Table of Contents. Preface...xviii Introduction... 1

Table of Contents Preface ....................................................xviii Introduction................................................... 1 ...
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Table of Contents Preface ....................................................xviii Introduction................................................... 1 1 Orientation and Fire Service History................ 6 Case History.................................................................9 Fire Service History and Culture ..............................10 Fire Service History ................................................. 11 Colonial North America ...................................11 Industrial Revolution.........................................11 Significant Historical Events..............................12 General Trends of Change.................................15 Fire Service Culture ................................................. 17 Organizational Characteristics..........................18 Cultural Challenges............................................18 Cultural Strengths..............................................19 Fire Service Mission and Organization.................... 20 Fire Service Mission.................................................. 21 Fire Department Organization................................ 22 Organizational Structure...................................22 Types of Fire Departments.................................23 Staffing................................................................23 Separation of Departmental Duties..................24 Fire Companies ..................................................25 Fire Department Personnel..................................... 26 Line Functions....................................................27 Staff Functions ...................................................32 Organizational Principles........................................ 33 Chain of Command...........................................33 Unity of Command............................................33 Span of Control..................................................33 Division of Labor................................................33 Discipline............................................................35 Fire Department Regulations ...................................35 Policies........................................................................ 35 Procedures ................................................................ 36 Laws, Statutes, or Ordinances ................................. 36 Codes and Standards ............................................... 36 Orders and Directives.............................................. 36 Interacting with Other Organizations.......................37 Emergency Medical Services................................... 37 Hospitals..................................................................... 37 Emergency Disaster Management.......................... 37 Law Enforcement...................................................... 38 Utility Companies .................................................... 39 Public Works.............................................................. 39 Media.......................................................................... 39 Other Agencies ......................................................... 39 Chapter Summary .....................................................40 Review Questions.......................................................41

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2 Firefighter Safety and Health........................42 Case History...............................................................45 Firefighter Fatalities, Injuries, and Illnesses .............46 Fatalities..................................................................... 46 Injuries........................................................................ 46 Illnesses ..................................................................... 49 Cardiovascular Diseases....................................49 Respiratory Diseases.......................................... 50 Cancer ................................................................51 Obesity ...............................................................51 Diabetes .............................................................51 Drug and Alcohol Abuse ...................................51 Stress-Induced Hypertension.............................52 Tobacco Use/Dependence ..................................54 Exposure-Related Diseases ...............................54 Fire Service Safety Standards, Regulations, and Initiatives.........................................................55 NFPA® Standards ..................................................... 55 Safety and Health-Related Policies and Procedures ......................................................56 Training and Education ....................................56 Fire Apparatus, Equipment, and Driver/Operators ...........................................56 Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment......................................................57 Emergency Operations.......................................57 Facility Safety ....................................................59 Medical and Physical Requirements..................59 Member Assistance and Wellness Programs ....59 Critical Incident Stress Management................59 OSHA Regulations ................................................... 60 Everyone Goes Home® ............................................ 61 IAFC Safety Stand-Down ........................................ 62 Risk Management ......................................................62 Fire Department Safety and Health Programs .........63 Safety and Health Program Components ............. 64 Firefighter Health Considerations.......................... 64 Employee Assistance and Wellness Programs....... 65 Apparatus and Vehicle Safety ....................................66 Safe Vehicle Operation ............................................ 67 Defensive Driving Guidelines ...........................67 Responding in Private Vehicles .........................68 Fire Apparatus and Department Vehicles ........68 Safety on the Apparatus............................................ 72 Safety in Fire Stations and Facilities..........................73 Safety with Tools and Equipment .............................75 Unpowered Tools...................................................... 75 Power Tools ............................................................... 75 Power Saws ................................................................ 76

Safety in Training ......................................................76 Maintaining Personnel Safety ................................. 77 Live Fire Training ..................................................... 78 Maintaining and Servicing Equipment.................. 78 Emergency Operations Safety ...................................78 National Incident Management System................. 79 Preparedness ............................................................. 79 Emergency Scene Safety .......................................... 79 Safety at Roadway Incidents ................................... 80 Scene Management................................................... 83 Crowd Control....................................................83 Control Zones ....................................................83 Personnel Accountability......................................... 85 Passport System..................................................86 SCBA Tag System ..............................................86 Computer-Based Electronic Accountability Systems........................................................... 86 Chapter Summary .....................................................86 Review Questions.......................................................87 Skill Sheets..................................................................88 3 Fire Department Communications..................92 Case History...............................................................95 External Communications ........................................96 Receiving Emergency Calls..................................... 96 Communications Center Equipment ................96 Processing Emergency Calls ..............................97 Public Alerting Systems .....................................98 Receiving Nonemergency Calls ............................. 99 Dispatching Emergency Services ......................... 101 Internal Communications .......................................103 Radio Systems ......................................................... 103 Location and Size ............................................104 Signal Type ......................................................105 Signal Transmission ........................................106 Fireground Channels........................................108 Trunked Radio Systems ...................................108 Radio Communications......................................... 109 Radio Limitations ................................................... 109 Distance ...........................................................110 Physical Barriers .............................................110 Interference ......................................................111 Ambient Noise .................................................111 Radio Procedures.................................................... 112 On-Scene Communications ....................................116 Arrival Report ........................................................ 116 Progress Report ...................................................... 117 Requesting Additional Resources ........................ 119 Emergency Radio Traffic........................................ 119 Personnel Accountability Report (PAR).............. 120 Post-Incident Reports .............................................121 Chapter Summary ...................................................123 End-of-Chapter Review Questions..........................123 Skill Sheets................................................................124

