and its applications has more similarities with ingenious engineering or designing a piece of artwork than with a structured and well-defined process. This holds particularly true for advanced service robot systems. The prime objective of BRICS is to structure and formalize the robot development process itself and to provide development tools,

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computational models, and functional libraries, which allow engineers and developers of complex robotic systems to reduce the development time and effort by an order of magnitude. BRICS will work together with academic and industrial providers of robotic components – both hardware and software – to identify and document best practices in the development of complex robotics systems, to refactor existing components in order to achieve a much higher level of reusability and robustness, and to support the robot development process with a well-structured tool chain and a repository of reusable, configurable code. BRICS is a joint research project funded by the European Commission ICT Challenge 2 under grant number 231940.

Ongoing work The major UT responsibility is Dependability in Robust Autonomous Robotic Software and focuses on software architectures and algorithms to support robustness and fail-safe operation for autonomous mobile robots. Robotic software layering approaches from behavioral (AI) approaches are studied.

VIACTORS Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

dr. Raffaella Carloni dr. Peter Breedveld, dr. Shodhan Rao, prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli MSc Ludo Visser, ir. Gijs van Oort EU-FP7

Description The European Project VIACTORS has been financed in the Seventh Framework Programme FP7-ICT-2007-3 in the call ICT-3-8.5 on Embodied Intelligence. The consortium is formed by: Deutsches Zenstrum für Luft und Raumfahrt (Coordinator), University of Pisa, University of Twente (Scientific Co-Coordinator), Imperial College London, Italian Institute of Technology), Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The project focuses on the development and exploitation of actuation technologies for a new generation of robots that can co-exist and co-operate with people and get much closer to the human manipulation and locomotion performance than today’s robots do. This means that the aim is to design systems that embody the physical principles, which shape the desired robot behaviour as much as possible and thus reducing the required control effort. It is expected that in this way the system will be intrinsically energy efficient, safe, and robust against external perturbations. The idea is to achieve this embodiment of behaviour by means of variable impedance actuation, i.e. changing the apparent interface impedance of an actuator and thus change the system behaviour. The work of the project is approached on three levels: Analysis of the physical and biological principles, which will constitute the bases of design and control of variable impedance actuators. Design of new robot actuators in which much of the motion intelligence is embodied in the morphology of the structure. This will also result in conceptual new paradigms for control to tune compliance, enforce safety and strongly improve energy efficiency. Evaluation in three distinct application aspects, namely robotic manipulation, bipedal locomotion, and rehabilitation robots.

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The focus for the UT is in the application of these kinds of actuator systems in the field of (bipedal) locomotion. The goal is to design locomotion systems that come closer to biological systems in terms of energy efficiency, robustness and adaptability. The main objectives are to analyze, simulate and develop legged locomotion systems based on the principles of variable impedance actuation. These systems should be robust under substantial disturbances and at the same time efficient in terms of energy consumption. The work will be based on biologically inspired mechanisms, as nature provides ample examples of robust, energy efficient walking mechanisms. The work is organized into the following phases: Morphological analysis of walking systems: given any morphology, which walking patterns can be realized. Given a feasible walking pattern, what are the requirements for the actuators and what can be said about the influence of disturbances on this particular pattern? Implementation on humanoid robots: how can we apply the newly developed actuation techniques to existing robots to improve their performance? Modelling and simulation of walking: learn more about the physical coupling and energy exchange between the various components of locomotion systems. New prototype: design new walking systems that optimally incorporate the new actuation techniques. Several students are, or have been, involved in VIACTORS: two PhD students (Gijs van Oort and Ludo C. Visser), two MSc students (Luciana Cicchitti and Matin Jafarian), two BSc students (Feite Klijnstra and Bart Reefman). This project aims at developing and exploiting actuation technologies for a new generation of robots that can co-exist and co-operate with people and get much closer to the human manipulation and locomotion performance than today’s robots do. At the same time these robots are expected to be safe, in the sense that interacting with them should not constitute a higher injury risk to humans than the interaction with another cautious human. This requires that robots with similar size and mass as the humans also have comparable power, strength, velocity and interaction compliance. This ambitious goal can, however, not be achieved with the existing robot technology, in which the robots are designed primarily as rigid position or torque sources and most interaction skills are imposed by virtue of control software. Also, conventional robots in which interaction is controlled by software only, could not avoid an impact to damage the robot and possibly the human neighbor, as the controller will react with some delay. This project will develop both a solid theoretical understanding and the enabling technologies for the design of a new generation of robot actuator systems, capable of embodying the physical principles which shape the robot behavior. The focus of the work will be on achieving different abilities, in particular: Efficiency (e.g. natural gait generation and adaptation in legged locomotion applications); Robustness to external perturbations and unpredictable model errors (changes) of the environment, of the robot kinematics and dynamics, or of the dynamics of a human interacting with; Adaptability and force accuracy in the interaction with the operator, in applications in which continuous contact and accurate force exchange is necessary, such as in “hands-on” assistive devices, rehabilitation, exoskeletons and haptics; 145

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Safety to humans (and resilience to self-damage) in operations where the robot is required positional accuracy and swiftness of motion, while cooperating, physically interacting or even possibly colliding with the humans and their environment, such as e.g. in collaborative robotics. To tackle this goal, this project uses the concept of Variable Impedance Actuation. The key innovation of the project is the development, exploitation and integration of Variable Impedance Actuator Systems both in manipulation, locomotion and rehabilitation. For developing these new kinds of actuator systems, it is critical to understand in depth the mechanisms by which the efficiency, motion performance, and safety are obtained in biological systems and in particular by humans. Taking the state of the art in artificial muscles into account, our major goal is not bio-mimesis per se, but rather to develop actuation systems with similar functional properties as the neuro-mechanical system in humans. In other terms, a part of the necessary intelligence has to be embedded (embodied) in the systems themselves, which should be able to passively (or almost passively) be safe, efficient, compliant, etc. This idea will be approached on three levels within the project: The first objective is to work out the physical and biological principles which will constitute the bases of the mentioned shift of paradigm in embodiment, design and control. The gained knowledge will be then used to design new robot actuators following these principles. The approach should result in a very innovative kind of robots, in which much of the motion intelligence is embodied in the morphology of the structure. This will also result in conceptual new paradigms for control to tune compliance, enforce safety and strongly improve energy efficiency. The fundamentals elaborated as described above, will be applied and evaluated to threedistinct application aspects, namely robotic manipulation, bipedal locomotion, and rehabilitation robots. Several partner labs already have first prototypes of variable impedance actuated systems available or under development within predecessor projects which will be used as early evaluation platforms for thementioned application areas. Of particular relevance here is the FP6 PHRIENDS project (www.phriends.eu), which is widely recognized as a worldwide pioneer of the variable stiffness actuation approach to safe and dependable robotics, and whose legacy of highly innovative results will be inherited and capitalized upon by VIACTOR

AIROBOT Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

Dr. Raffaella Carloni prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli MSc. Abeje Yenehun Mersha EU-FP7

Description The goal of the AIRobots project is to develop a new generation of aerial service robots capable to support human beings in all those activities, which require the ability to interact actively and safely with environments not constrained on ground but, indeed, freely in air. The step forward with respect to the classical field of aerial robotics is to realize aerial vehicles able to accomplish a large variety of applications, such as inspection of buildings and large infrastructures, sample picking, aerial remote manipulation, etc. 146

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DESTECT Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

dr.ir. Jan Broenink ir.Marcel Groothuis MSc Xiaochen Zhang, MSc Yunyun Ni EU-FP7

Description This work is part of the EU funded STREP project, coordinated by the UT, in which ECS design methods are developed using co-simulation between 20-SIM and VDM++ models. UT’s focus is on model management, co-simulation theory and design space exploration approaches.

Ongoing work Methods of co-simulation are being investigated. Together with questioning of the industrial partners on the needs of co-simulation and model management to support embedded control softwar design, requirements and specifications of both the methodology and tools are being set up. 147

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TELEFLEX Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli dr. Sarthak Misra, dr.ir. Jan Broenink Msc. Rob Reilink, ir. Maarten Bezemer PIDON

Description Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a new form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The main difference between NOTES and traditional MIS is that the operating scene is entered through one of the natural openings of the human body. In April 2007 the first true NOTES operation was presented at the Japanese Congress of Surgery in Osaka. The operation consisted of the removal of the gall bladder (cholecystectomy) in a 30-year-old woman and was carried out transvaginal. NOTES is expected to have several benefits over traditional MIS. The most important benefit would be that even less damage is inflicted on the patient during the operation. This means that he suffers less from postoperative pain and will return to his daily life at an earlier stage. Also MIS operations can be performed on patients who suffer from severe obesity (which is problematic for traditional MIS), or from inflictions to the abdomen. The approach to surgery using NOTES techniques greatly differs from current laparoscopic techniques. For a successful introduction of NOTES in the OR, robotic tele-manipulation will be a key ingredient. The tele-manipulation device will have to empower the surgeon to carry out various kinds of common diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in a time efficient and cost effective manner. The TeleFlex project consisting of four PhD positions, of which two at the CE group, has started in the past year in this upcoming research field. The focus of the TeleFlex project is directed at the master device of the tele-manipulation chain. R. Reilink, MSc. will do research on the effects haptic feedback has on a sentient surgeon and under which conditions this feedback will benefit the surgeon. M. Bezemer, MSc will focus on the software structure and how layered software should be designed to guarantee safety.

Ongoing work Distributed Controller architectures for mechatronic systems is being investigated: and deals with design and validation of distributed controller architectures. Focus is on safe robotic software architectures. Our base execution library is being redesigned to comply with requirements from medical robotics New mechanism and vision algorithms are also investigated which support the surgeon during operation

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BOBBIE Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli dr. Theo de vries MSc Tadele Tadele Shiferaw Point One

Description The aging population will be putting increasingly great pressure on the health care system. The continuing trend of aging will clearly increase the difficulty to provide care to acceptable standards. The type of elderly care most needed yet least provided by overloaded care professionals is (non-critical) assistance in daily living: fetching objects, opening/closing doors and drawers, operating switches, etcetera. Thanks to recent advances in robotics and mechatronics, computing, vision and software, it is now starting to become possible to create robotic versions of so-called care dogs. In the Netherlands, all key technologies for these personal robots are available, but they have not been brought together in an economically viable industry. The key problem is that this is an industry that needs to be bootstrapped: it requires convincing operational prototypes for affordable costs and a convincing user application study. This project will result in new methods to design a robot system, using standardized architectures, which can safely work in a care situation. As a proof of these methods, a specific realization in the form of a safely working prototype will be shown as an end result. This type of personal robots are expected to become a market with a similar influence as the personal computer market. Comparing the two markets, we are now in the era before the design of the IBM standard PC architecture.There are very few personal robotic systems on the market, they are expensive, and components are not interchangeable. Identical to how the IBM architecture revolutionized the PC market, the creation of design standards for personal robots will open up the great potential of the personal robotics market, and the Dutch Industry can play a key role.

PIRATE Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli dr. Raffaella Carloni ir. Edwin Dertien Kiva Gastech

Description In 2007 a mobile inspection system for live gas mains has been developed. This project is a joint effort of Continuon Netbeheer, Kiwa Gastec Technology B.V. and the University of Twente. The prototype hardware has been developed at DEMCON. The robot is developed for autonomous internal inspection of the low pressure gas mains, with minimal intervention of human operators. The robot will be used to detect leaks or possible weak points in the gas mains. In the first stage of this project, the development of a moving mobile robot base has been emphasized. The low pressure net in the Netherlands uses pipes with an inner diameter as small as 50 mm, thus putting a severe limitation on the robot's size. A mechanical prototype 149

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has been developed which is capable of moving through pipes ranging in diameter from 50 to 120 mm. It can move through mitered bends and T-joints and take inclinations of 30 degrees. The robot has the form of a 'snake', consisting of seven wheeled modules which all have a designated function. Two modules are used for propulsion, two for bending the robot's shape (for navigation trough bends), one module in the center for rotation the robot around its axis, one module for power storage and one module for control and sensor electronics. The mechanical setup has been tested in a structured lab environment. The next step will be to test the functionality in a more realistic environment. On a different level work has been done on the design of a camera setup with structured light bundle (laser projecting circles) which can be used as sensor to measure pipe deformation, and which also can be used to detect obstacles and bends which is necessary for navigation. In following projects we hope to miniaturize this setup in order to integrate it into the robot's design.

Ongoing work Recently a proposal for continuing the project PIRATE has been submitted at STW and is still under review.

ViewConnect Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

dr.ir. Jan Broenink prof.dr.ir. Job van Amerongen ir. M.A. Groothuis STW

Description This STW-PROGRESS funded project, together with the ICS/ES EE group at TU/e, deals with setting up methods and prototype tools for a multiple-view approach in mechatronic system design, using co-simulation as vehicle, with focus on embedded software. It deals with views (editors), core models, and correctness-preserving code generation.

Ongoing work The Production Cell experimental setup was controlled by 6 different implementations of the control algorithms, using either a PC or an FPGA to run the control algorithms. Trade offs between design work, performance and use of processors were studied. The CPA2009 paper on comparing these different implementations obtained a best student paper award..

Rose Projectleader: prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli Participants: dr. Raffaella Carloni Sponsored by: STW

Description Sensor networks are one of the most important technologies in the 21st century; in particular, with recent advances in sensor-equipped autonomous mobile robots, mobile robotic sensor networks are becoming one of the most strategically important technologies worldwide and have great potential to be applied to in- frastructure security, environment and habitat monitoring, industrial sensing, traffic control and so on. One of the greatest challenges in the application of mobile robotic sensor networks is that the performance of such a network is constrained by the limited available energy supply usually provided by the batteries carried 150

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by each robotic sensor. It is therefore important to consider energy scavenging techniques in the design of the systems. The aim of ROSE is to develop new energy-efficient design method- ologies and novel control strategies for robotic sensor networks. The key is to take a multidisciplinary and integrative approach by jointly considering the hardware level of mobile sensor-equipped robotic devices and the system level of wireless coordination of groups of mobile robotic sensors. For the design of mobile sensor-integrated robotic devices, research will focus on taking full advantage of newly developed sensors, methodology to harvest and optimize energy sources and integrate such sensors with mobile robotic platforms. With optimal energy consumption and a proper system design, the platforms to be developed will be able to operate in complex, time-varying, unknown, harsh and hazardous environment and acquire data reliably via ground penetration radars (GPR), ultrasound imagers, magnetic field detectors and other sensors. Parallel to the development of each individual energy-conscious robotic sensor, a system level assault on the energy efficient control of sensor networks will also be carried out. To be more precise, wireless communication protocols and distributed coordination algorithms will be developed specifically for swarms of robotic sensors using ideas from passive systems and port-Hamiltonian systems theory. The proposed research work will make direct contribution to the IJkdijk project for which the robotic sensors and the envisioned net- work protocols and algorithms can be used to monitor the dikes. Dike monitoring is an example of a broad range of potential applications of robotic sensor networks for which our proposed research will have fundamental and practical implications to energy-efficiency and robustness, under limitations imposed by the informational structures, physical embodiment, the external world, and their interactions. Within this project one of the Ph.D. students will be employed at the Control Laboratory. This Ph.D. student will be responsible for the mechatronic development of the robot including energy harvesting, local control and mechatronic design. The other Ph.D. student who will be employed at the RuG will be mostly involved in the distributed control issues. The team will closely work together and have regular meetings.

ReflexLeg Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli dr. Raffaella Carloni MSc Ramazan Unal STW

Description In this project a novel conceptual design for a transfemoral prosthesis has been proposed and a prototype (scale 1:2) have been realized. The design is inspired by the power flow in human gait in order to have an energy efficient device. The working principle of the conceptual mechanism is based on three storage elements, which are responsible of the energetic coupling between the knee and the ankle joints. Design parameters of the prosthesis have been determined according to the energy absorption intervals of the human gait. This project is carried out in collaboration with the group of Prof. Velting and the Roessing R&D center.

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MyoPro Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

dr. Sarthak Misra prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli MSc Bart Peerdeman PIDON

Description Current myoelectric hand prostheses feature two separate degrees of freedom: opening and closing of the claw-like hand, and rotation of the wrist. These are controlled by a single pair of electrodes on the user's stump, which pick up the activation of residual muscles under the skin. Though they are potentially very useful, these prostheses often go unused by their owners, who cite reasons such as awkward control, lack of feedback, difficult training, etc. The goal of this research project (Project: MyoPro) is the creation of a new myoelectric transradial (hand) prosthesis which can avoid these pitfalls. The research involved in its development can be divided into the following parts: Electromyographic sensing, mechanical and control system design, and sensory feedback. Further details regarding this project are available at the project group webpage (hyperlink: http://www.myopro.nl) The focal points of our group's research is in the mechanical design of the prosthesis and the development of its control system. The mechanical design of the hand is focused on using underactuation and other design methods to reduce the number of required actuators while still maintaining the ability to perform several essential grasps. The control system needs to interpret the user's myoelectric signals in an intuitive manner, and quickly convert these signals into natural-looking hand movement. Finding the right balance between user control and automatic prosthesis control is essential to accomplishing this.

FALCON Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

dr. Raffaella Carloni prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli ir. Martin Wassink ESI, Besik

Description This project, in collaboration with Embedded System Institute (ESI) and Van der Lande Industries, is concerned with in the realization of a robotic system for the manipulation and composition of orders in a distribution center. The research within the project focuses on the development of a variable impedance dexterous hand, which should be able to robustly and dexterously grasp object both via power grasps and with tips grasps.

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Model-based Design of SW intensive embedded systems Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

dr.ir. Jan Broenink dr. Angelica Mader MSc O uzcan O uz CTIT Institute

Description This CTIT-funded project focuses on bringing together existing modeling methods form the formal methods domain and the robotics domain, using the small-sized R2-G2P mobile robots as test bed. It is performed together with the FMT and SE groups of CS.

Ongoing work Currently, dynamic models and controllers are made using 20-SIM and UPPAAL, and tested in simulation, before implementation on the real R2-G2P robot will be done.

Mechatronics for SME Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

dr.ir. Jan Broenink prof.dr.ir. Job van Amerongen MSc Windel Bouwman EU-Interreg

Description To let SMEs in the Euregio better use mechatronics in their activities. Together with consultancy and technology transfer firms (Syntens and STODT in our area), results of our mechatronics work is brought to the SMEs in the region. The research part is focusing on tuning design methods for mechatronics and embedded control software for use in small projects, as mostly are the case in SME.

Ongoing work Combining existing design methods from the mechatronics and software development areas, with the experience gained in supporting SME’s, first ideas of the method are being formulated.

RoboNED Projectleader: prof.dr.ir. Stefano Stramigioli Participants: dr.ir. Jan Broenink, ir D.J.B.A. Kranenburg-de Lange Sponsored by: ICT REgie

Description The robotics ICT Innovation Platform, sponsored by ICT Regie, to embody the Dutch Robotics Ecosystem, by bringing together the people / stakeholders relevant for this field: designers, producers, users, decision makers. prof. Stefano Stramigioli is chair of RoboNED.