4 Building Construction.............................. 130 Case History.............................................................133 Building Materials ...................................................134 Wood ....................................................................... 134 Masonry .................................................................. 135 Metal......................................................................... 135 Iron ..................................................................135 Steel ..................................................................137 Aluminum .......................................................137 Other Metals ....................................................138 Reinforced Concrete .............................................. 138 Gypsum.................................................................... 139 Lath and Plaster ...................................................... 139 Glass/Fiberglass ...................................................... 140 Plastic ....................................................................... 141 Composite Materials............................................... 141 Construction Classifications ...................................142 United States Construction ................................... 143 Type I (Fire Resistive) ......................................144 Type II (Noncombustible or Limited Combustible) ...............................................144 Type III (Ordinary Construction) ..................145 Type IV (Heavy Timber/Mill Construction)...146 Type V (Wood or Stick Frame) .......................147 Manufactured Structures ...................................... 149 Canadian Construction ......................................... 151 Occupancy Classifications .......................................151 Single Use................................................................. 152 Separated Use.......................................................... 152 Building Components .............................................157 Foundations ............................................................ 158 Floors/Ceilings ....................................................... 159 Walls ......................................................................... 160 Roofs......................................................................... 161 Roof Types ........................................................161 Roof Construction ...........................................163 Roof Penetrations and Openings.....................168 Roof Obstructions ............................................170 Stairs ........................................................................ 174 Protected Stairs ................................................175 Exterior Stairs .................................................175 Fire Escapes .....................................................175 Smokeproof Stair Enclosures ...........................177 Unprotected Stairs ...........................................177 Doors ....................................................................... 178 Swinging Doors ...............................................178 Sliding Doors ...................................................179 Folding Doors ..................................................179 Vertical Doors ..................................................180 Revolving Doors ..............................................180 Wood Panel and Flush Doors .........................181 Glass Doors ......................................................182 Metal Doors .....................................................183 v

Fire Doors ........................................................183 Windows ................................................................. 186 Fixed Windows ................................................187 Movable Windows ...........................................187 Security ............................................................189 Hazards Related to Building Construction ............190 Sizing up Existing Construction .......................... 190 Dangerous Building Conditions .......................... 191 Fuel Loading ....................................................191 Furnishings and Finishes ................................192 Roof Coverings ................................................192 Large, Open Spaces .........................................192 Engineered and Truss Construction Hazards..... 193 Construction, Renovation, and Demolition Hazards ................................................................ 194 Structural Collapse ..................................................195 Structural Collapse Factors.................................... 195 Construction Type............................................195 Length of Time Fire Burns...............................197 Stage of Fire......................................................197 Contents............................................................198 Amount of Water Used to Extinguish Fire......198 Actions Taken When Collapse is Imminent........ 199 Determining Collapse Zone.................................. 199 Chapter Summary ...................................................202 Review Questions.....................................................203 5 Fire Behavior........................................ 204 Case History.............................................................207 Science of Fire ..........................................................208 Energy ...................................................................... 208 Forms of Ignition ................................................... 210 Modes of Combustion ........................................... 212 Fire Models.......................................................212 Nonflaming Combustion.................................213 Flaming Combustion.......................................214 Products of Combustion...................................214 Thermal Energy (Heat).............................................216 Heat and Temperature ........................................... 217 Sources of Thermal Energy ................................... 217 Chemical Energy .............................................217 Electrical Energy .............................................218 Mechanical Energy ..........................................219 Heat Transfer .......................................................... 219 Conduction ......................................................220 Convection .......................................................221 Radiation .........................................................222 Fuel ...........................................................................223 Gaseous Fuel ........................................................... 225 Liquid Fuel .............................................................. 226 Solid Fuel ................................................................. 228 Oxygen .....................................................................231 Self-Sustained Chemical Reaction ..........................233 vi

Stages of Fire Development......................................234 Factors That Affect Fire Development................. 234 Fuel Type .........................................................235 Availability and Location of Additional Fuel...236 Compartment Volume and Ceiling Height ....238 Ventilation .......................................................238 Thermal Properties of the Compartment........240 Ambient Conditions ........................................240 Fuel Load .........................................................241 Incipient Stage ........................................................ 241 Growth Stage .......................................................... 243 Thermal Layering ............................................244 Isolated Flames ................................................245 Rapid Transition .............................................245 Fully Developed Stage............................................ 246 Decay Stage ............................................................. 246 Consumption of Fuel .......................................246 Limited Ventilation .........................................247 Rapid Fire Development ....................................... 247 Flashover .........................................................247 Backdraft .........................................................248 Smoke Explosion..............................................250 Fire Behavior and Fire Fighting Operations ..........250 Temperature Reduction ......................................... 250 Fuel Removal .......................................................... 251 Oxygen Exclusion .................................................. 251 Chemical Flame Inhibition ................................... 251 Ventilation and Fire Behavior .............................. 252 Unplanned Ventilation ....................................252 Ventilation Strategies.......................................253 Chapter Summary ...................................................254 Review Questions.....................................................254 6 Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment ..... 256 Case History.............................................................259 Personal Protective Equipment...............................259 Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing....... 261 Helmets ............................................................264 Eye Protection Devices.....................................265 Protective Hoods...............................................266 Protective Coats ...............................................266 Protective Trousers ..........................................267 Protective Gloves .............................................267 Protective Footwea...........................................267 Hearing Protection Devices .............................270 Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS) ............270 Wildland Personal Protective Clothing .............. 270 Roadway Operations Clothing ............................. 273 Emergency Medical Protective Clothing ............ 274 Special Protective Clothing ................................... 274 Station/Work Uniforms.......................................... 276

Care of Personal Protective Clothing .................. 277 Inspecting .........................................................277 Cleaning ...........................................................278 Repairing .........................................................280 Safety Considerations for Personal Protective Equipment ........................................................... 280 Respiratory Protection ............................................281 Respiratory Hazards .............................................. 281 Oxygen Deficiency ...........................................282 Elevated Temperatures ....................................283 Particulate Contaminants ...............................283 Gases and Vapors ............................................284 Airborne Pathogens .........................................287 Types of Respiratory Protection Equipment....... 287 Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators (ASRs).....289 Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) ...................293 Respiratory Protection Limitations ..................... 295 Wearer Limitations .........................................295 Equipment Limitations ...................................296 Storing Respiratory Protection Equipment......... 296 Donning and Doffing Protective Breathing Apparatus .............................................................297 General Donning Considerations ........................ 297 Donning an Unmounted SCBA............................ 298 Donning from a Seat Mount.................................. 299 Donning from a Side or Rear External Mount.... 300 Donning from a Backup Mount............................ 300 Donning the Facepiece........................................... 301 Doffing Protective Breathing Apparatus.............. 302 Inspection and Maintenance of Protective Breathing Apparatus ............................................303 Protective Breathing Apparatus Inspections and Care .............................................................. 303 Inspections .......................................................303 Care ..................................................................305 Annual Inspection and Maintenance .................. 306 SCBA Air Cylinder Hydrostatic Testing ............. 306 Refilling SCBA Cylinders ...................................... 307 Stationary Fill Stations ...................................307 Mobile Fill Systems ..........................................309 Firefighter Breathing Air Replenishment Systems (FBARS) .........................................309 Replacing SCBA Cylinders ................................... 311 Using Respiratory Protection Equipment...............312 Safety Precautions for SCBA Use ......................... 312 Exit Indicators and Techniques ............................ 313 Exit Indicators .................................................313 Nonemergency Exit Techniques ......................314 Chapter Summary ...................................................316 Review Questions.....................................................316 Skill Sheets................................................................317