Ongoing work First version of clustering of stakeholders around the robotics subtopics and a initial set up of the road map are being made

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Publications Books Stramigioli, S., Duindam, V.,, “Modeling and Control for Efficient Bipedal Walking Robots: A Port-Based Approach” Springer Tracks in Advanced Robotics, Springer Verlag, London, p. 230, 2009 “Modeling and Control of Complex Physical Systems” , edited by Bruyninckx, H., Stramigioli, S., Macchelli, A., Duindam, V., Springer Verlag, Berlin Heilderberg, p. 423, 2009

Book chapters/parts Breedveld, P.C.,, “Chapter 1: Port-Based Modeling of Dynamic Systems” in: Modeling and Control of Complex Physical Systems - The Port-Hamiltonian Approach, edited by Stramigioli, S., Macchelli, A., Duindam, V., Bruyninckx, H., Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1-52, 2009 Tayakout, M., Stramigioli, S., Schlacher, K., Ortega, R., Maschke, B.M., Le Gorrec, Y., Duindam, V., Fossas, E., JAllut, C., Lefevre, L., Doria-Cerezo, A., Couenne, F., Batlle, C.,, “Port-Based Modeling in Different Domains” in: Modeling and Control of Complex Physical Systems, Springer Verlag, London, pp. 131-209, 2009

International journal papers Macchelli, A., Melchiorri, C., Stramigioli, S.,, “Port-Based Modeling and Simulation of Mechanical Systems With Rigid and Flexible Links” Robotics, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION SOCIETY, vol. 25, nr. 5, pp. 1016-1029, 2009 Okamura, A.M., Ramesh, K.T., Macura, K.J., Misra, S.,, “The importance of organ geometry and boundary constraints for planning of medical interventions ” Medical Engineering & Physics, Elsevier, Amsterdam, vol. 31, nr. 2, pp. 195-206, 2009

International congress papers Broenink, J.F., Groothuis, M.A., Bezemer, M.M.,, “Analysing gCSP Models Using Runtime and Model Analysis Algorithms” Communicating Process Architectures 2009, Eindhoven, edited by Vinter, B., Stiles, G.S., Sampson, A.T., Ritson, C.G., Barnes, F.R.M., Broenink, J.F., Roebbers, H.W., Welch, P.H., pp. 67-88, 2009 Broenink, J.F., Groothuis, M.A.,, “HW/SW Design Space Exploration on the Production Cell Setup” Communication Process Architectures 2009, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, edited by Barnes, F.R.M., Broenink, J.F., Roebbers, H., Welch, P.H., pp. 387-402, 2009 Broenink, J.F., Voeten, J.P.M., Frijns, R.M.W., Groothuis, M.A.,, “Concurrent Design of Embedded Control Software” Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Multi-Paradigm Modeling (MPM2009), Denver, United States, edited by Hardebolle, C., Karsai, G., Lengyel, L., Levendovszky, T., Taentzer, G., Padberg, J., Margaria, T., pp. 10, 2009 Brouwer, D.M., Bennik, J., Leideman, J., Soemers, H.M.J.R., Stramigioli, S., “Mechatronic design of a fast and long range 4 degrees of freedom humanoid neck” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2009. ICRA 2009, Kobe, Japan, pp. 574-579, 2009 Franken, M.C.J., Stramigioli, S., Reilink, R., Secchi, C., Macchelli, A.,, “Bridging the gap between passivity and transparency” Robotics: Science and Systems V, Seattle, USA, pp. 36, 2009 154

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Franken, M.C.J., Stramigioli, S.,, “Internal dissipation in passive haptic feedback systems” Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, St. Louis, USA, pp. 1755-1760, 2009 Okamura, A.M., Ramesh, K.T., Reed, K.B., Misra, S.,, “Observations of needle-tissue interactions” Proceedings of the 31th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, Minneapolis, USA, pp. 262-265, 2009 Okamura, A.M., Ramesh, K.T., Schafer, B.W., Reed, K.B., Misra, S.,, “Observations and models for needle-tissue interactions” Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE international conference on Robotics and Automation, Kobe, Japan, pp. 2687-2692, 2009 Ramesh, K.T., Harders, M., Okamura, A.M., Fuernstahl, P., Misra, S.,, “Quantifying perception of nonlinear elastic tissue models using multidimensional scaling” World Haptics 2009 Third Joint EuroHaptics conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, Salt Lake City, USA, pp. 570-575, 2009 Reilink, R., Visser, L.C., Bennik, J., Carloni, R., Brouwer, D.M., Stramigioli, S.,, “The Twente humanoid head” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2009, Kobe, Japan, pp. 1593-1594, 2009 Stramigioli, S., Carloni, R., Gerelli, O.,, “Port-based modeling and optimal control for a new very versatile energy efficient actuator” Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Robot Control, Gifu, Japan, p. 6, 2009 Stramigioli, S., Carloni, R., Visser, L.C.,, “Motion control of the Twente humanoid head” Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, Spa, Belgium, pp. 62, ISBN not assigned, 2009 Stramigioli, S., Carloni, R., Visser, L.C.,, “Vision based motion control for a humanoid head” Proceedings of the RSJ/IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2009, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA, pp. 5469-5474, 2009 Visser, L.C., Carloni, R., Stramigioli, S.,, “Design and control of the Twente humanoid head” Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Human Friendly Robotics, Sestri Levante, Italy, pp. paper 6, ISBN not assigned, 2009 Wassink, M. and Carloni, R. and Poulakis, P. and Stramigioli, S., “Digital Elevation Map Reconstruction for Port-based Dynamic Simulation of Contacts on Irregular Surfaces” The 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, St. Louis, USA, pp. 5179-5184, 2009 Wassink, M., Carloni, R., Brouwer, D., Stramigioli, S., “Novel Dexterous Robotic Finger Concept with Controlled Stiffness” Proceedings of the 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control, Spa, Belgium, pp. 115, ISBN not assigned, 2009 Welch, P.H., Roebbers, H.W., Broenink, J.F., Barnes, F.R.M., Ritson, C.G., Sampson, A.T., Stiles, G.S., Vinter, B.,, “Preface” Communicating Process Architectures 2009 WoTUG-32, Eindhoven, edited by Welch, P.H., Roebbers, H.W., Broenink, J.F., Barnes, F.R.M., Ritson, C.G., Sampson, A.T., Stiles, G.S., Vinter, B., p. x+10, 2009

M.Sc. theses Bouwman, W.M.; Bipedal locomotion for the TUlip humanoid soccer robot, MSc-Report 008CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, June 2009 Broersen, J.J.; Towards a detection and recognition system for freshwater fish, MSc-Report 013CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, August 2009 Colenbrander, R.R.; On FPGAs with embedded processor cores for application in robotics, MSc-Report 015CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, August 2009 Drost, E.H.; Measurement system for pipe profiling, MSc-Report 003CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, March 2009 155

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Gutiérrez Perez, V.; Feasibility study of implementing a new algorithm to measure the frequency in a universal power measuring device, MSc-Report 002CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, January 2009 Heiden, K.C. van der; Environmental awareness software for JaClean, MSc-Report 022CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, December 2009 Janssen, O.H.M.; A finite difference time domain model of an eddy current based measurement system, MSc-Report 014CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, August 2009 Peerdeman, B.; Building a world model for the TUlip humanoid soccer robot, MSc-Report 007CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, June 2009 Rezola Exteberria, I.; Learning Multi-Agent Control with OROCOS, MSc-Report 001CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, January 2009 Sassen, T.B.A.; Floating-point based control of the Production Cell using an FPGA with Handel-C, MSc-Report 009CE2009, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, June 2009 Veldhuijzen, B.; Redesign of the CSP execution engine, MSc-Report 036CE2008, Control Laboratory, University of Twente, February 2009

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University of Twente – Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department of Applied Mathematics Systems, Signals and Control Group

University of Twente – Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department of Applied Mathematics Systems, Signals and Control Group General Information Address University of Twente, Department of Applied Mathematics, Systems, Signals and Control Group, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. Phone (secretary): +31–53–4893370/3433. Fax (secretary): +31–53–4893800. E-mail (secretary): [email protected] en [email protected]

Scientific staff prof.dr. A. Bagchi, dr. M.C. Boldy, dr. J. Krystul, dr. G. Meinsma, dr. J.W. Polderman, prof.dr. A.A. Stoorvogel, dr. M. Vajta, dr. H.J. Zwart

Technical and administrative staff mrs. M. Langkamp (secretary chairs MSCT & SST), mrs. J.M. Mulder (secretary Financial Engineering Laboratory)

PhD students E. Aoki MSc., ir. N. Besseling, O.E. Göttsche MSc, ir. P.T. Kordy, S. Polenkova MSc, . W.A. Pradana MSc, R. Prihatin MSc, H.S. Shekhawat MSc.

Temporary staff and postdocs dr.ir. Y. Boers (Casimir), E.S.N. Imreizeeq MSc.

Keywords systems theory, robust control, nonlinear control, hybrid systems, infinite dimensional systems, behavioral systems theory, filtering, stochastic systems, modelling, signal processing, decentralized control, financial engineering.

Brief description The research in the Systems, Signals and Control group of the Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, is primarily devoted to the fundamental and mathematical aspects of systems, signals and control. The scientific discipline of systems and control deals with the study of the dynamical behavior of systems in interaction with their environment (open dynamical systems), as they arise in engineering and natural sciences, computer science, finance and economics. It is an inherently interdisciplinary research area with roots in electrical and mechanical engineering, as well as in applied mathematics. Distinguishing feature of systems and control theory is that apart from describing open dynamical systems, it is also concerned with prescribing dynamical behavior, by the (feedback) coupling of the system with additional system components (analog or digital). Thus systems and control theory deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of complex dynamical systems composed of interacting subsystems, as well as with their control and synthesis. 157

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Various mathematical formalisms are employed, suited to the particular class of systems at hand. Geometric, coordinate free formulations are emphasised. Stochastic modeling and parameter identification, often based on data, plays an indispensable role in many application areas of engineering and finance. The design of control strategies is related to optimisation and decision theory. The mission of the group is to perform fundamental mathematical research stimulated by multidisciplinary collaboration with colleagues from engineering, computer science, and management studies.This is pursued within a context of local and international collaboration in writing articles, setting up European networks, organising conferences, and initiating multidisciplinary research projects and seminars. Also, there is a longstanding collaboration with the national research institutes NLR and MARIN. The research of the group covers a large spectrum of mathematical systems and control theory, leading to a wide mathematical scope with strong conceptual cohesion and a broad platform for initiating multidisciplinary collaboration. Special focus in research is on nonlinear control, robust control, geometric modeling of physical systems, adaptive and behavioral systems, hybrid systems, infinite-dimensional systems, modeling and identification of stochastic systems, stochastic filtering and control, and financial engineering. Emphasis is on intrinsic mathematical formulations, making close contact with various branches of mathematics. From an applications point of view the research on nonlinear and robust control, modeling of physical systems, adaptive and behavioral systems, hybrid systems, infinite-dimensional systems theory is motivated by collaboration with engineering departments. At the local level this collaboration takes place within the local institutes IMPACT and CTIT, while on the European level there is a large involvement within a number of corresponding EU networks. Applications are mainly found in the large area of mechatronics, both in the analysis of design, as in simulation and control of engineering systems.The research on hybrid systems is moving towards collaboration with computer science in the area of embedded systems (within the local research institute CTIT). The research on stochastic modeling and identification and stochastic filtering and control finds its applications within various collaborations (locally within institutes IMPACT and CTIT), and nationally e.g. with the NLR. A new direction of research has taken place towards the emerging area of financial engineering, in collaboration with management studies.

DISC projects Sampled-data systems and robust control Projectleader: G. Meinsma

Description The research on Sampled-data systems is directed towards applications of ideas from systems theory to problems in signal processing. Joint work with Mirkin from Technion IIT in Haifa has led to a number of re-interpretations of known results in signal processing and to new design methodologies for optimal samplers and holding devices. We are convinced that the signal processing community benefits such a systems approach. For example it appears to be possible to design optimal holds (and certain samplers) with user-assigned degree of causality, while hitherto optimality could only be incorporated for noncausal 158

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samplers and holds. Along the way quite a few new mathematical notions have to be introduced. In particular we believe that our state space representation over intersample time of transfer function operators holds promise for design and also helps to get a handle on the infinite dimensionality of the problem. Methods of robust control are incorporated in our work as well.

Hybrid systems Projectleader: J.W. Polderman

Description Hybrid systems are any kind of systems (or processes) with interacting continuous and discrete dynamics. It is an emerging area of research, with contributions from computer science, physical systems modeling and simulation, and systems and control theory. Collaboration was continued with computer science. Joint research with the chair of formal methods and tools (Computer Science) concerns two projects, both supported by NWO. The first project is concerned with robustness of timed automata. The second project studies stability and control of switched linear systems.

Control of linear systems subject to constraints Projectleader: A.A. Stoorvogel

Description Time-domain constraints often yield a serious limitation on achievable performance in the control of industrial processes. On the other hand the requirement for high performance means that we can not simply guarantee that we stay far away from the constraint boundary. In this project the special structure of a linear system is used where constraints are the only nonlinearity occurring in the system. In this setting a more or less complete controller design methodology needs to be developed. We have studied the problems of stabilization and tracking/regulation of linear systems subject to input saturation and/or subject to rate limits. Extensions to linear systems subject to state and input constraints are actively being developed. Regarding our future objectives, first of all we want to get a better understanding of the effects of rate-limits and state constraints in stability and regulation problems. Secondly, the problem of reducing the effect of disturbances will be studied. Currently this is only understood in the case of "matched" disturbances. In particular, we will investigate the effect of stochastic disturbances. We will also look into the question how disturbance rejection can be achieved in a Model Predictive Control framework.

Decentralized control Projectleader: A.A. Stoorvogel

Description Many systems that need to be controlled currently have structural constraints on the controller. A prime example is a controller, which consist of different components with limited or unreliable communications between channels. The research focuses initially on stabilization issues and linear systems. The ideal is to have a design methodology, which enables us to 159

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design a stabilizing controller, which is maximally robust against failure of one or more connections between the different components of the controller.

Infinite-dimensional systems Projectleader: H.J. Zwart

Description The main themes within this research field are: infinite-dimensional port-Hamiltonian systems, climate control in a warehouse or container, fluid control for water purification, stability analysis of discrete- and continuous evolution equations, and systems properties of infinite-dimensional systems. For infinite-dimensional port-Hamiltonian systems we study questions, like (exponential) stability, well-posedness, controllability, etc. The underlying structure for port-Hamiltonian systems is known as the Dirac structure. Among others it is shown this structure is known under different names in other fields of mathematics. Using this structure, necessary and sufficient conditions were found such that the composition of two port-Hamiltonian systems is again port-Hamiltonian. We remark that, unlike for finite-dimensional systems, this was not clear for infinite-dimensional systems. Several results were obtained for the climate control and the fluid control. The most important one being the fact that the residence time distribution, which in many plants can be easily measured, can be used to obtain a non-linear state space model possible with delays. Exponential stability for infinite-dimensional systems on a Hilbert space is well understood. An unsolved question is to give bounds on its overshoot. In the Ph.D. project “Bounds on Stable Semigroups” (funded by NWO) it is shown that it is possible to identify classes of discrete- and continuous-time systems with similar overshoot behavior. If two continuous-time systems are in the same class, then their discretization obtained via the Crank-Nicolson scheme are in the same discrete-time class. The system property which has been studied is the characterization of exact observability by the Hautus test.

Stochastic systems Projectleader: A. Bagchi

Description The main focus of our research is on particle filtering with application to sensor networks. We have worked on MAP estimation algorithms and effective methods for parameter estimation. We are currently working on regime switches. They are critical in detection of multiple objects in sensor networks. Another area involves our ongoing research on accident risk and flight efficiency issues fir aircraft in free flight. We are working on speeding up Monte Carlo simulation for the movement of a large number of aircraft using periodic boundary models. This is part of the iFLY project financed by the EU.

Financial Engineering Projectleader: A. Bagchi

Description Financial engineering is a new and rapidly growing discipline which tends to bridge the gap between highly theoretical research of mathematicians on financial mathematics and the 160

University of Twente – Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science Department of Applied Mathematics Systems, Signals and Control Group

actual problems faced by traders and asset management professionals in practice. The research attempts to produce innovative tailor-made solutions, which may be fashioned by financial institutions for their clients. Financial engineering is a major focus of the Faculty of Applied Mathematics and a university-wide research laboratory (FELab) has been set up for this purpose. Our research group plays a leading role in this effort. We are currently concentrating on hedging problems in incomplete markets using event-based strategies and developing arbitrage-free models of smile dynamics. In addition, we are studying stochastic hyperbolic differential equations as models for infinite-dimensional forward rates and estimating parameters of such models. It is clear that our approach to finance is that of systems engineers, and this fits perfectly our background and motivation.