7 Portable Fire Extinguishers........................ 336 Case History.............................................................339 Classifications of Portable Fire Extinguishers.........340 Class A...................................................................... 341 Class B ..................................................................... 341 Class C...................................................................... 341 Class D ..................................................................... 341 Class K...................................................................... 342 Types of Portable Fire Extinguishers ......................342 Pump-Type Water Extinguishers ......................... 345 Stored-Pressure Water Extinguishers .................. 345 Water-Mist Stored-Pressure Extinguishers.......... 346 Wet Chemical Stored-Pressure Extinguishers..... 346 Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) Extinguishers ...................................................... 346 Clean Agent Extinguishers ................................... 347 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extinguishers ................ 348 Dry Chemical Extinguishers ................................ 348 Handheld Units................................................349 Wheeled Units .................................................350 Dry Powder Extinguishers .................................... 350 Portable Fire Extinguisher Rating System ..............351 Class A Ratings........................................................ 351 Class B Ratings........................................................ 352 Class C Ratings........................................................ 352 Class D Ratings........................................................ 352 Class K Ratings........................................................ 352 Multiple Markings................................................... 352 Selecting and Using Portable Fire Extinguishers....354 Selecting the Proper Fire Extinguisher ............... 354 Using Portable Fire Extinguishers ....................... 354 Inspection, Care, and Maintenance of Portable Fire Extinguishers.................................................357 Inspection ................................................................ 357 Care .......................................................................... 358 Maintenance ........................................................... 358 Chapter Summary....................................................359 Review Questions.....................................................359 Skill Sheets................................................................360 8 Ropes, Webbing, and Knots....................... 366 Case History.............................................................369 Rope .........................................................................370 Rope Types .............................................................. 370 Life Safety Rope................................................371 Utility Rope ......................................................372 Rope Materials ........................................................ 372 Synthetic Fibers................................................373 Natural Fibers...................................................373 Rope Construction ................................................. 373 Kernmantle Rope .............................................374 Laid (Twisted) Rope.........................................374 vii

Braided Rope ...................................................375 Braid-On-Braid Rope ......................................375 Rope Maintenance ................................................. 376 Inspecting Rope ................................................376 Caring for Rope ...............................................378 Cleaning Rope .................................................379 Maintaining a Rope Log ..................................381 Rope Storage ........................................................... 381 Webbing ...................................................................381 Webbing Material and Construction.................... 381 Flat Webbing ...................................................382 Tubular Webbing..............................................382 Webbing Uses.......................................................... 382 Webbing Care and Maintenance........................... 384 Webbing Storage ..................................................... 384 Knots ........................................................................384 Elements of a Knot ................................................. 385 Types of Knots and Hitches .................................. 386 Overhand Safety Knots ...................................387 Bowline ............................................................387 Half Hitch ........................................................387 Clove Hitch.......................................................388 Handcuff (Rescue)............................................388 Figure-Eight .....................................................388 Figure-Eight Bend ...........................................389 Figure-Eight on a Bight ...................................389 Figure-Eight Follow Through...........................389 Becket Bend ....................................................389 Water Knot ......................................................389 Rope and Webbing Uses...........................................389 Rescue Uses.............................................................. 390 Hoisting Tools and Equipment ............................ 390 Rope Hardware ................................................390 Safety Guidelines..............................................390 Hoisting an Axe ...............................................393 Hoisting a Pike Pole ........................................393 Hoisting a Ladder ............................................393 Hoisting Hoselines ...........................................393 Hoisting a Power Saw .....................................394 Other Emergency Scene Uses ............................... 394 Control Zone Perimeter ..................................394 Search Line ......................................................394 Object Stabilization .........................................396 Chapter Summary ...................................................396 Review Questions.....................................................396 Skill Sheets................................................................397 9 Structural Search, Victim Removal, and Firefighter Survival................................. 418 Case History ............................................................421 Structural Searches ..................................................422 Building Construction ........................................... 422 viii

Building Floor Plan ................................................ 422 Size-Up and Situational Awareness ..................... 425 Size-Up .............................................................425 Situational Awareness .....................................425 Search Safety Guidelines ....................................... 426 Search Preparations ............................................... 428 Search Procedures .................................................. 428 Primary Search.................................................430 Secondary Search.............................................431 Search Methods....................................................... 431 General Methods .............................................431 Oriented-Search Method .................................435 Wide-Area-Search Method .............................435 Thermal-Imager-Search Method ....................437 Marking Systems .................................................... 438 Victim Removal .......................................................439 Self-Evacuation........................................................ 439 Shelter-in-Place....................................................... 440 Rescue ...................................................................... 440 Incline Drag .....................................................441 Webbing Drag ..................................................441 Cradle-in-Arms Lift/Carry ............................442 Seat Lift/Carry .................................................442 Moving a Victim onto a Litter.........................442 Extremities Lift/Carry .....................................442 Firefighter Survival ..................................................443 Prevention-Based Survival..................................... 443 Preparation for Survival ........................................ 444 Recognition ............................................................. 446 Communication...................................................... 446 Air Management .................................................... 448 Survival Actions ..................................................... 449 Remain in Place ..............................................450 Seeking Safe Haven .........................................450 Escape ..............................................................450 Rapid Intervention ................................................. 454 Tracking Devices ..............................................455 Removing Located Firefighters .......................456 Chapter Summary ...................................................457 Review Questions.....................................................458 Skill Sheets ...............................................................459 10 Scene Lighting, Rescue Tools, Vehicle Extrication, and Technical Rescue............... 476 Case History.............................................................479 Emergency Scene Lighting Equipment ...................479 Electric Generators ................................................ 480 Lighting Equipment ............................................... 481 Auxiliary Electrical Equipment ............................ 482 Maintenance of Electric Generators and Lighting Equipment........................................................... 484