Publications Book chapters/parts Blom, H.A.P. and Bakker, G.J. and Krystul, J. (2009) Rare event estimation for a large-scale stochastic hybrid system with air traffic application. In: Rare Event Simulation using Monte Carlo Methods. John Wiley & Sons, pp. 193-214. ISBN 978-0-470-77269-0 Blom, Kordy, P.T. and Langerak, R. and Polderman, J.W. (2009) Re-verification of a Lip Synchronization Algorithm using robust reachability. In: Formal Methods for Aerospace, 03 Nov 2009, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. ISSN not assigned

International journal papers Aihara, S.I. and Bagchi, A. and Saha, S. (2009) On parameter estimation of stochastic volatility models from stock data using particle filter - Application to AEX index -. International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, 5 (1). pp. 17-27. ISSN 1349-4198 Bagchi, A. and Suresh Kumar, K. (2009) Dynamic asset management with risk-sensitive criterion and non-negative factor constraints: a differential game approach. Stochastics An International Journal of Probability and Stochastic Processes, 81 (5). pp. 503-530. ISSN 1744-2508 Curtain, R. and Iftime, O.V. and Zwart, H.J. (2009) System theoretic properties of a class of spatially invariant systems. Automatica, 45 (7). pp. 1619-1627. ISSN 0005-1098 Jacob, B. and Zwart, H.J. (2009) On the Hautus test for exponentially stable C_0-groups. SIAM journal on control and optimization, 48 (3). pp. 1275-1288. ISSN 0363-0129. Jamshidian, F Boers, Y. and Driessen, J.N. (2009) A note on bounds for target tracking with Pd < 1. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 45 (2). pp. 640-646. ISSN 0018-9251 Nurdin, H.I. and Mazumdar, R.R. and Bagchi, A. (2009) Reduced-dimension linear transform coding of distributed correlated signals with incomplete observations. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 55 (6). pp. 2848-2858. ISSN 0018-9448 Saha, S. and Mandal, P.K. and Boers, Y. and Driessen, H. and Bagchi, A. (2009) Gaussian proposal density using moment matching in SMC methods. Statistics and Computing, 19 (2). pp. 203-208. ISSN 0960-3174 Spierdijk, L. and Vellekoop, M.H. (2009) The structure of bias in peer voting systems: lessons from the Eurovision Song Contest. Empirical Economics, 36 (2). pp. 403-425. ISSN 0377-7332

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van Mourik, S. and Zwart, H.J. and Keesman, K.J. (2009) Integrated open loop control and design of a food storage room. Biosystems Engineering, 104 (4). pp. 493-502. ISSN 1537-5110 van Mourik, S. and Zwart, H.J. and Keesman, K.J. (2009) Modelling and controller design for distributed parameter systems via residence time distribution. International journal of control, 82 (8). pp. 1404-1413. ISSN 0020-7179 Villegas, J.A. and Zwart, H.J. and Le Gorrec, Y. and Maschke, B. (2009) Exponential stability of a class of boundary control systems. IEEE transactions on automatic control, 54 (1). pp. 142-147. ISSN 0018-9286 Wang, X. and Saberi, A. and Stoorvogel, A.A. and Roy, S. and Sannuti, P. (2009) Computation of the recoverable region and stabilisation problem in the recoverable region for discrete-time systems. International journal of control, 82 (10). pp. 1870-1881. ISSN 0020-7179

International congress papers Aihara, S.I. and Bagchi, A. and Imreizeeq, E.S.N. (2009) Parameter estimation of electricity spot models from futures prices. In: Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification, 6-8 July 2009, Saint-Malo. pp. 1457-1462. IFAC. ISBN 978-3-902661-47-0 Boers, Y. and Driessen, J.N. and Bagchi, A. Point Estimation for Jump Markov Systems: Various MAP estimators. In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Information Fusion 2009, 06-09 July, 2009, Seattle, USA. International Society of Information Fusion. ISBN 978-0-9824438-0 Curtain, R.F. and Iftime, O.V. and Zwart, H.J. (2009) LQR control for scalar finite and infinite platoons. In: SYSTEMS THEORY : Modélisation, Analyse et Contrôle - Actes de la Conférence Internationale, 25-28 May 2009, Fes, Morocco. pp. 19-30. Presses Universitaires de Perpignan. ISBN 978-2-35412-043-6 Deliu, C. and Malek, B. and Roy, S. and Saberi, A. and Stoorvogel, A.A. (2009) Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation. In: Proceedings of the 2009 American Control Conference, 10-12 Jun 2009, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.. pp. 2539-2544. IEEE. ISSN 0743-1619 ISBN 978-1-4244-4524-0 Deliu, C. and Stoorvogel, A.A. and Saberi, A. and Roy, S. and Malek, B. (2009) Time varying controllers in discrete-time decentralized control. In: Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, 16-18 Dec 2009, Shanghai, China. pp. 1627-1631. IEEE. ISSN 0191-2216 ISBN 978-1-4244-3872-3 Fatmawati, F. and Zwart, H.J. (2009) Characterization of system theoretic properties for a class of spatially invariant systems. In: SYSTEMS THEORY : Modélisation, Analyse et Contrôle - Actes de la Conférence Internationale, 25-28 May 2009, Fes, Morocco. pp. 441-448. Presses Universitaires de Perpignan. ISBN 978-2-35412-043-6 Saha, S. and Boers, Y. and Driessen, J.N. and Mandal, P.K. and Bagchi, A. (2009) Particle filter based MAP state estimation: A comparison. In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Information Fusion 2009, 06-09 July, 2009, Seattle, USA. pp. 278-283. International Society of Information Fusion. ISBN 978-0-9824438-0-4 Saha, S. and Mandal, P.K. and Bagchi, A. and Boers, Y. and Driessen, J.N. (2009) Parameter estimation in a general state space model from short observation data: A SMC based approach. In: Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE/SP 15th Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing, 31 Aug - 03 Sep 2009, Cardiff, UK. pp. 41-44. IEEE. ISBN 978-1-4244-2710-9 Stoorvogel, A.A. and Roy, S. and Wan, Y. and Saberi, A. (2009) A class of neutral-type delay differential equations that are effectively retarded. In: Proceedings of the 2009 American Control Conference, 10-12 Jun 2009, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.. pp. 4915-4920. IEEE. ISSN 0743-1619 ISBN 978-1-4244-4524-0 162

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Ugryumova, D. and Lau, K. and Braslavsky, J. and Meinsma, G. (2009) An application of system identification techniques to impedance estimation in magnetotelluric surveying. In: Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification 2009, 6-8 July 2009, Saint-Malo, France. pp. 970-975. IFAC. ISSN 1474-6670 Wan, Y. and Roy, S. and Saberi, A. and Stoorvogel, A.A. (2009) Multiple-derivative and multiple-delay paradigm for decentralized controller design: uniform-rank systems. In: Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, 16-18 Dec 2009, Shanghai, China. pp. 1613-1620. IEEE. ISSN 0191-2216 ISBN 978-1-4244-3872-3 Wan, Y. and Roy, S. and Saberi, A. and Stoorvogel, A.A. (2009) The design of multi-lead-compensators for stabilization and pole placement in double-integrator networks under saturation. In: Proceedings of the 2009 American Control Conference, 10-12 Jun 2009, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.. pp. 3512-3518. IEEE. ISSN 0743-1619 ISBN 978-1-4244-4524-0 Wan, Y. and Roy, S. and Stoorvogel, A.A. and Saberi, A. (2009) On multiple-delay approximations of multiple-derivative controllers. In: European Control Conference, 23-26 August 2009, Budapest, Hungary. pp. 4163-4168. European Union Control Association. ISBN 978-963-311-369-1 Wang, X. and Stoorvogel, A.A. and Saberi, A. and Grip, H.F. and Roy, S. and Sannuti, P. (2009) Stabilization of a class of sandwich nonlinear systems via state feedback. In: Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, 16-18 Dec 2009, Shanghai, China. pp. 1417-1421. IEEE. ISSN 0191-2216 ISBN 978-1-4244-3872-3

Ph.D. theses Saha, S. (2009) Topics in Particle Filtering and Smoothing. (2009, September 18). 127 pp. Thales Nederland BV. Thesis advisor(s): prof. dr. A. Bagchi, dr. P.K. Mandal. ISBN: 978-90-365-2864-1

M.Sc. theses Angoshtari, B. On Utility of Wealth Maximization. Universiteit Twente, Faculteit EWI, Afdeling Toegepaste Wiskunde, Enschede, 27-08-2009. Eppens, E. A study on the consistency of assumptions about correlations in the ALM and EC models of Nationale Nederlanden. Universiteit Twente, Faculteit EWI, Afdeling Toegepaste Wiskunde, Enschede, 25-08-2009. Jong de, R. Railroad crossing video monitoring; the development and comparison of algorithms. Universiteit Twente, Faculteit EWI, Afdeling Toegepaste Wiskunde, Enschede, 29-06-2009. Kamp van der, R. Local Volatility Modelling. Universiteit Twente, Faculteit EWI, Afdeling Toegepaste Wiskunde, Enschede, 24-07-2009. Khomasuridze, I. Extensions of the SABR Model for Equity Options. Universiteit Twente, Faculteit EWI, Afdeling Toegepaste Wiskunde, Enschede, 17-07-2009.

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University of Twente faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical Engineering Department Laboratory of Mechanical Automation and Mechatronics

University of Twente faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical Engineering Department Laboratory of Mechanical Automation and Mechatronics General Information Address p.o.box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands

Scientific staff prof.dr.ir. J.B. Jonker, prof.dr.ir. J.L. Herder, prof. dr. ir. B. Huis in t'Veld, prof.dr.ir. C. De Persis, prof.ir. H.M.J.R. Soemers, dr.ir. R.G.K.M. Aarts, dr. ir. D.M. Brouwer, dr.ir. J. van Dijk, ir. B Pathiraj, Dr.ir. G.R.B.E. Römer

Technical and administrative staff ing. G.H.P. Ebberink, L. Tiemersma, M.G. Tjapkes

PhD students D. Arnaldo del Cerro, MSc Ir. S.E. Boer J. Eichstädt, M.Eng J.P. Khatait, MSc Ir. B. Krijnen A.R. Konuk, MSc V.S. Mitko, MSc Ir. G.W. van der Poel J. Skolski, MSc Ir. D. Tjepkema Ir. V. van der Wijk

Temporary staff and postdocs Dr.ir. W.B.J. Hakvoort Dr. R. Jaghdeesh Dr.ir. J.P. Meijaard Dr ir. A. Mehendale

Cooperation with Applied Piezo Foundation, P.O.Box 42, 1520 AA Zaanstad

Cooperation with Stichting Mechatronica Valley Twente, Zutphenstraat 25,7575 EJ, OLDENZAAL

Keywords Active vibration isolation control, active control of sound, adaptive control, construction principles, dynamic system modelling, lasermachining of materials, learning control, machine dynamics, motion control, mechatronics, flexible muli-body dynamics, non-linear system identification, parameter estimation, precision equipment design, robotics, servo system design, system identification, vision

Brief description Research in the Mechanical Automation group is concerned with the design and development of methods and equipment for the control and automation of mechanical systems and physical processes. A substantial part of the research is addressed to the development of machining systems for laser materials processing. The research involves a combined approach of theoretical analyses, numerical simulations and experimental investigations. A large part of research consists of engineering projects, often executed in close co-operation with the industry. Substantial support is obtained from external sources like the European Community (Craft), the Dutch programs STW, IOP-Precision Technology, SmartMix and NIMR (Netherlands Institute of Metals Research). 164

University of Twente faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical Engineering Department Laboratory of Mechanical Automation and Mechatronics

Research forms part of the activities organised in the National Research schools DISC (Dutch Institute of Systems and Control) and EM (Engineering Mechanics). The main research and design activities are organised in two sub programs: • Lasermaterial processing • (micro) mechatronic systems

DISC projects Design of a smart-mount for application of vibration isolation in precision machinery Projectleader: Dr. ir. J van Dijk PhD students: ir. G.W. van der Poel Sponsored by: IOP

Description The presence of poorly damped structural vibration modes in high-precision machines can pose a limit on the achievable accuracy, when these modes are excited by direct disturbances (e.g. cables, environmental sound, air currents, internal acceleration forces) and/or floor/base vibrations. Increasing the resonance frequencies by passive means (e.g. maximising stiffness) may not reduce the influence of structural modes on accuracy to an acceptable level. Therefore, many precision machines are supported by air mounts, which offer good isolation from floor/base vibrations at frequencies higher than the suspension mode resonance (1-2 Hz). However, air mounts are so-called soft mounts, which means that they are very compliant to direct disturbances. A more promising method is the concept of using active hard mounts for machine support. The hard mount's larger stiffness results in less compliance to direct disturbances. But on the other hand, the influence of floor vibrations is increased, because the suspension mode resonance now becomes typically 15-30 Hz. Therefore, an active vibration isolation control (AVIC) system must be used, which compensates for floor vibrations in the lower frequency range. Research objectives • Development of a mechatronic design procedure for hybrid isolation systems which offer efficient vibration isolation from both direct disturbances and floor vibrations; • Design of a hybrid mount which forms a stiff connection in the actuated degrees of freedom while achieving (very) low stiffness in the remaining directions; • Application of the developed hybrid mounts in an adequate demonstrator setup

Ongoing work The most promising experimental results on the SISO setup have been obtained by using a combination of (fixed gain) feedback control and adaptive feedforward control. The system's floor mass is excited by a shaker, resulting in a 45 mm/s2 rms floor vibration level. The residual vibration level was 8 mm/s2 rms, which corresponds to an average reduction of 21 dB over the 0   1 kHz frequency range. A MiMo three dimensional laboratory setup has been designed and realized.

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University of Twente faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical Engineering Department Laboratory of Mechanical Automation and Mechatronics

Further improvement of the adaptive control algorithms & review of absolute motion sensors. Projectleader: Dr. ir. J van Dijk PhD students: ir. D. Tjepkema Sponsored by: SmartMix

Description The presence of poorly damped structural vibration modes in high-precision machines can pose a limit on the achievable accuracy, when these modes are excited by direct disturbances (e.g. cables, environmental sound, air currents, internal acceleration forces) and/or floor/base vibrations. Increasing the resonance frequencies by passive means (e.g. maximising stiffness) may not reduce the influence of structural modes on accuracy to an acceptable level. Therefore, many precision machines are supported by air mounts, which offer good isolation from floor/base vibrations at frequencies higher than the suspension mode resonance (1-2 Hz). However, air mounts are so-called soft mounts, which means that they are very compliant to direct disturbances. A more promising method is the concept of using active hard mounts for machine support. The hard mount's larger stiffness results in less compliance to direct disturbances. But on the other hand, the influence of floor vibrations is increased, because the suspension mode resonance now becomes typically 15-30 Hz. Therefore, an active vibration isolation control (AVIC) system must be used, which compensates for floor vibrations in the lower frequency range. Especially measurement of low-frequent and extreme small-amplitute of of machine-motion is addressed in this project. Objectives: An important issue is the measurement of low frequent floor-vibrations via either accelerometers or geophones (velocity measurement) combined with their specific signal processing hardware suffer from bad signal to noise ratio for frequencies below 1 Hz. In order to have appropriate vibration reduction the wish is to have good signal to noise ratio properties from to the frequency region>0.1 Hz. Possible solutions can be found in the application of MEMS based sensors.There are a few on the market, but also the opportunities offered by other research in the consortium SmartPie (thin film piezo sensoring) should be exploited.

Ongoing work Design of an inertial position and velocity sensor.

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Non-DISC projects Motion in vaccuum by elastic mechanisms PhD students: Ir. S.E. Boer

Chirurgical Tele-manipulation System with Intuitive Control for Minimal Invasive Surgery PhD students: M.Sc. J.P. Khatait

Closed loop embedded MEMS-based Precision Stage (CLEMPS) PhD students: Ir. B. Krijnen

Development of SPACAR, a flexible multi-body modelling tool Projectleader: Dr. ir. J. Meijaard

MEMS-based Micro Coriolis mass flow sensor Projectleader: Dr. ir. A. Mehendale

Publications Book chapters/parts J. van Dijk, Mechatronic design of hard-mount concepts for precision equipment, pp. 315-324 in Motion and Vibration Control, Ed. H. Ulbrich, L. Ginzinger, 978-1-4020-9437-8, Springer München, 2009.

International journal papers A.J. Huis in 't Veld, M.N.W. Groenendijk, H. Fischer, On the origin, growth and applications of ripples, Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering (ISSN 1880-0688) 3 (3) pp. 206-210 (2009). C. De Persis, Robust stabilization of nonlinear systems by quantized and ternary control, Systems & Control Letters (ISSN 0167-6911) 58 (8) pp. 602-609 (2009). D.M. Brouwer, B.R. de Jong, M.J. de Boer, H.V. Jansen, J. van Dijk, G.J.M. Krijnen and H.M.J.R. Soemers, MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision postition retaining of micro manipulators, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (ISSN 1361-6439) 19 (6) pp. 065027 (20pp) (2009). D.M. Brouwer, B.R. de Jong, M.J. de Boer, H.V. Jansen, J. van Dijk, G.J.M. Krijnen, H.M.J.R. Soemers, MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision position retaining of micromanipulators, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (ISSN 0960-1317) 19 (6) pp. 1-20 (2009). G.R.B.E. Römer, A.J. Huis in 't Veld, J. Meijer, M.N.W. Groenendijk, On the formation of laser induced self-organizing nanostructures, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology (ISSN 0007-8506) 58 pp. 201-204 (2009). 167

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J.B. Jonker, R.G.K.M. Aarts, J. van Dijk, A linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems for control synthesis, Multibody System Dynamics (ISSN 1384-5640) 21 (2) pp. 99-122 (2009). M.B.P. Huijts, D.M. Brouwer, J. van Dijk, Design, modeling and control of an elastic parallel kinematic 6-DOFs manipulator, Mikroniek (ISSN 0026-3699) pp. 42-47 (2009). W.B.J. Hakvoort, R.G.K.M. Aarts, J. van Dijk, J.B. Jonker, A computationally efficient algorithm of iterative learning control for discrete-time linear time-varying systems, Automatica (ISSN 0005-1098) 45 (12) pp. 2925-2929 (2009).

International congress papers A.J. Huis in 't Veld, H. van der Veer, Initiation of femtosecond laser machined ripples in steel observed by scanning helium ion microscopy (SHIM), No pages in Proceedings of LAMP2009 - the 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Proceeding (No ISBN or ISSN) Kobe, Japan, June, 29-July, 2, 2009. A.L. Schwab, J.P. Meijaard, Beam benchmark problems for validation of flexible multibody dynamics codes, pp. 1-13 in Proceedings of the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, Multibody Dynamics 2009, Ed. K. Arczewski, J. Fraczek, M. Wojityra (ISBN 978-83-7207-813-1) Warsaw, Poland, Warsaw University of Technology, June, 29-July, 2, 2009. A.R. Konuk, R.G.K.M. Aarts, A.J. Huis in 't Veld, Spectra analysis of the process emission during laser welding of AISI 304 stainless steel with disk and Nd:YAG laser, pp. 666-675 in Proceeding of the ICALEO 2009 (ISBN 978-0-912035-59-8) Orlando, FL, USA, November, 2-5, 2009. C. De Persis, C.S. Kallesoe, Pressure regulation in nonlinear hydraulic networks by positive controls, pp. 4102-4107 in Proceedings of the European Control Conference '09 (ISBN 978-963-311-369-1) Budapest, Hungary, August, 23-26, 2009. C. De Persis, C.S. Kallesoe, Qunatized controllers distributed over a network: An industrial case study, pp. 616-621 in Proceedings of the Meditarranean Control Conference '09 (ISBN 978-1-4244-4685-8) Thessaloniki, Greece, June, 24-26, 2009. C. De Persis, F. Mazenc, Stability of quantized time-delay nonlinear systems: A Lyapunov-Krasowskii-functional approach, pp. 4093-4098 in Proceedings of Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference (ISBN 978-1-4244-3872-3) Shanghai, China, December, 16-18, 2009. C. De Persis, Robustness of quantized continuous-time nonlinear systems to encoder/decoder mismatch., pp. 13-18 in Proceedings of Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference (ISBN 978-1-4244-3872-3) Shanghai, China, December, 16-18, 2009. D.M. Brouwer, B.R. de Jong, H.M.J.R. Soemers, MEMS-based 6 DOF parallel kinematic precision micro manipulator, pp. Vol. I, 111-114 in Proceedings of the EUSPEN 2006 (No ISBN or ISSN) Baden-Wien, Austria, May, 2009. D.M. Brouwer, J. Bennik, J. Leideman, H.M.J.R. Soemers, S. Stramigioli, Mechatronic design of a fast and long range 4 degrees of freedom humanoid neck, pp. 574 - 579 in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2009 (ISBN 978-1-4244-2788-8, ISSN 1050-4729) Kobe, Japan, May, 12-17, 2009. D.M. Brouwer, J.P. Meijaard, J.B. Jonker, Elastic element showing low stiffness loss at large deflection, pp. 1-4 in Proceedings of the 24th ASPE Annual Meeting (No ISBN or ISSN) Monterey, California, USA, October, 4-9, 2009.