Rescue Tools.............................................................486 Power Sources ......................................................... 486 Electric .............................................................486 Hydraulic .........................................................488 Pneumatic.........................................................488 Powered Rescue Tools .......................................... 489 Cutting Tools .......................................................... 491 Reciprocating Saw ..........................................491 Rotary Saw ......................................................491 Circular Saw ....................................................492 Whizzer Saw ....................................................492 Air Chisel .........................................................492 Stabilizing Tools...................................................... 493 Hydraulic Jack..................................................493 Nonhydraulic Jack............................................493 Buttress Tension System ..................................495 Wheel Chocks ..................................................495 Cribbing Materials ..........................................496 Lifting Tools ............................................................ 496 Tripods .............................................................496 Pneumatic Lifting Bags ...................................496 Pulling Tools ........................................................... 498 Winches ...........................................................498 Come-Alongs ...................................................502 Chains ..............................................................502 Tools Used in Other Activities ............................. 502 Pneumatic Nailers ...........................................502 Impact Tools.....................................................503 Rescue Tool Maintenance ..................................... 503 Vehicle Extrication ..................................................504 Scene Size-Up.......................................................... 504 Controlling Hazards ........................................505 Vehicle Fuel Types ...........................................508 Vehicle Electrical Systems ...............................508 Assessing the Need for Extrication....................... 511 Stabilizing the Vehicle ........................................... 513 Using Wheel Chocks ........................................514 Using Cribbing Materials ................................515 Using Lifting Devices........................................515 Using Struts and Buttress Tension Systems.....516 Securing the Electrical System.............................. 517 Nonelectric Vehicles..........................................517 Electric Vehicles................................................517 Passenger Safety Systems....................................... 518 Seat Belts...........................................................519 Supplemental Passenger Restraint Systems (SPRS) and Side-Impact Protection Systems (SIPS) .............................................519 Head Protection Systems (HPS) .....................521 Extendable Roll Over Protection Systems (ROPS) .........................................................521

Gaining Access to Victims .................................... 522 Opening a Normally Operating Door ............522 Removing a Window .......................................522 Prying a Door Open ........................................526 Removing the Vehicle Roof ..............................527 Cutting Posts............................................................ 528 Displacing the Dashboard .................................... 528 Technical Rescue Incidents......................................531 Initial Actions.......................................................... 532 Size-Up .............................................................532 Communicate the Information........................532 Stabilize the Situation .....................................533 Stabilize the Victim .........................................533 Establish Scene Security...................................534 Incident Specific Tasks .......................................... 534 Rope Rescue Operations ..................................534 Structural Collapse Rescue Operations...........535 Confined Space Rescue Operations.................538 Vehicle Rescue Operations ..............................540 Water Rescue Operations.................................540 Wilderness Rescue Operations ........................543 Trench Rescue Operations ...............................543 Machinery Rescue Operations.........................544 Elevator and Escalator Rescue Operations.....545 Cave, Mine, and Tunnel Rescue Operations.....548 Electrical Rescue Operations ..........................548 Chapter Summary....................................................549 Review Questions.....................................................550 Skill Sheets................................................................551 11 Forcible Entry........................................ 570 Case History.............................................................573 Basic Principles of Forcible Entry ...........................573 Locksets ...................................................................575 Door Locks/Latches ............................................... 575 Mortise Latch and Lock ..................................576 Cylindrical Lock ..............................................576 Rim Lock ..........................................................578 Higher Security Locks .....................................579 Locking Devices ..................................................... 580 Forcible Entry Tools ................................................581 Cutting Tools .......................................................... 582 Axes .................................................................582 Metal Cutting Devices .....................................583 Handsaws ........................................................584 Power Saws ......................................................584 Prying Tools ............................................................ 587 Manual Prying Tools .......................................587 Hydraulic Prying Tools ...................................588 Pushing/Pulling Tools ........................................... 589 Striking Tools .......................................................... 590 ix

Tools Used in Combination .................................. 591 Tool Safety ............................................................... 591 Carrying Tools ........................................................ 593 Care and Maintenance of Forcible Entry Tools .......................................................... 593 Wooden Handles .............................................594 Fiberglass Handles ...........................................595 Cutting Edges ...................................................595 Plated Surfaces ................................................595 Unprotected Metal Surfaces ............................595 Power Equipment ............................................596 Forcing Entry Through Doors.................................596 Breaking Door Glass .............................................. 598 Forcing Swinging Doors ........................................ 598 Inward-Swinging Doors ..................................599 Outward-Swinging Doors ...............................600 Double-Swinging Doors ..................................600 Doors with Drop Bars .....................................600 Tempered Plate Glass Doors............................600 Forcing Sliding Doors ............................................ 601 Forcing Security Doors and Gates........................ 602 Through-the-Lock Forcible Entry ....................... 602 K-Tool ..............................................................603 A-Tool ..............................................................604 J-Tool ...............................................................604 Shove Knife ......................................................604 Forcing Padlocks .................................................... 605 Forcing Overhead Doors ....................................... 606 Forcing Fire Doors ................................................. 608 Forcing Entry Through Windows ...........................609 Breaking Window Glass ........................................ 609 Forcing Fixed Windows ........................................ 610 Forcing Double-Hung Windows .......................... 610 Forcing Single-Hung Windows............................. 611 Forcing Casement Windows ................................ 611 Forcing Horizontal Sliding Windows................... 611 Forcing Awning Windows..................................... 612 Forcing Jalousie Windows .................................... 612 Forcing Projecting Windows ................................ 612 Forcing Pivoting Windows ................................... 612 Forcing Miscellaneous Types of Windows and Covers .......................................................... 613 Hurricane Windows and Shutters...................613 High-Security Windows ..................................613 Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Windows ......................................................615 Vacant Protection Systems (VPS) ...................615 Barred or Screened Windows and Openings....615 Breaching Walls .......................................................616 Exterior Walls.......................................................... 616 Wood Frame Walls ..........................................616

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Brick or Concrete Block Walls ........................617 Concrete Walls .................................................618 Metal Walls ......................................................618 Interior Walls .......................................................... 619 Plaster or Gypsum Partition Walls .................619 Reinforced Gypsum Walls ...............................619 Breaching Floors ......................................................619 Wooden Floors ....................................................... 620 Concrete Floors ...................................................... 620 Forcing Entry Through Fences and Gates ...............621 Forcing Fences ........................................................ 621 Forcing Gates .......................................................... 622 Chapter Summary....................................................623 Review Questions.....................................................623 Skill Sheets................................................................624 12 Ground Ladders ..................................... 650 Case History.............................................................653 Ground Ladder Construction .................................654 Parts of a Ladder .................................................... 655 Construction Materials ......................................... 657 Metal ................................................................658 Wood ................................................................658 Fiberglass .........................................................658 Ladder Markings and Labels ................................ 659 Ladder Types ...........................................................660 Single Ladders ........................................................ 660 Roof Ladders ........................................................... 661 Folding Ladders ...................................................... 661 Extension Ladders .................................................. 661 Combination Ladders............................................. 661 Apparatus-Mounted Ground Ladders ................ 661 Ladder Inspection, Cleaning, and Maintenance.....663 Inspecting and Service Testing Ladders .............. 663 Wooden Ladders/Ladders with Wooden Components..................................................664 Roof Ladders ....................................................664 Extension Ladders ...........................................665 Cleaning Ladders ................................................... 665 Maintaining Ladders ............................................. 666 Handling Ladders ....................................................666 Ladder Safety .......................................................... 666 Ladder Selection ..................................................... 667 Lifting and Lowering Methods ............................. 669 Ladder Carries..........................................................670 Removing Ladders from the Apparatus .............. 670 One-Firefighter Low-Shoulder Carry.................. 672 Two-Firefighter Low-Shoulder Carry.................. 672 Three-Firefighter Flat-Shoulder Carry................. 673 Three-Firefighter Flat Arm’s Length Carry.......... 673 Four-Firefighter Flat-Shoulder Carry................... 673

Two-Firefighter Arm’s Length On-Edge Carry..... 674 Procedures for Carrying Roof Ladders ............... 674 Placement of Ground Ladders ................................675 Responsibility for Placement ................................ 675 Factors Affecting Ground Ladder Placement ..... 675 Ladder Raises ...........................................................678 Transition from Carry to Raise............................. 678 Considerations Before Raising ............................. 678 Electrical Hazards ...........................................678 Position of the Fly Section on Extension Ladders.........................................................679 Tying the Halyard ............................................679 One-Firefighter Raise ............................................ 679 One-Firefighter Single Ladder Raise ...............680 One-Firefighter Extension Ladder Raise ........680 Two-Firefighter Raises ........................................... 680 Three-Firefighter Flat Raise................................... 681 Four-Firefighter Flat Raise .................................... 682 Deploying a Roof Ladder ...................................... 682 Procedures for Moving Ground Ladders ................682 Pivoting Ladders with Two Firefighters............... 683 Shifting Raised Ground Ladders .......................... 683 Securing the Ladder ................................................684 Heeling .................................................................... 684 Tying In ................................................................... 685 Climbing Ladders ....................................................685 Working from a Ladder ...........................................686 Assisting a Victim Down a Ladder..........................687 Chapter Summary ...................................................689 Review Questions.....................................................689 Skill Sheets................................................................690 13 Tactical Ventilation................................. 728 Case History.............................................................731 Reasons for Tactical Ventilation .............................732 Life Safety ................................................................ 733 Incident Stabilization ............................................. 733 Property Conservation .......................................... 733 Considerations Affecting the Decision to Ventilate................................................................734 Risks to Occupants and Firefighters .................... 735 Building Construction ........................................... 735 Fire Behavior Indicators......................................... 737 Smoke................................................................737 Air Flow ...........................................................737 Heat .................................................................738 Flame ...............................................................738 Location and Extent of the Fire ............................ 739 Type of Ventilation ................................................. 739 Location for Ventilation ........................................ 740 Weather Conditions ............................................... 740

Exposures ................................................................ 741 Staffing and Available Resources .......................... 742 Types of Tactical Ventilation....................................742 Horizontal Ventilation ........................................... 744 Natural Horizontal Ventilation ......................745 Mechanical Horizontal Ventilation ................745 Precautions Against Upsetting Horizontal Ventilation ...................................................750 Advantages of Mechanical Ventilation............751 Disadvantages of Mechanical Ventilation ......751 Vertical Ventilation ................................................ 751 Safety Precautions ...........................................752 Offensive Ventilation Methods........................756 Defensive Ventilation Methods .......................758 Precautions Against Upsetting Established Vertical Ventilation......................................759 Other Types of Ventilation Situations ................. 760 Basement Fires ................................................760 Fires in Windowless Buildings.........................760 High-Rise Fires ................................................761 Effects of Building Systems on Tactical Ventilation ............................................................763 Chapter Summary ...................................................764 Review Questions.....................................................764 Skills Sheets..............................................................765 14 Water Supply........................................ 780 Case History ............................................................783 Water Supply System Components .........................784 Water Supply Sources ............................................ 784 Water Treatment or Processing Facilities ............ 786 Means of Moving Water ........................................ 786 Gravity Systems ...............................................787 Direct Pumping Systems .................................787 Combination Systems ......................................788 Water Distribution and Storage Systems............. 789 Piping ...............................................................789 Storage Tanks ..................................................790 Isolation and Control Valves ...........................791 Fire Hydrant Locations ...................................792 Fire Hydrants ...........................................................793 Types ....................................................................... 794 Dry-Barrel Hydrants .......................................795 Wet-Barrel Hydrants .......................................795 Fire Hydrant Markings .......................................... 795 Fire Hydrant Operation ........................................ 796 Fire Hydrant Inspection ........................................ 798 Alternative Water Supplies ......................................799 Rural Water Supply Operations ..............................800 Water Shuttles ......................................................... 801 Relay Pumping ....................................................... 803 xi