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G.R.B.E. Römer, D. Arnaldo del Cerro, R.C.J. Sipkema, M.N.W. Groenendijk, A.J. Huis in 't Veld, Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation, pp. 30-37 in Proceedings of the ICALEO 2009 (ISBN 978-0-912035-59-8) Orlando, FL, USA, November, 2-5, 2009. H.M.J.R. Soemers, D. van Lierop, R. Sanders, T. Kuijpers, B. de Jong, A MEMS mirror for miniature laser projection, pp. 337-340 in Proceedings of the Euspen International Conference (ISBN 0-9553082-6-0) San Sebastian, Spain, June, 2-5, 2009. J.B. Jonker, J.P. Meijaard, Definition of deformation parameters for beam elements and their use in flexible multibody system analysis, pp. 1-20 in Proceedings of the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, Multibody Dynamics 2009, Ed. K. Arczewski, J. Fraczek, M. Wojityra (ISBN 978-83-7207-813-1) Warsaw, Poland, Warsaw University of Technology, June, 29-July, 2, 2009. J.P. Meijaard, W.B.J. Hakvoort, Modelling of fluid-conveying flexible pipes in multibody systems, No pages in Proceedings of the 7th EUROMECH Solid Mechancis Conference, Ed. J.A.C. Ambrosio & M.P.T. Silva (ISBN 978-989-96264-2-3) Lisboa, Portugal, Portuguese Association for Theoretical, Applied and Computational Mechanics, September, 7-10, 2009. L. Kristiansen, A. Mehendale, D.M. Brouwer, J.M. Zwikker, M.E. Klein, Optical measurement of a micro coriolis mass flow sensor, pp. 328-332 in Proceedings of the 9th Euspen International Conference 2009, Vol. I (ISBN 0-9553082-6-0) San Sebastian, Spain, June, 2-5, 2009. M.B.P. Huijts, D.M. Brouwer, J. van Dijk, Design and control of a parallel kinematic 6-DOFs precision manipulator, pp. 357-360 in Proceedings of the 9th Euspen International Conference 2009 (ISBN 0-9553082-6-0) San Sebastian, Spain, June, 2-5, 2009. R. Reilink, L.C. Visser, J. Bennik, R. Carloni, D.M. Brouwer, S. Stamigioli, The Twente humanoid head, pp. 1593-1594 in 2009 IEEE Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ISBN 978-1-4244-2788-8, ISSN 1050-4729) Kobe, Japan, May, 12-17, 2009. R.G.K.M. Aarts, J. van Dijk, J.B. Jonker, Efficient analyses for the mechatronic design of mechanisms with flexible joints undergoing large deformations, pp. 1-7 in Proceedings of the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, Multibody Dynamics 2009, Ed. K. Arczewski, J. Fraczek, M. Wojityra (ISBN 978-83-7207-813-1) Warsaw, Poland, Warsaw University of Technology, June, 29-July, 2, 2009. T.P.H. Warmerdam, H.M.J.R. Soemers, Increasing precision and performance by relaxing the classical design rules: bio inspired design, pp. 305-308 in Proceedings of the 9th Euspen International Conference 2009 (ISBN 0-9553082-6-0) San Sebastian, Spain, May, 2009. W.B.J. Hakvoort, R.G.K.M. Aarts, J.B. Jonker, Improved tracking for systems with configuration dependent dynamics by the application of robust iterative learning control, pp. 289-292 in Proceedings of the 9th Euspen International Conference 2009 (ISBN 0-9553082-6-0) San Sebastian, Spain, June, 2-5, 2009.

Ph.D. theses D. Iakovou, Sensor development and integration for robotized laser welding, 978-90-365-2770-5, University of Twente, February, 5, 2009. J.T. Hofman, Development of an observation and control system for industrial laser cladding, 978-90-77172-42-1, University of Twente, February, 13, W.B.J. Hakvoort, Iterative learning control for LTV systems with applications to an industrial robot, 978-90-77172-44-5, University of Twente, May, 28, 2009.

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M.Sc. theses Alexander Otten, Design of an elastic mechanism for a MEMS based electrostatic actuator, Report no. wa1197, June, 25, 2009. B. Nahuis, Thermo mechanical behavior of ironcare linear motors, Report no. wa1178, March, 12, 2009. D. Hordijk, Modelling and control of an active visor on a trailing suction Hopper Dredger, Report no. wa1206, September, 9, 2009. J. Jansen, Research on the application of adhesive joining of micro parts, Report no. wa1208, September, 17, 2009. J.B. Bakker, Investigation into oscillating cutting methods for passenger tire components, Report no. wa1203, August, 8, 2009. M. Huijts, Design, modelling and control of a parallel kinematic manipulator validated with experiments, Report no. wa1182, April, 8, 2009. M. Trumpi, Proof-of-principle design of an automated optical fiber to waveguide coupler, University of Twente, Report no. wa1181, March, 5, 2009. Maarten Menno Arnolli, Model developments for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of a flexible parallel guidance, Report no. wa1198, July, 10, 2009. P. Toljaga, Design of an advanced robot hand for a humanoid assistant robot, Report no. wa1196, June, 18, 2009. Rudolf Saathof, Adaptive Vibration Isolation Control using Infinite Impulse Response Filters, University of Twente, Report no. wa1177, February, 20, 2009. S. E. Boer, Study of a thermal deformation state estimator for use in optical lithography, University of Twente, Report no. wa1172, January, 9, 2009.

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University of Groningen Industrial Technology and Management

University of Groningen Industrial Technology and Management General Information Address ITM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands. Phone (secretary): +31–50-3638493. Fax: +31-50-3638498. E-mail (secretary): [email protected]

Scientific staff prof.dr.ir. J.M.A. Scherpen, dr. B. Jayawardhana, dr. M. Cao

Technical and administrative staff ing. H. W. van den Dool, lab coordinator ing. H. M. Kuis, lab technician K. Meyer, secretary E. M. Vos, secretary

PhD students (Alphabetic order) D. del Puerto Flores, M.Sc., Ir. D. A. Dirksz, G. K. Holst Larsen, M.Sc., Ir. R. Huisman, H. Liu, M.Sc., M. Muñoz Arias, M.Sc., Ir. R. Ouyang, M. Seslija, M.Sc. W. Xia, M.Sc. T. Voss, M.Sc. S. Zhang, M.Sc.

Temporary staff and postdocs T.C. Ionescu, Dr.

Cooperation with Australian National University, Australia; Brain Center, Drachten; City University of Hongkong, Hongkong; Delft University of Technology; ECN, Petten; Eindhoven University of Technology; Gasunie Engineering and Technology, Groningen; Logica, Groningen; HIT, Assen; INCAS3, Assen; Microned, Netherlands; Nagoya University, Japan; NOM, Groningen; NXP semiconductors, Eindhoven; Princeton University, USA; Renault, France; Supelec, France; TNO, Groningen, Delft; Tsinghua University, China; University of Groningen; University of Oldenburg, Germany; University of Twente; UPC, Barcelona, Spain; Yale University, USA; Zhejiang University, China.

Keywords Distributed control systems, electrical circuits, electro-mechanical systems, mechanical systems, mechatronics, modeling, model reduction methods, nonlinear control systems, nano-manufacturing, passivity based control, space applications, autonomous robots, sensor networks, distributed algorithms, cooperative control, graph theory, micro and nano scale assembly.

Brief description Industrial Technology and Management is the research department of the faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences that is connected to the Industrial Engineering and Management education of the University of Groningen. This report is about the Discrete Technology and Production Automation group within the department. The group was started on 1 January 2007 with the appointment of prof. Scherpen. The group has been growing in the past year with new staff members and development of the lab. The core research activity deals with the development of new nonlinear control systems modeling, realization and order reduction methods, as well as control methods for nonlinear 171

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systems while relying on the physical structure of the system. The group focuses on applications to electrical, mechanical and electro-mechanical systems. Nano-manufacturing, mechatronics, robotics, as well as some space systems are included in the interest. New developments also include an interest in distributed systems as well as coordination methods in the context of the systems described above.

DISC projects Reactive power control Projectleader: J.M.A. Scherpen PhD students: D. del Puerto Flores

Description Reactive power of electrical systems is important to consider, since it may result in unwanted by-products and losses. However, up to now, the solutions in order to reduce the negative aspects of relative power are taken care of in an ad hoc fashion. The purpose of this research is to develop structural methods to deal with reactive power incorporated in a nonlinear control framework that relies heavily on the physics. Therefore, passivity-based control and the cyclo-dissipativity property are being used as cornerstone in this research. A laboratory experimental is part of the research.

Passivity-Based Control of port-Hamiltonian mechanical systems Projectleader: J.M.A. Scherpen PhD students: D. A. Dirksz

Description In this project control strategies are determined based on energy shaping to realize stabilization and tracking control of mechanical systems. The control strategies and the system descriptions are done in the port-Hamiltonian framework. Important problems that will be investigated are the control of systems without velocity measurements, systems which have parameter uncertainty and systems that are underactuated. Canonical transformation theory (for port-Hamiltonian systems), dynamic extension and adaptive control are applied to deal with these problems. Experiments will show how the control strategies perform in a practical setup.

Balanced truncation for dissipative and symmetric nonlinear systems Projectleader: J.M.A. Scherpen PhD students: T. C. Ionescu Sponsored by: NWO

Description In this project we deal with the problem of model reduction for nonlinear dissipative and symmetric systems based on the attractive tool of nonlinear balancing. A reduced order model is obtained by eliminating the more or less dissipative dynamics of the full order system. The result is an approximation of the original model that is again dissipative. Furthermore, since the nonlinear balancing technique is computationally complex, we make 172

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an attempt to simplify it, starting with the class of symmetric systems. We define a class of nonlinear state-space symmetric systems for which the (Hankel) gain structure between the past input and future output energy is determined solely based on the output energy and the use of the symmetry property.

Distributed control of micro CHP systems Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

J.M.A. Scherpen N.D. van Foreest (Operations dept, Faculty of Economics and Business) G. K. Holst Larsen Flexines (Koers Noord)

Description We will work on pricing mechanisms to control the electricity supply of large numbers of micro Combined Heat Power (CHP) systems to the electricity grid. This type of electricity production differs from the current one: rather than a single-supplier multi-consumer markets it becomes a multi-supplier multi-consumer market. As a household can independently decide to switch on and off its micro CHP, the electricity supply may show large fluctuations, leading to instabilities of the electricity grid. An interesting control mechanism to match supply and demand is pricing.

Coordination of mobile agents using coarsely quantized information Projectleader: M. Cao, C. De Persis(University of Twente) PhD students: H. Liu

Description In this project, we look into the issues arising when the distributed controllors for the coordination of mobile multi-agent systems can only utilize coarsely quantized information. The first step is to look at the formation control problems where range measurements are used. We will also look into techniques to reduce chattering as a result of the quantization effects. Later on, stability and robustness will also be studied to make the control strategies applicable in practical settings.

Contactless micromanipulation by magnetic levitation Projectleader: B. Jayawardhana PhD students: R. Ouyang

Description The aim of this research project is to design an automatic micro-assembly system based on the use of electromagnetic forces in order to improve production automation of micro and nanotechnology-based products. The advancement of micro-assembly techonology will have an immediate impact which will enable new inventions in many fields. In engineering, complex micro-robots and complex micro-machines can be assembled which will help humans to undertake various difficult tasks. In the medical field, it will impact the development of a robotic capsule endoscopy with advanced manipulation tasks where its movements inside the human body can be controlled.

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Nonlinear control of nonlinear electrical circuits Projectleader: J.M.A. Scherpen PhD students: M. Munoz Arias Sponsored by: Technological Institute Costa Rica

Description Nonlinear control of nonlinear electrical circuits has gained quite a bit of attention in the last decade due to the introduction of passivity based control. This type of control uses the specific physical structure of these systems. However, new developments for switched electrical circuits, such as for photo-voltaic inverters, robust control methods that deal with source and load variations, e.g., the solar input and electricity net fluctuations, should be developed. Reactive power considerations as well as guaranteed performance of the closed loop system should be incorporated in the methods to make it implementable and applicable for switching electrical circuits.

Structure preserving model reduction for port-Hamiltonian systems Projectleader: J.M.A. Scherpen, A. J. van der Schaft (IWI) PhD students: M. Seslija Sponsored by: NWO

Description This project aims at structure-preserving model reduction for linear and nonlinear systems. More specifically it aims at approximating port-Hamiltonian models, as naturally obtained by network-modeling of multi-physics systems, by lower-order port-Hamiltonian systems. This will be done within the two main frameworks for model reduction of open systems; balancing (SVD-based in the linear case) and moment-matching (Krylov-based).

Cooperative control of robotic multi-agent systems Projectleader: M. Cao PhD students: W. Xia

Description This project studies nonlinear behaviors in robotic multi-agent systems. Distributed cooperative control laws will be designed for achieving desirable global performance by using only local information.The results obtained will be applied to large scale mobile sensor networks.

Modeling and Control of inflatable space strures Projectleader: J.M.A. Scherpen PhD students: T. Voss Sponsored by: Microned

Description In this project mathematical models of inflatable space structures, specifically inflatable space reflectors, are developed. To be able to control the shape of a reflector one can use piezoelectric polymers as actuators which are bonded to the reflecting surface. The modeling 174

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of theses piezoelectric elements is done in the infinite dimensional port-Hamiltonian framework. We are also focusing on the spatial discretization of the infinite dimensional port-Hamiltonian models to be able to design a finite dimension shape controller by using passivity based control methods. The main focus in the spatial discretization step is to preserve the structure of the model.

Mechatronic design of a cryogenic chopper mechanism for mid-infrared wavelength observations Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

B. Jayawardhana J.M.A. Scherpen R. Huisman SRON

Description Mid infrared wavelength observations are recognized as an important field of study in astronomy. These observations can provide further evidence of the early universe and confirm various theories about objects that are intrinsically cold or redshifted due to the expansion of the universe. The observation at mid-infrared wavelength is known to be corrupted by noise from thermal background in the sky. A chopping mechanism is commonly used to reduce this thermal noise. In order to fulfill its specific functionality, the design of chopping mechanisms have to take several factors into account: Firstly, it must work in the cryogenic environment where the sensitive mid-infrared instrument is located; Secondly, it must have fast response time in order to maximize observation time; Thirdly, it provides an accurate movement. In this project, advanced modeling and controller design for the chopping mechanism in several instruments will be developed, where one instrument, and thus the chopping mechanism is currently being designed in close collaboration with our project.

Constrained controllability of diffusively coupled multi-agent systems Projectleader: M. Cao, K. Camlibel(IWI) PhD students: S. Zhang

Description In this project, we are concerned with the controllability issue for multi-agent systems when the agents are diffusively coupled together and when the control signals are contrained in different ways. The goal is to identify the class of constrained control inputs such that the system is controllable. This can be used for designing distributed control laws for autonomous robotic teams. A robotic testbed will be utilized to test theoretical results.

Publications Book chapters/parts T.C. Ionescu, J.M.A. Scherpen, Nonlinear cross Gramians, in System Modeling and Optimizations, IFIP AICT 312, Springer Boston, Eds., A. Korytowski, K. Malanowski, W. Mitkowski, M.Szymkat (2009) 293-306.

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International journal papers B. Jayawardhana, G. Weiss, State convergence of passive nonlinear systems with an L2 input, IEEE Trans. Automatic Contr., vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 1723-1727, July 2009. B. Jayawardhana, H. Logemann, E.P. Ryan, Input-to-State Stability of Differential Inclusions with Applications to Hysteretic and Quantized Feedback Systems, SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization, vol. 48, no. 2, 2009. B. Jayawardhana, H. Logemann, E.P. Ryan, Infinite-dimensional feedback systems: the circle criterion and input-to-state stability, Communications in Information and Systems , vol. 8, no. 4, 2009. D. Jeltsema, J.M.A. Scherpen, Multidomain modeling of nonlinear networks and systems: energy- and power-based perspectives, feature article in IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 29, issue 4 (2009) 28-59. F. Castanos, B. Jayawardhana, R. Ortega, E. Garcia-Canseco, A class of nonlinear RLC circuits globally stabilizable by proportional plus integral controllers, Journal of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, 2009. J. Fang, M. Cao, A. S. Morse, and B. D. O. Anderson, Sequential Localization of Sensor Networks, SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization, V48, Issue 1, pp321-350, Jan 2009

International congress papers B. Jayawardhana, H. Logemann, E.P. Ryan, ISS for Lur'e Type Systems with Set-Valued Nonlinearities, Proc. of European Control Conference, Budapest, August 2009. B. Jayawardhana, V. Andrieu, Sufficient conditions for dissipativity on Duhem hysteresis model, Proc. 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Shanghai, December 2009 D. del Puerto Flores, R. Ortega, J.M.A. Scherpen, Power factor compensation with lossless linear filters is equivalent to (weighted) power equalization and a new cyclo-dissipativity characterization, Proc. IEEE Conf. Dec. Contr., CDC09, Shanghai, China (December 2009) 6569-6574. D. Pais, M. Cao, and N. E. Leonard, Formation shape and orientation control using projected collinear tensegrity structures, Proc. of the 2009 American Control Conference (ACC), pp610-615, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, June 2009 D.A. Dirksz, J.M.A. Scherpen, Passivity-based tracking control of port-Hamiltonian mechanical systemswith only position measurements, Proc. European Control Conference, Budapest, Hungary (August 2009) 4689-4694. E. Garcia Canseco, J.M.A. Scherpen, M. Kuindersma, Modeling for control of a wobble yoke Stirling engine,Proc. 2009 International Symposium on Nonlinear Theory and its Applications, NOLTA'09. Sapporo, Japan (October 2009), 544-547. J. Liu, B. D. O. Anderson, M. Cao, and A. S. Morse, Analysis of accelerated gossip algorithms, Proc. of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp871-876, Shanghai, China, December 2009 M. Cao, C. Yu and B. D. O. Anderson, Coordination with the leader in a robotic team without active communication, Proc. of the 17th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, pp252-257, Thessaloniki, Greece, June 2009 T. Voß, J.M.A. Scherpen, Structure preserving port-Hamiltonian discretization of a 1-D inflatable space reflector, Proc. European Control Conference, Budapest, Hungary (August 2009) 850-855. T.C. Ionescu, K. Fujimoto, J.M.A. Scherpen, Positive and bounded real balancing for nonlinear systems - a controllability and observability function approach, Proc. IEEE Conf. Dec. Contr., CDC09, Shanghai, China (December 2009) 4310-4315 176

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T.C. Ionescu, K. Fujimoto, J.M.A. Scherpen, The cross operator and singular value analysis fornonlinear symmetric systems, Proc. European Control Conference, Budapest, Hungary (August 2009) 1565-1570. W. Yu, G. Chen and M. Cao, On second-order consensus in multi-agent dynamical systems with directed topologies and time delays, Proc. of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp3709-3714, Shanghai, China, December 2009

Ph.D. theses T.C. Ionescu, Balanced Truncation for Dissipative and Symmetric Nonlinear Systems, September 2009

M.Sc. theses J.M. Kamminga, Mastering the Dynamics of 4 Wheel Drive, August 2009. J.M.W. Biesterbos, Enabling Low-Cost and Flexible Robotized Workstations, August 2009 M. Kuindersma, Dynamic Modeling for Control of a Kinematic Stirling Engine, April 2009 R. Veenbaas, Humanoid Robots: Efficient Walking with Iterative Learning Control, December 2009. X. Wang, Formation Control of Robotic Swarms in Pipeline Inspection, September 2009

Other publications B. Jayawardhana, Dynamical modeling of micro-assembly systems, Proc. 28th Benelux meeting on Systems and Control, Spa, Belgium, March 2009 D. del Puerto-Flores, J.M.A. Scherpen, R. Ortega, Power factor compensation in nonsinusoidal systems based on cyclodissipativity, Proc. 28th Benelux meeting on Systems and Control, Spa, Belgium, March 2009 D.A. Dirksz, J.M.A. Scherpen, Passivity-based tracking control of port-Hamiltonian mechanical systems with only position measurements, Proc. 28th Benelux meeting on Systems and Control, Spa, Belgium, March 2009 M. Kuindersma, E. Garcia-Canseco, J.M.A. Scherpen, Modeling and control of a wobble yoke stirling engine : applicaiton to micro-cogeneration systems, Proc. 28th Benelux meeting on Systems and Control, Spa, Belgium, March 2009 T. Voss, J.M.A. Scherpen, Spatial discretization of a 1D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, Proc. 28th Benelux meeting on Systems and Control, Spa, Belgium, March 2009 W. Yu, M. Cao, Second-order consensus algorithms, Proc. 28th Benelux meeting on Systems and Control, Spa, Belgium, March 2009

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University of Groningen, Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Research Program Systems, Control and Applied Analysis General Information Address Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen, The Netherlands.

Scientific staff Dr. M.K. Camlibel, Prof. dr. A. Dijksma (RUG, associated-emeritus), Prof.dr. A.J. van der Schaft, Prof.dr. H.L. Trentelman, Dr. M.E. Dür.

Technical and administrative staff K.M.E. Schelhaas

PhD students S. Fiaz, F. Kerber, R. Polyuga, H.B. Minh Q.T. Le, A. Venkatraman, H. Vinjamoor, P.J.C. Dickinson, S. Gottimukala, D. Kaba, N. Monshizadeh, M. Seslija, J.K. Sponsel.

Cooperation with Daniel Alpay (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel), Immanuel Bomze (University of Vienna, Austria), Stefan Bundfuss (TU Darmstadt, Germany) Kay Hamacher (TU Darmstadt, Germany), Osamu Kaneko (University of Kanazawa, Japan), Heinz Langer (Vienna University of Technology, Austria) Bernhard Maschke (Universite Claude Bernard Lyon, France), Diego Napp Avelli (University of Aveiro, Portugal), Alban Quadrat (INRIA Sophia Antipolis, France), Paolo Rapisarda (University of Southampton, UK), Shivan Shankar (Chennai Mathematics Institute, India), Oliver Stein (University of Karlsruhe, Germany), Kiyotsugu Takaba (University of Kyoto, Japan), Jan C. Willems (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium)

General Information Keywords Modeling and control, model reduction, physical systems, port-Hamiltonian systems, behavioral approach to systems and control, hybrid dynamical systems, algebraic methods, discrete and continuous mathematical optimization.

Brief description The research program Systems, Control an Applied Analysis is devoted to the analysis and design of complex and heterogeneous system and optimization. The mathematical research in this program is motivated by applications in various areas, including physical engineering systems, networked systems, and systems biology. In 2009, the four main lines of research have been: 1) Modeling and control of complex physical systems as port-Hamiltonian systems 2) Behavioral approach to systems and control 178

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3) Analysis and design of hybrid dynamical systems 4) Mathematical optimization theory Internalization Three international promovendi have been acquired under the Ubbo Emmius scheme of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of the University of Groningen: Devrim Kaba, Nima Monshizade, and Shuo Zhang. Devrim Kaba is being supervised by Kanat Camlibel, Nima Monshizade by Harry Trentelman and Kanat Camlibel, Shuo Zhang Ming Cao and Kanat Camlibel. The PhD students Julia K. Sponsel and Peter J.C. Dickinson followed the two week block course (Combinatorial Optimization at Work} at TU Berlin, Germany) The PhD student Aneesh Venkatraman spent two weeks at Imperial College, London (collaboration with prof. A. Astolfi). The PhD student Rostyslav Polyuga was invited for a visit and a lecture at the TU Munich. The PhD student Marko Seslija followed a course on port-Hamiltonian systems theory at the EECI, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Further signs of recognition and news items Kanat Camlibel is member of the IFAC Technical Committee on Linear Systems Kanat Camlibel is member of the IFAC Technical Committee on Control Design Kanat Camlibel is member of the IFAC Technical Committee member on Discrete Event and Hybrid Systems. Kanat Camlibel was International Program Committee Member of the 3rd IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems, Zaragoza, September 16-18, 2009. Mirjam Dür was Co-Chair (with Oliver Stein) of the EUROPT Workshop on Advances in Continuous Optimization, Remagen, Germany (July 3-4, 2009) Mirjam Dür spent four weeks as a guest professor at Universit\'{e} Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France Mirjam Dür was invited plenary speaker at the 14th Belgian-French-German Conference on Optimization, Leuven, Belgium (September 2009) Mirjam Dür was a member of the PhD committee of Guoyong Gu at TU Delft (Full-Step Interior Point Methods for Symmetric Optimization) Mirjam Dür gave invited lectures at the universities of Twente, Eindhoven, Toulouse (France) and Ulm (Germany) A. Dijksma participated in the Second Najman Conference at Dubrovnik, May 10-16 and in the Schur Analysis Workshop in Leipzig, September 29- October 2. Harry Trentelman was co-organizer of the Workshop "Open and Interconnected Systems: Modelling and Control, Brugge, Belgie, September 16-17, 2009 Harry Trentelman received the annual teaching award 2009 "Teacher of the Year" from the teaching institute of Mathematics. Arjan van der Schaft was International Program Committee Member of the 3rd IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems, Zaragoza, September 16-18, 2009.

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Arjan van der Schaft is Member of the Steering Committee of the (Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems Symposium) (Biennial International Conference) Arjan van der Schaft is Member of the International Program Committee for the 8th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Design (NOLCOS), Bologna, September 1-3. 2010. Arjan van der Schaft is Member of the International Program Committee for the MTNS 2010, Budapest, July 5-9. 2010. Arjan van der Schaft is Member of the International Program Committee for the 4th IFAC Symposium on Systems, Structure and Control, Ancona, September 15-17, 2010. The paper 'An approximation method for the stabilizing solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for integrable systems, a Hamiltonian perturbation approach", (Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE), vol. 43), pp. 572--580, 2007, by N. Sakamoto and A.J. van der Schaft, received the SICE Takeda Best Paper Prize 2008.

General Information Brief description Research subjects in brief M.K. Camlibel: Piecewise affine dynamical systems, switched linear systems. P.J.C. Dickinson: (PhD student, with M. Dür): Structural properties of copositive optimization problems. M. Dür: Mixed-integer nonlinear optimization. Optimization over convex matrix cones. Copositve programming. Quadratic and binary optimization problems. A. Dijksma: Operator theory with applications to Schur analysis (interpolation and rigidity problems) and approximation in varying spaces with indefinite metrics of singular differential operators by regular ones. S. Fiaz: (PhD student with H.L. Trentelman): Control by interconnection, stability analysis and synthesis, robust stabilization; rational representations. S. Gottimukala: (PhD student with H.L. Trentelman): Rational representations; stability analysis of uncertain behavioral systems. Ha Binh Minh: (PhD student with H.L. Trentelman): Model reduction in a behavioral context; approximation of dissipative systems by dissipative systems of lower complexity. D. Kaba: (PhD student with M.K. Camlibel): Invertibility of switched linear systems. F. Kerber: (PhD student with A.J. van der Schaft): Compositional analysis, bismulation equivalence, and control of linear and hybrid systems. Assume-guarantee reasoning. Q.T. Le: (PhD student with M.K. Camlibel): Well-posedness and controllability of piecewise affine systems. N. Monshizade: (PhD student with H.L. Trentelman, M.K. Camlibel): Model reduction of piecewise affine systems. R. Polyuga: (PhD student, with A.J. van der Schaft): Model reduction of linear port-Hamiltonian systems. Structure preserving model reduction by balancing and Krylov methods. M. Seslija: (PhD student with J.M.A. Scherpen and A.J. van der Schaft): J. K. Sponsel: (PhD student with M. Dür): Copositive approaches to graph theoretic problems. 180

University of Groningen, Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Research Program Systems, Control and Applied Analysis

H.L. Trentelman: Control in a behavioral setting; pole placement and stabilization by interconnection, implementability of system behaviors, synthesis of dissipative systems; robust stabilization, systems described by linear PDE's, model reduction and approximation in a behavioral context, model reduction of piecewise affine systems. A.J. van der Schaft: Geometric network modeling, analysis and control of complex engineering systems. Network dynamics. Nonlinear systems and control theory. Compositional modelling, analysis and control of switching and hybrid systems. A. Venkatraman: (PhD student with A.J. van der Schaft): Control of port-Hamiltonian systems. Design of observers for nonlinear port-Hamiltonian systems. Passivity-based control and control by interconnection. H. Vinjamoor: (PhD student with A.J. van der Schaft}: Control by interconnection up to bisimulation and asymptotic bisimulation. Regular feedback achievability.

DISC projects Sponsored by: NWO-STW funding The project "Energy-efficient design and control of mobile robotic sensor networks" (ROSE), with applicants A.J. van der Schaft, J.M.A. Scherpen (ITM, RUG), S. Stramigioli (University of Twente), was funded within the STW Perspective Programme (Autonomous Sensor Systems}.

DISC projects Ongoing work Program description General introduction Mathematical systems and control theory deals with the mathematical modeling, analysis and control of open systems evolving in time. The dynamics are described by ordinary or partial differential equations, or can be of a discrete nature. The dynamics is not only sought to be analyzed, but to be influenced (it controlled) and optimized as well by the addition of feedback loops and the interconnection of the open system to other dynamical systems ({\it controller design}). Other distinguishing feature is that typically the systems are described by {\it under-determined sets of differential equations}. Hence there are free variables in the system description (corresponding to '{\it inputs}') which allow for two-sided interaction with the environment ({\it open systems}). Finally, the {\it systems point of view} is emphasized, in the sense that large-scale and heterogeneous dynamical systems are approached as being the interconnection of smaller system components, where the overall dynamics is determined by the dynamics of the components {\it plus} the interconnection ('{\it feedback}') structure. This point of view is prevailing in many areas of engineering, and is receiving increasing attention in the life sciences (systems and synthetic biology, biological feedback systems, etc.).

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Mathematical optimization theory is concerned with the development of solution algorithms for mathematical optimization problems. Depending on the structure of objective function and feasible set, methods involving discrete or nonlinear features have to be developed. Special emphasis is given to nonlinear \emph{quadratic problems} which at the same time involve \emph{binary variables}. These problems have numerous applications in science, engineering and economics. They can be modeled as linear problems over special matrix cones (semidefinite programming), (copositive programming) which permits a new approach to tackle these problems. noindent The members of the program have direct collaboration with colleagues working in other scientific disciplines such as robotics, power systems, mechatronics, economics, management science, and systems biology. Furthermore, there is a close local collaboration with the control engineering group at the neighboring Institute for Industrial Engineering and Management.

Modeling and control of multi-physics systems as port-Hamiltonian systems Projectleader: Arjan van der Schaft Participants: Arjan van der Schaft,Rostyslav Polyuga, Aneesh Venkatraman, Marko Seslija

Description Port-Hamiltonian systems are generalized Hamiltonian systems where the geometric structure is derived from the interconnection structure of the complex system. The aim of this work is to provide a systematic mathematical theory for the mathematical modelling, analysis and simulation of multi-physics, mixed lumped- and distributed parameter, systems by making explicit the underlying physical structure, including energy balances and other conservation laws. Furthermore, the port-Hamiltonian framework is employed for controller design, by attaching controller port-Hamiltonian systems and shaping the Hamiltonian and other conserved quantities to a desired Lyapunov function for the controlled system, leading to physically inspired and robust control strategies.

Behavioral systems theory and control by interconnection Projectleader: H.L. Trentelman Participants: Harry Trentelman, Shaik Fiaz, Ha Binh Minh, Harsh Vinjamoor, Arjan van der Schaft Sponsored by: RUG, NWO

Ongoing work The traditional way of modeling dynamical systems that interact with their environment is by an input-output map. However, physical systems in general do not exhibit the information flow direction that is pre-supposed by the input-output structure. In the behavioral approach, all external system variables are therefore a priori treated on an equal footing, while the mathematical model specifies a subset of the set in which the external variables take their values as being possible. This subset is called the behaviour of the system. Many modeling and control questions are fruitfully studied in this novel setting. 182

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Although most of the research aims at linear differential systems it also provides inspiration for nonlinear and hybrid dynamical systems.

Analysis and design of piecewise-affine and hybrid dynamical systems Projectleader: K. Camlibel Participants: Kanat Camlibel, Thuan Quang Le, Devrim Kaba, Nima Monshizadeh, Arjan van der Schaft, H.L. Trentelman, Florian Kerber

Description Hybrid systems} are a mixture of interacting continuous and discrete dynamics, and arise naturally in embedded systems and physical systems modeling. Important research issues concern the systematic modelling of complex hybrid systems, the analysis of hybrid systems and their solution trajectories, the development of compositional reasoning techniques, the analysis of structural properties of controllability and stabilizability, and the design of controllers. From a mathematical point of view hybrid systems necessitate the merging of concepts and tools from continuous dynamics with those from discrete dynamics, thus linking to formal verification tools from computer science. The mathematical analysis of piecewise-affine and hybrid systems is heavily intertwined with optimization theory and non-smooth analysis.

Mathematical optimization theory Projectleader: M. Dür Participants: Mirjam Dür, Peter Dickinson, Julia Sponsel

Description Mathematical optimization theory is concerned with studying structural properties and developing solution methods for mathematical optimization problems. The focus is on combinatorial problems and on nonconvex quadratic optimization problems. The studied methodology is to transform the problem into a higher dimensional matrix space, permitting to move the difficult constraints (quadratic and/or binary) entirely into a certain cone constraint. This leads to copositive and semidefinite programming

Schur analysis and operator theory in spaces with indefinite metric Projectleader: A. Dijksma Participants: A.Dijksma

Description Schur analysis and operator theory in indefinite metric spaces} deals with the extension of classical Schur analysis, in particular interpolation problems and the properties of the generalized Schur transformation.

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University of Groningen, Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Research Program Systems, Control and Applied Analysis

Publications Other publications A. Martin, A. Fügenschuh, M. Dür, C. Schönberger, S. Schabel, K. Villforth, "Verfahren zum Einstellen und/oder Optimieren einer einen Gutstoff von einem Schlechtstoff trennenden Sortieranlage und Sortieranlage "(Control and Optimization of a sorting plant which separates desired and undesired substances). (Deutsches Patent Nr.~10~2008~013~034, issued 17.~9.~2009).

Publications International journal papers D. Alpay, A. Dijksma, and D. Volok, “Schur multipliers and De Branges-Rovnyak spaces: the multiscale case”, Operator Theory, bf 61 (1) 2009, 87—118. D. Jeltsema, A.J. van der Schaft, “Langrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of transmission line systems with boundary energy flow”, Reports on Mathematical Physiscs, Vol. 63, Nr 1, 2009, 55--74. F. Casta\~nos, R. Ortega, A.J. van der Schaft, A. Astolfi, “Asymptotic stabilization via control by interconnection of port-Hamiltonian systems”, Automatica, vol. 45, 2009, 1611—1618. F. Vasca, L. Iannelli, M.K. Camlibel, and R. Frasca, “A new perspective for modeling power electronics converters: complementarity framework”, IEEE Transcription on Power Electronics, 2009, 24 (2):456-468. H.B. Minh, H.L. Trentelman and P. Rapisarda, “Dissipativity preserving model reduction by retention of trajectories of minimal dissipation”, Mathematics of Control, Signals and Systems, Vol. 21, Nr 3, 2009, 171-201. H.L. Trentelman, “Positive real and bounded real balanced truncation using Sigma-normalised coprime factors”, Systems and Control Letters, Vol. 58, 2009, 871-879. L. Han, A. Tiwari, M.K. Camlibel, and J.S. Pang, “Convergence of time-stepping schemes for passive and extended linear complementarity systems”, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, 2009, 47(5): 3768-3796. M.E. Dür and N. Nowak, “Packing solar cells on a roof”, Optimization and Engineering, 2009, 397—408. M.K. Camlibel and R. Frasca, “Extension of Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma to descriptor systems”, Systems and Control Letters, 2009, 58 (12): 795-803. S. Bundfuss and M.E. Dür: “An adaptive linear approximation algorithm for copositive programs”, SIAM Journal on Optimization, 2009, 30—53. S. Bundfuss and M.E. Dür: “Copositive Lyapunov functions for switched systems over cones”, Systems and Control Letters, 2009, 342—345. S. Burer, K.M. Anstreicher and M.E. Dür, “The Difference Between 5 times 5 Doubly Nonnegative and Completely Positive Matrices”, Linear Algebra and its Applications, 2009, 1539—1552. S. Fiaz and H.L. Trentelman, “On regular implement ability and stabilization using controllers with pre specified input/output structure”, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Signals and Systems, Vol.21, Nr 7, 2009, 1562-1568.

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University of Groningen, Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Research Program Systems, Control and Applied Analysis

International congress papers A. Venkatraman, A.J. van der Schaft, 'Energy shaping of port-Hamiltonian systems by using alternate passive outputs', pp. 2175--2180 in (Proc. European Control Conference 2009), Budapest, Hungary, August 23-26, 2009. A.J. van der Schaft, M.K. Camlibel, "A state transfer principle for switching port-Hamiltonian systems", (Proc. 48th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control), Shanghai, China, December 16-18, 2009. A.J. van der Schaft, R. Polyuga, "Structure-preserving model reduction of complex physical systems ", (Proc. 48th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control), Shanghai, China, December 16-18, 2009. F. Kerber, A.J. van der Schaft, "Compositional and assume-guarantee reasoning for switching linear systems", pp. 328--333 in (Proc. 3rd IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems), Zaragoza, Spain, September 16-18, 2009. H. Vinjamoor, A.J. van der Schaft, 'On achievable bsimulations for linear time-invariant systems', pp. 794--801 in (Proc. European Control Conference 2009), Budapest, Hungary, August 23-26, 2009. H.L. Trentelman and P. Rapisarda, 'A Behavioral Approach to Passivity and Bounded Realness Preserving Balanced Truncation with Error Bounds', (Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control), Shanghai, China, 2009. H.L. Trentelman, S. Fiaz and K. Takaba, 'Optimal Robust Stabilization in a Behavioral Framework', (Proceedings of the European Control Conference), Budapest, Hungary, 2009 . H.L. Trentelman, Shaik Fiaz and K. Takaba, 'Small Gain Theorem and Optimal Robust Stabilization in a Behavioral Framework', (Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control), Shanghai, China, 2009. Kerber, A.J. van der Schaft, 'Assume-guarantee reasoning for linear dynamical systems' pp. 5015-- 5020 in (Proc. European Control Conference 2009), Budapest, Hungary, August 23-26, 2009. P. Rapisarda and H.L.Trentelman, 'Balanced state-space representations: a polynomial algebraic approach', (Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control), Shanghai, China, 2009. R. V. Polyuga, A.J. van der Schaft, 'Moment matching for linear port-Hamiltonian systems', pp. 4715--4720 in (Proc. European Control Conference 2009), Budapest, Hungary, August 23-26, 2009. S. Gugercin, R.V. Polyuga, C.A. Beattie, A.J. van der Schaft, "Interpolation-based $H_2$ model reduction for port-Hamiltonian systems ", (Proc. 48th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control), Shanghai, China, December 16-18, 2009.