Chapter Summary ...................................................804 Review Questions.....................................................804 Skills Sheets..............................................................805 15 Fire Hose............................................. 812 Case History.............................................................815 Fire Hose Characteristics ........................................816 Hose Construction ................................................. 816 Hose Sizes................................................................. 818 Diameter...........................................................818 Length ..............................................................818 Types of Fire Hose Couplings ............................... 820 Threaded Couplings ........................................821 Nonthreaded Couplings ..................................823 Causes and Prevention of Fire Hose Damage .........825 Mechanical Damage .............................................. 825 Thermal Damage .................................................... 826 Organic Damage .................................................... 827 Chemical Damage .................................................. 828 Corrosion ................................................................ 829 Age Deterioration................................................... 830 Inspection, Care, and Maintenance of Fire Hose....831 Inspection ................................................................ 831 Washing Hose ......................................................... 832 Drying Hose ............................................................ 832 Storing Hose ........................................................... 833 Care of Fire Hose Couplings ................................ 834 Hose Appliances and Tools ......................................835 Hose Appliances ..................................................... 835 Valves ...............................................................836 Valve Devices ...................................................837 Fittings .............................................................838 Intake Strainers ...............................................838 Hose Tools ............................................................... 840 Hose Roller ......................................................840 Hose Jacket ......................................................840 Hose Clamp .....................................................841 Spanner, Hydrant Wrench, and Rubber Mallet ...........................................................842 Hose Bridge or Ramp ......................................842 Chafing Block...................................................842 Hose Strap, Hose Rope, and Hose Chain ........844 LDH Roller for Loading ..................................844 Hose Rolls ................................................................844 Straight Roll ............................................................ 844 Donut Roll ............................................................... 845 Twin Donut Roll ..................................................... 845 Self-Locking Twin Donut Roll ............................. 846 Basic Hose Loads and Finishes ............................... 846 Flat Load .................................................................. 847 Accordion Load ...................................................... 848 Horseshoe Load ...................................................... 848 xii

Combination Load ................................................. 849 Hose Load Finishes ................................................ 850 Straight Finish .................................................850 Reverse Horseshoe Finish ................................850 Skid Load Finish ..............................................851 High-Rise Pack ....................................................... 851 Hose Loading Guidelines ...................................... 852 Preconnected Hose Loads for Attack Lines ............852 Preconnected Flat Load ......................................... 853 Triple Layer Load ................................................... 854 Minuteman Load .................................................... 845 Booster Hose Reels ................................................ 855 Supply Hose Lays .....................................................855 Forward Lay ............................................................ 856 Making the Hydrant Connection ....................857 Using Four-Way Hydrant Valves ....................858 Reverse Lay ............................................................. 858 Soft Intake Connections...................................859 Hard Intake Connections ................................860 Combination Lay.................................................... 861 Handling Hoselines .................................................861 Deploying Preconnected Hoselines ..................... 861 Deploying Other Hoselines .................................. 862 Advancing Hoselines ...............................................862 Advancing a Charged Hoseline ............................ 862 Advancing Hose Into a Structure ......................... 862 Advancing Hose Up and Down a Stairway ........ 863 Advancing Hose from a Standpipe ...................... 864 Improvising a Standpipe ....................................... 865 Interior Stairway Stretch .................................866 Outside Stretch ................................................866 Advancing Hose Up a Ladder .............................. 867 Operating Attack Hoselines.....................................868 Operating Small Hoselines ................................... 868 One-Firefighter Method ..................................868 Two-Firefighter Method ..................................869 Operating Large Hoselines ................................... 869 One-Firefighter Method ..................................869 Two-Firefighter Method ..................................870 Three-Firefighter Method ................................870 Extending a Section of Hose ................................. 871 Controlling a Loose Hoseline ............................... 871 Replacing Burst Sections ....................................... 871 Service Testing Fire Hose ........................................872 Test Site Preparation .............................................. 872 Service Test Procedure .......................................... 872 Chapter Summary ...................................................873 Review Questions.....................................................874 Skill Sheets................................................................875

16 Fire Streams ........................................ 940 Case History ............................................................943 Extinguishing Properties of Water ..........................944 Vaporization............................................................ 944 Properties of Steam ................................................ 944 Pressure Loss or Gain ..............................................947 Principles of Friction Loss .................................... 947 Elevation Loss or Gain .......................................... 948 Water Hammer ........................................................949 Fire Stream Patterns, Nozzles, and Control Valves ....................................................................949 Fire Stream Patterns................................................ 950 Size ...................................................................950 Type ..................................................................951 Fire Stream Limiting Factors ................................ 956 Fire Stream Nozzles ............................................... 957 Smooth Bore Nozzles .......................................958   Fog Nozzles.......................................................959 Broken Stream Delivery Devices .....................962   Nozzle Control Valves ........................................... 962 Ball Valve .........................................................963 Slide Valve .......................................................963 Rotary Control Valve ......................................963 Operating and Maintaining Handline Nozzles.......964 Operating Smooth Bore Nozzles .......................... 964 Operating Fog Nozzles .......................................... 966 Maintaining Nozzles .............................................. 966 Fire Fighting Foam.................................................. 967 How Foam Is Generated ....................................... 968 Foam Expansion ..................................................... 968 Foam Concentrates ................................................ 969 Class A Foam ...................................................971 Class B Foam ...................................................971 Specific Application Foams..............................973 Foam Proportioning .............................................. 974 Eduction ..........................................................975 Injection............................................................975 Batch-Mixing ...................................................975 Premixing ........................................................977 Proportioners, Delivery Devices, and Generating Systems................................................................. 978 Foam Proportioners................................................ 978 Portable Foam Proportioners .........................979 Apparatus-Mounted Proportioners ................980 Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS) .........980 Foam Delivery Devices (Nozzles/Generating Systems)................................................................ 981 Handline Nozzles ............................................981 Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Generating Devices ......................................983