Ph.D. theses H.B. Minh, Model Reduction in a Behavioral Framework. University of Groningen, The Netherlands, January 23, 2009. Promotor: H.L. Trentelman.

Other publications A.J. van der Schaft: Editor-at-Large for (European Journal of Control), Associate Editor for (Systems & Control Letters),Associate Editor for (Journal of Geometric Mechanics) H.L. Trentelman: Associate editor for (Systems and Control Letters)

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University of Groningen, Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Research Program Systems, Control and Applied Analysis

M.K. Camlibel: Subject Editor for the (International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control) Mirjam Dür: Member of the Editorial Board of (Journal of Global Optimization) A.Dijksma: Member of the Editorial Board of (Integral Equations Operator Theory) and (Complex Analysis and Operator Theory), Member of the Editorial Board of (Complex Analysis and Operator Theory), Member of the Editorial Board of the book series (Operator Theory Advances and Applications)

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Universiteit Maastricht Faculty of Humanities and Sciences

Universiteit Maastricht Faculty of Humanities and Sciences General Information Address Department of Knowledge Engineering, Universiteit Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. Phone (secretary): +31–43–3883494. Fax (secretary): +31–43–3884910. E-mail (secretary): [email protected]

Scientific staff prof.dr.ir. R.L.M. Peeters, dr. R.L. Westra, dr. J.M.H. Karel, dr. M. Petreczky (from 1-8-2009)

PhD students J. Heijman MSc., S.M.H. Jansen MSc., drs. I.W.M. Bleylevens, drs. S. Zeemering

Cooperation with INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, France; Medtronic/Bakken Research Center, Maastricht; Applied Biomedical Systems, Maastricht; Delft University of Technology; DSM, Sittard; University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; CWI, Amsterdam; Maastricht Instruments, Maastricht; Sappi, Maastricht; Academic Hospital, Maastricht; Leibniz Institute, Jena, Germany; RWTH Aachen, Germany; Wageningen University; Twente Medical Systems, Enschede; Universiteit Hasselt, Belgium; Washington State University, St. Louis (Mo.), USA.

Keywords Mathematical modeling; model parameterization; canonical forms; parameter estimation; time series analysis; signal and image processing; wavelet analysis; identification; identifiability; systems biology; genetic network modelling; biomedical engineering; model approximation; model reduction; computer algebra; lossless systems; polynomial models; behavioral approach to systems theory; global optimization; multidimensional systems; numerical methods.

Brief description Theoretical research of the Systems and Control group of the UM is in the areas of system identification, control theory, model parametrizations and canonical forms, and the use of computer algebra in systems theory. This research is addressed in more detail below. The research activities directed towards applications are concentrated in biomedical engineering, process industry and genetics. Most of this research concerns contract research and is carried out in co-operation with national and international institutes and industry. In the area of biomedical engineering, a current research topic involves signal analysis of cardiac signals (such as ECGs). This is performed using wavelets, with the purpose to detect and classify various types of arrhythmia and to identify ischemic heart tissue. Other ongoing research topics in this area concern: single heart cell models of electrical activation, gene regulatory network modelling, and image processing for eye movement analysis and balance disorders. In co-operation with process industry, methods are developed for data validation and data reconciliation, e.g. for the chemical industry, paper industry, ceramics industry and cement industry. Also, methods are developed for computer vision applications for quality control and printing defect classification.

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DISC projects System identification and parametrization of model classes Projectleader: R.L.M. Peeters Participants: B. Hanzon (UCC, Cork, Ireland); M. Olivi (INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, France)

Description Research in the area of system identification is conducted from a differential-geometric point of view. The topological and differentiable manifold structure of a number of model classes is investigated. The distance between systems, as a measure for the difference in system behavior, is quantitatively expressed by a Riemannian metric. There are different meaningful Riemannian metrics, such as induced L2-metrics and the Fisher metric, which uses the Fisher information matrix. These Riemannian metrics are used to enhance the performance of classical iterative gradient methods for parameter estimation. Such Riemannian gradient methods can, more generally, be used for function optimization over manifolds too. Related issues concern the development of parametrizations for various classes of linear systems, in particular the construction of atlases of overlapping parametrizations that can be used within this differential-geometric approach towards identification. Currently, attention is focused on multivariable stable all-pass systems and AR systems for which balanced parametrizations and parametrizations based on Schur parameters are considered. Important related topics of interest are model reduction and model approximation. Other applications of all-pass systems are in parameterizing classes of orthogonal wavelets for the purpose of wavelet design.

Algebraic methods in systems theory Projectleader: R.L.M. Peeters Participants: B. Hanzon (UCC, Cork, Ireland), M. Petreczky PhD students: I.W.M. Bleylevens

Description Problems that require exact or symbolic solution are being studied with the help of constructive algebra and methods from symbolic computation. In the past, this involved the solution of Lyapunov and Sylvester equations and the computation of Fisher information matrices. Current research focuses on the analysis of identifiability questions, the parametrization of classes of systems and methods for computing global minima of polynomial and rational optimization criteria, such as the H2 criterion. An important research area is that of hybrid and switched linear systems, for which realization theory is developed, identifiability questions are analyzed and identification methods are developed. Other applications under investigation relate to the abovementioned differential-geometric approach towards system identification, where the investigation of properties of Riemannian metrics, Riemannian manifolds and identification methods (e.g., curvature and chart selection strategies) may heavily rely on the use of computer algebra software.

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Universiteit Maastricht Faculty of Humanities and Sciences

Biomedical engineering and systems biology Projectleader: R.L. Westra Participants: R.L.M. Peeters (UM); J.M.H. Karel (UM); W.A. Serdijn (Delft University of Technology); PhD students: J. Heijman, S.M.H. Jansen, S. Zeemering; Sponsored by: tUL

Description In co-operation with biomedical engineering industry and the UM academic hospital, several research projects are conducted. One current line of interest in biomedical engineering concerns the analysis of cardiac signals by means of several filtering techniques, including wavelet-based multi-resolution analysis. This research was carried out in the STW-funded project “Biomedical signal processing platform for low-power real-time sensing of cardiac signals” (BioSens), in co-operation with Delft Univ. Tech. and Medtronic/BRC. This project concluded in 2009 with the PhD defense of J.M.H. Karel. Two other projects started in autumn 2007, one concerning the development of single heart cell models of electrical activation (in co-operation with Washington State University in St. Louis (Mo.)), the other studying balance disorders through real-time image processing of eye movements. In the area of genetics and bio-informatics, research is directed towards the analysis of gene expression data as obtained from micro-array experiments. One objective is to determine clusters of genes which exhibit similar expression patterns over time and which may be functionally related. A second objective is to develop system theoretic models for genetic interaction and to determine gene regulatory networks and associated genetic pathways.

Publications International journal papers Decker, K.F., J. Heijman, J.R. Silva, T.J. Hund, Y. Rudy; Properties and ionic mechanisms of action potential adaptation, restitution, and accommodation in canine epicardium; Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol., 296 (4), 2009, H1017-H1026

International congress papers Bertens, E., R. Fabel, M. Petreczky, D.A. van Beek, J.E. Rooda; Supervisory control synthesis for exception handling in printers; Proceedings of the Philips Conference on Applications of Control Technology (PACT-09), Hilvarenbeek, Netherlands, 3-4 February 2009 Elhamifar, E., M. Petreczky, R. Vidal; Rank Tests for the Observability of Discrete-Time Jump Linear Systems with Inputs; Proceedings of the 2009 American Control Conference, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 10-12 June 2009 Hanzon, B., M. Olivi, R.L.M. Peeters; Subdiagonal Pivot Structures and Associated Canonical Forms under State Isometries; Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (SYSID 2009), St. Malo, France, 6-8 July 2009 Karel, J.M.H., R. Houben, R.L. Westra, W.A. Serdijn, S.A.P. Haddad, R.L.M. Peeters; A biomedical signal processing platform for low-power real-time sensing of cardiac signals (BioSens); Proceedings of the 2nd Dutch Conference on Bio-Medical Engineering, Egmond aan Zee, 22-23 January 2009

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Karel, J.M.H., R. Senden, R.L. Westra, H. Savelberg, R. Vegt, K. Meijer; Detecting near falls from accelerometer data using orthogonal wavelets; Proceedings of the XXII Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, Cape Town, South Africa, 5-9 July 2009 Nemcova, J., M. Petreczky, J.H. van Schuppen; Realization Theory of Nash systems; Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Shanghai, China, 16-18 December 2009 Peeters, R.L.M., M. Olivi, B. Hanzon; Balanced realization of lossless systems: Schur parameters, canonical forms and applications; Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (SYSID 2009), St. Malo, France, 6-8 July 2009 Petreczky, M., J.H. van Schuppen; Realization Theory of Discrete-Time Linear Hybrid Systems; Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (SYSID 2009), St. Malo, France, 6-8 July 2009 Petreczky, M., P. Collins, D.A. Van Beek, J.H. van Schuppen, J.E. Rooda; Sampled-data control of hybrid systems with discrete inputs and outputs; Proceedings of the 3rd IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems (ADHS09), Zaragoza, Spain, 16-18 September 2009 Petreczky, M., R. Theunissen, R. Su, D.A. Van Beek, J.H. van Schuppen, J.E. Rooda; Control of input/output discrete-event systems; Proceedings of the 10th European Control Conference, Budapest, Hungary, 23-26 August 2009 Sawigun, C., M. Grashuis, R.L.M. Peeters, W.A. Serdijn; Nanopower Sampled Data Wavelet Filter Design using Switched Gain Cell Technique; Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2009), Taipei, Taiwan, 24-27 May 2009, p. 545-548

Ph.D. theses Karel J.M.H; A wavelet approach to cardiac signal processing for low-power hardware applications; Ph.D. Thesis, Universitaire Pers Maastricht, Maastricht University, 15 December 2009

Other publications Heijman, J., P.G.A. Volders, R.L. Westra, Y. Rudy; A computational model of beta-adrenergic signaling in cardiac myocytes: local control and rate-dependent action potential effects; Heart Rhythm, 6 (Issue 5-1), 2009, S97-S98 Heijman, J., P.G.A. Volders, R.L. Westra, Y. Rudy; A computational model of beta-adrenergic signaling in cardiac myocytes: Local signaling and rate-dependent action-potential effects; The Heart Rhythm Society's 30th Annual Scientific Sessions, Boston, 13-16 May 2009 Jansen, S.M.H., H. Kingma, G. Nalbantov, X.H. Nguyen, R.L.M. Peeters; Automatic threshold determination for pupil segmentation in video-oculography; Workshop of the School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNS), Maastricht, 9 September 2009 Westra, R.L.; Inference of the Genetic and Proteomic Pathways that Control the beta-Adrenergic-Induced Electrophysiological Instability in Cardiac Myocytes; Int. Workshop on Integrative Network Inference in Systems Biology, Jena, Germany, 8-9 October 2009

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Tilburg University Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Econometrics and Operations Research

Tilburg University Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Econometrics and Operations Research General Information Address Tilburg University, Department of Econometrics and Operations Research (K527), P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg. Phone (secretary): 013–4662340. Fax: 013–4663280. E–mail: [email protected]

Scientific staff dr. J.C. Engwerda, prof.dr. J.E.J. Plasmans (also at University of Antwerp), prof.dr. J.M. Schumacher

Cooperation with Technical University Eindhoven, University of Groningen, University of Twente, Central Planning Bureau (The Hague), Federal Planning Bureau (Brussels), University of Antwerp, University of Teramo, Beijing University of Technology, INRIA, University of Liverpool, Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta.

Keywords robust control design, optimal control, time–varying systems, hierarchical systems, hybrid systems, nonsmooth dynamics, dynamic game theory, coalition formation, macroeconomic policy design and European monetary union, portfolio selection, risk management, financial mathematics

Brief description The aim of the project is to develop system–theoretic methods for control and identification in economics and finance. Most of the participants also take part in the Center for Economic Research of Tilburg University.

DISC projects System Theoretic Methods in Economics Projectleader: J.M. Schumacher, J.C. Engwerda Participants: J.E.J. Plasmans, P.V. Reddy Sponsored by: Netspar, Insentif Riset Dasar (Indonesia)

Description Various problems arising in economics and finance are analyzed using system–theoretic methods. The aim is to achieve a better insight into these problems and to find rules for optimal economic behaviour and risk management. Subprojects and participants: 191

Tilburg University Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Econometrics and Operations Research

a) The interaction of monetary and fiscal policy within EMU (J.C. Engwerda, J.E.J. Plasmans) b) Nonsmooth dynamics and complementarity (J.M. Schumacher) c) Risk measures in multiperiod financial models (J.C. Engwerda, J.M. Schumacher) d) Dynamic game theory (J.C. Engwerda, J.M. Schumacher, P.V. Reddy) e) Open-loop LQ Game Descriptor Systems and Application on Monetary Cooperation in ASEAN (J.C. Engwerda, J.M. Schumacher; joint project with Gadjah Mada University)

Ongoing work The interaction of monetary and fiscal policy within EMU The transmission and interaction of national fiscal policies and monetary policy of the European Central Bank in the European Monetary Union are analysed using a dynamic games approach. A special focus is on how coalitions among fiscal and monetary authorities are formed and on the effects these coalitions have on the stabilization of output and prices. In particular, the consequences for these issues are studied of different institutional contexts in which policy makers may act. Risk measures in multiperiod financial models This work is concerned with the construction of strategies that minimize the risk in a given future liability. We develop an axiomatic framework in which the degree of acceptability of a given position (given a certain amount of compensation) can be formulated, taking into account the possibility of hedging against possible adverse developments. Nonsmooth dynamics and complementarity This research project is concerned with nonsmooth dynamical systems. Such systems occur frequently both in engineering and in optimization. Methods from system theory can be applied to study issues such as existence and uniqueness of solutions, controllability, and stabilizability. Analysis of Dynamic Games This project involves the development of system theoretic tools to analyse dynamic games. In particular games within a linear quadratic setting are studied.

Publications Book chapters/parts Bemporad A., Çamlıbel M.K., Heemels W.P.M.H., van der Schaft A. J., Schumacher J.M., and De Schutter B., Further switched systems, Chapter 5 in: Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue F. and Lunze J. (eds.), Handbook of Hybrid Systems Control. Theory, Tools, Applications, Cambridge University Press, 2009. Engwerda J.C., 2009. Linear quadratic differential games: an overview. In: Advances in Dynamic Games and their Applications, Eds. Bernhard P, Gaitsgory V. and Pourtallier O., Birkhauser, Boston, pp. 37-71.

International journal papers Dai R. and Schumacher J.M., 2009, Welfare analysis of conditional indexation schemes from a two-reference-point perspective, Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, vol. 8, pp. 321-350. Engwerda J.C. and Salmah, 2009. The open-loop linear quadratic differential game for index one descriptor systems. Automatica, 45, pp. 585-592. 192

Tilburg University Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Econometrics and Operations Research

Engwerda, J.C., Salmah, and Wijayanti, I.E., 2009. The open-loop discounted linear quadratic differential game for regular higher order index descriptor systems. International Journal of Control, vol.82, no.12, pp. 2365-2374. Plasmans, J., Engwerda, J., Aarle, B. van, and Michalak, T., 2009. Analysis of a monetary union enlargement in the framework of linear-quadratic differential games. International Economics and Economic Policy, vol.6, no.2, pp.135-156. Schumacher J.M., 2009, Time-scaling symmetry and Zeno solutions, Automatica, vol. 45, pp. 1237-1245.

International congress papers Engwerda, J.C., Salmah, and Wijayanti, I.E., 2009. The (multi-player) optimal linear quadratic feedback state regulator problem for index one descriptor systems. Proc. European Control Conference, 2009, Budapest, CDROM.

Other publications Engwerda J.C., Michalak T. and Plasmans J.E.J., 2009, Strategic interactions between fiscal and monetary authorities in a multi-country new-Keynesian model of a monetary union, CESIFO, WP.no.2534. Engwerda, J.C., Salmah, and Wijayanti, I.E., 2009. The open-loop discounted linear quadratic differential game for regular higher order index descriptor systems CentER DP 2009-01, Tilburg University, The Netherlands. Roorda B. and Schumacher J.M., 2009, Time consistency of nonconvex risk measures, Netspar Discussion Paper 01/2009-006.

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Wageningen Universiteit. Departement Agrotechnologie en Voedingswetenschappen, leerstoelgroep Meet-, regel- en systeemtechniek

Wageningen Universiteit. Departement Agrotechnologie en Voedingswetenschappen, leerstoelgroep Meet-, regel- en systeemtechniek General Information Address Wageningen University, Systems and Control Group, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands. Phone: 0317 - 483331 / 482124. Fax: 0317 - 484957. E-mail: [email protected]

Scientific staff Prof. dr. ir. G.P.A. Bot (emeritus from March 1 2006), Dr.ir. A.J.B. van Boxtel, Dr.ir. K.J. Keesman, Dr. ir. W.K.P. van Loon, Dr.ing. R.J.C. van Ooteghem M.Sc., Dr.ir. J.D. Stigter(until May 2009), Prof.dr.ir. G. van Straten, Dr.ir. L.G. van Willigenburg.

Technical and administrative staff Ing. C.J. van Asselt.

PhD students J.A. Atuonwu MSc, ir. T. Bakker, ir. H.J. Cappon, ir. X. Jin, ir. J.B.M. Klok, J. Omony M.Sc., ir. P.M. Slegers, ir. N.E. Stein.

Cooperation with Plataforma Solar, Almeria (E); KU Leuven, Heverlee (B); University of Hohenheim, Tropical Farm Technology (D); Technische Universität Berlin, Department of Building Technology and Design, Berlin (D); Caja Rural Intermediterranea, Estation Experimental “Las Palmerias”,(E); Bogor University, Bogor (Indonesia); Diponegoro University, Semaring (Indonesia); IIASA, Laxenburg (A); ICAM (Integrated Catchment Assessment ans Management Centre), ANU, Cranberra (Australia); Applikon, Schiedam; Siemens Nederland, Den Haag; Plant Research International, Wageningen; Agrotechnology & Food Innovations, Wageningen (v/h IMAG/ATO); Business Unit Glastuinbouw, Bleiswijk; Hydrion BV, Wageningen; CAPE-platform; Alterra, Wageningen; NVI, Bilthoven; TU Delft, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics; Univ. Twente, Systems, Signals and Control group, Department of Applied Mathematics; Univ. Maastricht, Faculteit Wiskunde; Innovation Handling, Eindhoven; KWR, Niewegein; PRIVA Hortimation, De Lier; Hortimax, Pijnacker; Witteveen + Bos, Deventer; Wetsus, Leeuwarden; Ebbens Engineering, Lochem; Shell Global Solutions International; Ecofys Netherlands BV.