Assembling a Foam Fire Stream System .................983 Foam Application Techniques .................................984 Roll-On Method ..................................................... 984 Bank-Down Method .............................................. 985 Rain-Down Method ............................................... 985 Foam Hazards ..........................................................985 Chapter Summary ...................................................987 Review Questions.....................................................987 Skill Sheets................................................................988 17 Fire Control .........................................1000 Case History...........................................................1003 Suppressing Structure Fires ..................................1004 Strategy and Coordination of Resources........... 1004 Offensive ........................................................1005 Defensive ........................................................1006 Strategic Transition .......................................1007 Resource Coordination ..................................1008 Hoseline Selection ................................................ 1008 Nozzle Selection.................................................... 1009 Making Entry ........................................................ 1011 Fire Attack ............................................................. 1013 Direct Attack..................................................1013 Indirect Attack ...............................................1014 Combination Attack ......................................1014 Gas Cooling .......................................................... 1015 Fires in Upper Levels of Structures .................... 1016 Below Ground Structure Fires ............................ 1017 Residential Basements ...................................1017 Commercial Basements and Subfloors .........1020 Exposure Protection ............................................ 1020 Controlling Building Utilities ............................. 1022 Electricity .......................................................1022 Gas Utilities ...................................................1025 Water .............................................................1026 Supporting Fire Protection Systems at Protected Structures............................................................1027 Connecting to a FDC .......................................... 1027 Shutting a Control Valve ..................................... 1027 Stopping the Flow from a Sprinkler .................. 1028 Deploying Master Stream Devices ........................1028 Supplying Master Streams ................................... 1029 Staffing Master Stream Devices .......................... 1030 Elevated Master Streams ..................................... 1031 Suppressing Class C Fires ......................................1031 Transmission Lines and Equipment .................. 1032 Underground Transmission Lines ..................... 1033 Commercial High-Voltage Installations ........... 1034 Electrical Hazards ................................................ 1035 Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies .............. 1035 Suppressing Class D Fires .....................................1037 xiii

Suppressing Vehicle Fires ......................................1038 Vehicle Incident Size-Up...................................... 1038 Vehicle Fire Attack................................................ 1039 Engine or Trunk Compartment Fires............1041 Passenger Compartment Fires.......................1042 Undercarriage Fires .......................................1042 Alternative Fuel Vehicles ..................................... 1042 Natural Gas (CNG and LNG).......................1043 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)....................1044 Electric or Hybrid Electric.............................1045 Ethanol/Methanol..........................................1046 Biodiesel..........................................................1046 Hydrogen........................................................1046 Suppressing Fires in Other Class A Materials.......1046 Stacked and Piled Materials ................................ 1046 Small Unattached Structures .............................. 1047 Trash Container Fires .......................................... 1048 Combating Ground Cover Fires ............................1049 Types of Ground Cover Fires ............................. 1049 Ground Fire ...................................................1050 Surface Fire ....................................................1050 Crown Fire .....................................................1050 Ground Cover Fire Behavior .............................. 1051 Fuel ................................................................1051 Weather .........................................................1051 Topography ....................................................1052 Parts of a Ground Cover Fire ............................. 1052 Protective Clothing and Equipment .................. 1054 Attacking the Fire ................................................. 1054 Safety Principles and Practices ........................... 1055 Lookouts, Communications, Escape Routes, and Safety Zones (LCES) ..........................1055 Ten Standard Fire Fighting Orders ...............1056 Nonfire Hazards ............................................1056 Coordinating Fireground Operations ..................1057 Situational Awareness .......................................... 1058 Fireground Roles and Responsibilities .............. 1058 First-Arriving Engine Company ...................1058 Second-Arriving Engine Company................1060 Fireground Support Company ......................1061 Rapid Intervention Crew/Team (RIC/RIT) ..................................................1063 Chief Officer/Incident Commander ..............1064 Establishing Command........................................ 1064 Nothing Showing............................................1064 Fast-Attack.....................................................1064 Name the Incident and Establish the ICP.....1065 Transferring Command.................................1066 Fires in Underground Spaces ............................. 1066

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Suppressing Class B Fires ......................................1068 Safety Precautions at Flammable/Combustible Liquid Fire Incidents........................................ 1069 Fires in Properties Protected by Fixed Systems............................................................... 1070 Water-Based Systems ....................................1071 Nonwater-Based Systems ..............................1072 Using Water to Control Class B Fires ................ 1073 Cooling Agent ................................................1073 Mechanical Tool ............................................1073 Crew Protection .............................................1074 Bulk Transport Vehicle Fires .............................. 1075 Flammable Gas Incidents..................................... 1076 Chapter Summary .................................................1076 Review Questions...................................................1077 Skills Sheets............................................................1078 18 Loss Control.........................................1100 Case History...........................................................1103 Philosophy of Loss Control....................................1104 Preincident Planning for Loss Control..................1104 Salvage ...................................................................1106 Salvage Procedures................................................ 1106 Salvage Covers and Equipment........................... 1109 Salvage Covers................................................1109 Salvage Cover Maintenance...........................1109 Salvage Equipment.........................................1110 Folding/Rolling and Spreading Salvage Covers................................................................. 1112 One-Firefighter Spread with a Rolled Salvage Cover.............................................1113 One-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover.............................................1113 Two-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover.............................................1114 Improvising with Salvage Covers ....................... 1114 Removing Water with Chutes........................1114 Constructing a Catchall.................................1116 Splicing Covers...............................................1116 Splicing a Chute to a Catchall.......................1116 Covering Openings............................................... 1116 Overhaul.................................................................1118 Fire Safety During Overhaul............................... 1119 Locating Hidden Fires.......................................... 1120 Overhaul Procedures............................................ 1121 Overhaul with Thermal Imagers (TIs)............... 1123 Chapter Summary..................................................1124 Review Questions...................................................1124 Skill Sheets..............................................................1125