Keywords Environment, climate control, food processing, agriculture, greenhouses, modelling, identification, systems theory, control system synthesis, optimal control, neural networks, fuzzy control.

Brief description The chair on Systems and Control develops and applies systems and control methodology to study the behaviour of dynamical systems in the bio- and agro- sciences, and to realise automated systems in the agro-, environmental and food industry. In our research we try to 194

Wageningen Universiteit. Departement Agrotechnologie en Voedingswetenschappen, leerstoelgroep Meet-, regel- en systeemtechniek

link theory and practice, ideally to the benefit of both. The work is organized according to a matrix structure, with disciplinary topics as rows and application areas as columns. Major disciplinary topics are systems theory and robust control, optimal control, system identification, model building and AI, and uncertainty assessment. Major application fields are agricultural engineering, indoor climate, water and environment, and food process control. The common factor in much of our work is the focus on control for profitability, which we try to achieve by studying optimal dynamic operation methods. The chair group is part of the Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences.

DISC projects Systems and Control Applications in Agriculture Projectleader: L.G. van Willigenburg Participants: L.G. van Willigenburg, G. van Straten

Description The aim of this project is to study the applicability of systems and control theory in agricultural engineering and related fields. Major topics are robust control, optimal control, non-linear identification (AI), and modelling, with an emphasis on agricultural engineering applications. This project also serves as a breeder place for new projects.

Ongoing work This is reported in the separate project descriptions under: • Intelligent Autonomous Weeder (Bakker, van Asselt, van Straten) • Optimal Digital Control (van Willigenburg)

Intelligent Autonomous Weeder Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

C.J. van Asselt J. Bontsema, G. van Straten T. Bakker WUR

Description The purpose of this PhD project is to replace manual weeding in organic farming by an autonomous device on field level. One of the main limiting factors for the expansion of organic crop farming is the large amount of labour required for intra-row weeding. Besides the high costs of the labour, labour is difficult to obtain, partly because of its low level nature. Automation of intra-row weeding could mean a stimulus for organic crop farming.

Ongoing work The design of the intelligent autonomous weeder was performed using a structured design approach. It resulted into a vehicle with a diesel engine, hydraulic transmission, four-wheel drive and four wheel steering. Also a system for vision based row detection for sugar beet was developed for autonomous navigation with the weeding robot. Field trials showed that the robot is able to navigate in a field using RTK DGPS with an accuracy of a few centimetres. Also the robot is able to perform automated headland turns 195

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and to map the crop rows by combining vision based row detection with GPS position measurement. The project has come to an end with the PhD graduation of Tijmen Bakker in February, 2009. Several journal publications have also been realized.

Optimal Digital Control Projectleader: L.G. van Willigenburg Participants: L.G. van Willigenburg

Description This project is the current realization of a project with a wider scope that includes digital optimal control, reduced-order control, adaptive control and model predictive control (receding horizon control). The application areas are indoor climate control (greenhouses and stables), robot control, automatic guidance of agricultural field machines and the control of processes in the food industry (sterilization, drying). The aim of this project is to develop general methodologies for the synthesis of optimal digital controllers for non-linear systems.

Ongoing work Our recent research concerning optimal reduced-order LQG controller synthesis for nonlinear systems tracking optimal trajectories triggered a reinvestigation of the controllability, reachability, observability and reconstructability of time-varying linear systems in both continuous and discrete-time. This led to the development of the differential Kalman decomposition in continuous-time and the j-step, k-step Kalman decomposition in discrete-time. These decompositions reveal and establish the temporal changes of reachability/controllability and observability/reconstructability. The linearised system about optimal trajectories may be temporarily uncontrollable and/or temporarily unreconstructable. During these periods the LQG compensator is partly ineffective. This may lead to closed loop instability. To establish the latter temporal stability and temporal stabilizability are key properties. These properties have never been considered before. Their establishment and detection are currently under study. Digital LQG compensator design relies on linearised system dynamics about optimal trajectories. Unless the system dynamics are simple computation of the linearised dynamics must be performed numerically, using finite differences. This computation may be inaccurate and requires the choice of suitable perturbations. Automatic differentiation is an attractive alternative because it is highly accurate, more efficient, and does not require the choice of perturbations. In continuous-time implementation of automatic differentiation to obtain the linearised dynamics is more or less straightforward. It was successfully carried out by a Msc student. Digital optimal control requires the establishment of an equivalent discrete-time linearised dynamics. Initially this seemed to prevent the use of automatic differentiation. But it turns out that, like in continuous-time, it can be used to improve both the accuracy and efficiency of this computation while preventing the need for the selection of suitable perturbations. Currently we are preparing a publication on this topic. Simple practical and theoretical examples that illustrate the potential problems associated to the temporal loss of properties like controllability and stability are also under study. It turns out that replacing some of the deterministic parameters of a linear system by white parameters may relieve the control problems. Last year we submitted a publication that unifies the design of controllers based on linearised dynamics about optimal trajectories. The unification concerns both discrete and continuous-time as well as deterministic and white stochastic system parameters. 196

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Optimal control and LQG compensation require a reasonably well established dynamic systems model. If such a model is not (yet) obtained active adaptive optimal controllers form an attractive alternative. At present an active adaptive controller structure is under investigation through its application to benchmarks.The controller structure aims at enabling a cheap, fast and smooth transition from standard to advanced (multivariable optimal) digital control within industrial environments.

Process Control in Food and Bio Process Technology Projectleader: A.J.B. van Boxtel Participants: A.J.B. van Boxtel, G. van Straten

Description At present, in the food processing and biotechnology industries mostly traditional control methods are being applied. However, these methods are limited in their abilities to realize the increasing demands on product quality, and efficiency and flexibility of the production. As a consequence the significance of high performance process control methods grows. The objective of the project is the development and application of high performance control methods and strategies for food processing and bioprocess technology with the aim to (i) improve product quality, (ii) realize flexible operations, (iii) raise process efficiency. This project serves partly as breeder for new PhD projects.

Ongoing work The following topics are described as separate projects below: • Modelling and control of food and biochemical processes (van Boxtel, van Straten) • Energy efficient adsorption drying of healthy food (Atuonwu, Jin, van Boxtel) • Scenario studies for biodiesel production with algae (Slegers, van Boxtel) • GeneNet: System dynamic analysis of gene networks in fungal systems(Omony, van Boxtel)

Modelling and Control of Food and Biotechnological Processes Projectleader: A.J.B. van Boxtel Participants: A.J.B. van Boxtel, G. van Straten.

Description The project aims at exploring novel ways for modelling and control of biotechnological processes, or at exploring the applicability of methods known from other areas.

Ongoing work Drying Together with TNO-quality of life an overview on zeolite drying is written for the book series “Modern Drying Technology” part 4 “Energy”, edited by Tsotsas and Mujumdar. Publication is expected for late 2010. Together with the chair group Farm Technology drying of lay hen manure on the farm is debotllenecked. For this purpose on site data is interpreted, and drying characteristics of lay hen manure is characterized by thin layer experiments. A model using these characteristics showed the bottlenecks in the system. Modelling Stem cell cultivation (Higuera) 197

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In the work on modelling of biological systems we assist the Department on Tissue Regeneration of University Twente. In 2009 stem cell cultivation data has been analysed in order to get more knowledge on the amino acid metabolism. By using a recursive estimator it was observed that the specific growth rate was not constant during the cultivation period. It was, however, concluded that the variation not responsible for the variation in amino acid production and consumption. Experimental design for algae growth kinetics Kinetic knowledge is essential to design large scale algae plants. The information about kinetics of specific algae strains in the literature is often limited. A quick procedure to obtain the relevant information is therefore necessary. In a master thesis the potential of parameter sensitivity optimisation over an experimental period has been explored. The results revealed for basic kinetic expressions a strategy to vary the light intensity during the experiment. With this strategy the significance of the obtained parameters has been optimised.

Energy efficient adsorption drying of healthy food Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

A.J.B. van Boxtel A.J.B. van Boxtel, G. van Straten J.A. Atuonwu, X. Jin Senter Novem

Description In 2009 a new drying project, granted by Senter Novem, was started. This project concerns low temperature adsorption drying, i.e. in the range 10-50°C where conventional dryers have only an energy efficiency of 10-25%. The project focuses on drying of food products with components that have a positive effect on health. We look especially for drying of cabbages like broccoli which contain glucosinolates. If these glucosinolates are well activated during drying they can contribute to the prevention of intestine cancer. In total 3 PhD-students started with their work in 2009. The subprojects concern 1) kinetics of activation and deactivation of glucosinolates, 2) drying strategies to maintain bioactive glucosinolates, 3) dryer development and control. Subproject 2 and 3 are carried out by the Systems and Control Group, subproject 1 by the chair group Product Design and Quality.

Ongoing work Drying strategies to maintain bioactive glucosinolates (X.Jin) A spatially distributed model for the drying behavior of pieces of broccoli is derived and programmed in the program of Comsol Multiphysics. In this model three elements are combined: Moisture transport in the particles is based on diffusion, but instead of the standard Arrhenius expression for the diffusion coefficient, the free volume theory is used. This theory is based on physical properties of the product. As such, it takes the effect of product changes on the mobility of water during drying into account. For example, the glass transition parameters of the polymeric chains in the product are involved. For the broccoli model two parts are considered, 1) the highly porous hemispherical floret and 2) the cylindrical stalk. In order deal with the porous structure of the product (especially the floret), the free volume theory is combined with a multi-phase model for diffusion in porous media (Maxwell-Eucken theory). 198

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The model includes the shrinkage phenomena as well. Dryer development and control (J.A. Atuonwu) Over the reporting period, lumped and distributed parameter models of the system components, namely, the adsorber, regenerator, dryer and heat recovery devices have been developed and linked to form an integrated system. These models have been applied in an optimization scheme that seeks to maximize energy efficiency under constrained temperatures and moisture contents of selected food products. The constraints are indicative of desired product qualities. Results for a single-stage system show that the system can achieve energy efficiencies around 68% when operated under optimal conditions of regeneration temperature, zeolite and regeneration air flowrates. Energy efficiencies are further doubled when the potential for heat recovery (both sensible and latent heat) from the regenerator exhaust is exploited.

Scenario studies for biodiesel production with algae Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

A.J.B. van Boxtel A.J.B. van Boxtel, G. van Straten, P.M. Slegers Wetsus

Description Micro-algae have high potential for biotechnology and their application for biodiesel production is hot! Besides the development of new technology and the quest to understand the behaviour of the organism, the success for algae based biodiesel production is also related with the interaction of the production systems and their environment. To evaluate the interaction of different production systems and cultivation technology and to find bottlenecks in the applications a project on scenario studies was started in 2009.

Ongoing work The overall performance of the biofuel production process is dependent on many factors: the interaction of the production process with the production chain is just as important as the quality of the biomass production. Therefore, the performance of the combination of the process and chain has to be optimised. For our approach the production process has been divided into three parts: cultivation of algae to yield biomass pre- and post-processing steps necessary for algae cultivation and product formation and the supply chain that links the algal biofuel production process with the environment of the plant. The first step of the research was to model different photobioreactors and to simulate biomass production under a variety of conditions with these models. These models were used to investigate the effect of the decision variables on the quality of the biomass production process.

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GeneNet: System dynamic analysis of gene networks in fungal systems Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

A.J.B. van Boxtel A.J.B. van Boxtel J. Omony graduate school Vlag, IPOP Wageningen University

Description Systems biology is a relatively new field of science aiming at gain deeper insights into the functionality of biological systems. This field of study involves computations and simulations using mathematical, statistical, biological tools to solve real life biological problems. The goals of this project are to improve current techniques and develop new methodologies to quantify performance of genetic networks identification with respect to: efficient identification of quantitative relationships from limited data sets obtained by transcriptomics. the automatic identification of network substructures. the improvement in genetic network identification by perturbation studies.

Ongoing work The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used as a model organism for the study in which two regulons AmyR and XlnR are particularly of interest. In silico experiments are on-going in which genetic networks are simulated using mathematical and statistical computational methods. In this work, experimental design for analysis of network dynamics in fungal systems and the identification and quantification of genetic networks are investigated by desk studies. The experimental simulations involve transient network response by manipulating the network by altering external conditions. All the above are crucial as they contribute to obtaining networks that are as close to the true state of nature as possible. We aim to validate the methods for network reconstruction on wet-lab experimental data. Work on more methodology development and performance testing is on-going. Results so far obtained show that the reliability of regression techniques in network reconstruction is limited by the network size and data quality. The larger a network is and the noisier the data is, the poorer the identification results become. Interpolating limited dimensional transcriptomic data leads to more noise and potentially negatively influences the performance of an identification approach.

Identification, Prediction and Control of Environmental Systems Projectleader: K.J. Keesman Participants: K.J. Keesman, J.D. Stigter

Description Throughout history water has confronted humanity with some of its greatest challenges. Water is a source of life and a natural resource that sustains our environments and supports livelihoods – but it is also a source of risk and vulnerability. Nowadays, many people all over the world experience water related threats, as sea level rise, river floods, droughts, terrorist attacks, water-borne diseases, poverty and at a local level, desertification, eutrophication, water pollution, etc. At the same time, new developments, e.g. fast (wireless) communication, fast computation and globalization, can be seen. From both these threats and new 200

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developments, integration of system theoretic tools and water-based systems applications for further insight, better operation, planning and design will be aimed for. Our objective is to use system theory and information & communication technologies for data acquisition, data analysis, modelling and decision support, to manage, control and design water based systems in a sustainable manner for equitable and efficient use of water for many different purposes.

Ongoing work This is reported in the separate project descriptions under: • Electrochemically active bacteriological sensor to detect changes in water quality (Stein, Keesman) • Acoustic waves for water disinfection, filtration and purification (Cappon, Keesman) • Development of new bioreactor for a process for biological sulphide oxidation (Klok, Keesman) • Closing cycles in the built environment: Urban Harvest Approach: An urban resource management approach (Agudelo, Keesman) • Identifiability (Stigter) • Management and control of ecological systems Stigter)

Electrochemically active bacteriological sensor to detect changes in water quality Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

K.J. Keesman K.J. Keesman N.E. Stein Wetsus

Description In many situations, and in particular in the production of drinking water, it is desirable to have an on-line, fast and sensitive sensor that can detect the presence of potentially hazardous compounds. The sensor methodology that is the subject of this project is based on the sensitivity of electrochemically active bacteria to toxins. Because the sensor supplies an electrical signal, no transducer is needed, and the reading is fast. The robustness and sensitivity of the signal can be influenced by dynamically probing the sensor potential or current. The project aims at developing (dynamic) measurement protocols, in conjunction with advanced signal analysis and system identification to optimize both the design as well as the operation of the sensor.

Ongoing work In this project a new toxicity sensor is developed for measuring the healthy-state of water. The sensor helps to safeguard the water quality in our environment on the basis of electrochemically active bacteria. In the first years a lot of experiments have been conducted at Wetsus (Leeuwarden) as to show a proof of principle and characterize some features of the sensor. These measurements are the basis for further analysis with system identification algorithms. Hereto, first a model will be developed that will be embedded in the data-processing algorithms to reduce noise levels in the measurements and estimate not-measured parameters. The next step is to determine the parameters that indicate toxicity and develop a fault detection algorithm together with a recovery strategy.

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Acoustic waves for water disinfection, filtration and purification Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

K.J. Keesman K.J. Keesman H.J. Cappon Hogeschool Zeeland, Wetsus

Description The objective for acoustic purification research is to develop a laboratory scale acoustic separation unit, which is capable of removing suspended solids, particles from 10 up to 500 mu, from polluted water by means of ultrasound. The work incorporates a numerical-experimental approach, using both computer simulations and testing on experimental data. It consists of the following steps: 1. Modelling of the separator using Matlab and Comsol software 2. Experimental demonstration of separation principles in air and water 3. Scaling and prototype construction 4. Determination of filtration efficiency 5. Control unit for optimal separation strategy

Ongoing work In 2009 steps 1 and 2 were the main areas of focus. As a first modeling step, simple analytical models were made with Matlab incorporating the different layers of an ultrasound separation unit. The model is able to calculate acoustic pressures, fluid element velocities and acoustic particle forces on the basis of the material characteristics of the different separator layers and the particle properties. The models were used to study the effects of various parameters on the particle trajectories in the fluid layer. It was shown that particle density and radius do not influence the particle trajectory path (while applying buoyancy forces, but neglecting drag forces), since the mass influences both the buoyancy and the acoustical forces. Frequency, however, is the main determining parameter in the particle trajectory analysis: for given separator dimensions there exists an optimal frequency at which separation is most efficient. Secondly, a dynamic model of a piezo transducer was modeled in Comsol. The model was coupled to Matlab and parameterized, so that parameter variation and separator optimization can be performed with Matlab. The model predicts acoustic pressures - acoustic fluid velocities and acoustic impedances (admittance). These results are needed for particle trajectory modeling, which is done with Matlab. Thirdly, a physical separation demonstration unit in air was built and tested successfully. At the resonance frequency the particles were consistently separated in three bands, which are assumed to be the nodal bands of the resonance area.The demonstrator in air, separating polystyrene particles, was also modeled in Comsol to show that the modeling strategy with Comsol is a feasible one. Nodal lines in the acoustic wave field were simulated with Comsol similar to the experimental results.

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Full scale dynamics of biological sulfide oxidation Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

K.J. Keesman K.J. Keesman J.B.M. Klok Shell Global Solutions International

Description In biological gas desulphurization, H2S-containing gas is absorbed into an alkaline solution. In the sulfur producing bioreactor, the dissolved sulfide is subsequently oxidized into elemental sulfur under oxygen-limited conditions whilst a part is oxidized to sulfate by a mixed population of sulfide oxidizing bacteria. In addition, non biological sulfide oxidation occurs merely leading to the formation of thiosulfate. Formation of (thio)sulfate in the sulfur producing bioreactor is unwanted because it reduces the overall process efficiency and leads to an increased chemical consumption of e.g. ethanol or H2-gas.

Ongoing work Large scale mixing is achieved by injection of air, which also serves to introduce oxygen. Due to this dual function a direct coupling exists between fluid mixing and reaction selectivity. Moreover, sulfide and oxygen gradients over the height of the reactor column will play a role in the overall reactor performance. Due to the complexity of these systems, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are needed to study the dominating biological and auto-catalysed non-biological reactions of sulfide and its reaction products together with the hydrodynamic properties of the bioreactor.

Closing cycles in the built environment: Urban Harvest Approach: An urban resource management approach Projectleader: K.J. Keesman Participants: K.J. Keesman

Description Accelerating urbanization, increasing scarcity of resources and climate change force us to re-think and redesign urban systems. In a world of cities, it is needed to understand how urban systems function, and how the urban environment can be managed in a sustainable way. A paradigm shift towards closing cycles, by reusing and recycling of resources is needed. There are many unexplored potentials to minimize impacts and maximize reuse and recovery of resources within urban areas. This research studies water, energy and nutrient cycles of different urban typologies and defines strategies for improvement of urban cycles to achieve self-sustainable urban areas. The urban harvest approach is being developed on the concept of urban metabolism. To achieve sustainability goals, it is crucial to find ways to improve urban cycles in quantitative and in qualitative terms by analyzing spatial and temporal implications, implementing cascading, recycling and multisourcing. For this calculatory models are being developed with which urban flows of energy, water and nutrients can be quantified and the sustainability of scenarios for urban development and design can be evaluated. Inputs of different disciplines are needed herein to make scientifically based concepts and tools for optimal urban resource utilization.

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Ongoing work The project has started at the end of 2009. Initial activities focus on the development of water, energy and nutrient mass balances for different urban configurations with different strategy scenarios: minimizing, cascading, recycling, reusing and multisourcing.

Identifiability Projectleader: J.D. Stigter Participants: J.D. Stigter, K.J. Keesman

Description The question of identifiability (global and local) is important for every practitioner who seeks to find values for the parameters in his/her model.

Ongoing work The question of structural identifiability (global and local) is important for every practitioner who seeks to find values for the parameters in his/her model. Current research focuses on the application of differential geometry to an augmented system model, including the parametric sensitivities of the model for each of the parameters as an additional state. This approach allows a new method of solving the identifiability question from an interesting perspective. Over the past year the work has been complemented with research on optimal parametric sensitivity control for a hydrological example (Akbari Chianeh).

Management and Control of Ecological Systems Projectleader: J.D. Stigter Participants: J.D. Stigter Sponsored by: NWO

Description The purpose of this project is to contribute to environmental sciences and ecology by the application of systems and control theory. This cross-fertilization between seemingly distinct areas of science can be rewarding for both sides.

Ongoing work This project is conducted in cooperation with the Resource Ecology Group of Wageningen University. In a NWO project called TEMBO (which is the word for elephant in many Bantu languages), elephant movements and densities are studied in the Kruger National Park in South Africa.These observations (GPS data from collar tags on the elephant) are processed and used for model development. One of the four PhD students is working on the economic implications of elephant movements and uses the models for optimisation of management strategies that allow maximization of tourist (viewing) benefits (amongst other goals). Progress has been made with the application of a large spatial distributed model (Savanna) that was used to calculate the effects of adding/removing water points in the park where the animals can drink. This part of the project is in the final stage now and results of the economic analysis are in the final stage. Expected defense of the PhD-candidate is 2011.

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Climate and Nutrient Control in Greenhouse Production Projectleader: G. van Straten Participants: G. van Straten, L.G. van Willigenburg, J.D. Stigter, R.J.C. van Ooteghem

Description Indoor climate in agricultural buildings is usually controlled by heuristic control designs. The objective of the project is the development of advanced, intelligent control algorithms for greenhouses and other agricultural buildings in order to achieve better compliance with ever increasing requirements of energy savings, product quality, environmental protection and economy. This project serves as breeder project for PhD projects.

Ongoing work This is reported in the separate project descriptions under: • Greenhouse Modelling: Ventilation through Screen Crack (van Ooteghem, Bontsema) • Optimal Greenhouse Climate Control (van Willigenburg, van Straten)

Greenhouse Modelling: Ventilation through Screen Crack Projectleader: van Ooteghem Participants: van Ooteghem, Bontsema Sponsored by: via Plant Research International: Ministry of LNV – Energy Program

Description WUR Horticulture has designed an on-line ventilation monitoring system in the past, which is used to advise the horticulturist with respect to the energy loss due to ventilation. This monitoring system was found to perform very well, except when the screen was used in the greenhouse. The system had to be extended to include the influence of the screens.

Ongoing work The screen is used in periods of low radiation and at night to decrease the heat loss to the environment. It divides the greenhouse into two compartments. The ventilation through the windows mainly influences the upper compartment, while the lower compartment (below the screen) is only influenced through the small amount of air exchange through the screen crack that is left open. Some heat and moisture is also exchanged through the screen itself. The model used in the initial version of the monitoring system did not include a screen, and can therefore not describe the heat loss well if the screen is (partly) closed. An on-line monitor has been designed that calculates the amount of air exchange through the screen, the screen crack and the windows, based on measured data inside and outside the greenhouse. With the amount of air that is exchanged, we also know how much energy, and how much water is exchanged. This information can be used to steer the screens and the windows in a smarter way, which should lead to a reduction of the energy use. Van Ooteghem has adapted the original model for the on-line ventilation monitoring system to include the influence of the screens. The new model has been validated with data. An unknown input observer has been designed to derive the amount of air exchange through the screen, the screen crack and the windows based on the measured data. From the amount of air exchange, the amount of energy exchange can be easily derived. The results of this research can be used to explain various processes related to air exchange in the greenhouse. 205

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This monitor has been tested in practice in 2009. Some conclusions: The method works for single screens, as well as for the combination of solar and energy screen. The heat exchange due to the screen crack is well estimated. The screen closure has to be 95% or higher to obtain a reduction in the energy loss. At night the energy saved from closing both the energy screen and the solar screen compared to only closing the solar screen is very small. The solar screen has a negative influence on the ventilation with windows, since it blocks the air exchange between the lower compartment to the upper compartment.

Optimal Greenhouse Climate Control Projectleader: G. van Straten Participants: G. van Straten, L.G. van Willigenburg

Description The aim is to apply optimal control theory and optimal control system design to crop production in greenhouses. Research on this topic performed within the system and control group over the last 18 years is being reviewed and summarized for the publication of a book on this topic. The book (van Straten, van Henten, van Willigenburg, van Ooteghem, ‘Optimal Control of Greenhouse Cultivation’, Francis and Taylor, 2010), is intended to be a reference on the current state of optimal control in greenhouse control. The book first summarizes the theory of optimal control, and its application to greenhouse cultivation control. Cultivation control is not just climate control, but includes the control of the crop growth as well. Next, the literature on greenhouse climate and crop control is reviewed.The methodology presented in the book is based on time scale decomposition. First an dynamic optimization is solved over the full production season, and next the co-states of the slow crop variables are used in an on-line receding horizon optimal controller, with essentially the same economic goal function as used on the seasonal scale. Three chapters describe real applications of this methodology: on lettuce, tomato, and a general crop in a solar greenhouse with a heat pump and an aquifer. Finally, an overview is given of open research issues, and of perspectives for practical application of the methodology. It is concluded that the demand for sustainability will make it imperative to apply this kind of optimal control in order to achieve the best possible result.

Non-DISC projects Greenhouse Design for Tropical Lowland in Indonesia Projectleader: Participants: PhD students: Sponsored by:

G.P.A. Bot G.P.A. Bot Impron Indonesian government funds

Description To design a favourable greenhouse indoor climate for tropical lowland conditions (high irradiation, high temperature, moderate humidity) the physical interaction between in- and outdoor conditions has to be understood. The project aims at application of special 206

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greenhouse covering materials combining low thermal load of the greenhouse with high transmission for Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR), driving crop production.

Ongoing work Up till now 2 papers have been published in peer reviewed journals, one is under revision and one is in preparation. PhD graduation is expected in 2010.

Sustainable Heat Management Projectleader: A.J.B. van Boxtel Participants: R.J.C. van Ooteghem, L.G. van Willigenburg in cooperation with guest scientists Ecofys: S.L. Speetjens, L.A.M. Ramaekers, J.M. Warmerdam) Sponsored by: Senter Novem

Description In the frame of the ‘Kenniswerkersregeling’ guest scientists are conducting cooperative research in a project executed by a consortium of ECN, WU, TU Delft and Ecofys. The overall aim of the project is: reinforce the knowledge base about options for affordable, easily implementable technologies for much better utilization of the exergetic value of heat production for industrial and agricultural applications than is the situation today. In the project components in cooperation with WU novel methods for adsorption heat exchange, as well as improvements on the heat budget of greenhouses are investigated. Part of the efforts are directed towards acquisition of funds for more in depth research.

Publications International journal papers Abusam, A. & Keesman, K.J. (2009). Dynamic modeling of sludge compaction and consolidation processes in wastewater secondary settling tanks. Water Environment Research, (ISSN 1061-4303), 81(1), 51-56(6). ArabHosseini, A., Huisman, W., Boxtel, A.J.B. van & Mueller, J. (2009). Modeling of thin layer drying of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.). Industrial Crops and Products, (ISSN 0926-6690), 29(1), 53-59. Bakker, T., Asselt, C.J. van, Bontsema, J., Müller, J. & Straten, G. van (2009). Systematic design of an autonomous platform for robotic weeding (online first). Journal of Terramechanics, (ISSN 0022-4898). Djaeni, M. & Boxtel, A.J.B. van (2009). PhD Thesis Summary: Energy Efficient Multistage Zeolite Drying for Heat- Sensitive Products. Drying Technology, (ISSN 0737-3937), 27(5), 721-722. Djaeni, M., Bartels, P.V., Asselt, C.J. van, Sanders, J.P.M., Straten, G. van & Boxtel, A.J.B. van (2009). Assessment of a two-stage zeolite dryer for energy-efficient drying. Drying Technology, (ISSN 0737- 3937), 27(11), 1205-1216. Djaeni, M., Straten, G. van, Bartels, P.V., Sanders, J.P.M. & Boxtel, A.J.B. van (2009). Energy efficiency of multi- stage adsorption drying for low-temperature drying. Drying Technology, (ISSN 0737-3937), 27(4), 555-564. Doeswijk, T.G. & Keesman, K.J. (2009). Linear parameter estimation of rational biokinetic functions. Water Research, (ISSN 0043-1354), 43(1), 107-116. Henten, E.J. van, Slot, D.A. van 't, Hol, C.W.J. & Willigenburg, L.G. van (2009). Optimal manipulator design for a cucumber harvesting robot. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, (ISSN 0168-1699), 65(2), 247- 258. 207

Wageningen Universiteit. Departement Agrotechnologie en Voedingswetenschappen, leerstoelgroep Meet-, regel- en systeemtechniek

Higuera-Sierra, G., Schop, D., Janssen, F., Dijkhuizen-Radersma, R., Boxtel, A.J.B. van & Blitterswijk, C.A. van (2009). Quantifying in vitro growth and metabolism kinetics of human mesenchymal stem cells using a mathematical model. Tissue Engineering, (ISSN 1076-3279), 15(9), 2653-2663. Keesman, K.J. & Doeswijk, T.G. (2009). Direct least-squares estimation and prediction of rational systems: Application to food storage. Journal of Process Control, (ISSN 0959-1524), 19(2), 340-348. Keesman, K.J. & Maksimov, V.I. (2008). On feedback identification of unknown characteristics: a bioreactor case study. International Journal of Control, (ISSN 0020-7179), 81(1), 134-145. Martinho Sampaio, R.M., Keesman, K.J. & Lens, P.N.L. (2009). Monitoring ZnS Precipitation: Estimation, Error Analysis and Experiment Design. Separation Science and Technology, (ISSN 0149-6395), 44(8), 1675- 1703. Martinho Sampaio, R.M., Timmers, R.A., Xu, Y., Keesman, K.J. & Lens, P.N.L. (2009). Selective precipitation of Cu from Zn in a pS controlled continuously stirred tank reactor. Journal of Hazardous Materials, (ISSN 0304-3894), 165(1-3), 256-265. Mourik, S. van, Zwart, H. & Keesman, K.J. (2009). Modelling and controller design for distributed parameter systems via residence time distribution. International Journal of Control, (ISSN 0020-7179), 82(8), 1404- 1413. Mourik, S. van, Zwart, H.J. & Keesman, K.J. (2009). Integrated open loop control and design of a food storage room. Biosystems Engineering, (ISSN 1537-5110), 104(4), 493-502. Speetjens, S.L. & Stigter, J.D. (2009). Psysics Based Model for a Water-Saving Greenhouse (Online first). Biosystems Engineering, (ISSN 1537-5110). Speetjens, S.L., Stigter, J.D. & Straten, G. van (2009). Towards an adaptive model for greenhouse control. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, (ISSN 0168-1699), 67(1-2), 1-8. Stilma, E.S.C., Keesman, K.J. & Werf, W. van der (2009). Recruitment and attrition of associated plants under a shading crop canopy: Model selection and calibration. Ecological Modelling, (ISSN 0304-3800), 220(8), 1113-1125. Willigenburg, L.G. van & Koning, W.L. de (2009). Emergence of the second law out of reversible dynamics. Foundation of Physics, (ISSN 0015-9018), 39(11), 1217-1239.

International congress papers Bakker, T., Asselt, C.J. van, Bontsema, J., Müller, J. & Straten, G. van (2008). Autonomous navigation in a sugar beet field with a robot. In Proceedings Ageng2008 congress, Hersonissos, Crete, 23-25 June, 2008 (pp. 19). Hersonissos, Greece. Bakker, T., Bontsema, J., Müller, J., Asselt, C.J. van & Straten, G. van (2009). Simple tunable control for automatic guidance of four-wheel steered vehicles. In C. Lokhorst, J.F.M. Huijsmans & R.P.M. de Louw (Eds.), Book of Abstracts of the Joint International Agricultural Conference, JIAC2009), Wageningen, The Netherlands, 6-8 July 2009. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers. Bakker, T., Bontsema, J., Müller, J., Asselt, C.J. van & Straten, G. van (2009). Simple tunable control for automatic guidance of four-wheel steered vehicles. In E.J. van Henten, D. Goense & C. Lokhorst (Eds.), Precision Agriculture '09. Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Precision Agriculture, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 6-8 July 2009 (pp. 833-840). Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

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Wageningen Universiteit. Departement Agrotechnologie en Voedingswetenschappen, leerstoelgroep Meet-, regel- en systeemtechniek

Bakker, T., Bontsema, J., Müller, J., Asselt, C.J. van, Henten, E.J. van & Straten, G. van (2009). Automatic headland turning for four-wheel steered vehicles exploiting the full degrees of freedom. In Tagungsband landtechnik - AgEng 2009, Hannover, Germany, 6 - 7 November, 2009 Vol. 2009. VDI-Berichte, (ISSN 0083-5560) (pp. 179-186). Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag GmbH (ISBN 978-3-18-092060-3). Carson, E., Feng, D.D., Pons, M-N., Soncini-Sessa, R. & Straten, G. van (). Bio- and ecological systems: Challenges, accomplishments and forecasts. In Proceedings of the 17th World Congress IFAC, Seoul, Korea, 6-11 July 2008. Henten, E.J. van, Asselt, C.J. van, Bakker, T., Blaauw, S.K., Govers, M.H.A.M., Hofstee, J.W., Jansen, R.M.C., Nieuwenhuizen, A.T., Speetjens, S.L., Stigter, J.D., Straten, G. van & Willigenburg, G. van (2009). WURking: a small sized autonomous robot for the farm of the future. In C. Lokhorst, J.F.M. Huijsmans & R.P.M. de Louw (Eds.), Book of Abstracts of the JIAC2009, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 6-8 July 2009. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers. Henten, E.J. van, Asselt, C.J. van, Bakker, T., Blaauw, S.K., Govers, M.H.A.M., Hofstee, J.W., Jansen, R.M.C., Nieuwenhuizen, A.T., Speetjens, S.L., Stigter, J.D., Straten, G. van & Willigenburg, L.G. van (2009). WURking: a small sized autonomous robot for the Farm of the Future. In E. J. Henten, D. Goense & C. Lokhorst (Eds.), Precision Agriculture '09 : papers presented at the 7th European conference on precision agriculture, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 6-8 July 2009 (pp. 833-840). Wageningen: Wageningen Academic (ISBN 978-90-8686-113-2). Keesman, K.J. & Khairudin, N. (2009). Linear regressive realizations of LTI state space models. In Preprints of the 15th IFAC symposium on System Identification, Saint-Malo, France July6-8 2009 (pp. 1668-1673). Keesman, K.J., Graves, A., Werf, W. van der & Burgess, P. (2009). System Identification in Production Ecology: from theory to agroforestry practice. In Preprints of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification, Saint-Malo, France, July 6-8, 2009 (pp. 1016-1021). Khairudin, N. & Keesman, K.J. (2009). Linear regression techniques for state-space models with application to biomedical/biochemical example. In Proceedings of the 6th Vienna International Conference on Mathematical Modelling, Vienna, Austria, 11-13 February 2009 (pp. 1513-1520). Vienna: Vienna University of Technology (ISBN 978-3-901608-35-3). Molenaar, J., Keesman, K.J., Opheusden, J.H.J. van & Doeswijk, T.G. (Eds.). (2009). Proceedings of the 67th European Study Group Mathematics with Industry, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 26-30 January, 2009. Wageningen: Wageningen University (ISBN 978908585600-9). Soons, Z.I.T.A., Streefland, M. & Boxtel, A.J.B. van (2009). Towards PAT bioprocess monitoring and control: near infrared and software sensor. In Proceedings of CHEMPOR 2008 4-6 September 2008, Braga Portugal. CHEMPOR. Straten, G. van & Willigenburg, L.G. van (). On evaluating optimality losses of greenhouse climate controllers. In Proceedings of the 17th World Congr. The International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC).

Ph.D. theses Bakker, T. (2009, februari 13). An autonomous robot for weed control : design, navigation and control. WUR Wageningen UR (138 pag.) ([S.l.: s.n.]) (ISBN 9789085853268). Prom./coprom.: Prof dr ir G. van Straten, J. Mueller & Dr. J. Bontsema. Campen, J.B. (2009, oktober 23). Dehumidification of greenhouses. WUR Wageningen UR (XI, 117 pag.) ([S.l.: s.n.]) (ISBN 9789085854296). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. G.P.A. Bot. 209

Wageningen Universiteit. Departement Agrotechnologie en Voedingswetenschappen, leerstoelgroep Meet-, regel- en systeemtechniek

M.Sc. theses Akbari Chianeh, H., Optimal input design for parameter estimation using parametric sensitivity dynamics. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009. Hermanto, M.B., Application of a continuous-discrete recursive prediction error algorithm for toxicity detection. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009. Hermanto, M.B., Identification of algae growth kinetics. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009. Khairudin, N., Acoustic waves for water purification: parameter sensitivity and dynamic analysis. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009. Khairudin, N., Direct least-squares estimation techniques for non-linear models. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009. Lieshout, M.M.T. van, Improving position and heading prediction of an autonomous robot. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009. Snoek, J.W., On-line monitoring of energy flows and ventilation rate in greenhouses. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009. Steennis, A.R., Modellering van de ruimtelijke lucht en temperatuur verdeling in een semigesloten kas. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009. Vroegindeweij, B.A., Routeplanning voor het autonoom verzamelen van grondeieren. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009.

Other publications Bontsema, J. & Ooteghem, R.J.C. van (2009). On-line monitoring energie- en vochtstroom door schermkier. Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Ext. rep. 313). Wageningen: Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw. Boxtel, A.J.B. van, Vos, R.M.H. & Bartels, P.V. (2009). Coupled Adsorption-Dryer Exchange. Wageningen: Wageningen Universiteit. Spee, R.E., Modeling circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009. Afstudeervak Meet-, Regel- en Systeemtechniek, WUR, 2009.

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