19 Fire Origin and Cause Determination...........1142 Case History...........................................................1145 Area of Origin ........................................................1145 Structure Fires....................................................... 1147 Preliminary Scene Assessment and Exterior Examination ..............................................1148 Interior Examination ....................................1148 Total Structural Fire Loss ..............................1150 Exterior Fires ........................................................ 1150 Vehicle Fires .......................................................... 1150 Fire Cause Determination .....................................1153 Types of Fire Cause Classifications .................... 1154 Accidental .....................................................1154 Natural ...........................................................1154 Incendiary ......................................................1154 Undetermined ................................................1154 Obvious Signs of Cause ....................................... 1155 Signs of Arson ........................................................1156 Preserving Evidence ..............................................1159 Reasons for Protecting the Fire Scene ............... 1160 Techniques for Evidence Preservation............... 1162 Advanced Origin, Cause, and Arson Topics .........1165 Types of Evidence.................................................. 1165 Direct Evidence..............................................1165 Circumstantial Evidence................................1165 Physical Evidence...........................................1165 Recognizing Important Fire Cause Evidence.... 1167 Roles and Responsibilities of Responders and Investigators............................................... 1169 The Firefighter ...............................................1169 The Fire or Criminal Investigator .................1170 Insurance Investigators ..................................1170 Legal Issues of Evidence Preservation................ 1171 Chapter Summary .................................................1172 Review Questions...................................................1172 Skill Sheet...............................................................1173 20 Fire Protection Systems...........................1174 Case History...........................................................1177 Fire Alarm Systems.................................................1178 Alarm System Components................................. 1178 Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP).................1178 Power Supplies................................................1178 Initiating Devices............................................1180 Notification Appliances..................................1180 Fire Command Center...................................1181 Types of Alarm Signaling Systems...................... 1182 Protected Premises (Local).............................1182 Supervising Station Alarm Systems...............1182

Alarm-Initiating Devices.......................................1184 Pull Stations........................................................... 1185 Heat Detectors....................................................... 1185 Fixed-Temperature Heat Detectors...............1186 Rate-of-Rise Heat Detectors...........................1188 Smoke Detectors/Alarms..................................... 1190 Photoelectric Smoke Detectors.......................1190 Ionization Smoke Detectors...........................1191 Power Sources.................................................1192 Flame Detectors.................................................... 1193 Fire-Gas Detectors................................................ 1193 Combination Detectors........................................ 1194 Automatic Sprinkler Systems.................................1194 Effects of Sprinkler Systems on Life Safety........ 1195 Sprinkler System Components............................ 1196 Sprinklers........................................................1196 Sprinkler Deflectors........................................1198 Sprinkler Storage............................................1198 Control Valves................................................1200 Operating Valves............................................1201 Waterflow Alarms..........................................1202 Water Supply.......................................................... 1202 Types of Sprinkler Systems.................................. 1203 Wet-Pipe Systems...........................................1204 Dry-Pipe Systems...........................................1204 Deluge Systems...............................................1205 Preaction Systems...........................................1207 Special Extinguishing Systems.......................1207 Residential Systems........................................1208 Standpipe and Hose Systems..................................1209 Components and Classifications of Standpipe Systems............................................. 1209 Class I.............................................................1210 Class II............................................................1210 Class III...........................................................1211 Types of Standpipe Systems................................. 1211 Smoke Management Systems.................................1213 Smoke Control Strategies..................................... 1214 Types of Smoke Control Systems and Methods.............................................................. 1214 Firefighters’ Smoke Control Station (FSCS)...... 1215 Chapter Summary .................................................1216 Review Questions...................................................1216 21 Fire and Life Safety Initiatives.....................1218 Case History...........................................................1221 Program Value and Development .........................1222 Identify Threats and Hazards ............................ 1223 Give the Threats Context..................................... 1223 Examine Core Capabilities.................................. 1224 xv

Set Capability Targets........................................... 1224 Apply Results......................................................... 1224 Program Delivery ..................................................1224 Education............................................................... 1225 Enforcement.......................................................... 1225 Economic Incentives............................................. 1225 Engineering............................................................ 1226 Emergency Response............................................ 1226 Fire and Life Safety Education ..............................1226 Fire and Life Safety Hazards................................ 1226 Unsafe Behaviors............................................1227 Unsafe Conditions..........................................1228 Hazardous Processes......................................1228 Fire and Life Safety Messages.............................. 1228 Fire and Life Safety Audiences............................ 1231 Preschool Children.........................................1231 Elementary Age Children...............................1232 Middle School Children.................................1232 High School Students.....................................1233 Adults..............................................................1233 Older Adults...................................................1234 Structure Surveys as Part of Fire and Life Safety Education................................................ 1235 Juvenile Firesetters................................................ 1236 Identifying Firesetters.....................................1236 Preventing Firesetter Development................1236 Fire and Life Safety Codes .....................................1237 Code Adoption...................................................... 1238 Code Enforcement................................................ 1239 Inspections......................................................1239 Investigations..................................................1240 Private Dwelling Fire Safety Surveys ....................1240 Residential Fire and Life Safety Hazards ........... 1240 Planning and Public Relations............................ 1243 Educational Opportunities.................................. 1243 Firefighter Responsibilities.................................. 1244 Fire and Life Safety Presentations..........................1246 Basic Presentation Skills....................................... 1246 Audience................................................................ 1247 Age..................................................................1247 Educational Level...........................................1247 Cultural Diversity...........................................1248 Socioeconomic Level ......................................1248 Physical Ability...............................................1249

xvi

Effective Fire and Life Safety Messages.............. 1249 Accurate Messages..........................................1249 Positive Messages ...........................................1249 Targeted Messages..........................................1250 Organizing the Message....................................... 1251 Presentations for Young Children....................... 1251 Classroom Considerations.............................1251 Children’s Common Fears..............................1252 Appropriate Vocabulary.................................1252 Learning Style.................................................1253 Fire Station Tours.................................................. 1254 Preincident Planning Surveys ...............................1256 Conducting Preincident Planning Surveys....... 1257 Maps, Drawings, and Photographs................. 1258 Chapter Summary .................................................1260 Review Questions...................................................1260 Skill Sheets..............................................................1261 Appendix A NFPA® Job Performance Requirements (JPRs) with Chapter and Page References.....................1269 Appendix B Prehospital 9-1-1- Emergency Medical Response: The role of the United States Fire Service in Delivery and Coordination.................................1273 Appendix C Firefighter Cancer Awareness................................1291 Appendix D Foam Concentrate Characteristics/Application Techniques..........................................................1295 Appendix E 18 Watch Out Situations........................................1297 Glossary...................................................1301 Index.......................................................1321